[7] **viXra:0907.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 33 pages.

In the article is given of a critic of a special and general relativity theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:0907.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Fangyu Li, Nan Yang, Zhenyun Fang, Robert M L Baker Jr., Gary V. Stephenson, Hao Wen

**Comments:** 33 pages.

Coupling system between Gaussian type-microwave photon flux, static
magnetic field and fractal membranes (or other equivalent microwave
lenses) can be used to detect high-frequency gravitational waves (HFGWs)
in the microwave band. We study the signal photon flux, background
photon flux and the requisite minimal accumulation time of the signal in
the coupling system. Unlike pure inverse Gertsenshtein effect (G-effect)
caused by the HFGWs in the GHz band, the the electromagnetic (EM)
detecting scheme (EDS) proposed by China and the US HFGW groups is
based on the composite effect of the synchro-resonance effect and the inverse
G-effect. Key parameters in the scheme is the first-order perturbative
photon flux (PPF) and not the second-order PPF; the distinguishable
signal is the transverse first-order PPF and not the longitudinal PPF; the
photon flux focused by the fractal membranes or other equivalent microwave
lenses is not only the transverse first-order PPF but the total
transverse photon flux, and these photon fluxes have different signal-to-noise
ratios at the different receiving surfaces. Theoretical analysis
and numerical estimation show that the requisite minimal accumulation
time of the signal at the special receiving surfaces and in the background
noise fluctuation would be ~ 10^{3} -10^{5} seconds for the typical laboratory
condition and parameters of h_{r.m.s.} ~ 10^{-26} - 10^{-30}/√Hz at 5GHz with
bandwidth ~1Hz. In addition, we review the inverse G-effect in the EM
detection of the HFGWs, and it is shown that the EM detecting scheme
based only on the pure inverse G-effect in the laboratory condition would
not be useful to detect HFGWs in the microwave band.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:0907.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 2 pages.

Under the data of possible daily variations of gravity acceleration, speed of gravitation
not less than in 106 times is exceeded speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:0907.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Xavier Terri Castañé

**Comments:** 33 pages, English and Spanish versions included.

Any tetradimensional theory of gravity that was a consistent
generalization of special relativity and no tolerating outstanding observers will get
superior speeds to the local light speed in void. In this article the theory of general
relativity from Einstein is refused because it is unable of carry out this requirement,
therefore a new alternative generalization is propose, the connected theory that
eliminates the black holes. A different light raises where the absolutely darnkness
was before.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:0907.0015 [pdf]**
*replaced on 26 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Hyoyoung Choi

**Comments:** 23 pages

From the observance of the HSS team and SCP team in 1998, they gained the mass density of the negative(HSS:
Ω_{M} = -0.38(±0.22), SCP: Ω_{M} = -0.4(±0.1) ), using field equations which do not have the cosmological constant.
In they thought, the quantity of the mass couldn't be a negative value, so the value was discarded. We have to know
that not the field equation has disposed the value, but our thought disposed that value. In the world of positive
mass, ground state is a point that energy is low, but in case of negative mass, ground state is a point that energy
is the highest. Accordingly, in the world of negative mass, energy level is filled from the highest to the lowest, and
stable state means the highest energy state, so the catastrophe to energy level of minus infinity never happens even if
negative mass spontaneously emits energy. Assuming that negative mass exists, Newton's Law of motion was derived
in between negative and positive masses and also between negative and negative masses. As a method for proving
the existence of negative mass, an explanation on the revolution velocity of the galaxy through negative mass has
been presented. In this process, the existence of spherical mass distribution was given; furthermore, explanation
was done using this, to show observation results where dark matter effect through negative mass is proportional to
distance r. If Ω_{M} is -0.38, universe's age is 14.225 Gyr. It is in the range estimated by other observations. Universe's
radius R is 96:76[_{-11:44}^{+12:13}]Gly = (85.32 ~ 108.89)Gly.
Assuming that negative mass and positive mass were born
together at the beginning of universe, it satisfies the various problems that previous dark matter and dark energy
possess, such as, centripetal force effects of galaxy and galaxy clusters from previous dark matters, mass effects that
is proportional to the distance r, repulsive force needed for expansion, dark energy that has positive values, low
interaction between dark matter when collision occurs between dark matter, deceleration expansion and acceleration
expansion of universe, formation of void, in
ation mechanism, fine tuning problem of mass density, collision of Bullet
cluster, universe's age, universe's size, the reason of that dark energy seems to has a small and non-zero value. Also,
we prove to the dark energy observation value (10^{-47}GeV^{4}). As a result, the necessity of observation focusing on
exact computation and detection of negative mass is stated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:0907.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Roger Ellman

**Comments:** 15 pages

Four independent unrelated phenomena, none of which has an established explanation,
have now been extensively observed and a large amount of data substantiating the phenomena
have been developed. The phenomena are as follows.
- In 1933 F. Zwicky reported that the rotational balance of gravitational central
attraction and rotational centripetal force in galaxies appeared to be out of balance, that
a small additional centrally directed acceleration of unknown source appeared to be
needed and to be acting. Numerous galactic rotation curves confirm that there is such
an anomalous acceleration present and necessary in all rotating galaxies.
- In 1998 the Pioneer Anomaly was first reported. The anomaly is a small acceleration,
centrally directed [toward the Sun], constant, distance independent, and of unknown
cause, observed in the tracking of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft from launch until
their near departure from the Solar System.
- In 2008 the Flybys Anomaly was first reported. The anomaly is unaccounted for
changes in spacecraft speed, both increases and decreases, for six different spacecraft
involved in Earth flybys from December 8, 1990 to August 2, 2005.
- Also in 2008 a previously unknown large scale flow of galaxy clusters all in the same
direction toward "the edge" of the observable universe was reported.
Analysis discloses that the first three have in common the same locally centrally directed,
small acceleration, one that is non-gravitational, distance independent, apparently constant, and
unaccounted for.
A cause and explanation of that common acceleration is presented. It is shown that the
fourth phenomenon is fully consistent with that same cause and explanation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:0907.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Jul 2009*

**Authors:** Hilton Ratcliffe

**Comments:** A shortened version of this paper has been accepted for publication in the
proceedings of the 2nd Crisis in Cosmology Conference, Astronomical Society of the Pacific
conference proceedings, 2009.

One of the greatest challenges facing astrophysics is derivation of remoteness in cosmological
objects. At large scales, it is almost entirely dependent upon the well-established Hubble relationship
in spectral redshift. The comparison of galactic redshifts with distances arrived at by other means has
yielded a useable curve to an acceptable confidence level, and the assumption of scale invariance allows
the adoption of redshift as a standard calibration of cosmological distance. However, there have been
several fields of study in observational astronomy that consistently give apparently anomalous results
from ever-larger statistical samples, and would thus seem to require further careful investigation.
This paper presents a review summary of recent independent work, primarily (for galaxies and proto-galaxies)
by teams led by, respectively, D. G. Russell, M. Lopez-Corredoira, and H. C. Arp, and for galaxy clusters
and large-scale structures, those of N. A. Bahcall, J.C. Jackson, and N. Kaiser. Included also are several
other important contributions that will be fully cited in the text. The observational evidence is presented
here *per se* without attempting theoretical conclusions or extrapolating the data to cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology