[23] **viXra:1111.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-11-30 06:00:57*

**Authors:** M. Hernando-Guevara

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

From the hypothesis of the validity of Newton's dynamics and space as a privileged reference frame, the null results of Michelson and Morley's type of experiments are experimentally reinterpreted and invalidated as a proof of the non existence of the Luminous Ether. Other recent experiments to test Special Relativity, such as Brillet-Hall’s, Cedarholm-Townes’, etc, are also epistemologically revisited and an alternative explanation of their null results is given. Finally, using two-beam interferometry techniques, two conclusive experiments to test the validity of the Special Theory of Relativity under this new perspective are proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1111.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Nov 2011*

**Authors:** Sheng-Ping Wu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article expands the classical velocity to surpassing that of
light and does not vary the formula of Relative Theory, to construct a theory
well explains the current measures like the velocity and energy of neutrinos
tested between Gran Sasso and Cern.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1111.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Nov 2011*

**Authors:** Paul Karl Hoiland

**Comments:** 2 pages.

The CERN Problem is examined from another prespective.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1111.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Nov 2011*

**Authors:** Paul Karl Hoiland

**Comments:** 21 pages, A redo of a article I did

A short look at some of the paths to superluminal travel.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1111.0082 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-04-23 01:46:03*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Significant improvements made. Paper is in its final form before it is reviewed.

We take -- albeit, with an all-important and subtle difference; a closer and meticulous look at the motion of light in a Newtonian gravitational field in exactly the same manner as has been conducted by past researchers leading them to conclude that for light grazing the limb of the Sun, its path must suffer a deflection of 0.875 arcsec from its otherwise straight path. The difference between our approach and that of past researchers, is that, at the outset of the derivation of the resultant equations of motion, we do not assume the equity of gravitational (m_g) and inertial mass (m_i). The ratio of the gravitational to inertial mass (gamma=m_g/m_i)$ is persistent in the equations, it does not cancel out or disappear. Eventually, this ratio emerges in the final equations of motion. When these resultant equations of motion are inspected, it is seen that the factor two difference needed to bring Newtonian gravitation into harmony with observations can be attributed to a photon's gravitational to inertial mass ratio. This leads us directly to question the validity of the equivalence principle. This finding, we believe, demonstrates or hints to a much deeper reality that the gravitational and inertial mass, may -- after all; not be equal as we have come to strongly believe. This rather disturbing (perhaps exciting) conclusion, if correct; may direct us to closely re-examine the validity of Einstein's central tenant -- the Equivalence Principle, which stands as the strong foundational basis of his beautiful and celebrated General Theory of Relativity (GTR).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1111.0070 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-30 08:57:24*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Entropic gravity (EG) introduced by Verlinde has stimulated a great interest. One of the most interesting reactions is the commentary of Sabine Hossenfelder. The article of Kobakhidze relies on experiments supporting the existence of Schrödinger amplitudes of neutron in the gravitational field of Earth develops an argument suggesting that EG hypothesis in the form in which it excludes gravitons is wrong. Indeed, the mere existence of gravitational bound states suggests strongly the existence of transitions between them by graviton emission. The following arguments represent TGD inspired view about what entropic gravity (EG) could be if one throws out the unnecessary assumptions such as the emerging dimensions and absence of gravitons. Also the GRT limit of TGD is discussed leading to rather strong implications concerning the TGD counterparts of blackholes.

- If one does not believe in TGD, one could start from the idea that stochastic quantization">stochastic quantization or something analogous to it might imply something analogous to entropic gravity (EG). What is required is the replacement of the path integral with functional integral. More precisely, one has functional integral
in which the real contribution to Kähler action of the preferred extremal from Euclidian regions of the space-time surface to the exponent represents Kähler function and the imaginary contribution from Minkowskian regions serves as a Morse function so that the counterpart of Morse theory in WCW is obtained on stationary phase approximation in accordance with the vision about TGD as almost topological QFT. The exponent of Kähler function is the new element making the functional integral well-defined and the presence of phase factor gives rise to the interference effects characteristic for quantum field theories although one does not integrate over all space-time surfaces. In zero energy ontology one has however pairs of 3-surfaces at the opposite light-like boundaries of CD so that something very much analogous to path integral is obtained.
- Holography requires that everything reduces to the level of 3-metrics and more generally, to the level of 3-D field configurations. Something like this happens if one can approximate path integral integral with the integral over small deformations for the minima of the action. This also happens in completely integral quantum field theories.
The basic vision behind quantum TGD is that this approximation is much nearer to reality than the original theory. In other words, holography is realized in the sense that to a given 3-surface the metric of WCW assigns a unique space-time and this space-time serves as the analog of Bohr orbit and allows to realize 4-D general coordinate invariance in the space of 3-surfaces so that classical theory becomes an exact part of quantum theory. This point of view will be adopted in the following also in the framework of general relativity where one considers abstract 4-geometries instead of 4-surfaces: functional integral should be over 3-geometries with the definition of Kähler metric assigning to 3-geometry a unique 4-geometry.

- A powerful constraint is that the functional integral is free of divergences. Both 4-D path integral and stochastic quantization for gravitation fail in this respect due to the local divergences (in super-gravity situation might be different). The TGD inspired approach reducing quantum TGD to almost topological QFT with Chern-Simons term and a constraint term depending on metric associated with preferred 3-surfaces allows to circumvent this difficulty. This picture will applied to the quantization of GRT and one could see the resulting theory as a guess for what GRT limit of TGD could be. The first guess that Kähler function corresponds to Einstein-Maxwell action for this kind of preferred extremal turns out to be correct. An essential and radically new element of TGD is the possibility of space-time regions with Euclidian signature of the induced metric replacing the interiors of blackholes: this element will be assumed also now. The conditions that CP
_{2}represents and extremal of EYM action requires cosmological constant in Euclidian regions determined by the constant curvature of CP_{2}and one can ask whether the average value of cosmological constant over 3-space could correspond to the cosmological constant explaining accelerating cosmic expansion. - Entropic gravity is generalized in TGD framework so that all interactions are entropic: the reason is that in zero energy ontology (ZEO) the S-matrix is replaced with M-matrix defining a square root of thermodynamics in a well defined sense.

[17] **viXra:1111.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Nov 2011*

**Authors:** Paul Karl Hoiland

**Comments:** 4 pages

In this article a suggestion is raised where by gravity and mass are
both emergent, not fundamental.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1111.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-18 08:19:25*

**Authors:** Sandro Antonelli

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This article is mainly conceived to gain more interest into a recent trustworthy development. The dynamics of the relativistic Space-Time structure, as discussed in the model, exhibits unforeseen analogies with the electromagnetic theory. As direct continuation of the analysis of the gravitational wave propagation in free space, one should realize (unlike Lorentz gauge in General Relativity) that the polarization state is in general a mixture of six independent modes as many as the independent components of the Riemann tensor determining the tidal forces, although one can always recover two polarizations for particular symmetry conditions on the direction of propagation and observation. Actually, in this gravitational framework, at least for one polarization state, transverse waves are expected to propagate causing equal in-phase deformation displacement for a symmetric source, not counterphase as in General Relativity. At this aim a new interferometry methodology is designed. Calculation of gravitational power losses for the keplerian system PSR 1913+16 in the solution by approximations of inhomogeneous problem is carried out to the first order, which allows the assessment of a second gravitational constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1111.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Nov 2011*

**Authors:** Ji Qi, YinLing Jiang

**Comments:** 49 pages

There has existed the focus of debate between the viewpoint of space-time of
classical physics and that of relativity for almost a hundred years. Which is more reasonable on
earth?
The fundamental principle of the theory of relativity and its basic transformation will be
discussed in detail in this study. By discussion, I hope we can see the essence of the theory of
relativity clearly and make people profoundly understand the fundamental conception of physics
on time and space. I wish we can return a sunny sky to physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1111.0050 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-04-17 10:51:37*

**Authors:** Nikolas S Lewis

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This article describes Oreka Particle Theory in which when gravity affects particles without mass, it creates an energy imbalance, which results in the creation of an energy called oreka particles. Oreka theory requires that massless particles do not create a gravitational pull, and gives evidence for this, which is similar to what disproved The Tired Light Theory. In Oreka Theory, dark energy is composed of oreka particles and they also are responsible for the why spiral galaxies spin the way they do. Oreka particles are also not a fluid.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1111.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Nov 2011*

**Authors:** Paul Karl Hoiland

**Comments:** 4 pages

In this article I look at some of the math behind replacing the exotic
energy of any warp metric with an inflation field with a focus on a simple generic
solution to the frame switch in the recent CERN superluminal neutrino detection
to that of a Newtonian metric.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1111.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Nov 2011*

**Authors:** Paul Karl Hoiland

**Comments:** 11 pages

In a short examination of some of the major problems raised as
objections to Doctor Alcubierre?s original proposal of warp drive within General
Relativity(1) by many author?s in both peer review publication and archive articles
one discovers that solutions to these problems do exist if one is willing to
consider a modified version of that original proposal. It is the findings of this
Author that Warp Drive cannot be properly ruled out at this time at least as a
possible future method of sub-light propulsion with the possible added benefit of
working as a superluminal field propulsion drive.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1111.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Nov 2011*

**Authors:** Paul Karl Hoiland

**Comments:** 47 pages

I have been at both physics and Electrical Engineering going on about 32 years
now. But I have had two major interests all along. One is to better understand
the Cosmos we live in. The other stems back to two events in my life several
years removed from each other. The first event happened in Texas back in 1973
while taking a short trip across east Texas with my folks. The event was
witnessing something that would be classified as a close encounter of the first
type. What my folks and I saw out in east Texas was a very brilliant glowing
object circular in shape due south of the road we where on above a cattle field. I
and my folks remember pulling over to look at it and we remember driving away
afterwards. But we do not remember anything in between. The second event
took place back in 1983 in Tucson Arizona while working for the Military. One
evening I and several others had gone out into the desert northeast of Tucson to
cook out and have a good time. What we did not know was several unidentified
objects had been spotted out south of Tucson by workers up on Kitt Peak in the
area of Ryan Field a small local airport south of Tucson.. These objects took a
slow flight path out across Tucson towards the direction we where at.. I ended
up being about 100 yards from one of these as it progressed across the valley.
Close enough to see a lot of detail, to get a good idea by its general shape and
size and flight aspects that this was not anything our Military had at the time.
While I never saw any aliens or little green men. What I witnessed was
intelligently controlled, had some motive power different from anything our planet
uses and could have been a robotic probe similar to one’s we launch at present
into space.. I also learned later that the Military on Davis Monthan had tracked
these same objects that evening also. These two events sparked keen interests
in space propulsion which later got utilized during the era of Alcubierre Warp
Drive research with the group ESAA.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1111.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Nov 2011*

**Authors:** Paul Karl Hoiland

**Comments:** 7 pages

In this article as based upon an alternative answer to the measured superluminal
velocity of Neutrinos at CERN I propose an alternative approach to superluminal
propulsion that on the surface does not suffer from some of the problems of the
more standard Alcubierre Drive.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1111.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Nov 2011*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 18 pages

Starting from some questions on General Relativity we make a few critical
considerations in concordance with the Theory of Reference Frames (TR).
TR represents firstly a critical viewpoint and secondly an alternative solution with
regard to whether Special Relativity or General Relativity, moreover it represents
a new answer to problems of dynamics of motion. The new definition of not linear
element is the most important concept expressed in this article and particularly we
consider the physical explanation of the change of the linear element into a not
linear curved element when it is in a gravitational field. In the absence of
gravitational field, the geodetic (trajectory along which the work carried out by a
force is the smallest) coincides with the linear element and inside the gravitational
field it changes into the curved element. We prove that in a gravitational field this
change is caused by energy reasons and not by the space and time kinematic
warp. A few classical experiments, like cosmological redshift and deflection of light,
at last are considered and a new interpretation is given outside General Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1111.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-28 02:49:34*

**Authors:** D. Pons, A.D. Pons, A.J. Pons

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Published as Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., & Pons, A. J. (2014). Asymmetrical genesis by remanufacture of antielectrons. Journal of Modern Physics, 5, 1980-1994. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2014.517193

Problem- The asymmetrical genesis problem concerns why the universe should have an abundance of matter over antimatter. Purpose- This paper shows how the baryogenesis and leptogenesis asymmetries may both be resolved. Approach- Design methods were used to develop a conceptual mechanics for the remanufacturing processes that transform particles in the decay processes. This was based on the structures for the photon, electron, antielectron, proton and antineutrino as previously identified as logical necessities for the beta decay process, and represented as a non-local hidden-variable design with discrete fields Findings- The solution is given in terms of a mechanics that defines the transformation of discrete field structures in particles. The genesis problem is shown to be solvable. The mechanics describes pair production of an electron and antielectron from two initial photons, and subsequent remanufacture of the antielectrons into protons. It is predicted that two antineutrinos would be emitted, which is testable and falsifiable. The theory identifies that the role of the antineutrinos is to remove the antimatter handed field structures. The original electron and proton may bond to form a simple hydrogen atom, or combine via electron capture to form a neutron and hence heavier nuclides. The subsequent preponderance of the matter pathways in the genesis production sequence is also addressed and is explained as domain warfare between the matter and antimatter species. Originality- The concept of remanufacture of antielectron into proton, with emission of antineutrinos, is novel. Extensions of the theory explain the nuclides. Consequently the theory explains from pair production up to nuclear structure, which also is original.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1111.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Nov 2011*

**Authors:** Andrew Downing

**Comments:** 17 pages, dedicated under the CC0 Public Domain Dedication

A simple method is presented to account for the macroscopic effects of potential unknown
attractive and repulsive forces that obey the inverse square law. This method is implemented
in an n-body simulation. Graphs and screenshots from the simulation are then used to show
that practically any quantum mechanical big bang theory with many arbitrary types of particles
and fundamental forces would necessitate cosmic inflation, structure formation in the early
universe, Hubble's law, the cosmological principle, slightly accelerated expansion of the
universe, and, in specific cases (such as protoplanetary disks), the equivalence principle,
regardless of what the particles and forces in the theory are.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1111.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Nov 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** This paper was published in The Hadronic Journal, 34, 197-224 (2011) and is an abridged version of the paper, ‘The Black Hole Catastrophe:
A Reply to J. J. Sharples',
http://vixra.org/abs/1011.0062

A recent Letter to the Editor (Sharples J. J., Coordinate transformations and metric extension:
a rebuttal to the relativistic claims of Stephen J. Crothers, Progress in Physics,
v.1, 2010) has analysed a number of my papers. Dr. Sharples has committed errors in
both mathematics and physics. His notion that r = 0 in the so-called “Schwarzschild
solution” marks the point at the centre of the related manifold is false, as is his related
claim that Schwarzschild’s actual solution describes a manifold that is extendible. His
post hoc introduction of Newtonian concepts and related mathematical expressions into
the “Schwarzschild solution” is invalid; for instance, Newtonian two-body relations
into what is alleged to be a one-body problem. Each of the objections are treated
in turn and their invalidity fully demonstrated. Black hole theory is riddled with
contradictions. This article provides definitive proof that black holes do not exist.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1111.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Nov 2011*

**Authors:** Mark Zilberman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the recent research the OPERA collaboration has reported the observation of superluminal neutrinos. They
did not state what exact value they used as the speed of light c, but we could safely assume that in
accordance to the SI system it was 299,792,458 m/s. In the following research A.G. Cohen and S. L.
Glashow showed that “superluminal neutrinos would lose energy rapidly via the bremsstrahlung of electronpositron
pairs” and that “most of the neutrinos would have suffered several pair emissions en route”. This
obvious paradox between experiment and theory can easily be resolved if the speed of light is slowly
increasing and is now (or at least was during the experiment) higher than in 1970-1980 when mentioned that
299,792,458 m/s was measured. In this case the speed of neutrinos in the OPERA experiment can be higher
than 299,792,458 m/s, but at the same time be lower or equal to the current c. Without subscribing to the
model where c increases over time, it can still be a good idea to measure the speed of light c during the
replication of the experiment. In addition, if slow increase of c will be proven, it may also explain the red
shift of distant galaxies without the big-bang theory, since the more distant and earlier periods of time we
observe - the slower the light speed there, and less is the energy of photons emitted there; what for current
observer appears as a red shift in the spectrum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1111.0013 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-09-20 06:39:57*

**Authors:** Bassera Hamid

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this work I show that special relativity is mathematical theorem based on just Chasles relation in Euclidian space. So special relativity is just a direct consequence of Euclidean geometry no more, no less.
I show then definitely, there is no mean to doubt about special relativity and it must be engraved in the marble.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1111.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2 Nov 2011*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Recently Superluminal Neutrinos have been observed in the OPERA experiment at CERN.Since the
neutrino possesses a non-zero rest mass then according to the Standard Model,Relativity and Lorentz
Invariance this Superluminal speed result would be impossible to be achieved.This Superluminal OPERA
result seems to be confirmed and cannot be explained by errors in the measurements or break-ups in the
Standard Model,Relativity or Lorentz Invariance. In order to conciliate the Standard Model,Relativity
and Lorentz Invariance with the OPERA Superluminal Neutrino we propose a different approach: Some
years ago Gauthier,Gravel and Melanson introduced the idea of the micro Warp Drive:Microscopical
particle-sized Warp Bubbles carrying inside sub-atomic particles at Superluminal speeds. These micro
Warp Bubbles according to them may have formed spontaneously in the Early Universe after the Big
Bang and they used the Alcubierre Warp Drive geometry in their mathematical model.We propose
exactly the same idea of Gauthier,Gravel and Melanson to explain the Superluminal Neutrino at OPERA
however using the Natario Warp Drive geometry.Our point of view can be resumed in the following
statement:In a process that modern science still needs to understand,the OPERA Experiment generated a
micro NatarioWarp Bubble around the neutrino that pushed it beyond the Light Speed barrier.Inside the
Warp Bubble the neutrino is below the Light Speed and no break-ups of the Standard Model,Relativity
or Lorentz Invariance occurs but outside the Warp Bubble the neutrino would be seen at Superluminal
speeds.Remember that the CERN particle accelerators were constructed to reproduce in laboratory
scale the physical conditions we believe that may have existed in the Early Universe so these micro
Warp Bubbles generated after the Big Bang may perhaps be re-created or reproduced inside particle
accelerators. We believe that our idea borrowed from Gauthier,Gravel and Melanson can explain what
really happened with the neutrinos in the OPERA experiment.We also explain here the results obtained
by Glashow-Cohen and Gonzalez-Mestres

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1111.0011 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-29 10:30:49*

**Authors:** Joseph F. Messina

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Updated to match version submitted to "Papers in Physics"

Recent astronomical observations have revealed important new clues regarding dark matter's behavior. However, the fact remains that all experimental efforts to detect dark matter directly, in a laboratory setting, have failed. A natural explanation for these failed efforts may be possible by postulating that dark matter's behavior is governed by a non-Planckian "action." It is pointed out, as a preliminary to advancing this possibility, that no purely dark matter measurement of Planck's constant exists. The resulting hypothesis advocates the existence of a new, experimentally verifiable, dark matter candidate. An extension of this hypothesis to the cosmological realm suggests that dark matter may have come into existence 10 to the minus 44 seconds after the big bang; an order of magnitude prior to the Planck era.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1111.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Nov 2011*

**Authors:** Azzam AlMosallami

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

In the OPERA experiment the neutrino broke the speed of light. It moved with speed greater than
the highest speed in the universe (the speed of light in vacuum) according to the special relativity
[32]. This experiment if it is confirmed will contradict the main basis that the special relativity
built on which is the constancy of speed of light, and no particle or electromagnetic wave can
exceed this speed [37]. In 2000, NEC Research Institute in Princeton claims to have achieved
propagation speeds of 310 c (c= speed of light) by Quantum tunneling [34]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology