[40] **viXra:1608.0434 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-31 04:45:12*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters, Clifford Chafin, Domenico De Falco

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The concepts of “constraints” and “virtual displacement” from analytical mechanics shed new light on the role of time and timescales in physical systems such as the Universe. We propose a covariant version of a gauge theory, in which the required global symmetry stands for the real constrained trajectories, i.e. the energetic gradient flows dictated by the second law of thermodynamics. The virtual displacements, occurring while time is held constant, stand for the local transformations acting on the system and able to “break” the symmetry. The time stands for the gauge field able to keep the Lagrangian invariant. We also provide a theoretical framework in which a topological approach to gravitational lenses is able to elucidate aspects of our theory of “time as a gauge field”. Thus, time is no longer one of the four phase space coordinates of a 4-D Riemannan Universe: it is just a gauge field superimposed to a 3-D system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1608.0427 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-19 09:40:59*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Observing galactic density as a function of increasing distance (and, correspondingly, earlier times given the travel time of light) should provide evidence as to whether a ‘steady-state’ (non-expanding) or Big-Bang-driven expanding universe is the more defensible cosmology. Working independently, but later discovering additional recent work in this area by Heymann, I attempt to address this question by simulating galactic densities for the two types of cosmological model. Results suggest that the non-expanding universe may be more consistent, or at least less inconsistent, with both observation and expectation. Further, they are consistent with conclusions drawn by Heymann from his recent studies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1608.0426 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-31 12:45:39*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Electric Universe (EU) theory postulates that gravity is just another manifestation of electromagnetism, albeit at an almost inconceivably lower force (~1E-39 as strong). This paper examines the EU conjecture about an electromagnetic basis for gravity based on simplified mathematical analysis for an idealized arrangement of three hydrogen atoms. Results suggest that the possibility of an electromagnetically-induced distortion of a hydrogen to create an atomic dipole is at least plausible.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1608.0425 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-31 12:49:58*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

‘Dissident’ physicists have postulated various alternative explanations for the alleged cosmic expansion due to the Big-Bang-induced and dark-energy-sustained ever-increasing expansion of space(-time). Among these is the effect of gravity which allegedly ‘stretches’ light waves (and allegedly also bends them via gravitational lensing) as they pass large masses, such as stars, galaxies or galactic clusters. The stretching phenomenon is an increase in wavelength, and corresponding decrease in frequency, required by the assumption that light speed remains constant (within a medium). If light speed is variable, would there also be a gravitational cosmic redshift, i.e., one that alters light speed without affecting the waveform itself (i.e., no ‘stretching’)?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1608.0424 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-19 11:40:58*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Hubble’s law of cosmic expansion is typically based on fitting data for relatively low (on a ‘universal’ scale) redshifts and distances. Extrapolating Hubble’s law to the entire observable universe, proponents of the Big Bang Standard Cosmological Model claim the universe is expanding (possibly faster than their sacred speed of light due to a repulsive acceleration being produced by ‘dark energy’) because galactic redshifts increase linearly with distance from the earth. To them, this ‘proves’ there was a Big Bang and the resulting universe will continue without bound to expand until all dies out in the absolute cold of space. However, a relatively simple analysis of galactic redshifts vs. distance spanning the full range of the observable universe, not just the ‘nearby’ galaxies, suggests that there is an anomaly in the reputed increasing recessional speed with distance. The nature of this anomaly is examined here, and speculation offered as to one possible explanation, albeit far from definitive.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1608.0423 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-31 12:59:49*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

One of the long-standing ‘proofs’ of Einstein’s relativity is the alleged time dilation effect that muons created during cosmic ray collisions with particles in our upper atmosphere experience as they plummet downward at nearly the speed of light. Given the assumption that all are created at one high altitude, relativists see only a ‘slowing’ of their ‘clocks’ as the means by which their decay can be sufficiently delayed so that an unexpectedly (according to classical physics) large number reach sea level. One of the earliest experiments allegedly demonstrating this was by Frisch and Smith in 1963. Dissident physicists have offered non-relativistic explanations for the relatively high numbers of atmospheric muons reaching sea level, including the possibility that they are created by cosmic ray collisions with particles throughout our atmosphere, not just at a single altitude. The plausibility of this argument is examined here as an alternative explanation to relativistic time dilation as the only acceptable answer offered by mainstream physics today.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1608.0421 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-31 13:03:35*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Despite much obeisance paid to black holes by ‘Standard Model’ cosmologists (not to mention Hollywood, e.g., the recent film “Interstellar,” alleged to have a basis in physics, but really pure science fiction), dissident physicists, led by Stephen Crothers, have re-examined the original analysis by Karl Schwarzschild which, due to an error by David Hilbert, has provided much of the basis for the alleged existence of black holes. This substantial body of work suggests black holes cannot exist, leading me to the logical conclusion that the densest stars possible are neutron stars (or perhaps, if such are possible, ‘quark’ stars) which have relatively small but ‘non-singular’ dimensions. Both the mass and “pulse” rate of many neutron stars (also known as pulsars) have been recorded. Examination of these data opens an avenue of speculation based on their angular momenta that perhaps could aid in the understanding of how ‘heavy” (relative to our sun) rotating stars might evolve into pulsars.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1608.0420 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-31 13:07:23*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The classic double-slit experiment, first performed by Young in 1801, is often cited as proving the dual wave-particle nature of light, with an emphasis on the wave aspect. In fact, when first conducted, the conclusion refuted newton’s postulate of a corpuscular nature to light in favor of light being purely a wave. Not until the discovery of the photoelectric effect did light’s potential behavior as a particle become rejuvenated. This paper examines a possibly enhanced role for light’s corpuscular nature beyond what is currently assigned as a result of the double-slit experimental results in hope of opening yet another avenue of exploration into the still mysterious nature of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1608.0419 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-31 13:11:32*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Photon-particle interactions, both ‘classical,’ such as Compton Scattering, and ‘speculative,’ such as ones associated with ‘tired light’ theories of the cosmological red-shift, are explained with the assumption of the constancy of the speed of light. For classical interactions, reciprocal variations in light frequency and wavelength occur under the constraint that their product always equals constant speed ‘c.’ Proponents of a cosmological red-shift claim that the universe is expanding due to expansion of space (or space-time) itself as light, traveling at ‘c,’ is stretched as the distance between the source and observer increases due to this space (or space-time) expansion. Counter arguments to this interpretation often fall into the realm of ‘tired light,’ dismissed by mainstream physicists for various reasons, but still advocated by various ‘dissident’ physicists, since the term was first coined by Zwicky in 1929. In this paper, I examine a classical photon-particle interaction, Compton Scattering, and one of the more popular ‘tired light’ theories to show that the assumption of a constant speed of light is unnecessary, i.e., similar results evolve from assuming a variable light speed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1608.0418 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-31 13:15:50*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Formation of the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter is traditionally assumed to have occurred primordially when a group of planetesimals formed protoplanets that, through gravitational perturbations from Jupiter, were imbued with too much orbital energy to accrete into a planet, until violent collisions shattered most of the protoplanets, thereby forming the asteroid belt. Electric Universe theory contends there was an electrical discharge interaction on a planetary scale when a planetesimal closely encountered Mars, causing not only Mars’ material to be ejected, but also disintegrated much, if not all, of the planetesimal. The ejected debris eventually formed the asteroid belt; and possibly Valle Marineris which scars nearly 20% of Mars’ circumference, is the ‘smoking gun.” Here I examine not the electrical discharge phenomena, but crudely estimate whether or not the total mass of the belt could have arisen from such an interaction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1608.0417 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-31 13:18:57*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Despite the long-accepted claims by mainstream physicists that the 1887 Michelson-Morley interferometer experiment ‘proved’ that an aether did not exist, based on its alleged ‘null result,’ ‘dissident’ physicists have long contended that it proved the opposite. Now there may be as many aether theories as there are dissident physicists who postulate an aether, some believing it to be fixed against absolute space, others that it can be ‘dragged’ by massive bodies such as Earth (and hence the alleged ‘null result’), and some that believe it flows between ‘sources’ and ‘sinks’ throughout the universe. Some believe it comprises all matter and energy, with light just being one of its various manifestations. I know not whether there is an aether, but of all the theories so far encountered, one by Steven Rado appears to be quite plausible and complete. The goal here is to examine one aspect of Rado’s theory for plausibility, via a fairly simple analogy of a rotating spring.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1608.0416 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-26 09:33:27*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Since first proposed by Fatio in in 1690 and allegedly enhanced by Le Sage in 1748, one possible explanation for gravity is that it is a pushing force theory that involves ‘shadowing’ of omnidirectional gravity particles that impinge on all matter so as to make gravity appear as an attractive phenomenon. At least for a special case (large distance between spheres), a mathematical model that assumes gravity to be a pushing force, with shadowing and including the possibility of acting throughout the shadowed corridor of the sphere with attenuation effects, suggests a possible alignment with one of the known effects of gravity, namely that it is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the spheres’ centers. This hopefully lends some credence to the theories first proposed by Fatio and Le Sage, and since supported by many dissident physicists, including Schroeder, et al., and members of the Gravity Group of the John Chappell Natural Philosophy Society. It is offered as one small contribution to furthering examination of this possible explanation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1608.0415 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-27 08:14:53*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Classical Newtonian gravitation is considered to be an attractive force, although the mechanism by which this is manifested remains unknown. Speculation includes graviton particles, space-time warping, etc. LeSagian gravitation is considered to be a pushing force, the net result of which appears to be attractive. It coincides with, but does not necessarily depend on, various aether theories where the universe is filled with moving ‘particles’ capable of exerting forces on whatever they contact. ‘Pushing’ gravity occurs when two objects ‘shadow’ each other by blocking the flow of these particles so as to create an area where the density of the particles is less than that ‘outside’ the shadow. The higher density outside the shadow impinges on a greater surface area than the lower density within the shadow, resulting in a net pushing force which appears to be an attraction between the two bodies toward one another (gravity). This paper examines how the results for ‘pushing’ gravity between the sun and a planet compare to those for ‘pulling’ gravity, as per Newton.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1608.0413 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-21 15:14:59*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Molecular hydrogen (H2), virtually undetectable from space, has long been a viable candidate for the alleged ‘dark matter’ supposedly accountable for the ‘flattening’ of the galactic (tangential) rotation curves. Presented here is a simplified analysis, assuming such molecular hydrogen is uniformly distributed throughout the Milky Way Galaxy’s disk, that examines the plausibility of such ‘dark matter’ providing a definitive gravitational explanation for the observed rotational behavior.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1608.0401 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-29 15:36:55*

**Authors:** Mark s. Cater

**Comments:** 132 Pages. author wishes to be remian as originator of paper

Concepts Behind Aleodeology is copyright (c) as originally titled Quantum Nanotechnogy Mark Cater 2009-2016 and re-titled here for my parent theory Primer to Aleodeolgy available at . http://vixra.org under Relativity and Cosmology at http://vixra.org/author/mark_s_cater. You are free to use and redistribute both papers as long as credit as given to the original author Mark S Cater as being the originator of the paper. NOTE: Some of the date found here may be new to you but outdated to me, many of the CONCEPTS/THEORIES were afterword debunked by myself; the more important information may be found at the links above and is freely available for use. It is provided here for educational use and free use and interactions/contributions. Not for sale or reselling. You are free to print and redistribute with the provision that no changes be made to any section in whole or part be made to this information AND/OR revised digitally or other. Revisions will be added as they come and not as a result of expectations, pressure, paid or otherwise contacted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1608.0391 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-28 17:30:31*

**Authors:** Mark s. Cater

**Comments:** 21 Pages. free to read and distribute

The Idea has come up of lately that space has time only with respect to energy. Energy as it stands is manually based and it`s measurements rely primarily upon values, which differs extremely from symbols based with respect to the true source of information itself. This form of information encompasses massive amounts of data that cannot be handled with conventional means and differs from knowledge.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1608.0370 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-27 08:26:58*

**Authors:** Emiro Díez Saldarriaga

**Comments:** 9 Pages. En Español

Muchos sistemas en delicado equilibrio lo perderían ante cambios de las dimensiones de sus partes, como las que se darían para observadores con diversas velocidades relativas respecto a esos sistemas, si la relatividad fuera cierta. Tal es el caso de un tranvía que cae y no cae en un abismo, según los observadores. De ahí la paradoja. O que cae para todos los observadores, pero violando las mas elementales leyes física, si se intenta resolver desesperadamente la tal paradoja.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1608.0300 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-23 20:38:53*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The light clock is wrong.

The apparatus (the clock) would just move away from the beam of light.

You would have to angle the light beam to make it hit the clock pads (mirrors) and that changes everything. i.e. the distance the light beam has to travel does NOT increase because of the moving
clock -- it is because you have to angle the beam.

You might need to think about it for a couple of months to realize everything. Good luck with your endeavors.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1608.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-23 11:06:29*

**Authors:** Erik A. Cerwen

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Special and general relativity theories are critically evaluated regarding their contemporary role as a foundation for a cosmological world picture. It is argued that the rest frame, where all physical processes take place, is more important in this role than the various relativistic distortions of these processes seen by different remote observers. This idea was previously formulated quantitatively with numerical examples from the Bohr atom, quantum physics and astrophysical observations. The theory identifies an observer on one local spatial dimension via Lorentz transformations connected with a space-like separated perpendicular observer who is non-local and only measures time. It was shown that this geometrical construction, where each unit local length comes with a line increment, is relevant both to the atom and to the universe. For example, the Planck length obtained from the Bohr atom could be expressed in terms of the apparent local Hubble expansion rate and the latter substituted into the Schroedinger equation to yield a circular current surrounding a magnetic pole. The distant non-local observer sees the radius Lorentz-contracted at relativistic speeds ultimately so much as to be able to contribute dynamics to the local frame, which was exemplified numerically by the CMBR. Evidence was also presented indicating that the oscillating line increment is capable of contributing mass from vacuum via the resonance particles. Elaborating on the latter idea indicates energy contributions of around 80, 90 and 125 GeV embedded in a robustly defined geometrical framework that has relevance (and even precedence) also in classical physics. The apparent transition from one to several spatial dimensions is exemplified by reinterpreting Compton scattering. The emergence of additional spatial dimensions and tangible locality are also discussed in terms of the number pi which appears by applying the Wallis product to the 1-D universe. The presence of the number pi thus indicates the presence of local particles as further exemplified by the CMBR and Compton scattering. The mass of the 1-D universe is obtained by considering local as well as non-local contributions as prescribed on the basis of the geometry. This yields corrections to the ‘classical’ geometrised mass such that the universe’s baryon particle density visible on the local axis is close to its electron density. Several unrelated numerical approaches guided by the proposed geometry indicate that the particle density of a primordial universe is roughly 1/m^3 (1/m^2).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1608.0245 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-14 11:43:22*

**Authors:** Tamas Lajtner

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

There are more phenomena in quantum mechanics and in cosmology that we cannot imagine how they work. The four most known phenomena are the result of the double-slit experiment, the spooky action at a distance (the working method of the non-local correlation in quantum entanglement), how the tunneling works, and why the Universe accelerates. These phenomena cannot be explained in the system of the space-time model. We need a new model with a new axiom. Space-matter theory changes the axiom of space and time. Space waves. We can express spatial distances, time units and energy with space waves. Space is what the matter senses as space. Time is one characteristic of space waves. Using this new approach, we can solve our old mysteries.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1608.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-20 10:51:22*

**Authors:** Pranoy Ghosh

**Comments:** Pages.

How would Newtonian formulation look, if he lived in modern era? This paper introduces definition of relativistic mass and force to derive Newtonian equations for motion from Special Theory of Relativity.
Although new mathematical definitions are introduced, conservation of energy and linear momentum are achieved. We now hold in our hands, equations from classical mechanics that obey Lorentz transforms. So Newtonian mechanics has overcome its limitation.
Calculus of several variables is the mathematical tool.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1608.0213 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-20 07:24:09*

**Authors:** Emiro Díez Saldarriaga

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Nuevo enfoque de la famosa paradoja de los gemelos
en el espacio tiempo de Minkowski.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1608.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-25 08:42:04*

**Authors:** Emiro Díez Saldarriaga

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

La paradoja del tren y el túnel, explicando la imposibilidad de que exista simetría física en varios sistemas de referencia.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1608.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-19 00:24:57*

**Authors:** Gabriel Sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Eran Sinbar

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Assuming that during the “big bang” matter and anti-matter pair production and annihilation governed the first phase before the expansion and cool down of the universe, we would expect to find a universe consisting of both matter and anti-matter uniformly spread apart throughout space.
That is obviously not the case as we can observe today and we expect to find some new kind of anti-symmetry between matter and anti-matter.
In this paper we will show a paradox that leads to the conclusion that anti-matter must have "anti-gravity". Based on this conclusion we claim that matter and anti-matter preserve two new conservation laws: 1. Conservation of gravity, 2. Conservation of time.
Based on these new conservation laws we predict that anti-matter is uniformly spread, as anti-atoms or anti-elementary particles, throughout space and it’s one of the main reasons for space expansion.
We strongly believe that future tests on the influence of anti-matter on gravity and time will prove this theory.
.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1608.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-19 00:47:14*

**Authors:** Gabriel Sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Eran Sinbar

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In our previous paper [1] we show a paradox that leads to the conclusion that anti-
matter must have "anti-gravity". Based on this conclusion we claim that matter and
anti-matter preserve two new conservation laws: 1. Conservation of gravity, 2.
Conservation of time.
In this article, based on these new conservation laws, we claim that the number of all
matter particles in the universe must be equal exactly to the number of all antimatter
particles. Moreover, each matter particle must be entangled to a "partner" antimatter
particle since entanglement is the only mechanism that can synchronize between
matter and antimatter particles in order to preserve the new conservation laws mentioned
above.
This phenomena can be examined at the LHC and if proven to be correct it is another
proof that entanglement is truly a “spooky action at a distance” (EPR paradox) and
has nothing to do with hidden variables. It also opens the possibility that if anti matter
particles remain and exist from the "big bang" somewhere in the universe they are still
entangled to the matter particles although the drastic annihilation during the big bang.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1608.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-19 00:53:27*

**Authors:** Gabriel Sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Eran Sinbar

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In our previous paper [1] we show a paradox that leads to the conclusion that anti-
matter must have "anti-gravity". Based on this conclusion we claim that matter and
anti-matter preserve two new conservation laws: 1. Conservation of gravity,
2. Conservation of time.
In our previous paper [2] we show that based on the conservation of gravity and time,
we expect that when a pair of matter and anti-matter particles is produced from pure
energy (e.g. pair production from an energetic photon ), they are entangled through
gravity and time. This entanglement of time and gravity is not restricted to the
quantum rules, and it will be referred as "non-quantum entanglement through time".
In this article, based on the non-quantum entanglement through time, we claim that
we can exploit this non-quantum entanglement in order to communicate
instantaneously through large distances.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1608.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-18 08:35:23*

**Authors:** Branislav Pavlovic

**Comments:** 338 Pages.

In this article I will present the main results of my scientific work . The title of my book is Gravitoelectromagnetism. I have developed my own theory of gravity, and I called it Gravitoelectromagnetism. According to my theory, an explanation of the dynamic effects is mainly based on formal analogy with electrodynamics. I will mention just a few experiments (effects) which I have explained from the standpoint of my theory: perihelion precession of Mercury, framedragging experiments (Gravity Probe B experiment), gravitational waves (Hulse–Taylor binary, detection of gravitational waves) and so on. Increase of astronomical unit has been analyzed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1608.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-09 08:37:51*

**Authors:** Mutasim A. Ahmed

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Although relative motion in the special theory of relativity, can have true and verifiable results, at least for a particular observer. But we ignored it in the case of the rotation of Earth and other planets and cosmic objects, around their own axes. My aim is to find (Earth's Resultant Inertial Rotation) ERIR. This ERIR is resulting from the curved path due to gravity, and the circular path of an observer due to rotation, out of the whole rotation. And for this ERIR an observer can assume the state of rest, while the whole observable universe will be revolving relatively around him in the opposite direction. This (Universe's Relative Revolution) URR will be displayed in conformity with circular motion laws. I was able to find an equation to describe this type of ERIR. By using this equation and postulating that aberration of distant objects light, will allow us to see a component of the tangential velocity produced by the URR along our line of sight, we reinterpreted the Hubble phenomenon, and predicted a blue-shift on the other side of the sky, mostly behind the zone of avoidance. The dependence of Hubble's constant on aberration angle is emphasized. Therefore we concluded that, the great attractor, the Virgo infall, the CMB dipole, the dark energy, and the fingers of God theories and the likes were based on illusions. All the CMB anomalies detected by WMAP spacecraft, and Planck spacecraft, can be explained. And the pioneer effect, can also be explained, and the diurnal and annual variations of the effect also accounted for. Also it is possible using this global URR to find a universal mechanism for magnetic field generation. Which can be applied for all cosmic objects, from asteroids to magnetars and even galaxies, by assuming an excess in the positive charge due to protons, in deep space. Therefore we will have a solenoid mechanism for magnetic field generation. Using this idea we predicted a magnetic field on Ceres twice as that of Mercury. But we will give only the outlines of this new mechanism, so that other investigators can develop it further.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1608.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-13 23:43:48*

**Authors:** Fredrick W. Cotton

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The proposed modifications of the Einstein-Maxwell equations include: (1) the addition of a scalar term to the electromagnetic side of the equation rather than to the gravitational side, (2) the introduction of a 4-dimensional, nonlinear electromagnetic constitutive tensor and (3) the addition of curvature terms arising from the non-metric components of a general symmetric connection. The scalar term is defined by the condition that a spherically symmetric particle be force-free and mathematically well-behaved everywhere. The constitutive tensor introduces two auxiliary fields which describe the particle structure. The additional curvature terms couple both to particle solutions and to electromagnetic and gravitational wave solutions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1608.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-11 17:19:45*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper will present a new theory for what we call “Dark Energy” by explaining it as a form of kinetic energy. It will be presented within General Relativity where we will use new terms and explain them in detail. Some of the new terms that will be presented also fall under Quantum Mechanics. It will be explained in detail how and why dark energy comes to be and why it is now dominant in the Universe which will explain the observational evidence that has been attained on this subject and has so far been rather puzzling to scientists when it comes to the very nature of “Dark Energy”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1608.0112 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-04 01:36:13*

**Authors:** Robert Spoljaric

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Einstein’s ultimate vision of physics was to extend general relativity by incorporating electromagnetism and unifying the large-scale world where gravity dominates with the subatomic realm of quantum physics. But he failed to find a version that would explain quantum phenomena that involved neither statistics nor measurements. In this paper we will show he was right by generalising the energy of a photon using the equations of relativistic mechanics to render relativistic dynamics consistent with the de Broglie relations, which, in principle, gives us a coherent account of individual phenomena as a ‘thing-in-itself’. Further, when we carry this line of reasoning through to its logical conclusion we realise that the introduction of the quantum was a necessary step in the evolution of physics. Einstein should have taken this approach to realise his vision of physics, which could have preceded the advent of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics in 1925. The reason Einstein missed this approach is due to the fact that he needed to go beyond de Broglie’s wave-particle duality for both light and matter by using the concept of relativistic mass. The physics used in this article has already been discussed in [1] and [2].

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1608.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-11 02:02:37*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Qualitatively and quantitatively, we review the basics of standard cosmology with respect to Planck scale, Mach’s principle, superluminal expansion speeds and superluminal rotation speeds. Important results to be noted are: 1) At H0=70 km/sec/Mpc, fitted current cosmic temperature is 2.721 K; 2) Estimated current cosmic radius is 90 billion light years and is 2 times the current observable cosmic radius; 3) Estimated current cosmic mass is 1.146E54 kg and is 8 times the current estimate; 4) Magnitude of the currently believed visible mass density is equal to the estimated current cosmic mass density; 5) Magnitude of the currently believed dark energy is equal to the magnitude of the estimated current cosmic rotational kinetic energy;

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1608.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-05 07:50:34*

**Authors:** Bengt Månsson

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

As seen from a spaceship accelerating towards a star, the star approaches the ship at a speed that can exceed c, the speed of light in vacuum. For the particular case of constant acceleration with given final speed kc at the star this speed is calculated as a function of the ship's proper time and it is found that the upper bound of this speed is 1,5c. Some other cases are investigated including hyperbolic motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1608.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-04 16:28:21*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 7 Pages. -

Annotation
Given the approximate form of interaction, which we consider as the gravitational interaction, but in fact it is small does the members in the formula of the electric interaction. And he showed that in addition to the square of the distance, the other depending on the distance not there (for small-scale universe of distances).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1608.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-04 21:06:47*

**Authors:** Peter Bissonnet

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper is prepared in order to point out to the reader, if the reader is not already so informed, of some glaring omissions and/or deficiencies in the original paper so titled. (1) the first omission lies in the fact that no clear cut indication was given of the source of the so called “mass velocity vector”. Originally, the idea was obtained from Bernoulli fluid flow theory, but, lately, the author has discovered that this idea can also be derived from a four dimensional covariant (or tensor) formulation of the Fokker-Planck equation, which describes the time development of a type of random/stochastic process called a Markoff process. (2) The second omission was a failure to give the equation for the Fermi constant in terms of the fundamental constants that were appropriate thereto. (3) The third omission involved giving only the value of the predicted mass that CERN should find as 1118 times the mass of the proton, without giving the Gev value as well. (4) The fourth omission consisted of a math error on page 20 of the original manuscript: the author failed to pick up the mathematical error. (5) The fifth omission is found on page 23 of the original manuscript, in which the author discusses the reason why photons do not travel at infinite speed. The example used there was not very enlightening, and the author realized it at the time. In order to make up for that omission, the author has devised a new example which, it is hoped, will make the inertial problem of the photon much clearer. (6) This is a grab bag of future research problems: which ones are real, imaginary, crazy, or insane?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1608.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-04 09:33:54*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Annotation
Given the approximate form of interaction, which we consider as the gravitational interaction, but in fact it is small does the members in the formula of the electric interaction. And he showed that in addition to the square of the distance, the other depending on the distance not there (for small-scale universe of distances).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1608.0023 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-08 15:14:15*

**Authors:** Alfonso Leon Guillen Gomez

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The General Relativity understands gravity like inertial movement of the free fall of the bodies in curved spacetime of Lorentz. The law of inertia of Newton would be particular case of the inertial movement of the bodies in the spacetime flat of Euclid. But, in the step, from general to particular, breaks the law of inertia of Galilei since recovers the rectilinear uniform movement but not the repose state, unless the bodies have undergone their collapse, although, the curved spacetime becomes flat and the curved geodesies becomes straight lines. For General Relativity is a natural law, within of a gravitational field, the accelerated movement of the bodies, that leads to that a geometric curvature puts out to the bodies in such geodesic movement.
In this paper this error of General Relativity, like generalization of the law of inertia of Galilei, is examined and it is found that it is caused by suppression of mass and force that allows conceiving acceleration like property of spacetime. This is a mathematical and non-ontological result. Indeed, mass and force are the fundament that the gravitational acceleration is independent of the magnitude of mass of the bodies but gravity not of the mass and the gravitational force. The action of the gravity force, on inertial and gravitational masses of a body, produces mutual cancellation during its free fallen but too its weight when this cease. By means of the third law of Newton it shows that gravity is a force since weight is caused by gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1608.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-01 17:11:12*

**Authors:** Bernardo Sotomayor Valdivia

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this monograph, digital signal processing (DSP) techniques are used together with the infophysical spacetime model (ISM) of Reality in order to find theoretical answers to the following questions: Why is the speed of light in a vacuum a constant? Why that particular speed and not any other? Is the speed of light a fundamental constant of Reality? Has it always been so? Can it change in the future?
The Nyquist-Shannon Sampling Theorem is used to determine the scales of the cosmic wavefunction in the motional and displacement domains, thus obtaining the spatial and temporal sampling relations of Reality. The results are then applied to obtain a list of theoretical implications that propose answers to the questions mentioned above and to other related questions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1608.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-02 02:04:48*

**Authors:** Ratikanta Das

**Comments:** 03 pages

Author’s previous article ‘A New Model of Physics’, appeared in the section ‘History and Philosophy of Physics’ of viXra.org open e-print archive, seems to be a controversial one as it opposes some established theories of traditional physics. But simultaneously it also supports some established theories and gives simple explanations for many puzzles of physics which must not be regarded as matter of coincidence or chance. Again author’s speculation is not final; some points of the model may require modification. But author strongly believes that this model, when developed into a full-fledged one, will be able to unveil the beauty of absolute truth of nature. In this article author compares the physics of this new model with that of traditional models, elaborating some points discussed in the previous article.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1608.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-08-01 06:38:55*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Light and temperature independent biological clock has drivers (zeitgebers), which are different
for the twin, which stays on the Earth, and for other one, which flies away

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology