Relativity and Cosmology


On Four Independent Phenomena Sharing a Common Cause

Authors: Roger Ellman

Four independent unrelated phenomena, none of which has an established explanation, have now been extensively observed and a large amount of data substantiating the phenomena have been developed. The phenomena are as follows. - In 1933 F. Zwicky reported that the rotational balance of gravitational central attraction and rotational centripetal force in galaxies appeared to be out of balance, that a small additional centrally directed acceleration of unknown source appeared to be needed and to be acting. Numerous galactic rotation curves confirm that there is such an anomalous acceleration present and necessary in all rotating galaxies. - In 1998 the Pioneer Anomaly was first reported. The anomaly is a small acceleration, centrally directed [toward the Sun], constant, distance independent, and of unknown cause, observed in the tracking of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft from launch until their near departure from the Solar System. - In 2008 the Flybys Anomaly was first reported. The anomaly is unaccounted for changes in spacecraft speed, both increases and decreases, for six different spacecraft involved in Earth flybys from December 8, 1990 to August 2, 2005. - Also in 2008 a previously unknown large scale flow of galaxy clusters all in the same direction toward "the edge" of the observable universe was reported. Analysis discloses that the first three have in common the same locally centrally directed, small acceleration, one that is non-gravitational, distance independent, apparently constant, and unaccounted for. A cause and explanation of that common acceleration is presented. It is shown that the fourth phenomenon is fully consistent with that same cause and explanation.

Comments: 15 pages

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Submission history

[v1] 16 Jul 2009

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