[18] **viXra:1908.0362 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-18 00:42:48*

**Authors:** Moshe Segal

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

The kinetic energy of a moving mass is attributed to the mass increase because of its velocity. Thus, mass is recognized as a special form of energy.
In contrast to mass, according to the charge invariance principle, charge is a constant entity, not affected by its velocity.
However, a spectator, monitoring a moving charge, sees an increase in the charge density, because of the Lorentz Length Contraction factor.
Also, modern physics already recognizes that this increase in the charge density is the reason that this spectator also detects the magnetic field that this moving charge generated.
From the above, the following question might be asked:
Why charge remains a distinct entity while mass was discovered to be another form
of energy.
As will be shown in this article, there are similarities between mass and
charge which might lead us to conclude that charge should also be considered as a
special form of energy.
Thus, this article do claim that Charge is also another form of Energy, as mass turned to be. This claim makes Energy as the only distinct entity (in addition to time and space), a simpler and cleaner view of nature.
This article derives this claim by analyzing the existing energy density equations of
electric and magnetic fields.
Then, by analyzing the existing experimental results related to charges and the fields they create from a new point of view, the article tries to evaluate if this leads also to additional new insights.
The results are the following conclusions:
1. Magnetic and electric fields which are generated by the same moving charge are always perpendicular to each other, thus, these fields have the structure of the electromagnetic emission from accelerating moving charges.
Actually, this article shows that a moving charge generates not just a single
additional field referred to as the magnetic field generated by the moving charge.
This article shows that a moving charge generates two additional field
components, additional to the electric field it generated when it was not moving.
One of them is an increase of the electric field intensity generated when the
charge was not moving. The other is a field perpendicular to the electric field
and might be considered as the actual additional magnetic field.
This resolves the mystery why only in electromagnetic emissions the magnetic
and electric fields are always perpendicular to each other, while in other
cases, the current knowledge of physics imply that they are not necessarily
perpendicular to each other.
2. Analogeous to the equation:
E = m c2 where E is energy, m is mass and c is the speed of light.
derived by the special theory of relativity, which describes the relation between the
energy embedded in mass and mass magnitude, this article suggests the equation :
E = σ c2 where σ is the charge density.
This equation describes the relation between the energy and charge density.
This proposed relation between charge density and energy cannot be considered as a
derivation or a proof. But, it is a reasonable and logic deduction, and thus, a
reasonable suggestion of the relation between charge density and energy.
3. Since charge comes in two types, a positive charge and a negative charge, then the energy embedded in charge also comes in two energy types.
This might be one of the crucial reasons why it was difficult to recognize charge as another form of energy.
However, the article provides a logical explanation to this issue. The article also assigns these energy types to one set of Energy Pairs.
This Energy Pairs Theory is also used to explain why in the electron and positron
collisions the charges completely disappear.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1908.0345 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-16 20:00:45*

**Authors:** Daniel Stedman

**Comments:** 2 Pages. From Medium.com

Wheeler's Anthropic Principle applied to marriage and co-habitation. Why do relationships experience disturbances? Because we are here!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1908.0330 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-15 19:16:52*

**Authors:** Xuan Zhong Ni

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this article, we derived an exact solution of the Einstein equations with cosmological term for cylindrically symmetric space .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1908.0309 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-14 09:29:44*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper reveals the long standing mysteries of inertia and gravity, based on Weber's electrodynamics formula. Conventionally it is presumed that the electrical and magnetic force of interaction between opposite charges is equal in magnitude to the force of interaction between similar charges. Changing this view leads to a very compelling theory of inertia and gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1908.0306 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-14 10:33:32*

**Authors:** G. L. Harnagel

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Since the first part of the twentieth century, it has been maintained that faster-than-light movement could produce time travel into the past with its accompanying causality-violation paradoxes. This paper demonstrates that this assumption is false because of misinterpretation of the Minkowski diagram and the Lorentz transformation (LT) upon which it is based, plus the completely unsubstantiated belief that the past is “back there somewhere.”

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1908.0256 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-13 09:02:50*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 6 Pages. adding several new links and minor corrections

The Higgs boson and its associated IVBs may be fairly characterized as "gate-keepers" of the Multiverse, in that they control/regulate the asymmetric products (such as our "matter only" Cosmos) that emerge from the "all-symmetric" domain of the Multiverse (i.e., the quantum-mechanical universal "void" of Heisenberg/Dirac).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1908.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-13 03:09:39*

**Authors:** Valentín Ibáñez Fernández

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

ABSTRACT
The special theory of relativity has been adopting as the basis of modern theoretical physics. Any assumption or contradiction is declaring erroneous.
Nevertheless, because of the lack of argument, and therefore not understanding, many people think that the special theory of relativity is true, although they do not know why.
In addition, there are still three scientific assessments in the academic environment.
1. The theory is correct and is one of the most outstanding discoveries of the 20th century.
2. The theory is a combination of truth and untruth.
3. The theory is absurd.
Some consideration of modern science on the special theory of relativity.
The Nobel Prize Committee refused to award premium to Einstein for the special theory of relativity.
Consequently, it is vital to investigate the essence of theory. This investigation is of unprecedented importance in terms of developing the science, philosophy and technology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1908.0238 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-12 12:05:58*

**Authors:** David Colasante

**Comments:** 4 Pages. append figure numbers

The Euclidean lens of interval-time coordinates reveals explanations for, rather than mere descriptions of finite, universal, constant and invariant speed limit c.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1908.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-10 06:28:05*

**Authors:** Milan D. Nešić

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Even a mathematical coordinate system without any physical quality cannot be without mass because it must assume both on the abscissa and on the ordinate some measuring units (numbers), even if they have been entered by a person at random. On the other hand, science is impossible without an analytical mathematical description that would be checked by an experiment, by man and his mass too. Then how can cosmology answer the question of the origin of the cosmos, which has mass, if the mass is assumed in advance as existing?
So that by no means, nor tacitly too, will man consider his technical coordinate system as absolute; by taking into account, therefore, the coordinate systems without any measuring unit, neither of the length nor of the time.
But is this then the coordinate system and any science at all?
The article exposes the true interpretation of Einstein's postulate c=const and a way of entering the philosophy of science and cosmology by which can be perhaps guessed the answer to the question:
How come the World exists?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1908.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-09 00:27:18*

**Authors:** Yang-Ho Choi

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

A world system is composed of the world lines of the rest observers in the system. We present a relativistic coordinate transformation, termed the transformation under constant light speed with the same angle (TCL-SA), between a rotating world system and the isotropic system. In TCL-SA, the constancy of the two-way speed of light holds, and the angles of rotation before and after the transformation are the same. Additionally a transformation for inertial world systems is derived from it through the limit operation of circular motion to linear motion. The generalized Sagnac effect involves linear motion, as well as circular motion. We deal with the generalized effect via TCL-SA and via the framework of Mansouri and Sexl (MS), analyzing the speeds of light. Their analysis results correspond to each other and are in agreement with the experimental results. Within the framework of special and general relativity (SGR), traditionally the Sagnac effect has been dealt with by using the Galilean transformation (GT) in cylindrical coordinates together with the invariant line element. Applying the same traditional methods to an inertial frame in place of the rotating one, we show that the speed of light with respect to proper time is anisotropic in the inertial frame, even if the Lorentz transformation, instead of GT, is employed. The local speeds of light obtained via the traditional methods within SGR correspond to those derived from TCL-SA and from the MS framework.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1908.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-09 00:34:54*

**Authors:** Yang-Ho Choi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Most physical societies seem to firmly believe that the special theory of relativity (STR) has been experimentally verified and dose not have any inconsistencies. However, the equivalence of inertial frames under light speed constancy is mathematically infeasible. I present a basic question of STR to show it, and ask the societies to answer the public question.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1908.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-07 13:56:17*

**Authors:** Karl De Paepe

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We show there is a scalar function calculated from a metric solution to the Einstein field equations for a static spherically symmetric sphere that depends on coordinates.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1908.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-07 22:57:29*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 12 Pages. 5 figures. Including Russian abstract.

There are many universe models, and the universe model based on general relativity has gained wide acceptance. The Big Bang theory is a view that many researchers accepted. However, what is the mechanism of The Big Bang in the universe, why the Universe Big Bang is produced, and what happened to the universe before the Big Bang in the universe, none of which is a good theory to explain. If we agree that there is Virtual Spacetime, we can explain the current expansion of the universe and the possible shrinkage from the mutual oscillation relationship between Virtual Spacetime and Real Spacetime. It is the expansion and contraction of the universe that is caused by the back and forth oscillation of the real spacetime and virtual spacetime component energy forms of the universe. That is, the mass and energy of the universe's Virtual and Real Spacetime transform each other, causing the expansion and contraction effects of the universe. The energy of Virtual Spacetime reflects the mass in Real Spacetime. In Real Spacetime, the reduction of the mass of the universe leads to an increase in the kinetic energy of Real Spacetime. Conversely, if the kinetic energy of Real Spacetime is reduced and the total mass of the universe is increased, it reflects the contraction of the universe. In addition, through the assumptions of Virtual Spacetime, we can also obtain a variety of states that may exist in the universe, including at least two states of gas and liquid. That is to say, if we look at the material composition of the universe from the scale of the universe, the forms of these substances include at least two forms, gaseous and liquid. The division of these two states of the universe also means that we can use the knowledge of fluid mechanics to deal with various problems of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1908.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-05 10:21:56*

**Authors:** Peter Hlava�?ka

**Comments:** 14 Pages. New version of original 2016 publication

Unified gravito-kinematics theory unifies gravity and kinematics on deeper level as current theories.
It is generally compatible with quotations of General relativity, but it extends it and introduces
different explanations to selected underlying principles on which is General relativity based. Unified
gravito-kinematics theory explains or solves following open problems: primary cause and underlying
mechanism of inertia, explanation of speed of light as speed limit, primary cause and underlying
mechanism of relativity (Lorentz transformations), explanation of creation of rings of planets
explanation of increasing speed of expansion of universe (dark energy), explanation of galaxy
rotation problem, solving of some singularities in relativity theory and solution for compatibility of
relativity theory with quantum mechanics, which will open door to merge of quantum mechanics
and what is now relativity theory. What is most important, Unified gravito-kinematics theory makes
very specific predictions, which can be tested by experiments and by astronomic observations. This
paper includes one proposed rotation experiment and explanation of creation of rings around
planets and smaller objects.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1908.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-02 08:23:29*

**Authors:** F. J. Gheeraert

**Comments:** Language=Dutch, 55 pages

A model of the COSMOS based on the assumption that the limit of gravitational forces, although capable of keeping galaxies "together", cannot influence anymore the velocity at which the galaxies themselves are moving away from the point Omega (point of Big Bang).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1908.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-08-02 15:36:20*

**Authors:** Michele Renda

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We perform an analysis of the derivation of Quantized Inertia (QI) theory, formerly known with the acronym MiHsC, as presented by McCulloch (2007, 2013). Two major flaws were found in the original derivation. We derive a discrete black-body radiation spectrum, deriving a different formulation for $F(a)$ than the one presented in the original theory. We present a numerical result of the new solution which is compared against the original prediction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1908.0010 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-14 09:35:38*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A new light speed anisotropy experiment is proposed that is based on time of flight technique. Two light transceivers (transponders) A and B are fixed to each end of a rigid rod. A short light pulse initially emitted by transponder A is detected by transponder B, upon which B is triggered to emit a light pulse, which in turn is detected by A, upon which A is triggered to emit another light pulse which will be detected by B, and so on. A short light pulse is continuously exchanged between two light transponders. An electronic counter counts the pulses emitted. Changing the orientation of the rod with respect to Earth's absolute velocity direction will cause a variation of the number of pulses counted in a given period of time ( i.e. the frequency ). The unique feature of this experiment is that Earth's absolute velocity can be determined, theoretically, with any desired accuracy. The new 'transponder' technique may reveal many of the mysteries of the speed of light, including light speed anisotropy and the dependence of group velocity of light on mirror velocity, which would not be possible or difficult otherwise. Conventional methods involve a single pulse with spatially separated emitter and detector and clock synchronization. The new technique involves a free running, continuous exchange of a short light pulse, with the frequency determined by the round trip time of the light pulse itself. Change in the (group) velocity of light is detected as change in the frequency of the light pulses.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1908.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-12 15:55:54*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 7 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications

The conservation of the interference pattern from double slit interference
proves that the wavelength is conserved in all inertial reference frames.
However, there is a popular belief in modern astronomy that the wavelength can be changed by the
choice of reference frame. This erroneous belief results in the problematic prediction of the radial speed of galaxy.
The reflection symmetry shows that the elapsed time is conserved in all inertial reference frames.
From both conservation properties, the velocity of the light is proved to be different in a different reference frame.
This different velocity was confirmed by lunar laser ranging test at NASA in 2009. The relative motion between the light source
and the light detector bears great similarity to the magnetic force on a moving charge. The motion changes the
interference pattern but not the wavelength in the rest frame of the star. This is known as the blueshift or the redshift in
astronomy. The speed of light in the
rest frame of the grism determines how the spectrum is shifted. Wide Field Camera 3 in Hubble Space
Telescope provides an excellent example on how the speed of light can change the spectrum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology