[19] **viXra:0910.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-29 14:21:29*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 18 Pages. additions to abstract

3-dimensional space is the entropic domain of light (free electromagnetic radiation); four-dimensional historic spacetime is the entropic domain of matter (bound electromagnetic radiation); gravity converts space into time and vice versa, creating and destroying spacetime. Because entropy is an adjunct of energy conservation, and matter is derived from (and returns to ) light, we find that the mysterious "intrinsic motions" of light, time, and gravity are connected in a conservation loop.
The subject of entropy can be dauntingly technical in its full thermodynamic formality. However, we are primarily interested in three simple, fundamental, and typically overlooked examples of entropy in its most common, primordial, and significant form: 1) the dimensional spatial expression of entropy as observed in the cosmological expansion and cooling of space; 2) the dimensional temporal expression of entropy as observed in the cosmological expansion, decay, and causal dilution of history; 3) the continuous formation of spacetime by the negentropic action of gravitation. These dimensional or entropic conservation domains are created by the primordial entropy drives of free electromagnetic energy (light's intrinsic motion), and bound electromagnetic energy (mass/matter - the historical entropy drive of time's intrinsic motion).
Gravity is the spatial consequence of the intrinsic motion of time. Gravity is the neg-entropic face of matter's pos-entropic historical entropy drive. Gravity creates time by the annihilation of space and the extraction of a metrically equivalent temporal residue, creating spacetime, the compound entropic domain of free and bound forms of electromagnetic energy. Time, in turn, creates gravity as it rushes into history, pulling space after it. Time is the active principle of gravity's "location" charge. (See: "Entropy, Gravity, and Thermodynamics".) Time and gravity induce each other, analogously to an electric and magnetic field, but of course via a very different mechanism (see: "The Conversion of Space to Time"). Spacetime is a rather complex entropic domain - space and history are linked by negentropic gravity which converts either into the other. (See: "The Double Conservation Role of Gravitation".) The expansion of history is at the expense of the expansion of space; the rate of expansion of historic spacetime is reduced compared to the rate of expansion of pure space. Gravity is the "go-between", conversion force, or "gauge" of equity/proportionality between the spatial and historical entropy drives of free and bound electromagnetic energy. (See: "A Description of Gravitation".)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:0910.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 30 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 11 pages. Expected delivery time 2 hours , 30 minutes for the five referenced topics.

We present a lay out of five different, inter related themes encapsulated in
five articles which will be presented at Chongquing University, PRC, by Dr. Andrew
Beckwith as a guest of Prof Fangyu Li, of the Chongquing University Gravitational
physics group

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:0910.0057 [pdf]**
*replaced on 30 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 32 pages, 3 figures [ part a and b of figure 3, which are of the same process ] (instead of four ). Re do of conclusion, plus some other changes after first version of this article rejected by American physics journal. Now sent to European physics journal.
Emphasis put upon , in conclusion an open inquiry as to how to use concept of entropy
as a way to add more structure to obtaining from a GW detector the normalized GW
'energy density' "function" which may have coupling of gravitons with E and M & other
stuff. Open question as to if Instanton-anti instanton representation of graviton as a way
to explain 10^ - 65 gram supposed deviation of graviton from usual zero rest mass in
zeroth order KK tower representation of KK gravitons introduced, as possible deviation from
correspondence principle. Possible role for t'Hoofts treatment of QM in his 2006 article about deterministic QM, as embedding background for QM.

In the 12th Marcel Grossmann Meeting, July 9th, 2009, the author raised the issue of whether early graviton
production could affect non-Gaussian contributions to DM density profiles. Non gaussianity of evolving
cosmological states is akin to asking if there is a way to get quantum contributions due to squeezed initial
vacuum states which act highly non classically. If particle counting algorithms in graviton production is
important as for entropy, and if entropy perturbations affects the density profile of dark matter clumping
profiles, then there is room to ask to what degree initial perturbations affecting structure formation are due
to classical/ non linear processes, or more quantum theoretic states. If squeezing of the initial vacuum
states is essential in the relic conditions, then quantization is unavoidable. If squeezing is not essential, then
coherent initial vacuum states may contribute in semi classical ways to GW production. The end result of
this stated inquiry may be answering if or not gravity in the onset of inflation is a quantized field. Or if a
highly non linear set of complex initial conditions for gravity can be stated using purely classical models,
as T'Hooft, Corda, and others believe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:0910.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** H.-J. Hochecker

**Comments:** 12 pages, More details and the version in German language can be found on the authors web site (named inside the pdf)

It is clear that an electric field of moving charges is geometrically changed by this motion. A new
representation way of this change will be shown here. With the help of this representation the magnetic
effect can than be calculated directly from the geometric change in the electric field. The analysis of
different reference systems/frames (as in the special theory of relativity) is not necessary for doing this.
(The geometric changes, of course, still do arise from the special theory of relativity, however.) Finally,
through these observations, it may be noted that gravitation is also an effect of the translation of charges,
which can be represented mathematically here. So: under consideration of the special theory of relativity,
geometrical changes in the electric field caused by translation produce magnetism and gravitation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:0910.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 30 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 3 pages. no figures. Beginning of evolution and work on submission for the
12 Marcel Grossman conference by A. Beckwith for a written summary of the contribution
A. Beckwith gave in the July 17th meeting of the Paris Obervatory of the Dark Matter
parallel session run by Dr. Chardin, of France, in 2009

In the 12th Marcel Grossmann Meeting, July 17, 2009, the author raised the issue of whether early
graviton production could affect non-Gaussian contributions to DM density profiles. Non
gaussianity of evolving cosmological states is akin to asking if there is a way to get quantum
contributions due to squeezed initial vacuum states which act highly non classically. If particle
counting algorithms in graviton production is important as for entropy, and if entropy perturbations
affects the density profile of dark matter clumping profiles, then there is room to ask to what degree
initial perturbations affecting structure formation are due to classical/ non linear processes, or more
quantum theoretic states.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:0910.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 5 pages, Published in "Hadron Models and Related New Energy Issues" InfoLearnQuest USA (2007), ISBN 978-1-59973-042-4

The cosmological constant problem continues to represent a major challenge for the theoretical physics and
cosmology. The main difficulty arises from the large numerical discrepancy between observational limits of
the cosmological constant and quantum predictions based on gravitational effects of the vacuum energy. In
this work we argue that the experimental value of this constant may be recovered from the dynamics of
neutrino oscillations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:0910.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** T. De Mees

**Comments:** 5 pages

The quasar's redshift distribution is found to have a periodicities, according to K. G. Karlsson and others. Here, we
analyse if these peaks could be an indication of circling light about the centre of the universe. We find that the
Zwicky-Ashmore redshift theory provides an excellent evidence for circling light. We can confirm the age of the
universe and define its radius and its mass with a good approximation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:0910.0046 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-06 15:00:16*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 12 Pages. minor changes to electromagnetic sections

"Noether's Theorem" states that in a multicomponent field such as the electromagnetic field (or the metric field of spacetime), symmetries are associated with conservation laws and vice versa. In matter, light's (broken) symmetries are conserved by charge and spin; in spacetime, light's symmetries are protected by inertial forces, and conserved (when broken) by gravitational forces. All forms of energy originate as light; matter carries charges which are the symmetry/entropy debts of the light which created it. The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light. Charges produce forces which act to return the material system to its original symmetric state, paying matter's symmetry/entropy debts. Payment is exampled by any spontaneous interaction producing net free energy, including: chemical reactions and matter-antimatter annihilation reactions (electromagnetic force); radioactivity, fusion, particle and proton decay (weak and strong nuclear forces); the nucleosynthetic pathway of stars, and Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes (gravitational force). Identifying the broken symmetries of light associated with each of the 4 charges and forces of physics is the first step toward a conceptual unification.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:0910.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Xavier Terri Castañé

**Comments:** 6 pages, Spanish language

In this article is presented the formulas of the acceleration and speed
orbital according to three different theories: the gravitation of Newton, general relativity
of Einstein and, finally, the connected theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:0910.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Xavier Terri Castañé

**Comments:** 7 pages, Spanish language

Einstein pone el conocido ejemplo de un observador A que, estando en reposo junto
a la vía del tren, observa dos rayos que caen en sendos extremos de la vía C y D.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:0910.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Xavier Terri Castañé

**Comments:** 3 pages, Spanish language

La teoría de la relatividad de Albert Einstein se sustenta en las transformaciones de
Lorentz.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:0910.0030 [pdf]**
*replaced on 23 Jan 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 4 pages, no figures

The
consequence of abnormally low lithium abundance in a nearby population II star
(which is almost as old as the supposed population III stars) as represented by HE0107-5240
is that the standard BBN theory is out of sync with observations.
The analysis of the big bang
nucleosynthesis may help explain the anomalously low value of lithium abundance in the
star HE0107-5240, which by orthodox BBN, should not exist, as explained by Shigeyama
et al. (2003) [1]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:0910.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 2 pages, Rejected by ArXIV as unsuitable for their general physics arXIV section. Supposition
accepted as talk for ACGRG5, in Christchurch, New Zealand,December 2009, and a small part of the talk Beckwith
will give in Beyond the Standard Model, 2010 conference, South Africa

This thought experiment supposition will be raised in the ACGRG5, in Christchurch, New
Zealand, December 2009, as a way to start investigations as to being able to choose either LQG, or string
theory, as an initial space time template for emergent gravity . The author was exposed to Batisti's talk as
of the 12 Marcel Grossman conference, and intends to explore the applications of deformed Euclidian
space to questions as of the role of either string theory and/or LQG as to what degree the fundamental
constants of nature are preserved between different cosmological cycles, and also the degree that gravity is
an emergent field which is either partly/ largely classical, with extreme non linearity, or a far more quantum
phenomenon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:0910.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Mohd Abubakr

**Comments:** 16 Pages, Written in Hindi Language

Composition and nature of dark energy and dark matter remains one of the critical open
problems in modern cosmology. Several modified models within the framework of FLRW
cosmology have been proposed to explain dark energy and dark matter, however there has
been little progress. In this paper, we present a hypothesis on existence of discrete
energy bands accounting ordinary matter, dark matter and dark energy. Categorization of
forces into global and local forces, leads to classification of one energy bands. We
also explore the observational evidence to establish the existence of energy bands.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:0910.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 36 pages, 8 figures, one table.

The talk presents a first order approximation for a non SUSY presentation of not only
neutrino physics, but also DM, as a candidate having 400 or so MeV in value. Based in
part on a Lagrangian presented to the author by K.A. Meissner, and H. Nicolai,
"Neutrinos, Axions, and Conformal Symmetry", arXIV 0803.281 version 2, April 2nd 2008
(Presented at IDM 2008 in Parallel session, at the Alpha Nova center, Strockholm, Sweden)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:0910.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 14 pages Actual submission for the SPESIF 2010 conference, minus home address and phone
number. Adheres to the SPESIF conference formatting guide lines. Has three figures in it.

In this paper Beckwith asks if DM and gravitons could also impact the cosmic acceleration of the universe,
leading to an increase of acceleration one billion years ago, in a manner usually attributed to DE.
Following Marcio E. S. Alves, Oswaldo D. Miranda, Jose C. N. de Araujo, 2009 Beckwith will high light
what KK style gravitons, with a slightly different mass profile could mean in terms of his DM rocket
proposal brought up in both Christ Church, Dark 2009, and in SPESIF, 2009. I.e. value of up to 5 TeV,
as opposed to 400 GeV for DM, which may mean more convertible power for a dark matter ram jet. The
consequences are from assuming that axions are CDM, and KK gravitons are for WDM, then up to a point,
the density of warm dark matter candidates would dominate not only structure formation in early
universe formation , but would also influence the viability of the DM ram jet applications for
interstellar travel

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:0910.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 11 pages. Actual submission for the SPESIF 2010 conference, minus home address and phone number.
Adheres to SPESIF 2010 conference formatting guidelines. No figures

We argue in this document that initial vacuum state values possibly responsible for GW
generation in relic conditions in the initial onset of inflation may have a temporary unsqueezed , possibly
even coherent initial value, which would permit in certain models classical coherent initial gravitational
wave states Furthermore, several arguments pro and con as to if or not initial relic GW should be high
frequency will be presented, with the reason given why earlier string models did NOT favor low frequency
relic GW from the big bang.. What is observed is that large higher dimensions above our 4 Dimensional
space time, if recipients of matter-energy from collapse and re birth of the universe are enough to insure
low relic GW. The existence of higher dimensions, in itself if the additional dimensions are small and
compact will have no capacity to lower the frequency limit values of relic GW, as predicted by
Giovannini, et.al. in 1995.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:0910.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 38 pages, TNS ( triple nine society ) presentation as an invited speaker, in
Denver, Colorado, 2009. Has very advanced material with respect to non Gaussian contributions
to cosmological evolution put in, in last 27 slides.

In the first 11 pages, we present the simplest argument possible as to what is known and
not known as to higher dimensions, and how they fit in cosmology. The remaining 27 slides
are back up, to illustrate additional points which may come up in discussions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:0910.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 3 pages, prototype of information to be transferred to Erice School of Nucear physics,
in latex form before November 20, 2009 for Erice Nuclear physics 2009 conference, in "Progress in
Particle and Nuclear physics", special edition.

The consequences of abnormally low lithium abundance in a nearby population II star (which is almost
as old as the supposed population III stars) as represented by HE0107-5240 are that standard BBN
theory is out of sync with observations. Why such a low value for lithium problem in any stars as
due to stellar formation and gravitational perturbation on DM will be discussed. Neutrino-gravitational
wave interaction leads to a damping factor in intensity of relic GW of {1-5*(neutrino density/total
density) +.. }, as shown in CMBR data sets may be a solution.. Analysis the big bang nucleosynthesis
may help explain the anomalously low value of lithium abundance in the star HE0107-5240 which by
orthodox BBN should not exist, as explained by Shigeyama et al. 2003

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology