**Authors:** Hyoyoung Choi

From the observance of the HSS team and SCP team in 1998, they gained the mass density of the negative(HSS:
Ω_{M} = -0.38(±0.22), SCP: Ω_{M} = -0.4(±0.1) ), using field equations which do not have the cosmological constant.
In they thought, the quantity of the mass couldn't be a negative value, so the value was discarded. We have to know
that not the field equation has disposed the value, but our thought disposed that value. In the world of positive
mass, ground state is a point that energy is low, but in case of negative mass, ground state is a point that energy
is the highest. Accordingly, in the world of negative mass, energy level is filled from the highest to the lowest, and
stable state means the highest energy state, so the catastrophe to energy level of minus infinity never happens even if
negative mass spontaneously emits energy. Assuming that negative mass exists, Newton's Law of motion was derived
in between negative and positive masses and also between negative and negative masses. As a method for proving
the existence of negative mass, an explanation on the revolution velocity of the galaxy through negative mass has
been presented. In this process, the existence of spherical mass distribution was given; furthermore, explanation
was done using this, to show observation results where dark matter effect through negative mass is proportional to
distance r. If Ω_{M} is -0.38, universe's age is 14.225 Gyr. It is in the range estimated by other observations. Universe's
radius R is 96:76[_{-11:44}^{+12:13}]Gly = (85.32 ~ 108.89)Gly.
Assuming that negative mass and positive mass were born
together at the beginning of universe, it satisfies the various problems that previous dark matter and dark energy
possess, such as, centripetal force effects of galaxy and galaxy clusters from previous dark matters, mass effects that
is proportional to the distance r, repulsive force needed for expansion, dark energy that has positive values, low
interaction between dark matter when collision occurs between dark matter, deceleration expansion and acceleration
expansion of universe, formation of void, in
ation mechanism, fine tuning problem of mass density, collision of Bullet
cluster, universe's age, universe's size, the reason of that dark energy seems to has a small and non-zero value. Also,
we prove to the dark energy observation value (10^{-47}GeV^{4}). As a result, the necessity of observation focusing on
exact computation and detection of negative mass is stated.

**Comments:** 23 pages

**Download:** **PDF**

[v1] 16 Jul 2009

[v2] 22 Jul 2009

[v3] 31 Aug 2009

[v4] 10 Oct 2009

[v5] 12 Oct 2009

[v6] 29 Oct 2009

[v7] 17 Nov 2009

[v8] 9 Dec 2009

[v9] 17 May 2010

[vA] 20 Aug 2010

[vB] 29 Sep 2010

[vC] 26 Oct 2011

**Unique-IP document downloads:** 2130 times

**Add your own feedback and questions here:**

*You are equally welcome to be positive or negative about any paper but please be polite. If you are being critical you must mention at least one specific error, otherwise your comment will be deleted as unhelpful. *