[17] **viXra:1211.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-28 15:34:33*

**Authors:** Adam G. Freeman, Policarpo Y. Ulianov

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This paper presents a new cosmological theory entitled the "Small Bang” model, a variation
on the Big Bang theory, in which all of the energy and matter observed in the Universe are generated
from the process of cosmic inflation.
In the Small Bang model, each galaxy arises from a small seed given by an antimatter micro
black hole. In the cosmic inflation process this micro black hole grows exponentially, breaking up
pairs of virtual particles and attracting those composed by antimatter, while repelling the matter
particles relying on matter-antimatter repulsion interactions. At the culmination of this process, a
rotating matter cloud is formed and at its center is an Antimatter Super Massive Black Hole
(ASMBH).
The effect of the ASMBH mass over the galaxy rotation is very small. However if we
consider that the ASMBH has a large angular momentum, a significant influence over the galaxy
rotation should be observed. Thus, the authors believe that the effects currently attributed to some
kind of Dark Matter, can be explained in a model that considers the mass and angular momentum of
the ASMBH that exists at the center of each galaxy.
The Small Bang model also explains some open points in the Big Bang standard theory, like
the missing antimatter in the galaxy, the galaxy formation process and the relation between the super
massive black hole’s mass and the galaxy mass. This new model also eliminates problems associated
with the initial black hole singularity, like infinite temperature, by proposing a Universe that starts
with an empty and cold space with a Planck length diameter.
The Small Bang model also represents an innovation to the Big Bang model that has remained
virtually unchanged for over 70 years. These new ideas have potential to change the way
cosmologists perceive the forming of galaxies and of our Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1211.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-26 10:16:26*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The universe that the light’s velocity is instead of and is likely parallel universe names the -parallel universe.The theory is the special relativity theory in the -parallel universe. In this time, this -parallel universe is the universe that can treat inertial systems. In this universe, be able to consider that the light has the velocity instead of and the permittivity constant instead of , the permeability constant is instead of . Hence, In this theory, be able to consider that the light has the velocity instead of . Hence, In this theory, each -parallel universe has each light velocity. Each light velocity or each permittivity constant and each permeability constant distinguishes each -parallel universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1211.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-01 21:56:14*

**Authors:** D.L Bulathsinghala, K.A.I.L Wijewardena Gamalath

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

As the particles originating from point-like entities are associated with infinite self energies, a postulate, that the scalar-potential associated with particles are bounded by the Planck scale potential is presented. By defining the self-energy of a particle in terms of its scalar-potential, equivalences between charge-energy and mass-energy are obtained. The electromagnetic energy-momentum equation and de-Broglie's electromagnetic wave-length and frequency associated with a charge particle in motion are derived. Relativistically covariant electromagnetic energy and momentum expressions are obtained, resolving the 4/3 discrepancy. The non-covariance nature of the present classical electrodynamics is discussed and how the proposed postulate makes it a fully covariant theorem with the rest of the classical electrodynamics is presented. How the electromagnetic energy-momentum equation could potentially resolve the stability-problem of a charge particle is discussed and thereby a theoretical explanation to electron's spin is presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1211.0139 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-03 15:01:33*

**Authors:** Michael J. Burns

**Comments:** 3 pages, mburns92003@yahoo.com

Tensor ranks are not relative. Each tensor type and symmetry denotes its own class of geometric objects, that are not really interpretable as members of another class. Coordinate free geometry is the real theory, so tensor notation with coordinates can only be taken as a distant translation. But there is a perverse tradition in academia to the contrary. Vectors are used to portray physical objects that are plainly nothing of the sort. This only adds confusion to the study of mechanics and electromagnetism. Even in cosmology the wrong tensor ranks and operators are used, invoking a system of compensating errors that eventually go uncompensated on the edge. The two Bianchi identities, with the exterior derivative as the operator, are the correct foundation for the theory. These identities are geometric in their essence, not based in coordinate algebra. By contrast, the cosmological constant is simply a mathematical error. And there is an analytic blunder to deal with - the failure to include (into the cosmological equation) the fictitious source density of the fictitious potential that derives from the noninertial Friedmann coordinates. The equivalence principle demands this inclusion. Awareness of artifacts while integrating from geometric initial conditions on the two Bianchi identities is the method to bypass these errors. Coordinate artifacts are a superset of real curvature, and form a background condition that cannot be handled completely at the dynamical equations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1211.0111 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-11-24 07:39:51*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Added: Answer on Spinor problem. An extended passage on gauge invariance was added.

The Integrability of Maxwell's Equation (in Lorentz gauge) is shown and discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1211.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-12-11 09:48:42*

**Authors:** A. O. Adekugbe Joseph

**Comments:** 24 Pages. Change done because of error in the abstract

We derive the properties of the absolute-absolute spacetime containing the absolute-absolute rest masses of particles and bodies to complement the first part of this paper. We establish the perfect isotropy and consequently the spherical shape of the universal ‘three-dimensional’ absolute-absolute space and the absolute-absolute rest masses of particles and bodies contained in it, relative to observers in the flat physical spacetime of the theory of gravitational relativity (TGR), but that the ‘three-dimensional’ absolute-absolute space naturally contracts to an isotropic ‘one-dimensional’ absolute-absolute space containing lines of absolute-absolute rest masses of particles and bodies, (which has no unique orientation in the physical Euclidean 3-space) relative to observers in the flat physical spacetime. We show further that the universal spherical absolute-absolute space effectively contains a ‘massless dust particle’ of absolute zero rest mass and absolute zero extension at every point of it and is without a unique center, but must be replaced by the universal isotropic `one-dimensional’ absolute-absolute space with no unique base (or origin), containing a ‘massless dust particle’ of absolute zero rest mass and absolute zero extension at every point along its length, relative to observers in the flat physical spacetime of TGR. We also show that the universal absolute-absolute time ‘dimension’ is perfectly homogeneous relative to observers in the physical spacetime. We show that the concepts of co-moving coordinates (or frames), ‘everywhereness’ and simultaneity obtain in the absolute-absolute spacetime and its underlying absolute-absolute intrinsic-intrinsic spacetime relative to observers in physical spacetime. Finally we demonstrate the impossibility (or non-existence) of absolute-absolute natural laws of physics in the absolute-absolute spacetime relative to observers in spacetime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1211.0109 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-11-30 07:21:42*

**Authors:** A. O. Adekugbe Joseph

**Comments:** 34 Pages. Change doen to the abstract

We show that the third layer of space-time-mass namely, the flat ‘two-dimensional’ absolute-absolute intrinsic-intrinsic spacetime containing the ‘two-dimensional’ absolute-absolute intrinsic-intrinsic rest masses of particles and bodies, in the derived spacetime/intrinsic spacetime diagrams in every gravitational field in the previous papers, is made manifest outwardly in flat ‘two-dimensional’ absolute-absolute spacetime containing the ‘two-dimensional’ absolute-absolute rest masses of particles and bodies, with respect to observers in the flat four-dimensional physical spacetime of the theory of gravitational relativity (TGR); that the flat ‘two-dimensional’ absolute-absolute spacetime containing the absolute rest masses of particles and bodies is imperceptibly embedded in the flat four-dimensional spacetime containing the inertial masses of particles and bodies and that the ‘one-dimensional’ absolute-absolute space is an isotropic ‘dimension’ (with no unique orientation in the physical Euclidean 3-space, with respect to observers in the physical spacetime. We develop the Newtonian theory of absolute-absolute gravity (NAAG) and Newtonian theory of absolute-absolute motion (NAAM) on the flat absolute-absolute spacetime with respect to observers in the physical spacetime and show that these are the only theories that qualify to be described as Newton's mechanics in a Newtonian absolute space, which Leibnitz pointed out. We therefore identify the flat ‘two-dimensional’ absolute-absolute spacetime as the Newtonian absolute spacetime (of classical mechanics); the ‘one-dimensional’ isotropic absolute-absolute space being the controversial Newtonian absolute space, the absolute-absolute time ‘dimension’ being the universal synchronous time coordinate that appears in the Gaussian line element and the absolute-absolute time being the universal absolute time parameter of classical mechanics. We conclude with a brief history of the controversies that the Newtonian absolute space concept has generated since Newton's time and the definite resolution of the controversies in the present theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1211.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-17 14:18:22*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The problem of reference frames was a long standing one which existed and was confusing for hundreds of years since the time of Galileo, until the ‘solution‘ provided by Einstein. However, the whole theory of relativity is considered invalid in this paper and my other paper1 in which I have attempted to show that the speed of light is constant only relative to its source and that the whole relativity theory is based on a mistake made by Maxwell in his assumptions about ‘free’ space. Relativity theory gave no explanation as to why planetary orbits are non-circular. Even the explanations given by general relativity on bending of light near the sun and Mercury perihelion advance are based on the estimated mass of the sun , which I have shown in my other paper2 to be overestimated. The problems of non- circular orbits and perihelion advance are fundamental ones connected to the long standing problem of reference frames. Therefore, the problem of reference frames is still an unsolved problem. This paper hopefully provides the ultimate solution. There is an absolute reference point in the universe with respect to which nature defines and determines its simple, elementary and universal laws and phenomena. The laws of physics (Newton’s laws) have been implicitly defined with respect to reference frames that are fixed to and moving with the systems to which they are to be applied. Newton’s laws never correctly (exactly) predicted the phenomena of nature, such as non –circular planetary orbits and Mercury perihelion advance. The fundamental reason is that those elementary Newton’s laws were not defined with respect to the absolute reference point. Nature defines and determines its laws and phenomena with respect to that absolute reference point, where as Newton’s laws are implicitly defined with respect to reference frames fixed to and moving with natural systems to which they are to be applied. Ideally, the problem was that Newton formulated his laws which he never observed (exactly) happen physically. He never observed circular orbits, but he formulated laws implying circular orbits. Ideally, he should have stated the reference frame with respect to which his laws are defined AND observed exactly as formulated. All correct laws of physics should predict natural phenomena correctly if they are to be considered correct. The absolute reference point is what it is (an absolute reference) because it just happens that the laws of physics happen to be simple, elementary, universal and be able to predict natural phenomena correctly only when they are defined with respect to that point. Newton’s laws can predict planetary orbits correctly only if they are redefined with respect to the absolute reference point. The reference frame of the observer has no fundamental role. The problem of orbit prediction should be solved in an absolute reference frame, and the results transformed to the reference frame of the observer. Can we discover the absolute reference point in the universe? Theoretically, yes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1211.0093 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-12-11 20:50:19*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 6 Pages. published in Prespacetime Journal, Dec. 2012, http://www.prespacetime.com

In the present paper, we make some comments on a recent paper by Sivaram & Arun in The Open Astronomy Journal 2012, 5, 7-11 with title: ‘Primordial rotation of the Universe, Hydrodynamics, Vortices and angular momenta of celestial objects’, where they put forth an interesting idea on the origin of rotation of stars and galaxies based on torsion gravity. We extend further their results by hypothesizing the presence of quantized vortices in relation with the torsion vector. If the hypothesis is proven and observed, then it can be used to explain numerous unexplainable phenomena in galaxies etc. The quantization of circulation can be generalized to be Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rules, which are found useful to describe quantization in astrophysical phenomena, i.e. planetary orbit distances. Further recommendation for observation of the proposed quantized vortices of superfluid
helium in astrophysical objects is also mentioned.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1211.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-11-27 11:58:05*

**Authors:** J. Bajnok

**Comments:** 6 Pages, 5 Figures

The phenomenon of the transverse Doppler effect provides an opportunity to validate the twin paradox (or clock paradox). Using this approach, a contradiction can be shown between the theory and the experimental results.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1211.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-13 13:49:49*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The ‘elliptical’ shape of planetary orbits results from motion of the solar system. The planetary orbits are essentially not elliptical. Motion of the solar system also results in the increase of the sizes of the orbits. The solar system is not only moving, but also moving with acceleration around an outward spiraling orbit. This acceleration leads to non fixed planetary orbits. Due to the acceleration of the solar system, the planets are moving in orbits that continuously increase in size. Thus, the planets are not actually moving in fixed orbits, but rather in a spiral path around the sun due to the acceleration of the sun so that the planets are always slightly receding away from the sun. (This effect is analogous with electromagnetism in which an accelerating charge radiates an EM wave). The acceleration of the solar system can be explained by the same factor causing acceleration of galaxies. Thus the paradigm of fixed orbits should be abandoned, according to this theory. If the solar system was not moving, the orbits would be circular and smaller. The apparent perihelion advance of Mercury may also be explained by this theory. It may be because of the non steady state condition and the accumulation of ‘errors’ throughout every revolution, and the position, speed and direction at the end of each revolution becomes the initial condition for the next revolution and hence the apparent perihelion advance in a complicated way. According to the theory proposed in this paper, a perihelion point always is at ninety degrees to the left of the sun (for counterclockwise revolution) when looking in the direction of motion of the solar system and cannot change in a steady state condition. Therefore, no sustainable orbital precession is possible in a steady state condition. However, there is no steady state condition in the solar system (at the small level of the observed perihelion advance of Mercury) because of the acceleration. We cannot talk about a perihelion point in a non steady state condition. The observed apparent advance of the perihelion is because of non steady state conditions. The orbits would be spherical and fixed and smaller if the solar system was at rest. One consequence of this theory is the need to review the calculated mass of the sun: the mass of the sun is actually smaller than what we know so far because it is calculated on the basis of the measured radius.
The acceleration of the solar system may be due to its spiraling outward orbit from the center of the universe. (in this paper, the whole concept of relativity and hence ‘expanding of space’ is discarded). The universe has a center. The acceleration of galaxies away from us may be a result of non linear and non uniform distribution of matter in the universe. The distribution of matter may be such that the overall density increases as we go away from the center. Thus every object in the universe is falling (spiraling and accelerating) towards outer space. Therefore, the observed red shift (acceleration) of galaxies may be due to their falling towards the higher density outwards away from us. On the cosmic scale, therefore, the distribution of matter (for example, directly proportional to the square of distance from the center; this should be checked mathematically) should be in such a way that the direction of the gravitational field is away from the center.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1211.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-13 06:46:20*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The theory is the light velocity’s theory in the special relativity theory in the gravity field. You can consider that this gravity field treats the Earth gravity field. In this time, if Earth mass is and Earth radius is , the light’s velocity is instead of .Hence, In the Earth, every special relativity’s experiment is more accurate by using the light speed is measured in the Earth.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1211.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-12 11:44:44*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Within the expanding cosmic Hubble volume, Hubble length can be considered as the gravitational or electromagnetic interaction range. Product of ‘Hubble volume’ and ‘cosmic critical density’ can be called as the “Hubble mass”. The three proposed assumptions are, 1) within the Hubble volume, each and every point in free space is influenced by the Hubble mass, 2) ‘molar electron mass’ can be considered as the rest mass of a new heavy charged elementary particle and 3) atomic gravitational constant is Avogadro number times the classical gravitational constant. This is a new approach and may be given a chance in understanding the four fundamental cosmological interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1211.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-11 14:18:24*

**Authors:** Sean Wade

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It is desirable to understand the movement of both matter and energy in the universe based upon fundamental principles of space and time. Time dilation and length contraction are features of Special Relativity derived from the observed constancy of the speed of light. Quantum Mechanics asserts that motion in the universe is probabilistic and not deterministic. While the practicality of these dissimilar theories is well established through widespread application inconsistencies in their marriage persist, marring their utility, and preventing their full expression. After identifying an error in perspective the current theories are tested by modifying logical assumptions to eliminate paradoxical contradictions. Analysis of simultaneous frames of reference leads to a new formulation of space and time that predicts the motion of both kinds of particles. Proper Space is a real, three-dimensional space clocked by proper time that is undergoing a densification at the rate of c. Coordinate transformations to a familiar object space and a mathematical stationary space clarify the counterintuitive aspects of Special Relativity. These symmetries demonstrate that within the local universe stationary observers are a forbidden frame of reference; all is in motion. In lieu of Quantum Mechanics and Uncertainty the use of the imaginary number i is restricted for application to the labeling of mass as either material or immaterial. This material phase difference accounts for both the perceived constant velocity of light and its apparent statistical nature. The application of Proper Space Kinematics will advance more accurate representations of microscopic, macroscopic, and cosmological processes and serve as a foundation for further study and reflection thereafter leading to greater insight.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1211.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-26 06:49:29*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Thank you

In the general relativity theory, the Rindler coordinate theory’s mathematics modernizes and the Rindler coordinate theory expands to be the Rindler coordinate theory of the accelerated observer that have the initial velocity. First, find the Rindler coordinate theory with initial velocity that used the tetrad on the new method and discover the new inverse-coordinate transformation of the Rindler coordinate theory with the initial velocity. Specially, if , this theory treats that the observer with the initial velocity does slowdown by the constant negative acceleration in the Rindler’s time-space.And according to the accelerated system or the decelerated system, consider the Doppler effect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1211.0012 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-11-05 12:18:34*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The bending of light near massive objects is not due to Newton’s gravitational field or Einstein’s curvature of space time, according to the theory being proposed in this paper. It is caused by the phenomenon of diffraction of light due to the huge size of the cosmic objects. The size of the object is so huge that its surface curvature is so small as not to allow a light beam to escape. The light beam can easily diffract around the surface of the object because the surface curvature is very small due to the its huge size. The black- hole effect requires two conditions: 1. Nearly spherical shape ( curved surface) of object 2. The size of the object should be greater than some critical size. Therefore, the observed bending of light beams by the sun (taken as an evidence to confirm the general theory of relativity) is not due to the Newtonian gravitational field of the sun or Einstein’s space –time curvature. Light scattered from the huge size object (the black- hole) and light passing by it are all diffracted around the surface. The size of the black-hole object is so enormous that light cannot get sufficiently far from it to escape its diffraction effect ; this means that the black hole has significant effect even on light rays very far away from it due to its cosmic size. Phenomena such as gravitational lensing can equally be explained by the theory presented in this paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1211.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-11-03 10:27:59*

**Authors:** Miroslaw J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper we define a four-dimensional effective mass tensor that can be suitable for the describe of the weak gravitational interactions in GR. In the metric of the weak gravitational field the components of the effective mass tensor depend on the components of the metric tensor, what can suggest that this tensor can in GR exist.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology