[30] **viXra:1902.0504 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-28 08:19:09*

**Authors:** Friedrich-Karl Boese

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

It will be shown that Newton’s theory already implies a maximum velocity with which a massive particle can travel if the universe is included into the consideration (according to Mach’s principle). The resulting formulas for the velocity dependence of the particle’s mass and it’s energy are identical with those of SR. The constancy of the speed of light does not have to be postulated for this purpose, but comes rather as one of the results. The results suggest also that the speed of light (in “vacuum”) is not a natural constant. One can also conclude that the “action at a distance” – property of Newton’s law of gravity is not in contradiction to the non-local character of the theory of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1902.0498 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-28 10:12:43*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: Reviewing my recent work concerning the mass of the neutron, it is becoming evident that both the up and the down quark of the neutron have been revised: both have been slightly altered in mass to accurately produce the observed mass of the neutron. This means that 8 quark types exist instead of 6, as expected for E8 symmetry

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1902.0452 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-26 21:51:47*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The parity symmetry in physics connects the motions in two different reference frames.
By examining the displacements in both reference frames, the length of the displacement can be shown to
be conserved in both reference frames. For two frames in relative inertial motion, the displacement is
conserved in all inertial reference frames. For two frames free
to accelerate, the displacement is conserved in all
non-inertial reference frames. The length of a displacement is conserved in all reference frames.
The wavelength of a wave is conserved in all reference frames.
The frequency varies with reference frame in Doppler effect.
Therefore, the speed of light varies with reference frame.
Light travels at different speed in different reference frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1902.0435 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-03-04 12:28:25*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We studied only about Rindler space-time in long time. This knowledge lead that we can combine Schwarzschild solution and an accelerated frame. Our article’s aim is that we find the general Schwarzschild solution include an uniformly accelerated frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1902.0412 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-04-17 21:06:16*

**Authors:** Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 27 Pages. Discussion about the basics of the Special Theory of Relativity (in Polish).

W artykule pokazane zostało, że istnieje nieskończenie wiele kinematyk, w których jednokierunkowa prędkość światła jest zawsze równa c. Kinematyka Szczególnej Teoria Względności (STW) jest tylko jedną z tych nieskończenie wielu kinematyk.
W artykule pokazane zostało, że matematykę, na której oparta jest kinematyka STW można inaczej interpretować i prowadzi to do innych wniosków na temat własności tej kinematyki.
W artykule wyprowadzona została cała klasa liniowych transformacji czasu i położenia. Transformacje zostały wyprowadzone przy założeniu, że dla obserwatora z każdego inercjalnego układu odniesienia spełnione są wnioski wynikające z eksperymentu Michelsona-Morleya oraz Kennedyego-Thorndikea czyli, że średnia prędkość światła w próżni przepływającego po drodze tam i z powrotem jest stała. Założone zostało także, że istnieje przynajmniej jeden inercjalny układ odniesienia, w którym prędkość światła w próżni w każdym kierunku ma tą samą wartość c oraz dla obserwatorów z tego wyróżnionego inercjalnego układu odniesienia przestrzeń jest izotropowa.
Wyprowadzone transformacje pozwalają na zbudowania wielu różnych kinematyk zgodnych z eksperymentami Michelsona-Morleya oraz Kennedyego-Thorndikea.
Wyprowadzona w artykule klasa transformacji jest uogólnieniem transformacji wyprowadzonych w pracy [10] polegającym na dopuszczeniu niezerowych wartości parametru e(v). Pomysł takiego uogólnienia pochodzi od osoby, która przekazała mi tą rozszerzoną klasę transformacji do analizy i publikacji.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1902.0361 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-21 18:01:27*

**Authors:** Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article shows that using the Poincaré concept of time dilation, the Poincaré Principle of Relativity cannot be proved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1902.0338 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-20 15:06:16*

**Authors:** Jeremy Fiennes

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

The existence of the electromagnetic aether is argued from two standpoints. Conceptual, based on the nature of physical waves. And practical: the various experiments that demonstrate it. Possible explanations for the strange nullific¬ation of the 1887 Michelson-Morley aether-wind result are discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1902.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-20 15:10:36*

**Authors:** Jeremy Fiennes

**Comments:** 67 Pages.

Einstein's Special Relativity is based on two fundamental assumptions, the so-called Einstein postulates. The 'constant speed of light' postulate predicts that two inertial observers – for instance twins in spaceships free-floating in outer space – will each see the other's clock running slower than his own. The 'no absolute at-rest' postulate says that both perceptions are equally valid. The logical incoherence of this makes a nonsense of the postulates, and by exten¬sion of Special Relativity itself. The positive 1887 Michelson-Morley result confirms this, falsifying both postulates. In spite of which, more than a century later Special Relativity is still an official scientific doctrine, and its creator Albert Einstein is a scientific genius. The first part of the article looks at the technical aspects of Relativity. The second discusses the historical, political, social and per¬sonal factors that led up to the present situation. The approach is conceptual and 98% non-mathematical.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1902.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-20 15:14:25*

**Authors:** Jeremy Fiennes

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The first part of the article looks at the concepts of 'space' and 'time' in general, suggesting workable definitions. The second develops diagrammatic representations for 1-, 2- and 3-d static and expanding universes. It ends with a discussion of the related topics of gravity and time travel.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1902.0335 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-21 00:02:51*

**Authors:** Temur Z. Kalanov

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The critical analysis of the foundations of cosmology is proposed. The unity of formal logic and rational dialectics is the correct methodological basis for the analysis. The main results of the analysis are as follows: (1) the Hubble law represents the formal-logical error because the Hubble formula contradicts to the correct definition of the speed of motion of the material object; (2) the Doppler effect represents the physical error because the speed of motion of the photon does not depend on the speed of motion of the radiating atom. The correct explanation of the red shift is that the frequency shift of the radiation is the result of a shift in the energy spectrum of the radiating atom; (3) the theory of “hot” Universe represents the physical error because the Universe is the “cold” Universe at any point of time. The correct explanation is that the background radiation is described by the Planck function (Planck's formula). The Planck function (Planck's formula) characterizes the equilibrium state of the isolated and closed macroscopic system “photon gas + gas of radiating atoms” (where temperature is the statistical temperature of the radiating atom). Consequently: (a) the Universe represents the isolated and closed system at any point of time; (b) the total energy of the Universe is a conserved quantity at any point of time; (c) the low temperature of substance in the Universe is a conserved quantity at any point of time.
These results signify that the correct physical theory of the Universe cannot be created.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1902.0327 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-03-18 06:31:53*

**Authors:** Sandro Antonelli

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We expound the gradient of Vorticity tensor formula in general coordinates as treated in relativistic mechanics

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1902.0295 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-18 03:33:11*

**Authors:** Ragil Brand Ndongmo Tsafack, Saleh Mahamat, Thomas Bouetou Bouetou, Timoleon Crepin Kofane

**Comments:** 4 Pages. 1 figure, comments welcome

We purpose a new approach of black hole mass decreasing, which takes into account thermodynamics and hydrodynamics processes, in the presence of quintessence and phantom dark energies. Accordingly, we insert some terms into the Schwarzschild metric in order to obtain a new expression of the black hole mass. Further, we show that by the thermodynamics process, the second-order phase transition does not occur when we take into account phantom energy, except for complex entropies or relativistic time. At the end, we show a new principle to analyze black holes coalescence into a space-time, dilated by dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1902.0286 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-16 11:34:11*

**Authors:** Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Using gravitational field lag effect we can explain why the Milky Way galaxy has a curved shape of a “Chair”. Galaxies what having the form of a flat disk due to the effect of the field lag have an increased energy of gravitational interaction, to reduce this energy, galaxies take a curved shape of the “Galaxy-Chair”. This phenomenon resembles a decrease in energy in the cyclohexane molecule, where the most stable conformation is also the “Chair” conformation, which is almost identical in shape to the curved Milky Way.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1902.0285 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-16 14:08:54*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

Michelson and Morley carried out an experiment in 1887 to determine if the theory of ether is correct. The experiment shows that the speed of light is constant
in all directions. However, an error in this experiment was introduced by the calculation of the elapsed time for light to travel between two moving mirrors
in the rest frame of ether. Both Michelson and Morley assumed that the speed of light is not altered upon
reflection by a moving mirror. This critical error produced a small variation in the distance traveled by
the light between mirrors in the rest frame of ether. As a result, Lorentz transformation was proposed to explain the concept of length contraction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1902.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-14 11:04:26*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 4 Pages. I may not have much more to add to MHCE8S theory: others need to carry on!

Abstract: A forward- time, reverse-time cycle of the 4th cycle of an MHCE8S universe emphasizing peculiar Z-boson dating phenomena and one new quark making 7 in all.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1902.0252 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-16 09:18:45*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The significance of the 5th Dimension is demonstrated as a variable related to the Stress material medium and its relation with the conservation of energy of the internal forces of
matter. The Stress tensor of the continuous medium is obtained using the properties of the Quantum tensor according to Total Relativity Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1902.0237 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-15 01:05:58*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Abstract
This article begins with “vector-tensor-scalar geometry” interacting photons and gravitons to produce the quantum spins of matter particles, the Higgs boson, plus the particles of the weak and strong nuclear forces. It then proposes the universe uses base-2 mathematics (a.k.a. electronics’ binary digits), the topology of Mobius strips and figure-8 Klein bottles, plus the geometry mentioned before, to produce photons and still hypothetical gravitons and non-hypothetical mass. It’s then proposed that the three-dimensional figure-8 Klein bottles composing the universe possess space-time's four dimensions (3 of space + 1 of time) when Wick rotation is programmed into them. This programming is adaptive, depending on the strength of gravity and electromagnetism (in Special Relativity, time slows in intense gravity and on approaching c, the speed of light). Because of the rotating between the x- and y-axes in Wick rotation, there’s a space-time we call imaginary or higher dimensional that is just as real as ordinary space-time. Gravity also leads to mass here - “dark” matter – and that matter’s associated “dark” energy. Back in this dimension, the Big Bang is regarded as dispensable due to the quantum-mechanical entanglement of microwave photons. And the speed of light becomes a duality – simultaneously having the two velocities of approx. 300 000, and approx. zero, km/s.
Introduction -
The abstract of a review article in the journal “Science” states, “Both dark matter and dark energy require extensions to our current understanding of particle physics or point toward a breakdown of general relativity on cosmological scales.” Could it be that understanding dark matter and dark energy doesn’t require modification of general relativity, but needs Einstein’s 1905 masterpiece of special relativity? Nevertheless, modification of general relativity – and its unification with quantum mechanics – might be accomplished with the hidden variables of base 2 mathematics, Mobius strips, figure-8 Klein bottles, and Wick rotation. The greatest obstacle to understanding the dark universe, and beginning the journey to quantum gravity, will be the human reluctance to accept a paradigm shift to determinism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1902.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-12 15:09:13*

**Authors:** Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Modern physics is built and based on the concept of time, developed by Poincare.
This article shows what Poincare’s concept of time is. And as based on the Poincaré concept of time, the The theory of relativity of Poincaré was built.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1902.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-12 08:15:25*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Reconsideration of overlooked considerations about the Equivalence Principle leads to Covariant Energy-Momentum conservation law in General Theory of Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1902.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-12 13:32:12*

**Authors:** Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This article shows how Poincare solved the problem of the crisis in physics. And it is shown what the Poincare principle of relativity is.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1902.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-12 03:29:39*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Recent discussions about the need for a successor of the Large Hadron Collider called the FCC Future Circular Collider (Cern), is reason to search for “Tweaks” or extensions of the current paradigms about Wimps (Weak Interacting Massive Particles) and Super Symmetric particles.
Example: Nima Arkani-Hamed: “where in the world are SuSy and Wimps?
Quantum FFF Theory ( Function Follows Form) seems to be able to fill in those questions by an adapted paradigm about special relativity, the SuSy multiverse based on instant entangled super symmetric particles and the suggestion for monopole photon based microscopic Wimps and Dark Matter Black Holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1902.0164 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-04-03 10:04:11*

**Authors:** Manfred U.E. Pohl

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Althougth the concept of time was discussed intensively by authors over centuries the „problem of time“ is prominent today again in quantum gravity. As quantum physicists believe a more detailed understanding of the entaglement of time could lead to a unification of quantum-mechanics with general relativity, the author solves the „problem of time“ final in a deductive approach. Upon the solution of the problem of time, unified principles of nature are then postulated to integrate Newtonian laws, general relativity and quantum mechanics into one framework, offering a perspective to a new world model and a framework for the TOE. Finally the TOE fulfills the prophecy from Stephen Hawking: it is the ultimate triumph of human reason — for we will know now the mind of God.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1902.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-09 02:15:11*

**Authors:** Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis

**Comments:** 5 pages, 3 figures

This paper discloses a hypothesis how four Universes can emerge from one photon. Two of them contain ordinary matter and antimatter. The other two contain matter of magnetic monopoles and antimonopoles. In magnetic matter atoms are bound together by magnetic forces, the electric field can be only solenoidal and electric charges cannot be separated from one another.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1902.0105 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-04-05 17:37:07*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 20 Pages. This paper has been published by J. Scientific God, 2019. Your comments are welcome

It is known that the Big Bang theory was based on the concept of creation ex nihilo, after ancient Greek philosophers. In this paper, we will make few remark on the concept of creatio ex nihilo (as a commentary to a recent paper by Kalachanis, Athanasios Anastasiou, Ioannis Kostikas, Efstratios Theodossious and Мilan S. Dimitrijevi), as well as two other approaches, i.e. Intelligent Design and Emergence Theory by Clayton/Yong. As continuation of our recent paper to appear in forthcoming issue of J. Asia Mathematika, we argue that beside the above three approaches, a new concept called creatio ex-rotatione offers a resolution to the long standing disputes between beginning and eternity of the Universe. In other words, in this respect we agree with Vaas, i.e. it can be shown: “how a conceptual and perhaps physical solution of the temporal aspect of Immanuel Kant’s „first antinomy of pure reason“ is possible, i.e. how our universe in some respect could have both a beginning and an eternal existence. Therefore, paradoxically, there might have been a time before time or a beginning of time in time.” By the help of computational simulation, we also show how a model of early Universe with rotation can fit this new picture.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1902.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-05 14:47:45*

**Authors:** Jozef Radomanski

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The article compiles the existing information on complex space-time, from which a sketch of its mathematical structure can be outlined. We divided space-time into geometric and physical layers. The elements of the geometric layer are any four-vectors because, although it is an orthogonal space, it does not have a metrics. The physical layer is created by objects having energy, whose state coordinates are proper or singular paravectors, therefore it is posible to define a metrics for these objects. However, this metrics has no classic properties and it is not a pseudometric of the Minkowski space-time either, so we called it para-metrics. In the physical complex space-time the triangle inequality and the Cauchy inequality have been proved but, however, they have the opposite directions as their equivalents known from Euclidean geometry. At the end, we give a few tips on how to simplify the idea of a complex space-time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1902.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-04 07:29:19*

**Authors:** Alexander L. Kholmetskii, Tolga Yarman, Ozan Yarman, Metin Arik

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We show that the attempt by Corda to explain the results of the Mössbauer rotor experiments via introducing the effect of synchronization of clock in the origin of a rotating system and a laboratory clock contains mathematical error and must be rejected.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1902.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-04 07:32:12*

**Authors:** Alexander Kholmetskii, Tolga Yarman2, Ozan Yarman, Metin Arik

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We argue in favor of the physical basis of YARK theory of gravity and show that the major part of recent criticism by Corda (Corda, C. Symmetry 2018, 10, 558-559) is based on either irrelevant or erroneous claims. We highlight a perfect agreement of YARK theory with the results of the Mössbauer experiments in a rotating system and demonstrate that the so-called “synchronization effect” proposed by Corda to account for the outcome of these experiments stems from an elementary mathematical error and must be rejected. Finally, we show that YARK theory provides a consistent alternative explanation of the origin of the LIGO signals beyond the hypothesis about gravitational waves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1902.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-04 07:49:43*

**Authors:** J.Foukzon, S.A.Podosenov, A.A.Potapov, E.Menkova

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The Mössbauer experiment in a rotating system and the extraenergy shift between emission and absorption lines using Bimetric theory of gravitational-inertial field in Riemannian approximation explained.Bimetric theory of gravitational-inertial field is considered for the case when the gravitational-Inertial field is governed by either a perfect magnetic fluid.In a series of papers published during the past decade with respect to Mössbauer experiments in a rotating system [71]-[75],it has been experimentally shown that the relative energy shift ΔE/E between the source of resonant radiation (situated at the center of the rotating system) and the resonant absorber (located on the rotor rim) is described by the relationship ΔE/E=−ku 2 /c 2 , where u is the tangential velocity of the absorber, c the velocity of light in vacuum, and k some coefficient, which -- contrary to what had been classically predicted equal 1/2 (see for example [35]) -- turns out to be substantially larger than 1/2. It cannot be stressed enough that the equality k=1/2 had been predicted by general theory of relativity (GTR) on account of the special relativistic time dilation effect delineated by the tangential displacement of the rotating absorber, where the "clock hypothesis" by Einstein (i.e., the non-reliance of the time rate of any clock on its acceleration [35]) was straightly adopted. Hence, the revealed inequality k>1/2 indicates the presence of some additional energy shift (next to the usual time dilation effect arising from tangential displacement alone) between the emitted and absorbed resonant radiation. By using Bimetric Theory of Gravitational-Inertial Field [76] we obtain k=0.75 in a good agreement with experimental result k=0.69+(-)0.03 [75].

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1902.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-04 11:49:09*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

In this paper we will attempt to make a calculation model for the paper
http://vixra.org/abs/1901.0357 The Universes Components Effects in Space Time now when we look at a star that is effected by the expanding universe we find that the star becomes smaller to the viewer now when we look at the star after c seconds or 299729458 seconds we find that the star should become 299792458 smaller but this model says that the star should produce the rest mass as an electromagnetic radiation

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1902.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-02 13:30:33*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The parity symmetry in physics shows that the motions in two different reference frames are related to each other.
By comparing the displacement and the velocity from two reference frames, the elapsed time can be shown to
be conserved in both reference frames. For two frames in relative inertial motion, the elapsed time is
conserved in all inertial reference frames. If both frames are in circular motion, then the
elapsed time is conserved in all local reference frames on the same circle. If both frames are free
to move in any direction at any speed, then the elapsed time is conserved in all
non-inertial reference frames. Two simultaneous events are simultaneous in all reference frames.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology