## Signal Photon Flux and Background Noise in a Coupling Electromagnetic Detecting System for High Frequency Gravitational Waves

**Authors:** Fangyu Li, Nan Yang, Zhenyun Fang, Robert M L Baker Jr., Gary V. Stephenson, Hao Wen

Coupling system between Gaussian type-microwave photon flux, static
magnetic field and fractal membranes (or other equivalent microwave
lenses) can be used to detect high-frequency gravitational waves (HFGWs)
in the microwave band. We study the signal photon flux, background
photon flux and the requisite minimal accumulation time of the signal in
the coupling system. Unlike pure inverse Gertsenshtein effect (G-effect)
caused by the HFGWs in the GHz band, the the electromagnetic (EM)
detecting scheme (EDS) proposed by China and the US HFGW groups is
based on the composite effect of the synchro-resonance effect and the inverse
G-effect. Key parameters in the scheme is the first-order perturbative
photon flux (PPF) and not the second-order PPF; the distinguishable
signal is the transverse first-order PPF and not the longitudinal PPF; the
photon flux focused by the fractal membranes or other equivalent microwave
lenses is not only the transverse first-order PPF but the total
transverse photon flux, and these photon fluxes have different signal-to-noise
ratios at the different receiving surfaces. Theoretical analysis
and numerical estimation show that the requisite minimal accumulation
time of the signal at the special receiving surfaces and in the background
noise fluctuation would be ~ 10^{3} -10^{5} seconds for the typical laboratory
condition and parameters of h_{r.m.s.} ~ 10^{-26} - 10^{-30}/√Hz at 5GHz with
bandwidth ~1Hz. In addition, we review the inverse G-effect in the EM
detection of the HFGWs, and it is shown that the EM detecting scheme
based only on the pure inverse G-effect in the laboratory condition would
not be useful to detect HFGWs in the microwave band.

**Comments:** 33 pages.

**Download:** **PDF**

### Submission history

[v1] 22 Jul 2009

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