[20] **viXra:1708.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-18 19:18:40*

**Authors:** Mohamed Abdelwhab

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This study shows that time dilation supposed by Einstein can be derived from absolute time supposed by Newton if Newtonian space is sloped with motion where space of moving frames is sloped with respect to space of the stationary frame of reference. Slope of Newtonian space creates a new kind of energy that causes moving frames to experience slight resistance while moving to forward in Newtonian space; hence, moving frames reverse slightly backward in space. With respect to observers at rest, the sum of the distance that the light travels vertically during motion of the moving frame to forward and the distance that the light travels vertically during motion of the same frame to backward is equal to the distance ( ) that the light travels vertically in frame from the perspective of the observers in the same frame . The motion of light through the reversed space dilates Newtonian time of the moving frames with respect to the stationary frame of reference, like a car that moves slowly because it is climbing a hill, the time of the moving bodies moves slowly because of the slope of Newtonian space. This work does not aim to prove slope or straightness of space; rather it aims to show that time dilation can be exists in nature as a result of a reaction between Newtonian time and slope of Newtonian space, therefore testing of slope's property must be included in the interests of applied physicists in the next days.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1708.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-18 07:54:16*

**Authors:** Mohamed Haj Yousef

**Comments:** 28 Pages. The concept of the Duality of Time is based on a previous research published in The Single Monad Model of the Cosmos (www.amazon.com/dp/1499779844).

Based on the Duality of Time hypothesis, a dynamic, granular and self-contained space-time is introduced and investigated. A new time-time or complex-time Euclidean space is defined and it is shown that the non-Euclidean Minkowski space is the first global approximation of this complex-time space in which the space-time interval becomes invariant between different inertial and non-inertial frames alike. Therefore, in addition to Lorentz factor, the equivalence principle is derived directly from the resulting discrete symmetry. To support this hypothesis, it will be applied to derive the mass-energy equivalence relation directly from fundamental classical principles. It will be also shown that the resulting dynamic quintessence could diminish the cosmological constant discrepancy by 117 orders of magnitude.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1708.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-17 11:07:19*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This paper will be submitted to Open Physics J.

Many physicists and philosophers alike have debated a long standing puzzle: whether the
space is continuous or discrete. It has been known for long time that most of the existing
cosmology models rely on pseudo-Riemannian metric as the cornerstone of Einsteinian universe. But the metric itself is based on continuum model. It is known that such models have led us to too many (monster) problems, including dark matter and dark energy etc. Now what if the universe is discrete? Then perhaps we can solve these problems
naturally. Despite majority of cosmologists rely on such a Standard Model which is called Lambda CDM theory, we will explore here the redshift theory based on a few of lattice-cellular models, including Lindquist-Wheeler theory and beyond it. We will also touch briefly some peculiar models such as Voronoi tesellattice and also Conrad
Ranzan’s cellular model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1708.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-17 01:29:25*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The Michelson-Morley experiment has been considered as a verification of the validity of Einstein’s postulate of the universal constancy of the speed of light in vacuum. However, it has been shown that the special theory of relativity can be developed by applying only the principle of relativity without the need to postulate the universal constancy of the speed of light and, as a consequence, this raises the question of what role the Michelson-Morley experiment would play in special relativity. In this work we show that the Michelson-Morley experiment can be used to verify the fact that the speed of light is not universal as postulated in Einstein’s special relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1708.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-17 01:58:54*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Similar to Einstein’s method to formulate a special relativity for inertial reference systems in classical physics, we show that a special relativity can also be formulated for systems of circular reference frames.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1708.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-16 12:07:35*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati

**Comments:** 7 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

It has been known for long time that most of the existing cosmology models have singularity problem. Cosmological singularity has been a consequence of excessive symmetry of flow, such as “Hubble’s law”. More realistic one is suggested, based on Newtonian cosmology model but here we include the vertical-rotational effect of the whole Universe. We review a Riccati-type equation obtained by Nurgaliev, and solve the equation numerically with Mathematica. It is our hope that the new proposed method can be verified with observation data.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1708.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-15 18:10:58*

**Authors:** LeiGuanji

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In recent years, many experiments proved that the fundamental constants are changing by the evolution of the universe, this paper tries to give some explanations. We have observed that the proton-to-electron mass ratio and the fine structure constant both are changing over time. Some scientists think the vacuum dielectric constant and the speed of light are changing, too. I agree them. So I finish this paper to explain those experiments and develop those guesses. The constants are changing over time. They are different from early universe. We can't understand why them change now, maybe they change because the change of the entropy because entropy is very closed with time (to know the relation between time and entropy, you can see the note under this paper), I want to prove that in this paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1708.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-16 01:51:29*

**Authors:** Gabriel Sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Eran Sinbar

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Based on Einstein’s field equations (Fig. 1), mass curves space time and curvature of
space-time dictates the gravitational field around the mass. Based on the interpretation
today of the Einstein’s field equations the curvature of space time causes a smaller
mass B to move towards a greater mass A since it is the shortest geodesic path in the
curved space-time. This article tries to analyze the Einstein field equations in a new
heuristic approach in which curvature of space-time and geodesic path is replaced by
an equivalent dynamic flow of space –time model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1708.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-13 07:36:46*

**Authors:** David L. Berkahn, James M. Chappell, Derek Abbott

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The principle of equivalence is used to argue that the known law of decreasing acceleration for high speed motion, in a low acceleration regime, produces the same result as found for a weak gravitational field, with subsequent implications for stronger fields. This result coincides with Hilbert's little explored equation of 1917, regarding the velocity dependence of acceleration under gravity. We derive this result, from first principles exploiting the principle of equivalence, without need for the full general theory of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1708.0142 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-14 13:45:02*

**Authors:** Capt. Joseph H. Forrington

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

There is fundamental misnomer about what General Relativity describes. This is why Einstein’s field equations do not explain the rotational velocities within flattened spiral galaxies. Dilation fields have two different shapes, spherical and flat. Stellar systems are spherical and have only one shape gradient, and events are evolved forward and accelerated sequentially as the dilation gradient deepens. Flattened spiral galaxies have two types of interacting gradients. From above and below the disk, the gradients act across the broad flat surface of the disk, evolving objects forward at the same rate and hence the same velocity. Along the edge the effect is spherical and this causes the circular orbits, as in General Relativity. This paper clarifies how General Relativity describes the evolution of the continuum, how events and spaces evolve forward together and how relative velocities equate to forward evolution within the continuum rather than movement through pre-existing, static, spaces. This approach also allows the Hubble shift to be described in terms of time dilation. Since events are always being accelerated in the rate of time, older frames have progressively slower rates the older they are, creating a time dilation gradient. As we are always being accelerated in time and space, objects in older frames must appear to be accelerating away from us. This eliminates the need for Dark Energy. The theory also describes the dynamics in time by which the CMBR is generated, accelerated, and concentrated, converting the potential energy of the spacetime continuum into real energy and mass. A proof of the dynamic developed here is LIGO’S Sept. 14, 2015 detection of a “gravity wave”; a distortion in the rate of time, an acceleration in the rate, travelling at C through space and distorting space in the physical form of the antenna, translating the force in time into “real” energy. Also, IBEX failing to find a shock wave at the edge of the heliopause as expected is a proof of the concepts regarding the nature of the continuum explained here, as also might be the “dead zone” discovered by Pioneer 1. The theory also explains black holes and why our limits of perception within a black hole, and at ~ 14 Gly, are due to the limit of relativity, where our perception transitions from time-like to space-like, which is where the difference in the rate of time between frames, the dRt, = 1 s/s, both looking into a gravity well, and looking outward to the limits of perception.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1708.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-11 14:05:34*

**Authors:** T. Yarman, A. L. Kholmetskii, O. Yarman, M. Arik

**Comments:** 5 pages

We provide our reply to a new attempt by C. Corda where he calumniates Yarman-Arik-Kholmetskii (YARK) gravitation theory (http://vixra.org/pdf/1705.0287v1.pdf.). It therefore becomes incumbent upon us to once more demonstrate that the origin of his criticism is based on his misunderstanding of the basic aspects of YARK theory, as well as on his misinterpretation of the outcomes of Mössbauer experiments in a rotating system. All of this came to be despite the fact that we had drawn a final point to his agitations in our recent papers published in Annals of Physics in 2015 and 2016 in response to his adverse behavior.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1708.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-11 04:27:33*

**Authors:** Corrado La Posta

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

The Theory of Relativity [1], conceived in 1905 by A. Einstein and now universally applied, involves some theoretical problems as well as some difficulties in the interpretation of experimental facts. Theoretical issues have long been debated [2,4] but have not found a sufficiently good explanation, indeed many interpretations [3,24] appear forceful and prejudicial. The many paradoxes expressed and debated and never clarified are still unresolved. The consequences of adopting a radical point of view, such as the relativistic one, also appear in the Quantum Field Theory, where the Lorentz-covariance formulation of the theory results, with careful analysis, the cause of many of the problems [54, 78].
The experimental point of view, contrary to what is commonly stated, does not undoubtedly support the theory; actually several results [5,42, 78] appear of difficult interpretation and others [6, 75] even in sharp contrast to the theory itself [23, 76].
The analysis of these inconsistencies leads to the assumption that the theory is spoiled by its foundations, that is the postulates, from defective origins that can not be eliminated [40, 77]. An alternative hypothesis, based on different premises, is therefore elaborated in this paper to reach a number of conclusions [81].
Such a different theoretical context recovers certain concepts of classical, mechanical and electrodynamic physics, which are however extended in a relativistic sense. Modifications are introduced in current kinematic, dynamic, electrodynamic and Quantum field theory. The theory thus developed is devoid of paradoxical aspects, adhering to experimental facts and free of divergence problems; superluminary motions are especially possible. Electrodynamic equations are extended into a new invariant form, compatible with Newtonian mechanics. Lorentz's force law is rewritten as a force variable with speed while the mass remains constant. A generalization of the equation of the waves is introduced, from which the equations of the superluminal motion and the equations of the material waves (Schrodinger and Klein-Gordon) can be obtained.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1708.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-09 01:33:39*

**Authors:** Gary Osborn

**Comments:** 4 pages, no figures

The time shown by a moving clock depends on its history. The Lorentz
transform does not distinguish between the history of an accelerated
clock and a constant velocity clock. The history of the clock can be
assimilated by integrating the first derivative of the Thomas precession
from the time t=0. A definite integral is required because the
unknown trajectory of the clock in the distant past affects its
displayed time. The coordinates are spinning in the second frame of
reference during the integration, but in the definite integral from time
t=0 to time t the spin accumulates to a specific angle. The integral is
equivalent to a Lorentz transform followed by a space rotation. A space
rotation does not affect the invariant quantity r^{2} -
c^{2} t^{2}. The
history of a jerked clock is different than that of an accelerated
clock. The solution in that order is equivalent to a Lorentz transform
followed by two consecutive space rotations in different directions.
Similarly, there are three rotations in the **ä** solution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1708.0075 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-14 05:49:26*

**Authors:** Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

I applied the method of the second variations of the Calculus of Variations to the Einstein-Hilbert action. Since the Einstein-Hilbert’s Lagrangian for a gravitational field is proportional to the Ricci curvature scalar construction of the Euler-Lagrange equations requires dealing with the tensor quantities from which the Ricci curvature scalar is composed rather than the Ricci curvature scalar itself. As the result of applying this method two Euler-Lagrange equations emerged; both equations yielded the same Einstein’s field
equations in absence of energy-momentum fields.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1708.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-06 19:00:46*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

- In given article author has summarized and corrected a theory [1 -3] which allows derivation of the unknown relations between the main parameters (energy, time, charge, distance, volume, matter) in the Universe. He finds also the quantum (minimal values) of energy, time, charge, distance, volume and matter and he applied these quantum for estimations of quantum volatility and the estimation of some values of our Universe and received both well-known and new unknown relations.
Author offers possibly valid relations between charge, time, matter, charge, volume, distance, and energy. The net picture derived is that in the Universe exists ONLY one substance – ENERGY. Charge, time, matter, volume, fields are evidence of this energy and they can be transformed one to other. Author gives the equations which allow to calculate these transformation like the famous formula E = mc2. Some assumptions about the structure of the Universe follow from these relations.
Most offered equations give results close to approximately known data of Universe, the others allow checking up by experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1708.0055 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-15 17:07:22*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 3 Pages. v.2 corrects a typo in one of the eqs. 5

By means of the Lorentz Transformation, Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity purports invariance of the standard wave equation. Counter-examples, satisfying the Lorentz Transformation, and hence Lorentz Invariance, prove that the Lorentz Transformation does not in fact produce invariance of the standard wave equation. Systems of clock-synchronised stationary observers are Galilean and necessarily transform by the Galilean Transformation. Einstein's insistence that systems of Galilean observers transform, not by the Galilean Transformation, but by the non-Galilean Lorentz Transformation, is logically inconsistent. The Special Theory of Relativity is therefore logically inconsistent. Therefore, it is false. The Lorentz Transformation is meaningless.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1708.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-04 10:03:35*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 3 Pages, 3 Tables

Abstract
This paper builds on published research regarding psi-lines. Quantitative experiments that are detailed here, demonstrate that psi-lines and the mind are intrinsically connected to the Golden Ratio (1.6180). As this is a universal constant, the conclusion strongly suggests that mind created psi-lines are connected to the structure of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1708.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-02 08:33:43*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The wave-particle dual nature of light was discovered from experimental observations and from theoretical works of Max Planck and Albert Einstein during the beginning of the twentieth century. This paper reveals that wave-particle duality is just one aspect of the all dual nature of light (electromagnetic waves) and electromagnetic fields and that light and electromagnetic fields manifest dual natures in other ways also. For example, light is not only a local phenomenon as conventionally viewed, but also a non-local phenomenon. Light behaves both according to classical ether theory and emission theory. Light acts as if it travels both in a straight line and in curved path, at the same time! Electrostatic lines of force behave as if they are both straight and curved lines. Electrostatic fields behave as if they ‘propagate’ both at the speed of light and with infinite speed, at the same time! This paper is a summary of the findings reported in previous papers published by this author. An extensive theoretical research carried out by this author in an attempt to explain the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect and other light speed experiments led to uncovering of the broader and more fundamental nature of duality in electromagnetism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1708.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-05 17:03:46*

**Authors:** Peter V. Raktoe

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The formula E=mc2, which states that the energy content of a massive object is equal to that object's mass times the speed of light squared, is incorrect. Why?, because that formula implies that a mass requires an infinite amount of energy to reach the speed of light. The term "infinite" is often used by physicists but they don't seem to realize that it's unrealistic/unnatural, it tells us that E=mc2 is a mistake and I can explain why.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1708.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-01 17:13:46*

**Authors:** Jozef Radomanski

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

This article discusses an electric field in complex space-time. Using an orthogonal paravector transformation that preserves the invariance of the wave equation and does not belong to the Lorentz group, the Gaussian equation has been transformed to obtain the relationships corresponding to the Maxwell equations. These equations are analysed for compliance with classic electrodynamics. Although, the Lorenz gauge condition has been abandoned and two of the modified Maxwell's equations are different from the classical ones, the obtained results are not inconsistent with the experience because they preserve the classical laws of the theory of electricity and magnetism contained therein. In conjunction with the previous papers our purpose is to show that space-time of high velocity has a complex structure that differently orders the laws of classical physics but does not change them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology