[28] **viXra:1306.0226 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-01 12:22:20*

**Authors:** Ioannis Hadjidakis

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Humans perceive their environment by their senses. The sensitivities of the relevant organs differ for each person and so an individual profile of conceptual senses is formed. This difference of our “inputs” is another factor that deviates our reality according to our sensual organs’ ability. Finally, our conceptual reality is mainly related to the information that reaches us and which is dependent on our position in spacetime. The spacetime position of a physical entity is the data required in order to define any influence of the environment on it. The knowledge of the environment however is a prerequisite that can never be fulfilled. In addition to everything else, environment is also dependent on the entity under examination. This is why Universe reacts as an inseparable system and why reductionism (separable systems) is not the proper method for its study. In this essay we try to explain the findings we get by applying simple ideas to the Natural Coordination System (NCS) we have proposed for the examination of Nature.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1306.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-26 08:40:16*

**Authors:** Hu Chang-Wei

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Relativistic and absolute space-time theories are two different space-time theories in nature.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1306.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-26 08:47:49*

**Authors:** Leo G. Sapogin, V. A. Dzhanibekov, Yu. A. Ryabov

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

The present article discuses the problems of new unitary quantum view of
the world in its applications to the different aspects of the reality. There are spectacular
examples of the new Unitary Quantum world view considered in the applications for
different aspects of reality.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1306.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-02 17:12:38*

**Authors:** Ernesto Lopez Gonzalez

**Comments:** 6 pages, in spanish

Background: In a previous work ("Matter as gravitational waves." 2012) it was set out that matter could be considered to be formed by gravitational pulsations in a hexadimensional space with anisotropic curvature, since solutions to Einstein's field equations presented many of the characteristics of a particle then. However no way that would allow the interaction between waves was provided. Results: It is shown that standing waves change propagation medium through three non-linear mechanisms: by changing the refractive index, deforming and dragging on propagation medium. Mechanical analogies of all these effects have been provided and later they have been related to Schwarzschild and Kerr metrics. As a demonstration of these ideas particle-pulse's acceleration is calculated for the "weak gravitational fields" case. The solution agrees with Newton's theory. Finally a new interpretation of Michelson-Morley experiment is provided.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1306.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-24 10:37:58*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache (Chief Editor), Fu Yuhua, Zhao Fengjuan (Vice-Chief Editors)

**Comments:** Pages.

This book includes 21 papers written by 23 authors and co-authors: Hua Di, Li Zifeng, Li Wen-Xiu, Shi Yong-Cheng, Xu Jianmin, Dong Jingfeng, Duan Zhongxiao, Fu Yuhua, Guo Kaizhe, Guo Chongwu, Guo Ying-Huan, Guo Zhen-Hua, Hu Chang-Wei, Jiang Chun-Xuan, Liu Taixiang, Tu Runsheng, Wu Fengming, Yang Shijia, Cao Shenglin, Leo G. Sapogin, V. A. Dzhanibekov, Yu. A. Ryabov, and Florentin Smarandache.
The editors hope that all these papers will contribute to the advance of scholarly research on several aspects of Special and General Relativity. This book is suitable for students and scholars interested in studies of physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1306.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-22 05:56:41*

**Authors:** Branislav Pavlovic

**Comments:** Book is in Serbian. 234 pages.Standard Copyright Licence

In this book I present the main results of my scientific work. My theory is based on the hypothesis of the existence of aether. In my work, I have devoted great attention not only to theoretical considerations but also to the explanation of experiments. I will mention just a few experiments (effects) which I have explained from the standpoint of my aether theory: the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Fizeau experiment, the aberration of light, the Ives-Stilwell experiment, the temperature dependent Pound-Rebka experiment, the Sagnac effect, and so on. Certain anomalies in the GPS system have been analyzed. The Pioneer anomaly has been analysed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1306.0185 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-08-29 13:34:38*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 9 pages, 2 figs., PDFLaTeX―[v2-v3]: general editing―[v4]: revised eqs. p.7―[v5]: modified eq. (36)―[v6]: + (discussion notes) pp.6-7―[v7]: amended discussion pp. 2-3―[v8]: revised S. 3.1.1 & S. 4.0

This paper reveals the mathematical contradictory aspects of Einstein’s speed of light postulate and the Lorentz transformation (LT) equations. Essential analyses of the equations, leading to the intelligible refutation of the mathematical foundation of the Special Relativity Theory (SRT), are emphasized in an outlined structure.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1306.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-21 04:16:58*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu, Vasco Guerra

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

The traditional presentation of special relativity is made from a rupture with
previous ideas, such as the notion of absolute motion, emphasizing the antagonism of the Lorentz-Poincaré's views and Einstein's ideas.
However, a weaker formulation of the postulates allows to recover all the mathematical results from Einstein's special relativity and
reveals that both viewpoints are merely different
perspectives of one and the same theory. The apparent contradiction simply stems from different procedures for clock
"synchronization," associated with different choices of the coordinates
used to describe the physical world.
Even very fundamental claims, such as the constancy of the speed of light, relativity of simultaneity and relativity of time dilation,
are seen to be no more than a consequence of
a misleading language adopted in the description of the physical reality, which confuses clock rhythms with clock time readings.
Indeed, the latter depend on the "synchronization" adopted, whereas the former do not.
As such, these supposedly fundamental claims are not essential aspects of the theory, as reality is not altered by a mere change of coordinates.
The relation between the rhythms of clocks in relative motion is derived with generality. This relation, which is not the standard textbook expression,
markedly exposes the indeterminacy of special relativity, connected with the lack of knowledge of the value of the one-way speed of light.
Moreover, the theory does not collapse and remains valid if some day the one-way speed of light is truly measured and the
indeterminacy is removed. It is further shown that the slow transport method of "synchronization" cannot be seen as distinct
from Einstein's procedure.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1306.0162 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-26 04:56:20*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Minor upgrade; no fixes

It is shown that the symmetry group of a neutral, energy and momentum conserving particle theory is isomorphic to $SU(3)\times SU(2)\times U(1)$.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1306.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-17 23:33:37*

**Authors:** Antonio Leon

**Comments:** 7 Pages. This work is part of a broader discussion on digital relativity.

After reviewing some classical and modern opinions on the 'notorious controversy' on the real or apparent nature of FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, this paper analyzes a conflicting relativistic situation related to the mechanical tension of an elastic cord stretched by a hanging mass. A sliding pulley divides the cord into a vertical and a horizontal section. Thanks to a metric scale printed on the cord, FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction makes each section appear with different mechanical tension when observed in relative motion parallel to one of the sections of the elastic cord. By sliding the pulley on its horizontal support the length of the stretched cord changes while it is always stretched by the same hanging mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1306.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-17 03:12:32*

**Authors:** Eckhard Hitzer

**Comments:** 12 Pages. 3 figures. In K. Adhav (ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Relativity 2005 (ICR2005), University of Amravati, India, January 2005, pp. 71-90 (2005).

This review of relativistic physics integrates the works of Hamilton, Grassmann, Maxwell,
Clifford, Einstein, Hestenes and lately the Cambridge (UK) Geometric Algebra Research
Group. We start with the geometric algebra of spacetime (STA). We show how frames and
trajectories are described and how Lorentz transformations acquire their fundamental rotor
form. Spacetime dynamics deals with spacetime rotors, which have invariant and frame
dependent splits. Spacetime rotor equations yield the proper acceleration (bivector) and the
Fermi (vector) derivative.
A first application is given with the relativistic STA formulation of the Lorentz force law,
leading to the description of spin precession in magnetic fields and Thomas precession. Now
the stage is ready for introducing the STA Maxwell equation, which combines all 4 equations
in one single STA equation. STA has procedures to extract from the electromagnetic field
strength bivector F, electric and magnetic fields (also for relative motion observers) and field
invariants, field momentum and stress-energy tensor. The Leonhard-Wiechert potential gives
the retarded field of a point charge.
In addition we formulate the Dirac equation in STA, both massless and massive. From the
Dirac equation we can derive STA expressions for Dirac observables. Plane wave states are
described with the help of rotor decomposition. Finally we briefly review a STA gauge theory
of gravity built on displacement and rotation gauge principles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1306.0105 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-11 22:09:48*

**Authors:** ChiYi Chen

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper we reconstruct the formulism of particle dynamics under the framework of classical mechanics according to the causal consistency principle, and obtain a new particle dynamical equation. In this derivation there is a most natural and simple assumption that an absolute background of space exists. Because in essence, the absolute background of space must be distinguished from the relative scales of space. The existence of an absolute background can not only be mostly compatible with the physical logic in special theory of relativity, but also retains the most fundamental elements in our intuitional experience. Certainly, the absolute background of space is also the underlying part of Newton's absolute view of space-time. In the application of the new dynamical equation, inertial reference frames are no longer required and inertial forces are no longer introduced by hand. This new dynamical equation can be directly applied in any reference frame which is irrotational with respect to the absolute background of space, namely a moderate general principle of relativity is realized on particle dynamics. The nature of the inertial force is nothing but the real forces exerted on the reference object. Further analysis illustrates that the new particle dynamical equation is more in line with the empirical laws of classical mechanics experiments, than the traditional theoretical formula of Newton's second law.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1306.0104 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-01 19:48:59*

**Authors:** D.G. Taylor

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper formulates additional relativistic equations examining Einstein’s deductions from a Relativistically Distorted Perspective. The equations derived from a theoretic ideal “non-Relativistic” velocity distorted in the same manner as length, time, and mass – into an apparent “Relativistic” velocity. Absolute velocity is a necessary logic component for all Relativity equations – its actual determination is unimportant. Relativity physics equations presume ideals. The equations that are formulated here examine the absolute/real (no Special Relativistic Perspective Distortion, noSRPD) velocity and use it to determine the distorted (Special Relativistic Perspective Distortion, or SRPD) velocity. For an observer moving at a Relativistic Speed, some aspects of everything outside that traveller’s immediate environment would appear sped up. That would include the traveller’s movement through space: meaning an apparently higher Relativistic velocity.

Velocity |v| is one of the valid, theoretic ideals that Classic relativity (all of Physics) relies upon. Two equations developed in this paper show this relationship. Independent variables have no relativistic deformation [VnoSRPD||Time], the dependent variable is |Time’| because of relativistic deformation. Existence/non-existence of ideal values for absolute non-relativistic velocity values are not contested, they are indeterminate real ideals. Two examples of Relativistic Perspective equations are:

Time‘ = Time / (1 + v_{noSRPD}^{2}/c^{2})^{.5}

This paper reasons an inverse relationship: when an independent variable is the observed velocity from the Relativistically Distorted viewpoints. The parallel equation from that Relativistic Perspective is:

Time‘ = Time / (1 + v_{noSRPD}^{2}/c^{2})^{.5}

Time’ is the increase in Time units passing on an undistorted Clock, but observed from the distorted viewpoint. |Time| is what the value would be were there no distortion. The above relationship allows for the additional development of eight formulae/equations for the velocity, mass, time, and linear deformations.

Relativistic Perspective equations have been confirmed to be consistent with the Classic equations to 2000 significant digits for 37 velocity values ranging from 1.0E-500m/s to (*c* – (1.0E-500))m/s.

Keywords: Perspective, Physical Values, Relativistic Distortion, distorted Velocity, parallel relativistic equations, Time, Mass, Length, distortion, equation confirmation table

[15] **viXra:1306.0103 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-07 15:28:16*

**Authors:** D.G. Taylor

**Comments:** 49 Pages Copyright# 1-948414411

This paper formulates additional General Relativistic [G.R.] equations. They do not contradict General Relativity. They examine the deductions of Dr. Einstein from a relativistically distorted perspective. The equations examine the distorted escape velocity of a G.R. object, determining its true – not relativistically distorted – escape velocity. In contrast to the variables in the Classical equations of Relativity, they are more specific in their aspect, and in their relationship to escape velocity, not simply the time distortion. The values for the quantities of rate (the Time and the Velocity) are the quantities for zero escape velocity||zero deformation. Because there are fewer seconds for a Relativistic Perspective that has distortion, the perspective equations have a different relation. They calculate higher velocity perceived by the observers in a General relativistically distorted body. The escape velocity would appear to increase in exactly same proportion as time – but the energy needed for that escape velocity would decrease because of the slowing of all Bosons – including the Graviton. The development of the equations is done more completely in this paper, but two examples show the principle. The classic Relativity equation reasoned to show the time distortion relationship is:

Time_{Relavistic} = Time_{Real}/(1 `-`

2GM/rc^{2})^{.5}

Because the escape velocity formula is [Velocity_{Escape} = (2GM/r)^{.5}], then [Velocity_{Escape}^{2} = 2GM/r]. So the above |Time| equation could also be expressed as:

Time_{Relativistic} = Time_{Real}/(1 `-`

Velocity_{Escape}^{2}/c^{2})^{.5}

That could be reasoned to mean that Escape velocity is limited to light speed, just as Real||non-Relativistic velocity is limited to |c|. Less time will go by when there is a relativistic deformation so all Bosons (including the Graviton) would lose their velocity/mass/energy. The inverse relation would be where the independent variables were the observed velocity from the Relativistic or distorted view. The dependent variable would be the True||non-relativistic||non-distorted Time||Escape_Velocity. The parallel equation for that Relativistic Perspective:

Time_{Real} = Time_{Relativistic}/(1 + Relativistic_{Escape_Velocity}^{2}/c^{2})^{.5}

This relationship allows the additional development of 2 formula/equations for the Escape velocity. There are a number of other equations for Mass and Radius that will be proposed in a following paper. These equations are all of the two Perspectives. All the equations are confirmed to two thousand decimal places for 35 different values to have a range of

|1.0E-500m/s|

to

|c-(1.0E-500)m/s|

without significant error.

[14] **viXra:1306.0098 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-08-26 14:02:54*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Published in Physics Essays, Vol. 27, No. 1, March 2014. Post-print available at http://physicsessays.org/browse-journal-2/product/138-3-pdf-radwan-m-kassir-n-lorentz-transformation-and-special-relativity-critical-mathematical-analyses-and-findings.html

In this paper, the Lorentz transformation equations are closely examined in connection with the constancy of the speed of light postulate of the special relativity. This study demonstrates that the speed of light postulate is implicitly manifested in the transformation under the form of space-to-time ratio invariance, which has the implication of collapsing the light sphere to a straight line, and rendering the frames of reference origin-coordinates undetermined with respect to each other. Yet, Lorentz transformation is shown to be readily constructible based on this conflicting finding. Consequently, the formulated Lorentz transformation is deemed to generate mathematical contradictions, thus defying its tenability. A rationalization of the isolated contradictions is then established. An actual interpretation of the Lorentz transformation is presented, demonstrating the unreality of the space-time conversion property attributed to the transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1306.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-13 10:40:22*

**Authors:** Mohammad Shafiq Khan

**Comments:** 25 Pages. These articles were published in Indian Journal of Science & Technology

Consequent upon showing the fallacy of the adopted paradigm of physics an alternative paradigm of physics emerges. These articles are concerned with the basic model of physics under the alternative paradigm of physics according to which space is finite, absolute & filled up with ether, the electric dipoles on the base substance which has been named as ‘energy’ unlike the meaning as applies in the adopted main-stream physics; time is emergent & relative, depending upon the motion of the object/observer with respect to the absolute reference frame of ether at rest, matter is emergent from different electric dipoles with base substance of ‘energy’ and light/radiation is the vibrations of the charge on the electric dipoles of ether which propagates in the medium of ether in the form of longitudinal wave motion. During the process of development of the alternative model of physics changes in the basic model of physics proposed under these two articles had to be incorporated. Besides there were some errors in the printed version of these two articles which are corrected herein for record.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1306.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-12 09:14:04*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The beginning of this article is a few years ago, when I wrote about the Little Ice Age of 1645-1715 and how magnetic fields in the Sun restrict the motion of charged particles. This was followed by a 2013 letter in Astronomy magazine that made me wonder why planets orbit in the Sun’s ecliptic plane. I thought about this for awhile and decided my Little Ice Age ideas could help answer the question. Then I read about a solar nebula near the Milky Way’s centre which has approx. 45 times the density of gas needed to initiate star formation but is essentially starless, producing no high-mass stars. After some thought, it occurred to me that the ideas concerning the ecliptic could be extended to explain this strange low-star-formation cloud. The original ideas and their extension embrace an idea of Albert Einstein’s - subatomic particles forming from gravitation. Continuing my astronomical interests, I read an article called “Why the universe has no center”. This inspired a couple of queries (and their possible answers) in my mind – “Can the speed of gravitational waves be both finite and infinite?” and “Can an infinite universe expand?”

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1306.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-12 10:13:05*

**Authors:** Igor Elkin

**Comments:** 15 Pages. -

We propose the model that gives the explanation of some not entirely clarified chapters of the
modern Physics through the use of the elementary formulae. Partly it explains the formation of
the inertial and gravitational mass, the cause of the occurring of the gravitation and the
divergence of the material points of the Universe, explains the cause of “shortening” of the
length in motion, explains Red shift and the cause of changing Hubble constant, that is attributed
to the dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1306.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-15 12:24:40*

**Authors:** Armin Nikkhah Shirazi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Under our current worldview, it is taken to be so obvious an assumption that objects characterized by $v=c$ exist in spacetime that it is not even bothered to explicitly mention it. This paper will
present 4 simple arguments based on the special theory of relativity which at least suggest that this obvious assumption should be put into
question. These arguments cannot be considered conclusive, but when considered together they support the case that this question should be seriously investigated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1306.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-11 11:07:12*

**Authors:** Peter A Jackson

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The maximum possible density of conjugate ionized pairs produced by photo-ionization is defined as the optical breakdown (OB) density, which may be considered in terms of minimum wavelength (l) as gamma. Applying Raman atomic scattering to the shocks and transition zones treated as two-fluid plasmas we identify the effects of approaching gamma on the absorption and re-emission process. We theoretically describe how the maximum density and related minimum wavelength limit produce the increasing resistance to electromagnetic (EM) wave permeability at propagation velocities approaching c. The increased ionization with increase speed through the quantum vacuum is found analogous to the Unruh effect and not in conflict with the postulates of Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity (SR). Heat and sound is produced as density and resistance increases to the ion density limit 1021/cm-3. The effect at OB provides a mechanism to implement the Lorentz Transformation (LT) by producing the 'gamma' curve as a resistance curve to matter in motion at increasing speeds in the quantum vacuum due to the bow shock photo-ionisation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1306.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-11 11:12:46*

**Authors:** Peter A Jackson

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

An intelligent 'IQbit' is found in hierarchical 'Sample Space' sub-sets hidden in the Excluded Middle between binary 0,1 values. Complex but causal distributions of intensity are found equivalent to Gödel's non-integer 'n-valued' or 'Fuzzy' logic, not accessible to binary systems. When tested by asking more than the 'yes/no' limit identified by John Wheeler the IQbit proves surprisingly capable of resolving the EPR paradox causally, without action-at-a-distance or superluminal signalling. New experiments comparing single photon pairs are proposed, predicted to reveal 'cosine curve' distributions from each detector, as John von Neumann proposed. Uncertainty and determinism emerge more consistently superposed. New 'dimensions' and degrees of freedom provide the power, implying new law of nature with a domain limited to only 'real' entities and interactions, giving quantum mechanical statistical probability amplitudes as Bayesian inverse distributions. The law may then be termed the “Law of the Reducing Middle”. Probabilities of any occurrence in an infinite universe are non-zero. A related suggestion emerges; that no two real entities precisely identical at observable scale exist at any time.
The fundamental rule of mathematics, also assumed for predicate logic and calculus; A = A is then replaced only for natural phenomena with the 'similar' A~A. The natural 'Dividing Line' discussed by Dirac between entities precisely mathematically describable and the rest is identified, the two parts distinguished as; physical (entities and interactions) and; metaphysical. Only the metaphysical class retains an excluded middle between binary 0,1. The class includes; cardinalised integers, assigned symbols, algebra, finite values and numerical derivatives; speed, frequency, correlations etc. Bell assumed simple binaries precisely modelled reality. 'Squaring' 2D waves creates the 3D IQbit torus wound by helices harnessing orbital angular momentum and describing a helix when translating axially. Field and relative orientations on interaction (detection) varies intensity distribution as the cosine, as Malus's Law.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1306.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-05 14:00:11*

**Authors:** Octavian Balaci

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Octavian Balaci (2014) Connection between Gravity and Electromagnetism, Astronomical Review, 9:2, 4-28, DOI: 10.1080/21672857.2014.11519731

A new interpretation of electrodynamics and gravity is presented, based on the idea that the electromagnetic and gravitational properties of vacuum are connected. The space and time are treated as imaginary concepts. With this, the electrodynamics and gravitational phenomena can be explained with a Galilean invariant vacuum. Also a new way to explain the gravitational attraction will result.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1306.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-09 10:09:59*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Essay written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2013 Awards for Essays on Gravitation

The history of appearance and characteristics of covariant theory of gravitation (CTG) and its difference from the general theory of relativity (GTR) are described. CTG is developed as an axiomatic theory based on five axioms using the language of 4-vectors and tensors, and is derived from the principle of least action and through Hamilton equations. In CTG gravitational radiation of any body is based on equation of its motion and has a dipole component. In GTR we proceed from the tensor nature of metric field and take into account all the bodies of considered material system at once, and therefore the basis of gravitational radiation is only the quadrupole component. The CTG Hamiltonian is obtained in two ways – either through 4-velocity or through generalized 4-momentum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1306.0045 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-18 03:34:09*

**Authors:** Curtis J. Forsythe, Dimitar T. Valev

**Comments:** 9 pages, minor changes, paper is published in Physics International, 2014, Vol. 5, Issue 2, pp. 152-158

A previously derived mass relation has been extended to seven equidistant fundamental masses covering an extremely large mass range from ~ 10^(-69) kg to ~ 10^53 kg. Six of these masses are successfully identified as mass of the observable universe, Eddington mass limit of the most massive stars, mass of hypothetical quantum “Gravity Atom” whose gravitational potential is equal to electrostatic potential e^2/S, Planck mass, Hubble mass and mass dimension constant relating masses of stable particles with coupling constants of fundamental interactions. The seventh mass, ~ 10^(-48) kg remains unidentified and could be considered as a prediction of the suggested mass relation for an unknown fundamental mass, potentially a yet unobserved light particle. First triad of these masses describes macro objects, the other three masses belong to particle physics masses, and the Planck mass appears intermediate in relation to these two groups. Additionally, new evidences of Dirac Large Numbers Hypothesis (LNH) have been found in the form of series of ratios relating cosmological parameters and quantum properties of space-time. A very large number on the order of 5x10^60 connects mass, density, age and size of the observable universe with Planck mass, density, time and length, respectively.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1306.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-06 02:40:08*

**Authors:** S.Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Needless to say, the experiment and the out come are consistent

General relativity explains gravity as distortion of the structure of spacetime by matter , affecting the inertial motion of the other matter. General relativity predicts that the path of light is bent in a gravitational field. Light passing a massive body is deflected towards that body. This effect has been confirmed by observing the light of stars or distant quasars being deflected as it passes the sun. In this work , the author experimentally attempts to show that it is not mass which curves spacetime but the attractive force of the mass that warps the spacetime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1306.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-23 04:47:42*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 16 Pages. This paper is for the layman and specialist alike. It contains very little mathematics, and where mathematics is employed it does not go beyond high school arithmetic and algebra. Version [3] extends to asymptotically curved spacetimes.

The General Theory of Relativity is notoriously known for its complicated mathematics. This has been a great impediment to many who wish to understand such things as black hole theory and big bang cosmology. However, all the salient facts can be easily understood without any recourse to confusing mathematics. With these facts clearly explained in simple language it becomes easy to understand why black hole theory and big bang cosmology are mutually exclusive and ultimately why General Relativity is itself inconsistent.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1306.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-05 13:54:20*

**Authors:** Oliver R Jovanovic

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

"novel" approach on popular subjects:
event horizon, gravitational lensing, black holes, dark energy

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1306.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-04 04:33:13*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This formula is believed to be energy good formula. But we forgot ald fashion experiments, how mankind has measured calories in calorimeters to build the Structure of Science-philosophy. I propose to future advance humankind (after Second Coming) to put a cosmic structure into calorimeter! This rough, "rude" way will certainly give the answers to energy problem in General Relativity (GR). One of mind torturing difficulties is hypothesized non-locality of energy [R.J.Epp, Phys.Rev.D, 62, 124018, 2000]. But the GR is local theory. Thus, the formulas are out of GR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology