[43] **viXra:1703.0310 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-31 14:41:35*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: Using cyclic universe E8 symmetry theory, a value for the critical fermion density of the universe is found in excellent agreement with published results. Also found is a very useful volume of 10^27 cubic meters per active galaxy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[42] **viXra:1703.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-31 07:11:17*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Lorentz transform converts the Euclidean storage format of dynamic geometric data into the corresponding observed spacetime format.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[41] **viXra:1703.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-30 08:22:44*

**Authors:** Dino Bruniera

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to demonstrate, by means of CMBR, a theory which states that the speed of light is isotropic with respect to each point in expanding space, so it cannot also be isotropic with respect to transiting objects.
Hence the result found by Michelson-Morley experiment, which showed that the speed of light is isotropic in any Reference Frame, is due to the phenomenon suggested by Lorentz, i.e., that each object undergoes a contraction of its length and a dilation of its time as a function of its speed with respect to the points it passes through, which, therefore, constitutes its preferred Reference Frame.
Hence now Special Relativity is complementable with a theory for which light waves are manifested in a medium (and not in a vacuum) and their speed is not isotropic in all Reference Frames, no matter what their speed is, a frame with respect to an other frame. It is a theory that opens another path to the truth about the workings of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1703.0281 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-25 13:50:16*

**Authors:** Per Hokstad

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The Lorentz transformation of the special theory of relativity (STR) describes the time dilation between two reference frames moving relative to each other at a constant speed. The present work focuses on the fact that the observations of time will depend on the location of the clocks used for time registrations. Primarily, the paper presents a unified framework for the various ‘observational principles’, i.e. specification of the position of the clocks being applied. We also investigate the time dilation for time intervals; specifying how these depend on the various observational principles. A thorough discussion of the travelling twin example is included. Throughout we restrict to consider a single space coordinate.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1703.0275 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-20 05:23:52*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 181 Pages.

A new model and theoretical framework of absolute motion and the speed of light is proposed in this paper. 1. For absolutely co-moving light source S and observer O, with uniform rectilinear motion, the effect of absolute motion is to create an apparent change in the position of the source relative to the observer. The apparent source, just as the real source, is at rest relative to the observer and the speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source. Therefore, the procedure of analysis of a light speed experiment in this case is to replace the real source by an apparent source and analyze the experiment by assuming that the speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source. Once the real source is replaced with an apparent source to account for absolute velocity, we assume emission theory in which the group velocity of light is constant relative to the (apparent) source and depends on mirror velocity. The position of the apparent source is determined by assuming the ether to calculate the time delay of light emitted by the source and detected directly by the observer and interpreting the change in time delay as being due to an apparent change in the source position relative to the observer, rather than as being a result of varying speed of light which would be the case if the ether existed. In this paper it is revealed that the ether doesn’t exist but absolute motion does exist. 2. For all other cases/experiments in which the light source S, an observer A and mirrors have independent, arbitrary absolute and relative velocities, for uniform rectilinear motion and for accelerated motion, including rotation, the experiment is analyzed according to the following principle: an observer A who is at a given point relative to the light source, at a given instant of time, observes what a co-moving observer at that point is observing at that instant of time . A co-moving observer O is defined in this paper as an observer who is at a given point in the reference frame of the source at the instant of light emission and continues to move with the same velocity (magnitude and direction) as the velocity of the source at the instant of light emission. For example, to determine the time instant when light emitted by a source is observed by an arbitrary observer (A) with known initial position and motion (velocity and acceleration) at the instant of light emission, we find a point relative to the source where a co-moving observer O at that point observes light at the time instant that observer A is passing through that point. 3. The phase velocity of light is constant, independent of source, observer and mirror velocity. The group velocity of light is independent of source absolute velocity, but depends on observer absolute velocity and on mirror velocity. 4. A new law of Exponential Doppler effect of light is proposed as: λ' = λ eV/c and f ' = f e - V/c , where V is the source observer relative velocity. 5. Light has dual natures: local and non-local, constant (phase) velocity and variable ( group) velocity, behaving according to both ether (wave) theory and emission (particle) theory. Static electric and magnetic fields also have dual nature: finite and infinite speed of transmission 6. Inertia is electromagnetic radiation reaction. The speed of light is the universal limit on absolute velocities of all physical objects in the universe. The mass (inertia) increase of electrons with velocity is due to non-linear law of electromagnetic radiation power and radiation reaction. As the absolute velocity of a body approaches the speed of light, any further acceleration will result in or require increasingly infinite amounts of radiation power and radiation reaction. 7. Gravity is a difference between electrostatic attraction and repulsion forces. 8. Absolute velocity of an object is the resultant of its mass weighed velocities relative to all massive objects in the universe. The universal principle that applies to all light speed experiments is : an observer at a given point relative to the source, at a given instant of time , observes the same light phenomenon being observed by a co-moving observer at that point, at that instant of time. A co-moving observer is an observer that continues to move at the same velocity the source had at the instant of light emission. However, a more convenient procedure for experiments involving rectilinear motions is : 1. Replace the real source by an apparent source 2. Determine the velocity of the apparent source relative to the observer 3. Analyze the experiment by assuming that the speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source; i.e. once the real source is replaced by an apparent source , we apply (modified) emission theory in which the group velocity is constant relative to the apparent source and depends on mirror velocity, but the phase velocity is always constant. Physically ( intuitively ) the group velocity ( magnitude and direction) of light varies relative to the real source, due to absolute motion of the source. AST is a modified emission theory, a fusion between emission theory and ether theory. In the Sagnac experiment, the source appears farther away than its physical distance when looking in the backward direction and closer than its actual/ physical distance in the forward direction, relative to the detector. Physically this means that the velocity of light is c + Vabs in the backward direction and c - Vabs in the forward direction, relative to the source , hence a fringe shift at the detector. In the case of the Michelson-Morley experiment, an apparent change in the position of the light source relative the detector does not create a fringe shift, for the same reason that an actual ( physical ) change of the source position doesn't create any significant fringe shift. The group velocity of light relative to the source moving with absolute velocity Vabs is c - Vabs in the forward direction and c + Vabs in the backward direction. Therefore, the velocity of light relative to a stationary observer will be: (c - Vabs ) + Vabs = c and (c + Vabs ) - Vabs = c . The (group) velocity of light changes relative to the source in such a way that it will not be affected by source velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1703.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-28 10:51:56*

**Authors:** Pierre-Réal Gosselin

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Web site : http://phrenocarpe.org/zhp/eng/zhp_en_htm3.html

It is believed that the Pioneer satellites anomaly could be resolved by the orbit
determination programs (ODP) if some particular elements of the satellite that were
omitted or rejected as non applicable were taken into account. This is not the case
and up to now, not a single proposition has been able to resolve the anomalous
acceleration that plagued those satellites. We show that the Pioneer anomaly is
in fact a natural and universal constant also remarked as an apparent numerical
coincidence.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1703.0271 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-28 10:58:44*

**Authors:** Pierre-Réal Gosselin

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Site web : http://phrenocarpe.org/zhp/fra/zhp_fr_htm3.html

On croit que l’anomalie des satellites Pioneer serait expliquée en tenant compte
de certains éléments omis ou rejetés comme non pertinents dans les programmes de
calcul des orbites des satellites (Orbit Determination Program). Il n’en est rien, et
jusqu’à maintenant, aucune proposition en ce sens n’a réussi de façon concluante
à expliquer cette accélération. Nous montrons que ce qui est apparu comme une
coïncidence numérique n’en n’est pas une, mais n’est en fait qu’une constante
universelle naturelle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1703.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-28 08:11:20*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

EVERYTHING IS EMERGENT

Space is NOT empty. There is an all encompassing lattice-type thread particle network in space. It is gravity centered -- Einstein called it Space-Time. Otherwise known as the Fabric of Space. (yes, the fabric of space must actually be made from something)

A good 2-D model would be something like a spiders web made of the finest web-silk-thread filament. Now imagine a 3-D web.

It is made from individual yet connected thread particles and of course the web has tension on it (that's were gravity gets its pull).

Everything is a simple emergent property of the thread particle network.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1703.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-27 01:37:19*

**Authors:** Vladimir S. Netchitailo

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

The Hypersphere World – Universe Model (WUM) provides a mathematical framework that allows calculating the primary cosmological parameters of the World that are in good agreement with the most recent measurements and observations. WUM explains the experimental data accumulated in the field of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics over the last decades: the age of the World and critical energy density; the gravitational parameter and Hubble’s parameter; temperatures of the cosmic microwave background radiation and the peak of the far-infrared background radiation; the concentration of intergalactic plasma and time delay of Fast Radio Bursts. Additionally, the Model makes predictions pertaining to masses of dark matter particles, photons, and neutrinos; proposes new types of particle interactions (Super Weak and Extremely Weak); shows inter-connectivity of primary cosmological parameters of the World. WUM proposes to introduce a new fundamental parameter Q in the CODATA internationally recommended values.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1703.0250 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-19 14:38:46*

**Authors:** Peter C Morris

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Prof. Reg Cahill has reported [1] that Random Event Generator (REG) devices can detect passage of dynamical 3-space waves. Herein we describe an attempt to ﬁnd additional evidence for this discovery, using data from a REG located in Perth, Australia and from another in Manchester, U.K., for ﬁfteen days centered on each full moon during a period of one year.
For each day we applied correlation analysis to determine travel times for putative waves. Then wave speed and direction, over each 24 hour period, were determined by ﬁtting to the observed travel times, theoretical curves of how travel times would vary with Earth rotation. We thereby derived an average incoming RA, declination, speed and associated standard deviations for the waves of each day.
Following this we examined the directions and speeds to determine if they were consistent with a real physical phenomena, rather than being artifacts of random correlations. To this end we made use of probability density plots and other statistical techniques.
On the way we recognized that wave orientation is not the same as 3-space ﬂow direction and that it is the latter rather than the former which is of principle interest. Geometry implies that variation of ﬂow speed will cause the detected speeds of wave fronts moving parallel to 3-space ﬂow to have larger standard deviations than those moving across the ﬂow. On this basis we preferentially selected the 50% of days with the largest speed standard deviations as being the most likely proxies for space ﬂow direction.
A probability density plot of directions for these days exhibited a peak near RA = 4.5 h, consistent with previous determinations of incoming 3-space ﬂow direction by Cahill [3] and Dayton Miller [8]. Moreover, removing Earth orbital and gravitational inﬂow velocities from the observed velocities allowed a peak of higher density to be obtained, which is consistent with what one would expect of a real physical phenomena. The peak indicated a most probable galactic ﬂow direction of RA = 4.14 h, dec = −77.8 deg, and wave speed of 500 km/s.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1703.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-26 06:23:44*

**Authors:** Thomas Görnitz

**Comments:** Pages. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.27468.00649

Some thirty years ago, the model of a closed cosmos expanding at the speed of light was develo-ped deriving from basic quantum-theoretical arguments. In this model, the equation of state reads ρ+3p=0 (ρ and p denoting cosmological energy density and pressure). At the core of the model, there are the quantum bits of absolute quantum information (AQI), the simplest of all possible quantum structures. Taken as the ultimate substance, referred to as protyposis, the AQI concept affords a unifying explanation of the structure of space and time and the evolution of the cosmos and its inventory.
Recent astrophysical investigations show that the protyposis model is in better agreement with the observation data than the present standard flat - Λ CDM model. Ad hoc assumptions such as Dark Energy and Inflation are dispensable.
The protyposis theory has been advanced to account for the formation of relativistic quantum particles from AQI bits. Moreover, a rationalization has been given of the General Theory of Rela-tivity and of the three non-gravitational forces.
Ultimately, the protyposis concept will allow us to understand the emergence of both matter and consciousness.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1703.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-25 06:03:39*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 22 Pages. Text expanded and two references added.

It seems possible to suggest the evolution equation in cosmology, which permits unlimited creatio ex nihilo from the quantum vacuum, without leading to catastrophic events. The physicalized presentation of the Universe is interpreted as 'Brain of the Universe', which gives access to 'God's thoughts' (Albert Einstein) with spacetime engineering performed by the human brain embedded in the Brain of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1703.0221 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-03 00:14:33*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: showing a viewpoint with regards to the dark matter and dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1703.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-22 12:05:37*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that the spinning cosmic loops built of the entangled Einstein-spacetime (ES) components, with centres overlapping with centres of galaxies, are the basic dark-matter (DM) structures. Their interactions with baryonic matter via weak interactions of leptons lead to the flat rotation curves of galaxies. Here, applying such mechanism, we derived universal law that relates actual baryonic masses of galaxies with radial accelerations of stars at a critical radius (for radii bigger than such radius, there dominates the baryon-DM interaction). We calculated as well a parameter at a critical scale that is consistent with observational data. We need to change our ideas about dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1703.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-22 12:10:25*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

New data suggest that the initial period of evolution of galaxies should be modified. Here, on the basis of the cosmology described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we explain in a very simple way why spins of massive galaxies are, generally, perpendicular to cosmic filaments whereas of dwarf galaxies are, generally, tangential to them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1703.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-21 14:27:22*

**Authors:** Pantelis M. Pechlivanides

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Based on the paths of signals emanating from a rotating point body, we find the equations and properties of the field that they form. Depending on the type of observer the field differs. The field is not central but varies in orientation and magnitude with both distance and angular velocity of rotation. The magnitude of the field in some cases forms a barrier away from the origin, which may be very strong depending on the angular velocity of rotation. The results apply both to microcosmos (sub-atomic level) and macrocosmos (cosmic level).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1703.0209 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-26 14:02:41*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Electric Universe Theory (EUT) offers serious objections to the current concept of pulsars (neutron stars) as almost unbelievably dense, very small diameter, possibly incredibly rapidly rotating, collapsed star cores with densities comparable to an atomic nucleus, composed entirely of neutronium. Objections are both physical, phenomenological and geometrical/mathematical. This paper examines the last set, geometrical/mathematical, comparing what might derive from the current theory with that postulated by EUT, namely that “pulsars” are really binary “strobe” stars.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1703.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-21 13:20:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This paper explains the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1703.0206 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-25 07:31:50*

**Authors:** Mirosław J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Until the early twentieth century, the three-dimensional space and one-dimensional time were considered separate beings. In 1907, German mathematician H. Minkowski connected together space and time into single idea, creating a new the four-dimensional spacetime. We proposed the extension of this idea by the connection together the four-dimensional spacetime and the mass density into the single idea, creating a new entity: the four-dimensional spacetime with the mass density. In this paper we discussed the physical consequences of this a new idea in terms of the gravitational phenomena.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1703.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-21 03:17:26*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 3 Pages. ...........

The influence of the speed of motion of the satellite and the Earth relative to Jupiter is skipped by a Römer. The influence of distance is greatly exaggerated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1703.0193 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-03 08:02:05*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 15 Pages. The second version replaces the first for an error in the title of paper

The dark universe represents a concept of present physics and cosmology that regards whether great stellar systems or elementary particles. The first question, that has to be considered, concerns its effective existence because there are at present only a few experimental proofs and its existence is purely theoretical and it is due to the difference between total matter and energy predicted by theoretical calculations and those deriving from experimental measurements. The second question regards its physical nature. In general at least a part of dark matter is explained in the present physics by the gravitational theory like in the event of black holes. In the order of the Theory of Reference Frames (TR) dark matter, in all possible shapes including black holes, is explained by the relativistic theory of the Doppler Effect, whether for cosmological systems or for elementary particles and besides the Doppler Effect represents also an useful theoretical tool for explaining the physical behaviour of variable stars and galaxies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1703.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-19 05:20:50*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

In this essay, light is shed on the Special Relativity hidden conflicts. The first part, consisting of the first five headings, will point out some of the Special Relativity self-contradictions in relation to its main five outcomes. The second part reveals the reasons beyond the Special Relativity inconsistencies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1703.0175 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-08 22:01:29*

**Authors:** Vladimir F. Tamari

**Comments:** 10 Pages. A handful of typos was corrected. Also the statement that Einstein equated gravity with gravitation was changed to ...acceleration as intended!

A Universe without aim or intent, and without the
brilliant but problematic theories of
Einstein is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1703.0169 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-04 01:50:43*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Translational symmetry in one-dimensional space requires the distance
between two objects moving at equal speed under equal acceleration to
be constant in time. However, motion between the object and the
observer is relative. Therefore, this distance is constant in time for
an accelerating observer. Consequently, the length of an accelerating
object is constant in time. The length of an moving object in the direction of
motion is independent of its speed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1703.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-16 07:17:54*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

New data based on observations obtained at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Paranal, Chile, lead to conclusion that baryons in the early Universe efficiently condensed at the centres of dark matter halos when dark matter was less concentrated. It means that we must solve following cosmological problem: Was there a sufficiently long period during the mainstream Big Bang for concentration of baryonic matter, partially separated from dark matter, to create the discs of massive galaxies in very early Universe? Here we showed that new data are consistent with the evolution of massive galaxies presented within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). The main features are as follows. The expansion of the Universe was separated in time from the inflation. The return shock wave after the inflation created the cosmic structure which looked as very big quasar (the Protoworld). Inside the torus of the Protoworld were created massive protogalaxies with supermassive black holes in their centres. Due to a phase transition of the Protoworld, its torus and supermassive central black hole transformed into dark matter. Only then there were the inflows of dark matter and dark energy into the baryonic protogalaxies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1703.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-15 16:18:32*

**Authors:** Rajiv Thapa

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A novel technique was introduced to re-investigate the “No Drama” conclusion of the Equivalence principle at the event horizon of the Schwarzschild Black Hole. It was found that the Equivalence principle has a different solution at the event horizon, on contrary to the popular belief that the gravitational effect on the observer at the horizon holds the similar properties as that to the observer travelling in the weaker gravitational field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1703.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-15 16:38:07*

**Authors:** Jozef Radomanski

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

The article shows that based on the obvious postulates, using the existing mathematical tools, an alternative theory of special relativity can be build. The results were obtained studying the invariance of a four-dimensional wave equation by the paravector calculus. As a field domain the complex space-time was selected. Its meaningfulness and implicit naturalness is shown on simple examples. The aim of the publication is to show that the physical space-time may be viewed from a different perspective, not known so far.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1703.0154 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-20 12:15:04*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It is obvious that the Special Theory of Relativity (SR) applies only to systems containing physical inertial reference systems, each equipped with a physical clock initially synchronized with other clocks. This leads to the conclusion that it is easy to prove that SR is logically inconsistent when we try to describe, via SR, a system in which listed above two conditions, i.e. inertia and initial synchronization, are simultaneously not satisfied. Contrary to the SR based on the Lorentz Transformation, the SR based on the law of conservation of spin shows that we cannot synchronize clocks separated spatially with non-zero relative velocity (both theories lead to the same formulae). Here we described the initial conditions which must be satisfied to obtain a system composed of physical inertial reference systems with initially synchronized physical clocks. In previous papers we showed why SR sometimes leads to formulae which do not concern Nature - it applies to the SR contraction in length and phenomena in which, apart from radial velocities automatically appear, due to flows in the Einstein spacetime, transverse velocities also.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1703.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-15 08:51:06*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Physicists since Einstein have assumed that the Galilean system of clock-synchronised stationary observers is consistent with the Special Theory of Relativity. More specifically, they have always assumed that the Galilean system of clock-synchronised stationary observers, that obeys the Galilean transformation equations, is consistent with the non-Galilean Lorentz transformation equations. Einstein's assumption is however, demonstrably false.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1703.0143 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-05 11:17:56*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Length contraction is a principal feature of the Special Theory of Relativity. It is purported to be independent of position, being a function only of uniform relative velocity, via systems of clock-synchronised stationary observers and the Lorentz Transformation. However, a system of stationary observers reports not length contraction but length expansion. Two observers in a system of clock-synchronised observers assign a common length contraction, but at the expense of time dilation and of being stationary. Systems of clock-synchronised stationary observers are logically inconsistent with the Lorentz Transformation. Consequently, the Theory of Relativity is false due to an insurmountable intrinsic logical contradiction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1703.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-14 12:54:38*

**Authors:** Witold Nawrot

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The Theory of Relativity is almost certainly based on a serious error that led to the unnecessary complication of the model of space-time and practically stopped the development of science for 100 years. The essence of the error is the assumption that the reality looks exactly as we perceive it. Authors of the Theory of Relativity ignored the analysis of the process of observation which may make the observed shape of the reality different from its real shape.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1703.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-14 05:27:00*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) we showed that for a free-fall on neutron black hole (NBH), the relativistic mass is real so synchronization of clocks via the Lorentz Transformation is logically inconsistent. To obtain correct formula for gravitational time dilation, instead of using the Lorentz Transformation, we must start from the law of conservation of spin. Near and inside the Schwarzschild surface the gravitating grainy Einstein spacetime (ES) inspirals towards the centre of NBH (the ES leaks from NBH via the NBH jets). It causes that near the Schwarzschild surface down to the surface of NBH (its equatorial radius is two times smaller than the Schwarzschild radius) the time dilation does not follow from pure radial motions but from orbital motions as well. We showed that time practically stops when vector sum of orbital and radial velocities of freely falling body is close to the velocity of light in “vacuum” c. Due to the inspiralling ES, the trajectory of the body is deflected from the radial direction but trajectories of a freely falling initially radial photon and the body do not overlap. The inspiralling ES causes that for a distant observer, the radial speed on the Schwarzschild surface of a freely falling body is lower than c. For radii smaller than the equatorial radius of NBH, time is going as in frame of reference in the absolute rest - it follows from the fact that inside NBH both NBH and ES have the same angular velocities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1703.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-12 05:38:13*

**Authors:** Grisha Filippov

**Comments:** Pages.

In 1900, A. Poincare discussed the Problem about two inertial observers that exchanged by light signals. In 1905 A. Einstein gave solution this problem in the form of the Lorentz transformations.
From the point of view of Similarity theory the Lorentz transformations are Similarity transformations. Moreover, according this theory can be another solutions of the Poincare problem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1703.0099 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-20 13:52:47*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 8 Pages. embedding figure in body of paper

Our universe probably began as an offshoot or "bud" of the "Multiverse"; the latter, as usually envisioned, is truly eternal and infinite, the "scientific" (or "rational") substitute for typical metaphysical notions of "God". The "given" physical constants of our universe which cannot be derived from first principles (such as the value of "velocity c"), find their origins quite naturally in the Multiverse. All else (in the abiotic realm) can be explained through general considerations of energy and symmetry conservation (Noether's Theorem), or, in the biotic realm, by Darwin's Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1703.0093 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-01 11:58:30*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Time dilation is a principal feature of the Special Theory of Relativity. It is purported to be independent of position, being a function only of uniform relative velocity, via the Lorentz Transformation. However, it is not possible for a 'clock-synchronised stationary system' of observers K to assign a definite time to any 'event' relative to a 'moving system' k using the Lorentz Transformation. Consequently, the Theory of Relativity is false due to an insurmountable intrinsic logical contradiction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1703.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-14 06:16:31*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here we showed that we can derive the Special-Theory-of-Relativity (SR) energy-momentum relation and the formulae for relativistic mass and time dilation on the basis of the law of conservation of spin on assumption that the SR length contraction is invalid. The SR length contraction follows from the Lorentz Transformation so the Lorentz Transformation violates the law of conservation of spin - the SR needs a reformulation. Notice as well that the reciprocation of the SR time dilation (each observer claims that the moving clocks are time dilated) suggests that the SR is an incomplete theory. Generally, theories starting from the Lorentz Transformation lead to correct formulae because we incorrectly assume that the relativistic mass is always not real. The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that the consistent SR and General Theory of Relativity (GR), instead starting from the invariant speed of light, must start from the law of conservation of spin (it concerns the spin-0 particles as well). The origin of the SR reciprocation is considered. We showed that grainy spacetime, commonness of spinning vortices of matter inside particles and conservation of spin lead directly to the SR and to the GR formula for the gravitational time dilation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1703.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-07 04:56:09*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

An observed two-dimensional shadow might encompass more information than its corresponding three-dimensional object. By changing the orientation of a three-dimensional object or the observer’s position, we detect different shadows from diverse perspectives, therefore increasing our available information. Starting from this simple observation and extending it to the Einstein’s four-dimensional spacetime and to Bekenstein and Hawking equations, we show how, in terms of special and general relativity, information content is not a stationary and fixed quantity as currently believed, but rather depends on the observer’s standpoint. This has deep implications in digital physics, information theory, computer vision, shape theory and cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1703.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-01 02:43:20*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 6 Pages. v6 published. To cite this paper: American Journal of Modern Physics. Vol. 6, No. 3, 2017, pp. 43-48.

Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity requires systems of clock-synchronised stationary observers and the Lorentz Transformation. Without both, the Theory of Relativity fails. A system of clock-synchronised stationary observers is proven inconsistent with the Lorentz Transformation, because it is Galilean. The Special Theory of Relativity insists that Galilean systems must transform not by the Galilean Transformation, but by the non-Galilean Lorentz Transformation. The Theory of Relativity is therefore invalid due to an intrinsic logical contradiction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1703.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-05 09:40:57*

**Authors:** V.D.Krasnov

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A mechanism of originating and forming of the inclination of the rotation plane of the planets (bodies) in the space systems of planetary type is considered. The inclination of the rotation plane is formed by resonant oscillations of planets (bodies) along the direction of motion of planetary systems. The resonant oscillations are a natural condition of all cosmic formations of planetary type.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1703.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-05 09:49:41*

**Authors:** V.D.Krasnov

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Continuous attempts to create theories of the Moon's motion have been made since the time of Isaac Newton.
The theory of the Moon's motion which would take into account the influence of the Sun, Earth and other planets proved to be one of the most complicated tasks in astronomy.
In this article, a physical model of the lunar motion built on the basis of the statements of the "Comprehensive Law of Motion of Objects in Planetary Type Systems" is presented.
It is shown that the Moon's motion is formed by a complex combination of the gravitational attraction from the Earth and the Sun, acting on the Moon in the direction of the planetary system's motion.
In accordance with the physical model presented, a calculation of the Moon's motion is performed.
The results of the calculations of the Moon's motion in the field of mutual interaction of the Earth, Sun, and Moon, agree with the motion observed and confirm the Theory of Lunar Motion set forth here.
Any quantity of bodies (planets) affecting the Moon's motion could be included in the the calculations.
The results of the calculations verify the "Comprehensive Law of Motion of Objects in Planetary Type Systems".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1703.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-08 20:20:59*

**Authors:** Richard J Benish

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Fixed typo in Eq 8 on p. 9.

Human ideas of how life and consciousness relate to mathematics and physics are conditioned by the fact that we have lived our lives on a 5:97 x 10 ^24 kg ball of matter. These ideas would arguably be different if we had evolved instead inside a large rotating world far from astronomical bodies. Contemplating the latter perspective provides some insight on how prevailing views may be in error and how to correct them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1703.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-13 09:40:26*

**Authors:** M. B. Cilek

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Copyright M.B.Cilek - All Rights Reserved

General Theory of Relativity constitutes the framework for our understanding of the universe, with an emphasis on gravity. Many of Einstein’s predictions have been verified experimentally but General and Special Theories of Relativity contain several anomalies and paradoxes, yet to be answered. Also, there are serious conflicts with Quantum Mechanics; gravity being the weakest and least understood force, is a major problem.
Supported by clear experimental evidence, it is theorised that gravity is not a field or spacetime curvature effect, but rather has a flow mechanism. This is not an alternative theory of gravity with an alternative metric. Established laws and equations from Newton and Einstein are essentially left unchanged. However, spacetime curvature is replaced with flow, producing a refined and compatible theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1703.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-07 23:45:32*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Einstein's method of synchronising clocks in his Special Theory of Relativity is inconsistent with the Lorentz Transformation, despite the latter being a fundamental component of his theory. This inconsistency subverts the very foundations of Special Relativity because it follows that Einstein's time dilation and length contraction are also quite generally inconsistent with the Lorentz Transformation. Moreover, clock synchronisation is inconsistent with the Lorentz Transformation. Clock synchronisation and the Lorentz Transformation are mutually exclusive.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology