[28] **viXra:0909.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 12 pages, 2007 submission to STAIF conference, prior to author's interest in entropy/graviton
production. mix as reflected in adaptation of Y. J. Ng's quantum infinite statistics as done by Beckwith, in 2009

In string theory, even when there are ten to the thousand power vacuum states, does inflation produce
overwhelmingly one preferred type of vacuum state? We respond affirmatively to questions whether existence
of graviton production is confirmable using present detector methodology. We use an explicit
Randall-Sundrum brane-world effective potential as congruent with an inflationary quadratic potential
start. This occurs after Bogomolnyi inequality eliminates need for ad hoc assumption of axion wall mass
high temperature related disappearing. Graviton production has explicit links with a five-dimensional
brane-world negative cosmological constant and a four-dimensional positive valued cosmological constant,
whose temperature dependence permits an early universe graviton production activity burst. We show how di
quarks, wave functions, and various forms tie into the Wheeler-De Witt equation. This permits investigating
a discretized quantum bounce and a possible link to the initial phases of present universe's evolution with
a prior universe's collapse to the bounce point - the initial starting point to inflationary expansion. This
opens a possibility of realistically investigating gravitons as part of a space propulsion system and
dealing with problems from a beam of gravity waves, which would create a g-force because the geodestic
structure is near field. It can be applied to existing and to new space propulsion concepts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:0909.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 25 pages, concept paper used as foundation of initial work given to
STAIF 2007 and 2008, before the author was aware of the issue of confluence of
classical and quantum predictions of relic particle prediction. Has a very different
flavor of interpretation as far as how to understand the importance of relic
graviton production.

We use an explicit Randall-Sundrum brane world effective potential as congruent with conditions needed
to form a minimum entropy starting point for an early universe vacuum state. We justify this by pointing
to the Ashtekar, Pawlowski, and Singh (2006) article about a prior universe being modeled via their
quantum bounce hypothesis which states that this prior universe geometrically can be modeled via a
discretized Wheeler - De Witt equation, with it being the collapsing into a quantum bounce point
singularity converse of the present day universe expanding from the quantum bounce point so delineated
in their calculations. In doing so, we use thermal/ gravitational inputs into our present universe,
using a simplified model of graviton production similar to what was done by Wheeler in the 1970s for
spin two gravitons . Doing so permits modeling of experimental conditions needed for directional graviton
production which conceivably could be used for space craft in the foreseeable future once an experimental
verification of early universe conditions for graviton production and power radiation are finalized. This
leads to intense power production using a model for power production reported by Dr. Fontana in 2005 in
the new frontiers section of STAIF. We report upon what we think is a range of intense graviton production
parameters in the onset of cosmological inflation. This builds upon an idea of a semi resonant cavity
effect for spin two gravitons, with the walls dissolving after ten to the minus 43 seconds, with a build
up of temperature, and a steady energy insertion leading to , after axion wall collapse due to rising
temperatures, a massive release of relic gravitons at the same time the initiation of inflation takes
place. This answers the apparent incongruency of low entropy, low temperatures postulated by S. Carroll,
and J. Chen, with a naturally occurring 'laboratory' as to necessary and sufficient conditions needed to
model graviton production on a large scale.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:0909.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 23 pages, 3 figures. Work done with Joe
Lykken, FNAL, which was to show that Magueijo's
propused revisions of Special relativity, the so
called double special relativity hypothesis, was
inconsistent with respect to cosmology. Accepted
by FNAL theory division, rejected by a reviewer in
GRG journal due to the fact that the derived scalar
potential did not satisfy slow roll hypothesis of
inflation. Non withstanding that the non compliance
of the scalar potential with slow roll was cited to
one of the primary faults of Magueijo's double special
relativity

We offer evidence that the Trans Plankian hypothesis
about Dark energy is incompatible with necessary and sufficient
conditions for solving the cosmic ray problem along the lines
presented by Magueijo et al. We can obtain conditions for a
dispersion relationship congruent with the Trans Planckian
hypothesis only if we cease trying to match cosmic ray data
which is important in investigating special relativity.
This leads us to conclude that the Trans Planckian hypothesis
is inconsistent with respect to current astrophysical data
and needs to be seriously revised .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:0909.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 page slide show, given in the AP1 dark matter section hosted by Dr.
Chardin, at the Paris observatory, in July 17th 2009 as a talk in the 12 Marcel Grossman
meeting.

We outline how DM density profiles may be perturbed by entropy generation, and that
in part due to relic graviton production. The interaction of gravitons as an entropy generator may influence relic neutrino and neutralino production, which would affect not only DM
behavior, but in certain situations the relic abundance of Lithium in the early universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:0909.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 102 pages ( 5 pages removed ) of a presentation
made by Dr. Beckwith at the Chongquing University department
of physics, Chonguing University, PRC, as a guest of Dr. Fangyu
Li, PRC, and his gravitational physics group. Done as a collaboration
between Dr. Li's GW research group and US reseachers, as listed
by Gravwave.com

Survey of topics. beginning with break down of the quark-gluon plasma
as a way to analyze early universe conditions, and presentation of
opportunities as far as GW astronomy which may be presented if
the li baker detector is put into operational usage.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:0909.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 5 pages . Version of document sent ( as latex ) to Hans
Klaptor, as a contribution to the Dark 2009 conference, January,
Christ Church, New Zealand 2009 as an invited talk by the conference
chair, Dr. Klaptor

Current Proposed photon Rocket designs include the Nuclear Photonic
Rocket design and the anti matter photonic rocket design (as proposed
Eugene Sanger , 1950s, as reported in reference 1) This paper examines
the feasibility of improving the thrust of a photon rocket via either use of
WIMPS, or similar DM candidate. Would a WIMP, if converted to power
and thrust enable / improve the chances of interstellar travel ?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:0909.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The gravitational redshift, in conjunction with the age of the stars, might explain any
case of light redshift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:0909.0044 [pdf]**
*replaced on 25 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** A companion piece to http://vixra.org/abs/0909.0042 of the Numerical analysis
and applied mathematics special symposium organized by Christian Corda, in Rethymno, Crete,
18-22 September 2009

A first order presentation of the questions the author believes must be addressed for
fufilling the promise of GW astronomy in terms of understanding the origins of our
universe. Organized in five questions , and themes which end with asking if quantum
foundations / structures to our cosmological space time are mandantory, or if
T'Hoofts vision of quantum physics being a sub set to a larger 'deterministic
quantum theory; as t;Hooft phrases the successor to quantum probability, as
envisions it .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:0909.0043 [pdf]**
*replaced on 25 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 32 pages, and pre cursor of 3 page academic text requested by Dr Faessler for a
special edition of the journal "Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics" (Editor: Amand Faessler)
which has been made of the author in lieu of a successful presentation
in the "International School of Nuclear Physics, 31st Course : Neutrinos in Cosmology,
in Astro-, Particle- and Nuclear Physics, Erice-Sicily September 16-24, 2009"

We present a first principle argument for modeling changes in BBN which may affect the
probability that super massive stars forming before galactic structures formed may have
been sans Lithium 7. The author believes that relic neutrinos plus gravitons may play a
role in damping and modifying the density fluctuations of early space time, which have
chances to affect nucleosynthesis.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:0909.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 pages, AIP conference proceedings entry 1168, "Numerical analysis and
applied mathematics, 2009, Reythmono, Crete" , Greece; a peer reviewed
submission to 'Symposium: The big challenge of Gravitational waves, a New
Window into the future', as organized by Dr. Christian Corda of the Associazione
Scientifica Gallieo Galilei: pp 1077-1083 of AIP conference proceedings 1168

This paper shows how increased entropy values from an initially low big bang level can be measured
experimentally by counting relic gravitons. Furthermore the physical mechanism of this entropy increase is
explained via analogies with early-universe phase transitions. The role of Jack Ng's (2007, 2008a, 2008b)
revised infinite quantum statistics in the physics of gravitational wave detection is acknowledged. Ng's
infinite quantum statistics can be used to show that ΔS ≈ ΔN_{gravitons}is a starting point to the increasing
net universe cosmological entropy. Finally, in a nod to similarities with ZPE analysis, it is important to note
that the resulting ΔS ≈ ΔN_{gravitons} ≠ 10^{88}, that in fact it is much lower,
allowing for evaluating initial
graviton production as an emergent field phenomena, which may be similar to how ZPE states can be used
to extract energy from a vacuum if entropy is not maximized. The rapid increase in entropy so alluded to
without near sudden increases to 10^{88} may be enough to allow successful modeling of relic graviton
production for entropy in a manner similar to ZPE energy extraction from a vacuum state.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:0909.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Lyndon Ashmore

**Comments:** 11 Pages. This paper was presented at the CCC2 conference at port Angeles
Washington State and is to be published along with the procedings of this conference by ASP.

Despite the idea of an expanding universe having been around for nearly one hundred
years there is still no conclusive, direct evidence for expansion. This paper examines the
Lyman Alpha forest in order to determine the average temperature and the average
separation of Hydrogen clouds over the aging of the universe. A review of the literature
shows that the clouds did once become further and further apart (showing expansion?)
but are now evenly spaced (an indication of a static universe?). Doppler parameters give
an indication of the temperature and/or the degree of disturbance of the clouds and the
evidence is that the temperature or degree of disturbance is increasing rather than
decreasing as required by an expanding universe. Whilst these results do not support
any cosmology individually, they do support one where the universe expanded in the
past but that expansion has now been arrested and the universe is now static. A
separate mechanism for redshift would be required to explain why, in this scenario, the
Hydrogen Clouds are evenly spaced in the local universe - but have differing redshifts.
High z hydrogen cloud separation can be used to give an independent estimate on the
lower limit of the age of the universe in an expanding model and it is found that the age
must be far greater than the presently accepted value of 13.8 billion years - if the H1
clouds are to achieve their present separations without some mechanism other than
inflation being involved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:0909.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 24 Pages. This article appeared in Adv. Studies Theor. Phys., Vol. 2, no. 7 (2008) 309 - 332

It is shown how the de-Sitter Relativistic behaviour of the hyperbolic
trajectory of Pioneer, due to the expansion of the Universe (non-vanishing
cosmological constant), is the underlying physical reason for the observed
anomalous acceleration of the Pioneer spacecraft of the order of
c^{2}/R_{H} ~ 8.74 x 10^{-10} m/s^{2}, where c is the speed of light and R_{H} is
the present Hubble scale. We display the explicit isomorphism among
Yang's Noncommutative space-time algebra, the 4D Conformal algebra
SO(4,2) and the area-bi-vector-coordinates algebra in Clifford spaces.
The former Yang's algebra involves noncommuting coordinates and momenta
with a minimum Planck scale λ (ultraviolet cutoff) and a minimum
momentum p = h/R (maximal length R, infrared cutoff ). It
is shown how Modified Newtonian dynamics is also a consequence of
Yang's algebra resulting from the modified Poisson brackets. To finalize
we study the deformed Kepler and free motion resulting from the modified
Newtonian dynamics due to the Leznov-Khruschev noncommutative
phase space algebra and which stems also from the Conformal algebra
SO(4,2) in four dimensions. Numerical examples are found which yield
results close to the experimental observations, but only in very extreme
special cases and which seem to be consistent with a Machian view of
the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:0909.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** Nine pages, part of source background for PPT which will be presented
September 17th, 2009 in the Erice Nuclear physics school. Will be considerably
refined for conference submission, in early November , 2009 for Nuclear physics
journal which has proceedings of the 2009 nuclear physics school , Erice, Italy.

We review how graviton initial energy values are linkable to possible order of the Lorentz gravitational
violation. Counter intuitively, the greatest Lorentz gravitational violation would be at lower to moderate
initial velocity value conditions due to pre inflationary conditions. .We assume with rapid build up of
graviton energies , convergence to flat space, Lorentz invariance as gravitons , due to a high level of
initially extreme inflationary conditions speed up with introduction of massively boosted energies at the
onset of the big bang. The coupling of neutrinos to gravitions would be enhanced as their wave lengths
would initially be quite similar, i.e. very short. Consequences for the Lithium problem in stars, due to
stellar formation, and gravitational perturbation on DM and will be discussed toward the end of this
document. The neutrino / gravitational wave interaction leads to a damping factor in the intensity of GW
of [1-5⋅(ρ_{neutrino}/ρ) + ϑ([ρ_{neutrino}/ρ]^{2} )]
as far as relic GW as could be shown up in the CMBR data
sets. This would have no bearing upon the peak of the frequency range, which is another matter entirely.
The contention advanced, though is that proper analysis of the big bang, including initial treatment of
nucleosynthesis may show a way forward to explain the recent discovery of early old stars with no
lithium. Thereby closing one of the huge holes in the big bang, and lithium abundance.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:0909.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 13 pages, taken from http://home.fnal.gov/~rocky/DETF/Beckwith.pdf
as Dr. Beckwith's 2005 successful white paper submission to the DETF for its
preliminary study as to how to prepare data analysis from the CMB for the forecoming
JDEM investigation.

This is a record of a successful White paper submission to the JDEM mission by
Dr. Andrew Beckwith. University of Houston physics department / TcSAM. June 13 th. ,
2005. Sent to : Rocky Kolb, Chair of the JDEM Dark matter search panel. Was part
of back ground study for improving JDEM instrumentation performance in upcoming
mission for Dark Energy investigations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:0909.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith, Robert M L Baker Jr.

**Comments:** 13 pages, possible submission to SPESIF, 2010 as a paper, and talk, and also a source
for open discussion of hard ware requirements for a HFGW detector, with applications to detection
of astrophysical GW. Inputs to this document await commentary and feed back from the Gravwave team.
(I.e. this document may undergo many revisions)

A number of applications of High-Frequency Relic Gravitational Wave (HFRGW)
detection to astrophysics are identified and a means for detecting them is presented that is
sensitive enough to provide useful data. Observation of relic gravitational waves will
provide vital information about the birth of the Universe and its early dynamical
evolution as well as enable significant direct inferences to be drawn about the value of
the Hubble parameter of the early universe and the cosmological scale factor. Other
astrophysical applications involve the entropy growth of the early Universe, an ability to
rule out alternatives to inflation, to pinpoint the energy scale at which inflation took place
and to provide clues about the symmetries underlying new physics at the highest
energies. Several alternative HFRGW detectors are described and the proposed Li-Baker
HFRGW detector, which is theoretically sensitive to GW amplitudes, A, as small as 10^{-32},
is discussed in detail. It is recommended that plans and specifications for the Li-Baker
HFRGW detector be prepared in order to expedite its fabrication.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:0909.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 17 pages. For possible inclusion as entry into the ICAAM AIP
conference proceedings, as a study/presentation for Dr. Christian Corda's
GW work shop.

We argue in this document that initial vacuum state values possibly responsible for GW generation in relic
conditions in the initial onset of inflation may have a temporary un squeezed, possibly even coherent initial
value, which would permit in certain models classical coherent initial gravitational wave states. Secondly,
if gravitational waves have semi classical features in their genesis, then the problem of how q(Z) under
goes through an inflection point and how the rate of acceleration increases a billion years ago needs to be re
examined. Additional dimensions are not the problem. Determining if GW/Gravitions are semi classical in
their initial formulation at the source of the big bang, is. Also, semi classical and quantum entropy
generating processes are compared, with the role of looking for over lap between them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:0909.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 6 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** John L. Haller Jr.

**Comments:** 9 pages

This paper argues a hypothetical "dark" particle (a black hole with the reduced Planck mass)
gives a simple explanation to the open question of dark energy and has a relic density of only
17% more than the commonly accepted value. By considering an additional near horizon boundary of
the black hole, set by its quantum length, the black hole can obtain an arbitrary temperature.
Black body radiation is still present and fits as the source of the Universe's missing energy.
Support for this hypothesis is offered by showing a stationary solution to the black hole's
length scale is the same if derived from a quantum analysis in continuous time, a quantum analysis
in discrete time, or a general relativistic analysis.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:0909.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 15 pages. Source of information for presentations on DM , and idea of
DM rocket / ram jet as will in part be presented in both SPESIF, February 2010,
and AIBEP, November 2009. Discussion of material of this document not involved
with DM rocket are part of general back ground material for presentation by the
author in ICAAM Crete, September 2009 at gravitational physics sub session run
by Dr. Corda..AIBEP talk will have DM rocket/ ram jet, but also include laser physics

In the 12th Marcel Grossmann Meeting, July 9th, 2009, the author raised the issue of whether early graviton
production could affect non-Gaussian contributions to DM density profiles. Another issue to consider, is if
or not gravitons with mass affect DM profiles, but could also impact the cosmic acceleration of the
universe, leading to an increase of acceleration one billion years ago, in a manner usually attributed to DE.
Following Marcio E. S. Alves, Oswaldo D. Miranda, Jose C. N. de Araujo, 2009 in an article brought to
the attention to the author by Christian Corda, the author, using his modification of Friedman equations,
incorporating some brane models to allow for additional dimensions found that there is, for low graviton
mass of the order of m_{graviton} ~ 10^{-65} grams similar behavior as noted by Alves, et al. 2009. If
of m_{graviton} ~ 10^{-65} also is reconcilable as to KK dark matter models, which is under investigation, the
new modeling super structure could have significant impact upon the DM rocket / ram jet proposal the
author, Beckwith, brought up in the AIBEP meeting in Scottsville, Arizona. The author will high light what
KK style gravitons, with a slightly different mass profile could mean in terms of his DM rocket proposal
brought up in both Christ Church, Dark 2009, and in different form in SPESIF, 2009. I.e. value of up to 5
TeV , as opposed to 400 GeV for DM, which may mean more convertible power for a suitably designed
platform.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:0909.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Xavier Terri Castañé

**Comments:** 1 page

The new "Lorentz's Transformations" are the new relational transformations

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:0909.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 12 pages. 3 pages of references put in as bibliography as to important GW papers.

We argue in this document that initial vacuum state values possibly responsible for GW generation in relic
conditions in the initial onset of inflation may have a temporary un squeezed , possibly even coherent initial
value, which would permit in certain models classical coherent initial gravitational wave states. The
coherent states would be amendable to nucleation by classical/ highly non linear processes which would be
almost immediately eliminated by compression and squeezing. Even though that the general background of
incoherency for relic GW is a given. Furthermore, several arguments pro and con as to if or not initial relic
GW should be high frequency will be presented, with the reason given why earlier string models did NOT
favor low relic GW from the big bang.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:0909.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 18 pages, with the key to the validity of the paper in a way to
confirm the plausibility of the equation, given at the bottom of the first page.

The invariance of physical law between a prior to a present universe is brought up, as a continuation of
analyzing entropy in today's universe, and the relationship of entropy to information content in a prior
universe. If or not there is enough information to preserve the amount of physical law also may play a role
as to if or not additional dimensions for cosmological dynamics is necessary.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:0909.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 23 pages.

We begin our inquiry by asking two questions. First, is there an approximate match up between the total
entropy of the universe, and the sum total of entropy between super massive black holes at the center of
spiral galaxies? Note that Sean Carroll in 2005 presented a black hole entropy value which could have a
super massive black hole in the center of a galaxy having more than 10^{89} non dimensionalized units of
entropy in value. This value would be greater than what H. J. de Vega calculated as the entropy value of the
entire universe. And there are conceivably up to a million spiral galaxies. Secondly, we accept what De
Vega presented about entropy, i.e. its approximate present day value was nearly reached during the end of
the re heating of the universe, right after the big bang. If so, the second question is what initiated entropy
growth in the beginning ? This paper shows how increased entropy values from an initially low big bang
level can be measured experimentally by counting relic gravitons. Furthermore the physical mechanism of
this entropy increase is explained via analogies with early-universe phase transitions. The role of Jack Ng's
revised infinite quantum statistics in the physics of gravitational wave detection is acknowledged. Ng's
infinite quantum statistics can be used to show that gravitons ΔS ≈ ΔN is a starting point to the increasing
net universe cosmological entropy. Finally, in a nod to similarities with ZPE analysis, it is important to note
that the resulting/\] ΔS ≈ ΔN_{gravitons} ≠ 10^{89},
that in fact it is much lower, allowing for evaluating initial
graviton production as an emergent field phenomena, which may be similar to how ZPE states can be used
to extract energy from a vacuum if entropy is not maximized.. Finally, the implications of if or not
gravitons have mass will be reviewed as far as how graviton mass issues, and the nature of gravitational
waves, may affect experimental measurements of relic big bang conditions. The relationship of some
models of KK gravitons as having similar evolution equations to GW in GR models will be commented
upon, with suggestions as to how that ties in DM values.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:0909.0015 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-09-05 15:22:13*

**Authors:** R.A.Isasi

**Comments:** 24 Pages. In this v.5, I have corrected, some typing and orthographic errors

In this article, we discuss the origin and nature oe the total photons number N of the CMB radiation, in relation with the critical baryon number Nb and the energy of the empty space. The CMB radiation is considered as a huge amplification of the phenomena at atomic scale originated in the past, as the background microwaves are the support of all the prints originated by posterior pertubations. This allows us to establish a connection between the microphysics and macrophysics by means of their redution to a problem of scale and dimensional analysis. Taking into account the mean wavelength of the CMB radiation, we can parametrize the total number of photons as an invariant number through the succesive evolutive phases. The equivalence between the electrical potential and the gravitational potential is establishes by the relativistic implications which are found in Millikan´s experiment. This generalization, makes it possible to extend the formula of Saha, used specifically in the inverse thermal ionization, and extend it to the gravitational collapse when the Universe had the size of 1.032 Mps. Furthermore, this scale unit,marks as much as the initial conditions , as the present one for the Hubble Law.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:0909.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Irving Ezra Segal's Gravity based on the Conformal Group Spin(2,4) = SU(2,2) not only allows calculation of the present value of the ratio Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter = 0.75 : 0.21 : 0.04 ( see vixra 0907.0007 and 0907.0006 ) but also explains the Pioneer Anomaly and is consistent with an extension of Kepler's Polyhedral Model of Planetary Orbit Radii to include Uranus and Neptune by using the Cuboctahedron and the Rhombic Dodecahedron for the outer region where the Conformal Pioneer Gravitational Acceleration becomes effective. The Conformally Extended Kepler Polyhedral Model not only describes Our Solar System of the Sun and its Planets, but, as Poveda and Lara have shown, it also describes the only other presently known Star and Planets system with at least 5 planets, the system of 55 Cancri. Since both of the only two presently known Star-Planet systems with at least 5 planets obey the Conformally Extended Kepler Polyhedral Model, it seems likely that the model is not a mere numerological coincidence, but is in fact based on realistic physics related to Segal's Conformal Gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:0909.0010 [pdf]**
*replaced on 4 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** part III of a series of inter related articles in the process of finalization which discuss
entropy in terms of the search for if or not gravity is a classical or quantum emergent
"field" in relic conditions. 33 pages

In the 12th Marcel Grossmann Meeting, July 9th, 2009, the author raised the issue of whether early graviton
production could affect non-Gaussian contributions to DM density profiles. Non gaussianity of evolving
cosmological states is akin to asking if there is a way to get quantum contributions due to squeezed initial
vacuum states which act highly non classscially. If particle counting algorithms in graviton production is
important as for entropy, and if entropy perturbations affects the density profile of dark matter clumping
prifiles, then there is room to ask to what degree initial perturbations affecting structure formation are due
to classical/ non linear processes, or more quantum theoretic states. If squeezing of the initial vacuum
states is essential in the relic conditions, then quantization is unavoidable. If squeezing is not essential, then
coherent initial vacuum states may contribute in semi classical ways to GW production . The end result of
this stated inquiry may be answering if or not gravity in the onset of inflation is a quantized field. Or if a
highly non linear set of complex initial conditions for gravity can be stated using purely classical models,
as T'Hooft, Corda, and others believe. Note, also that Bojowald as of 2008 has left the degree of squeezing
of initial vacuum states in the region of space as an open problem. In Bojowald's model of a cosmological
bounce, the degree of squeezing is a measure of what strength the "bounce" from an initial configuration of
the universe takes, and how strongly quantum effects contribute to the evolution of the LQG cosmos, after
inflation commences. Similar questions are being raised as to the necessity of squeezing of initial vacuum
states and if or not coherency of initial states is initially largely achievable, before the rapid expansion of
the universe commences. Finally, and not least is a series of questions as to what conditions which would
either require high or low frequencies as to relic signals from the big bang. As it is, large spatial dimensions
which could induce far lower initial frequencies for relic signals are popular in many string theory models.
The author views this assumption as of debatable validity, as well as the assumption made by Arkani
Hamid that largely does away with coherency of initial vacuum states and specifies highly quantum , low
frequency generation of relic GW.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:0909.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Thomas B. Andrews

**Comments:** 42 pages

Because type Ia supernovae (SNs) are anomalously dimmed with respect to the
at (q_{o} = 0.5) Friedman Expanding Universe model, I was surprised to find that the
brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) are not anomalously dimmed. Based on the absence
of anomalous dimming in BCGs, the following conclusions were reached:

- ⋅ Since the light from the SNs and BCGs traverses the same space, the current hypothesis of an accelerated expansion of the universe to explain the anomalous dimming of SNs is disproved.
- ⋅ The cause of the anomalous dimming must be specific to the SNs.

[2] **viXra:0909.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-05 11:43:58*

**Authors:** Bruce Rout

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Explanation of flat velocity rotation curve and distance measure to NGC 3198

Observations of NGC 3198 show a discrepancy between the rotational velocity and its apparent geometry which defies the predicted behaviour of Keplerian Dynamics. This paper reconciles this anomaly by considering the relativistic effect of gravity on galactic spiral arms over great distances in a rotating reference frame. Keplerian dynamics hold true in this analysis by considering the rotational behaviour of a cloud of stars as more accurate than that of a central mass with satellites at discrete orbits. A re-examination from first principles describes the spiral arms of NGC 3198 as a linear star cloud of near-uniform density which appears, from our local reference frame, as a non-uniform disc due to its rotation. The apparent non-uniform radial distribution of stars is described by delayed gravitational interactions over great distances in an accelerating reference frame whereby a uniform distribution of stars appears to occupy an increasing circumference. The theory is substantiated by deriving the shape of a linear star cloud of the dimensions and rotational velocity of NGC 3198 as it would appear from Earth, using Einstein's equations and Keplerian dynamics. Since the derived shape is congruent with the observed shape of NGC 3198, the exact shape and size of the resulting spiral can be used to determine its distance from Earth with great accuracy using simple trigonometry.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:0909.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Dan Visser, Chris Forbes, Keith Lees

**Comments:** 2 pages

In this paper a new model of cosmology is proposed in an informal manner, with most
results merely stated and not derived, in anticipation of a fuller, more mathematical
paper to be published at a later date. A historical overview of its development is given
and its main propositions and results are explained and evaluated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology