[45] **viXra:1804.0496 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-30 14:57:35*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 14 Pages. In Polish.

Podałem nowe relatywistyczne wzory dla energii kinetycznej, spoczynkowej i całkowitej. Przyrost energii kinetycznej cząstki wyznaczyłem jako pracę wykonaną przez składowe przestrzenne czterowektora siły Minkowskiego. Przedstawiłem nową relację między trójwymiarowym pędem relatywistycznym i relatywistyczną energią kinetyczną oraz interpretację składowej czasowej czterowektora siły Minkowskiego.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[44] **viXra:1804.0495 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-13 11:45:04*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 84 Pages.

W rozprawie tej opisałem zjawisko antygrawitacji w ramach ogólnej teorii względności oraz podałem przykłady jego zastosowania takie jak czarne dziury i nowy model wszechświata wyjaśniający problemy współczesnej kosmologii. Grawitacja i antygrawitacja mają naturę warstwową. Nasz Wszechświat można potraktować jak gigantyczną jednorodną czarną dziurę. Jest izolowany od reszty wszechświata przez obszar czasoprzestrzeni, w którym występuje antygrawitacja. Zaproponowałem stosunkowo prosty eksperyment testujący przedstawione hipotezy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[43] **viXra:1804.0488 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-29 10:50:06*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Abstract: A more revealing yet simpler forward-time, reverse-time energy cycle of a now 8th cycle of an HCE8S universe for a full loop of the cycle is shown taking to identify the TR and TF parts of the cycle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[42] **viXra:1804.0412 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-28 02:05:55*

**Authors:** V.A. Kasimov

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Язык: русский

Examines the relativistic aspects of generalization, which "removed" the distinction between inertial, gravitational, inertia, inert properties of mass, giving rise, however, the problem of non-locality of energy (and its multivariate solution), characteristic of the integral characteristics of the GTR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[41] **viXra:1804.0403 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-26 17:45:41*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we find the representation of the gravity field equation and solutions. We treats the representation of Schwarzschild solution, Reissner-Nordstrom solution, Kerr-Newman solution,Robertson-Walker solution. Specially, Robertson-Walker solution is an uniqueness.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1804.0399 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-27 00:32:57*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 8 Pages. To cite this APS poster presentation: http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/APR18/Session/F01.62

The speed of propagation of Einstein's gravitational waves pertains to the derivation of a wave equation from the linearized ﬁeld equations of General Relativity. It is routinely claimed that the resulting wave equation predicts propagation speed at that of light. However, the speed is in fact coordinate dependent – change the coordinates then the speed of propagation is entirely diﬀerent from that of light. Coordinate changes can be arbitrarily made ad inﬁnitum. Consequently there is no unique propagation speed. The coordinates used by Einstein were purposely introduced to satisfy his assumptions that the waves exist and travel at the speed of light. His argument assumes as premise that which is to be demonstrated and is therefore invalid (petitio principii). Moreover, the objective cannot be achieved because General Relativity cannot localize its gravitational energy - it violates the usual conservation laws for a closed system and is thereby in conﬂict with a vast array of experiments. To try to satisfy the usual conservation laws Einstein constructed his pseudotensor, which is a meaningless collection of mathematical symbols because it violates the rules of pure mathematics

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1804.0364 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-24 17:51:39*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

While the constructive form of the Liouville theorem is tautologous, its reverse is not which renders it as suspicious and unreliable.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1804.0355 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-25 06:20:23*

**Authors:** V.A. Kasimov

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Язык: русский

Probably, orthodox physicists will consider the question indecent: Is the second postulate necessary for the construction of a Special theory of Relativity? Nevertheless, this issue was raised and considered by at least two independent authors [1, 2]. This topic is proposed for discussion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1804.0346 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-23 12:39:31*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We describe cosmic expansion from the standpoint of an observer’s comoving horizon. When the Universe is small, the observer detects a large amount of the total cosmic bits, which number is fixed. Indeed, information, such as energy, cannot be created or destroyed in our Universe, i.e., the total number of cosmic bits must be kept constant, despite the black hole paradox. When the Universe expands, the information gets ergodically “diluted” in our isotopic and homogeneous Cosmos. This means that the observer can perceive just a lower number of the total bits, due the decreased density of information in the cosmic volume (or its surrounding surface, according to the holographic principle) in which she is trapped by speed light’s constraints. Here we ask: how does the second law of thermodynamics enter in this framework? Could it be correlated with cosmic expansion? The correlation is at least partially feasible, because the decrease in the information detected by a local observer in an expanding Universe leads to an increase in detected cosmic thermodynamic entropy, via the Bekenstein bound and the Laudauer principle. Reversing the classical scheme from thermodynamic entropy to information entropy, we suggest that the quantum vacuum’s cosmological constant, that causes cosmic expansion, could be one of the sources of the increases in thermodynamic entropy detected by local observers.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1804.0345 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-23 12:48:43*

**Authors:** V.A. Kasimov

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Язык: русский

As often in discussions of the theory of relativity denied the existence of the twin paradox, there is a need to dwell on this again. It is shown that the formal means of SRT and GRT a paradox twins are not resolved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1804.0341 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-23 13:33:40*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

this paper talks about how can spinning of masses cause so much

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1804.0332 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-24 13:50:24*

**Authors:** Florian Michael Schmitt

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper will reveal a fundamental logical error of Special Relativity. It will be shown, strictly deducting from Special Relativity’s own concept, that lengths being measured with clocks do not differ between two systems in relative motion to each other. Furthermore, it is shown that Special Relativity de facto puts two different events into relation and concludes from this the loss of simultaneity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1804.0331 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-24 06:48:47*

**Authors:** V.A. Kasimov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Язык: русский

The question of whether the necessary postulate of the constancy of the speed of light for the construction of the Special Theory of Relativity was raised and discussed, at least two independent authors [1, 2]. The answer to this question is methodologically very important in recognition of the fact that the foundations of the output of the Galilean transformations and Lorentz are the same basic properties of substantial space and time of Newton. It turned out that in the classical physics "hiding" a contradiction in the substantial properties of space and time. What is the essence of this contradiction? The article attempts to answer this question.
Note that the authors of the mentioned works have received their findings generally avoiding mention of the words "light" and "the speed of its spread".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1804.0320 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-23 08:27:04*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu, Vasco Guerra

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

In previous papers we have presented a general formulation of special relativity, based on a weaker statement of the postulates. In this work, the paradigmatic example of the twin paradox is discussed in detail. Within the present formulation of special relativity, a “non-paradoxical” interpretation of the asymmetric ageing of the twins emerges. It is based exclusively on the rhythms of the clocks,
which are not related by the standard textbook expressions and shall not be confused with clock
time readings. Moreover, the current approach exposes the irrelevance of the acceleration of the returning twin in the discussion of the paradox.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1804.0315 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-22 15:05:15*

**Authors:** ziaedin Shafiei

**Comments:** 14 pages - Any negative scientific feedback is most welcomed

Special Relativity (SR) was introduced to the scientific world as a revolutionary new compound of ideas. The theory rightly rejected the idea of aether and presented the first case of uncertainty in physics, i.e. the absolute speed of no known frame is known . But, was SR really a paradigm shift in science or, in general, a giant step in wrong direction? Sceptics might think that SR brought ambiguities such as the twins paradox or relativistic mass but the main undesirable effects of SR, when it was presented in 1905, were:
1.Insisting on contemplating alone for discovering the reality of the universe with supposedly one unerring cool tool, thought experiment.
2.Introducing an instrument, e.g. the light clock with a supposed working characteristic that is not yet experimentally proven.
3.Introducing the constant relative speed, between two inertial reference frames (IRF), into the experimental setting. It then tried to do thought experiment in the new setting using the light clock. This introduction brought some challenges which SR tried to fix by time dilation, length contraction and relativistic mass.
Relativistic mass was reluctantly excluded from SR by Einstein in a letter to L. Barnett in June 1948. But as relativistic mass was part and parcel of SR it was not quite easy for scientific community to part with it and forget about it . The subject is still under debate but by the end of the twentieth century mainstream physics was convinced that relativistic mass should be given a quiet farewell due to its controversial consequences.
This article summarises the reasons that length contraction and time dilation should have the same fate. The author has already shown that:
1.Following the surprise null result from Michelson and Morley (M&M) experiment, the proposal of length contraction, and later on time dilation, was just based on a simple analytical oversight of the experiment as the movement of the half-silvered mirror was ignored in the analysis. In simple words, length contraction was founded on false foundation. This was a huge blunder that science should not be proud of, in the least, and should have been pointed out immediately and forgotten ever since. But, unfortunately, in the wake of the confusion not only no one noticed the mistake but also length contraction was found to be a useful platform for a new theory, namely special relativity.
The realisation of this obvious mistake pulls the rug from under ensuing experiments or test theories such as Kennedy–Thorndike experiments or the Robertson-Mansouri-Sexl test theory as they rely on length contraction as a proven premise.
2.Time dilation is not a well thought out scientific idea as initially proposed and believed by physicists[13] as the theory is based on one specific position of the moving clock in relation to its observer. This recognition further undermines test results such as the Ives-Stilwell experiment [14].
The article tries to put SR under further scrutiny and suggests SR to be considered as a metaphysical idea attired in an elaborate scientific and mathematical gown, such as the Lorentz Transformation Equation. It tries to dismiss SR experimental setting by a few examples. It shows that the theory can result in cases that even length contraction and time dilation are not able to fix, that is, to make laws of physics to be the same in all IRFs. More examples show why the insertion of relative speed in experimental setting cannot been beneficial to science.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1804.0311 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-23 01:51:30*

**Authors:** Lev I. Verkhovsky

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It is assumed that the geometric basis of the physical world is not the Minkowski
space, but the three-dimensional projective space in which the absolute is given in
the form of an oval surface. The fundamental changes, which in this case will
occur in mathematical physics, are briefly outlined.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1804.0295 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-20 14:56:44*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Within the framework of the black-hole model of the Universe, I introduced the concept of Cherenkov radius, i.e. the distance from the center of the Universe, at which the speed of the orbiting test particle and the speed of light are the same. I showed that the radius of the Universe and the Cherenkov radius are in the golden ratio.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1804.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-20 02:19:42*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 2 Pages. In Polish.

W ramach czarnodziurowego modelu Wszechświata wprowadziłem pojęcie promienia Czerenkowa, czyli odległości od centrum Wszechświata, przy której wartości prędkości cząstek i światła są takie same. Pokazałem, że iloraz promienia Wszechświata i promienia Czerenkowa jest złotą proporcją.
###
Within the framework of the black-hole model of the Universe, I introduced the concept of Cherenkov radius, i.e. the distance from the center of the Universe, at which the particle velocity and light velocity values are the same. I showed that the radius of the Universe and the Cherenkov radius are in the golden ratio.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1804.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-20 04:02:39*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 18 Pages. International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy, Vol. 78, pp. 39-50 (2018). http://dx.doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/ILCPA.78.39.

For the relativistic uniform system with an invariant mass density the exact expressions are determined for the potentials and strengths of the gravitational field, the energy of particles and fields. It is shown that, as in the classical case for bodies with a constant mass density, in the system with a zero vector potential of the gravitational field, the energy of the particles, associated with the scalar field potential, is twice as large in the absolute value as the energy defined by the tensor invariant of the gravitational field. The problem of inaccuracy of the use of the field’s stress-energy tensors for calculating the system’s mass and energy is considered. The found expressions for the gravitational field strengths inside and outside the system allow us to explain the occurrence of the large-scale structure of the observable Universe, and also to relate the energy density of gravitons in the vacuum field with the limiting mass density inside the proton. Both the Universe and the proton turn out to be relativistic uniform systems with the maximum possible parameters. The described approach allows us to calculate the maximum possible Lorentz factor of the matter particles at the center of the neutron star and at the center of the proton, and also to estimate the radius of action of the strong and ordinary gravitation in cosmological space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1804.0245 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-07 07:22:42*

**Authors:** Alexander P. Sobolev

**Comments:** 57 Pages. 1-29 in english, 30-57 in russian

The gravitational equations were derived in general relativity (GR) using the assumption of their covariance relative to arbitrary transformations of coordinates. It has been repeatedly expressed an opinion over the past century that such equality of all coordinate systems may not correspond to reality. Nevertheless, no actual verification of the necessity of this assumption has been made to date. The initial equations of a theory of gravity with general covariance restricted due to introduction of the constraint are formulated in the paper. The concept of the entropy density of space-time continuum is defined, the constraint is interpreted from a physical point of view as a sufficient condition for the adiabaticity of the process of evolution of its metric. A basic model of evolution of the Universe is constructed on this basis which consistent with the observational astronomical data but without using of the hypotheses of the existence of a “dark energy”, “dark matter” and “inflatons". It is claimed that the maximum global energy density in the Universe was 64 orders of magnitude smaller the Planckian one, and the entropy density is 18 orders of magnitude higher the value predicted by GR.
Keywords: Gravitation, restricted covariance, nonsingular theory, entropy of space-time, cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1804.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-15 10:13:09*

**Authors:** Alan M. Kadin

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Submitted to Gravity Research Foundation, March 2018

The orthodox general theory of relativity (GR) predicts metric divergences, typically when the normalized gravitational potential &phi= -½, giving rise to event horizons. But all standard experimental tests are in the regime where |&phi|<<1/2, suggesting that alternative large-potential extrapolations should be considered. A simple alternative formulation of GR is presented which focuses on gravitational time dilation and length contraction by a factor of (1-&phi), which is always > 1 since &phi < 0. This formulation duplicates the predictions of the orthodox theory for weak potentials with |&phi| << ½, but avoids all divergences for larger values. Furthermore, this suggests “dim stars” rather than black holes, and provides an intuitive picture of large gravitational red shifts in cosmic expansion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1804.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-16 11:48:31*

**Authors:** Karan R.Takkhi

**Comments:** 1 page

The mysterious phenomenon of dark energy has been explained by me in my previous papers on the basis of molecular diffusion model. In this paper I present an additional proof to further support the molecular diffusion model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1804.0213 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-30 22:35:14*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Sagnac effect, named after its discoverer, is the phase shift occurring between two beams of light, traveling in opposite directions along a closed path around a moving object. A special case is the circular Sagnac effect, known for its crucial role in GPS and fiber-optic gyroscopes. It is often claimed that the circular Sagnac effect does not contradict special relativity theory (SRT) because it is considered an accelerated motion, while SRT applies only to uniform, non-accelerated motion. It is further claimed that the Sagnac effect, manifest in circular motion, should be treated in the framework of general relativity theory (GRT). We counter these arguments by underscoring the fact that the dynamics of rectilinear and circular types of motion are completely equivalent, and that this equivalence holds true for both non-accelerated and accelerated motion. With respect to the Sagnac effect, this equivalence means that a uniform circular motion (with constant w) is completely equivalent to a uniform rectilinear motion (with constant v). We support this conclusion by convincing experimental findings, indicating that an identical Sagnac effect to the one found in circular motion, exists in rectilinear uniform motion. We conclude that the circular Sagnac effect is fully explainable in the framework of inertial systems, and that the circular Sagnac effect contradicts special relativity theory and calls for its refutation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1804.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-14 04:38:29*

**Authors:** Ulrich Berger

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

As described previously, the concept of a “Net Charged Universe” (NCU) assumes that the expansion of the universe is driven by a slight excess of positive charge in the universe’s matter. This excess charge comes into being by means of quantum fluctuations at the universe’s horizon. Excess protons experience electrostatic acceleration and therefore gain high relativistic mass, which is the source of the creation of neutral matter at the universe’s horizon. The present article investigates some consequences of that steady creation of space and matter in NCU history. The most important consequences are the following:
The gravitational constant G and the fine structure constant α are not constant but proportional to the historically decreasing mass density of the universe.
The commonality between G and α in terms of this proportionality seems to indicate a deep interdependency between both variables and between their related phenomena, i.e. the gravitational and electromagnetic properties of matter.
The historically decreasing value of G might be the real cause of anomalies of stars’ circling in galaxies, which led to the assumption of “Dark Matter” (DM) by current cosmology.
Because of a possibly holographic emergence of gravitation, newly created matter might immediately show its “gravitational presence” throughout the whole universe. In contrast to that, the “electromagnetic presence” of new matter propagates through space with the speed of light and cannot be immediately experienced in the inner universe. The value of α that varies with time and space can possibly be regarded as a measure for the fraction of all matter that is electromagnetically present at a certain place – e.g. our galaxy.
Calculations on the electromagnetic and the gravitational acceleration of matter in the NCU yield identical mathematical expressions although they were derived here in fully independent ways. Finally, those expressions do not contain any “constants” like G, α, particle masses, elementary charge etc. – except the speed of light. The electromagnetic and the gravitational acceleration of matter are both controlled solely by geometrical variables, i.e. variable radii. These radii and the equations containing them seem to be the only true fundamentals related to describing and understanding the NCU.
The deep interdependency between G and α (or, say, gravitational and electromagnetic properties of matter) based on the NCU concept revealed here might even point to a path to unification of relativity and quantum theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1804.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-15 03:36:16*

**Authors:** CuiHaiLong

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

To summarize some of the negative relativity experiments, and to make a reasonable explanation for some of these experiments, mainly to remind people that anti-relativity experiments can be seen everywhere.But people look at the problem with colored eyes and they just ignore it all the time,It also reflects the terrible power of man's faith,Just as believers ignore the myriad anti-religious realities, they remain fanatical about maintaining religion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1804.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-15 04:17:29*

**Authors:** Valentín Ibáñez Fernández

**Comments:** 46 Pages.

A profound analysis of the theory of relativity led to the creation of a new special theory of relativity (STR), in early papers 1-9. The new special theory of relativity 1-3 explained all the fundamental phenomena that occur in mechanical and electromagnetic processes, both in inertial motion systems and in the system in rest. However, the individual expositions in these works did not reveal a complete basic physical-philosophical approach to the description of these phenomena. In this work, these shortcomings is eliminating, and in addition, the shortcomings of Galileo's theory of relativity, based on which errors will made in further studies,
Having concluded these studies, the author puts forward both a new theory of relativity and the discovery of new laws of motion in a moving system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1804.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-13 06:40:08*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 150 Pages.

Podręcznik ten przeznaczony jest dla studentów wszystkich uczelni, na których wykładana jest fizyka. Może być przydatny dla nauczycieli fizyki w szkołach średnich. Mam nadzieję, że zostanie wykorzystany również przez zawodowych relatywistów.
###
This handbook is intended for students of all universities where physics is taught. It can be useful for physics teachers in secondary schools. I hope that it will also be used by professional relativists.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1804.0178 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-29 13:24:27*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 252 Pages.

Podręcznik ten przeznaczony jest dla studentów wszystkich uczelni, na których wykładana jest fizyka. Może być przydatny dla nauczycieli fizyki w szkołach średnich. Mam nadzieję, że zostanie wykorzystany również przez zawodowych relatywistów.
###
This handbook is intended for students of all universities where physics is taught. It can be useful for physics teachers in secondary schools. I hope that it will also be used by professional relativists.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1804.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-13 06:47:39*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 124 Pages.

Prezentowana encyklopedia zawiera 144 portrety prekursorów, twórców i propagatorów teorii względności oraz informacje o wkładzie wniesionym przez nich w powstanie i rozwój tej dziedziny fizyki. Zamieszczono spis wszystkich prac Einsteina dotyczących szczególnej i ogólnej teorii względności oraz jednolitej teorii pola.
###
The presented encyclopedia contains 144 portraits of precursors, creators and propagators of relativity theory, as well as information about their contribution to the rise and development of this field of physics. A list of all Einstein's papers on special and general relativity and a unified field theory is provided.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1804.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-09 06:43:20*

**Authors:** Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed

**Comments:** 1 Page. Link to My New Theory of Everything : http://vixra.org/abs/1804.0100

This article aims to explain gravity theoretically according to my new theory of everything.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1804.0125 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-09-03 05:33:18*

**Authors:** Rainer Collier

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Schmutzer´s retirement: 1995 (p.1), terms: Schmutzer´s elementary scalaric length (p.3) and Sommerfeld´s fine-structure constant (p.4)

This short letter refers to Schmutzer´s 5-dimensional Projective Unified Field Theory as a new general-relativistic covariant unification of gravitation, electromagnetism and scalarism (a new phenomenon of nature) with some remarks to it.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1804.0109 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-14 23:33:55*

**Authors:** Capt. Joseph H. Forrington

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

A proof of the gravitational dynamics developed here-in is LIGO’S Sept. 14, 2015 detection of a “gravity wave”, and a proof of the nature of the evolving continuum is IBEX failing to find a shock wave at the edge of the heliopause as expected, as also might be the “dead zone” discovered by Pioneer 1. As Einstein’s Tensor is solely based on the time elements he calls his “energy components”, only the effects in time are considered in this paper. Though it is noted that although the stress-energy tensor is not considered here, it is also scaled by the time elements, T^00. All space evolves forward with time. This is the evolving spacetime (quantum) continuum. The evolution of time is the primary, irresistible, force in the universe, as all space, and the densities embedded within, must evolve forward with the passage of time. This is the Fundamental Direction and Rate of Evolution, herein represented by Einstein’s Fundamental Metric, which is the basis of the tensors describing a null gravitational field. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle allows for random fluctuations in time and when dilation gradients are introduced, we also see an evolution of events down gradient, a Gravitational Direction and Rate of Evolution. Although relativistic, it is an irresistible force in time just like the fundamental direction of evolution. This is why gravity only has one direction and why it overpowers all the other forces, even though it seems so weak. So even though GR is based on the Equivalence Principle, the constancy of c and Lorentz contractions, the apparent effects of the time elements also appear to manifest as a virtual flow in the forward direction of time down gravitational fields (dilation gradients) from areas of faster time. Dilation creates a density at the faster end due to contraction to maintain c and there is an increase in energy and pressure due to an increase in frequency. As the motion and densities appear when a dilation gradient is introduced, we see the creation of energy. Gravity then magnifies that energy by evolving the density down gradient into slower areas of time, giving the photons a greater relative frequency, energy and, therefore, mass. The GDE can only manifest orthogonal to the FDE as there is no space ahead of or behind the evolving continuum for the dilation gradient to appear in. The resultant of these two directions of evolution results in the curvature in evolution as per GR as the spacetime (here-in also quantum) continuum evolves forward. We have 2 event horizons we appear to evolve between where time appears to stop and we find a transition from timelike to spacelike. We apparently evolve toward the event horizon of the galactic black hole and away from the outer horizon. The passage of time has an acceleration aspect of ~2.2686*10^-18 s/s that manifests the Hubble shift through time dilation in older frames. This manifests the same 1 s/s difference we find at the event horizon of a black hole at ~13.9 Gly looking outwards. This acceleration eliminates singularities and infinite expansions when added to the time elements of Einstein’s field equations. This is why we do not see black holes as singularities. They are just ever-deepening spiral vortices. Therefore, each galaxy can be considered a branching of the evolution of the universe. In both directions, past and future, there is a limit of relativity when the difference in the rate of time is 1 s/s because time appears to stop and no events are visible. Both of these event horizons retreat when approached and the dilation gradient shifts, so if the 1 s/s limit is considered the edge of the universe, black holes are gateways to other universes without end. Galactic rotation velocities are explained through a proper application of General Relativity within the continuum, rather than space. The origin of spacetime is explained.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1804.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-08 03:12:47*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Combining the wave-particle duality of quantum mechanics with E=mc2 leads to the conclusion that the "speed of light" is nothing more than a convenient term to use (a convenience which this author also often adopts). There is actually no such thing – consequently, neither can there ever be a Variable Speed of Light. Special Relativity says the speed of light – all electromagnetic and gravitational waves "move" at this velocity – is the greatest speed in the universe. Combining quantum mechanics with general relativity – Einstein's theory of gravity - will result in a theory called quantum gravity. What is a theory integrating quantum mechanics with special relativity to be called? Perhaps quantum light …
Even when a successful quantum-light theory is developed, it will only be a step towards understanding reality. Special relativity, general relativity and quantum mechanics each represent a step towards comprehension of the universe. Quantum light will be another step, joining special relativity to the bizarre world of quantum mechanics via mathematics' E=mc2. And quantum gravity will be yet another, possibly uniting general relativity with quantum mechanics via other branches of mathematics – proposed by this article to be those of the electronic binary digits (base-2 maths) and the topology of the Mobius strip and figure-8 Klein bottle (with attention paid to the simply- and multiply-connected issues). It will be shown that the quantum theories of light and gravity have dramatic implications for the concepts of dark energy, dark matter and universal expansion. When the quantum theories become parts of life, unification of physics may be an accomplished fact. More likely, the quantum theories will continue to be refined for centuries.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1804.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-08 06:30:16*

**Authors:** Yury Rabyshko

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

The article gives a brief exposition of the solution of cosmological problems. The problem of stability and shortage of mass in galaxies, huge velocities of galactic clusters is solved. The law of formation of fundamental constants, the law of nonlinear expansion of the Universe, the law of gravitational interaction is found. Proof of the hypothesis of large Dirac numbers.
The original in Russian. The English version will be published in the near future.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1804.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-08 12:20:45*

**Authors:** Jose P. Koshy

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Introduces a 'new concept' in biology, 'Deterministic Evolution', which is based on cosmology.

Natural selection cannot logically explain the direction of evolution of life – emerging from non-living things and evolving from simple to complex – unless nature also evolves suitably. The LCDM model provides only an approximate co-relation between 'evolution of nature' (expansion of universe) and 'evolution of life'. Based on an alternate model, I propose 'deterministic evolution', expansion guiding the evolution in a predetermined way. This resolves the only serious drawback of theory of evolution, 'complexity emerging on its own '.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1804.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-08 13:46:55*

**Authors:** Walter Orlov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The evaluation of the event GW170608 must be made new. During the “routine instrumental procedure” in Hanford the damping of the pendulum of the mirrors was obviously reduced. As a result, the GW signal became artificially longer.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1804.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-04 17:38:45*

**Authors:** J Gregory Moxness

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Arguments have been raised against several of the central ideas in theoretical physics, such as M-Theory's (MT's) inability to provide for the falsification necessary to avoid relegating it to the scientific dustbin of an anthropic principle based rationalization, such as the Multiverse. Along similar lines, ideas of a uniquely falsifiable inflation era after the Big Bang (BB) have also lost some of their traction. Recent major experimental results too have sent shock waves, such as the confirmation of the low Higgs mass constraining notions of super symmetry, and the Planck satellite's detail mapping of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) fixing the Hubble parameter at odds with other more traditional methods. Even the null results of major experimental apparatus are causing consternation, as in the search for particle based Dark Matter (DM). Thankfully, all this seems to be opening the door for a more serious investigation into alternative theories that attempt to answer the big questions related to the causal relationships between the Standard Model (SM), General Relativity (GR), and 95\% of the known Universe, namely cosmology's dark sector (Dark Energy (DE) and DM). This paper attempts to connect the dots between some of these alternative ideas as they relate to MOdified Newtonian Gravity (MOND), covariant emergent gravity (CEG), and the fundamental parameters used to fix Natural or Planck units-of-measure. The result is intended to point the way toward a fresh discussion in the directions available for unification of GR with SM while resolving the now more open problems in theoretical physics today.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1804.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-05 11:30:20*

**Authors:** Richard A Peters

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Gravitational redshift is currently believed to be the result of the loss of energy of photons as they emerge from a gravitational field into a field of lesser strength. Conversely, gravitational blueshift is believed to be the result of an increase in energy of photons as they move into a gravitational field from a field of lesser strength. Cosmological redshift is believed to be the result of the loss of energy of photons as they travel cosmological distances through an expanding space.
I will argue that gravitational redshift is caused by time dilation of the source of radiation at the gravitational body. The redshift of the photons emitted by the source account in full for the measurement of redshift of those photons in a lesser gravitational field. The obverse works for the measurement of gravitational blueshift. The wavelength of the photons received in a stronger gravitational field is measured to be shorter than the emitted wavelength because of time dilation of the receiver. The measured blueshift is illusory and is a measurement artifact. Neither gravitational redshift nor gravitational blueshift results from changes in photon frequency. The frequency of a photon is not changed as the photon moves within a gravitational field to either a weaker or a stronger field.
The inherent frequency of a photon is the frequency at which the photon was emitted. The apparent decrease in frequency of the photon in the cosmological redshift results from the increased wavelength that is, in turn, the result of the expansion of space during the photon’s journey, not the result of a decrease in the inherent frequency of the photon. The effect is akin to the Doppler shift caused by the observer’s recessional velocity from the source of radiation.
The conclusion: Photon frequency is immutable.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1804.0045 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-24 06:56:01*

**Authors:** Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 17 Pages. The new physical theory called the Special Theory of Ether.

In the article, a generalized Galilean transformation was derived. Obtained transformation is the basis for development of new physical theory, which was called the Special Theory of Ether.
The generalized Galilean transformation can be expressed by relative speeds (26)-(27) or by the parameter delta(v) (37)-(38). Based on conclusions of the Michelson-Morley’s and Kennedy-Thorndike’s experiments, the parameter delta(v) was determined. This allows the transformation to take a special form (81)-(82), which is consistent with experiments in which velocity of light is measured.
On the basis of obtained transformation, the formulas for summing speed and relative speed were also determined.
The entire article includes only original research conducted by its author.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1804.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-03 20:06:53*

**Authors:** Stephen Wright

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A possible explanation for the distribution of Visible vs. Dark Matter. In explaining this I give a possible reason why Dark Matter is present and why it does not interact with Visible Matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1804.0031 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-09-13 13:23:36*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A general geometric apparatus extending the standard calculus on Riemannian manifolds in a coordinate independent way is developed. It is, moreover, obvious that all quantities involved give rise to the correct limits in such case when convergence is subtle enough. We finish by giving the correct equivalent of the Einstein tensor which approximately is covariantly conserved on a certain deformation scale.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1804.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-01 08:58:43*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Essay written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2018 Awards for Essays on Gravitation.

Ongoing proliferation of interpretations of the formalism of quantum mechanics over the course of nearly a century originates in historical choices of wavefunction, and in particular with assignment of geometric and topological attributes to unintuitive internal intrinsic properties of point particle quarks and leptons. Significant simplification and intuitive appeal arise if one extends Dirac’s two-component spinors to the full eight-component Pauli algebra of 3D space, providing a geometric representation of wavefunctions and their interactions that is comparatively easily visualized. We outline how the resulting quantized impedance network of geometric wavefunction interactions yields a naturally finite, confined, and gauge invariant model of both the unstable particle spectrum and quantum gravity that is consistent with and clarifies interpretation of both special relativity and the equivalence principle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1804.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-02 07:20:39*

**Authors:** S.Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 4 Pages. NA

In this work, the author has shown that THERE ARE SPHERICAL TRIANGLES WHOSE INTERIOR ANGLE SUM ADDS UP TO 540 DEGREES

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1804.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-02 08:40:41*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The entangled antipodal points on black hole surfaces, recently described by t’Hooft,
display an unnoticed relationship with the Borsuk-Ulam theorem. Taking into account this observation and other recent claims, suggesting that quantum entanglement takes place on the antipodal points of a S3 hypersphere, a novel framework can be developed, based on algebraic topological issues: a feature encompassed in an S2 unentangled state gives rise, when projected one dimension
higher, to two entangled particles. This allows us to achieve a mathematical description of the holographic principle occurring in S2. Furthermore, our observations let us to hypothesize that a) quantum entanglement might occur in a four-dimensional spacetime, while disentanglement might be achieved on a
motionless, three-dimensional manifold; b) a negative mass might exist on the surface of a black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1804.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-02 09:14:49*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** Pages.

About 95% of the cosmos cannot be seen by any telescopes, because it is made of mysterious "dark matter" and "dark energy" that do not interact with light

But it is impossible for something to NOT interact with light.

● Stuff can absorb and emit light.

● Reflect light.

● Convey light

If light is traveling towards dark matter...

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ♣

...It has to absorb, reflect or pass through (convey) it.

There is nothing else. Bouncing off it is reflection..

If it is blocking light: it would not be invisible.

Most stuff written about mainstream physic is just nonsense.

Can anyone tell me what "non-interaction" would entail? No, you cannot. That is impossible.

Dark Energy = [DARK][M][L^2]/[T^2]

What could this be? Could space be filled with an unseen vibrating energy substance?

Yes, It is Quantum Thread Theory. Space is NOT empty. There is an all encompassing lattice-type gravity-centered thread particle network in space.

● The thread network has tension on it, that is a pulling force: Gravity

● The network is vibrating, that is energy, it's unseen: Dark Energy

● The network itself is a substance: Dark Matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology