Relativity and Cosmology

1908 Submissions

[34] viXra:1908.0629 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-31 15:27:47

Calculating the Twin Paradox Using Length Contraction

Authors: Tom Fuchs
Comments: 3 Pages.

I show that the traveling twin ages less because that twin's path is shorter. The reason typically given, that only the traveling twin accelerates, is superfluous.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[33] viXra:1908.0623 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-30 09:22:17

Error of Einstein's Thought Experiment

Authors: Dariusz Dudało
Comments: 3 Pages.

Error of Einstein's thought experiment
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32] viXra:1908.0616 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-30 19:15:31

Maximum Force from Space Generation Model - with Annotation

Authors: Richard J Benish
Comments: 20 pages

Based on the work of Jacobson [1] and Gibbons, [2] Christoph Schiller [3] has shown not only that a maximum force follows from general relativity, but that general relativity can be derived from the principle of maximum force. In the present paper an alternative derivation of maximum force is given. Inspired by the equivalence principle, the approach is based on a modification of the well known special relativity equation for the velocity acquired from uniform proper acceleration. Though in Schiller's derivation the existence of gravitational horizons plays a key role, in the present derivation this is not the case. In fact, though the kinematic equation that we start with does exhibit a horizon, it is not carried over to its gravitational counterpart. A few of the geometrical consequences and physical implications of this result are discussed. The first page is an Annotation, which provides context with regard to motivation, and highlights correspondence with the IJTP reviewers, and with Christoph Schiller.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[31] viXra:1908.0609 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-29 08:53:37

Reissner-Nodstrom Solution and Energy-Momentum Density’s Conservation Law

Authors: Sangwha Yi
Comments: 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

We find Reissner-Nodstrom solution hold by the energy-momentum density’s conservation law (Noether’s theorem) of electromagnetic field in general relativity theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[30] viXra:1908.0606 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-29 12:57:14

Undulating Relativity + §28 Simplified Periellium Advance

Authors: Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia
Comments: 155 Pages.

Undulating Relativity + §28 Simplified Periellium Advance
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29] viXra:1908.0574 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-05 09:20:35

Michelson-Morley Experiment

Authors: Valery Timin
Comments: timinva@yandex.ru, 24 pages in Russian

The Michelson-Morley experiment is devoted to the experimental measurement of the anisotropy of the speed of light propagation on the Earth's surface. Since at that time it was believed that space is Galilean and it is filled with ether, and light propagates in it as in ASO in accordance with the additive law of addition of velocities in Galilean space, it was assumed possible to determine the speed of the Earth relative to the "ether" and the direction of motion of the Solar system in the cosmic ASO. But the result is known to be negative. Rose "ethereal wind" was isotropic, or rather-zero. Why didn't the theory match the experiment? In the orthonormal wave space Einstein's str the coordinates linked to each individual ISO to conditionally fit in space and time, the number of waves from resting in it a reference source. But whatever coordinate system is adopted, the number of waves on the trajectory will not depend on it. And phase of the returning route, the installation of MM-waves will coincide invariably in any wave ISO. But only with wave standards. Not Galilean absolute! If we had Galilean absolute standards, we would see the world differently. At least – if not eyes, ears, nose, tongue, hands (tactile) and other available feeling organs-at least in physical experiments. But we can not hope for this – all real standards are subject to electromagnetic and gravitational interaction with a finite, equal to the speed of light in a vacuum. And these are again the same waves. Опыт Майкельсона-Морли посвящен экспериментальному измерению анизотропии скорости распространения света на поверхности Земли. Т.к. в то время считалось, что пространство является галилеевым и оно заполнено эфиром, а свет распространяется в ней как в АСО в соответствии с аддитивным законом сложения скоростей в галилеевом пространстве, то предполагалось возможным определить скорость Земли относительно "эфира" и направление движения Солнечной системы в космическом АСО. Но результат, как известно, отрицательный. Роза "эфирного ветра" оказалась изотропной, точнее - нулевой. Почему теория не совпала с экспериментом? В ортонормированном волновом пространстве СТО Эйнштейна координаты привязаны в каждом отдельном ИСО к условно укладывающимся в пространстве и времени количествам волн от покоящегося в ней эталонного источника. Но какая бы ни была принята координатная система, количество волн на траектории не будет зависеть от нее. И фазы возвращающихся с маршрута установки ММ волн будут совпадать неизменно в любом волновом ИСО. Но только с волновыми эталонами. Не галилеевыми абсолютными! Если бы у нас имелись галилеевы абсолютные эталоны, мир мы увидели бы другим. По крайней мере – если не глазами, ушами, носом, языком, руками (тактильными) и другими доступными чувствующими органами – хотя бы в физических экспериментах. Но надеяться на это не приходится – все вещественные эталоны подчинены электромагнитному, слабому, сильному и гравитационному с конечной, равной скорости света в вакууме, взаимодействиям. А это – опять же те же самые волны.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[28] viXra:1908.0571 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-29 02:13:22

The Goedel Theorem and the Lorentz Contraction

Authors: Miroslav Pardy
Comments: 12 Pages. original article

The power spectral formula of the Cherenkov radiation of the system of two equal charges is derived in the framework of the source theory. The distance between charges is supposed to be relativistically contracted which manifests in the spectral formula. The knowledge of the spectral formula then can be used to verify of the Lorentz contraction of the relativistic length. A feasible experiment for the verification of the Lorentz contraction is suggested.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[27] viXra:1908.0555 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-27 15:21:08

Comments to the Idea of a Warp Drive.

Authors: A.V. Antipin
Comments: 4 Pages.

The paper presents general considerations, that show that the WARP devices will not be able to provide the expected superluminal velocity of moving objects. The actual speed of the moving objects using WARP will not exceed (c/2), i.e. HALF the speed of light. The article is based on the materials of the report made on December 03, 2017. Russian version of the article: http://vixra.org/abs/1711.0377 Версия на РУССКОМ языке: http://vixra.org/abs/1711.0377
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[26] viXra:1908.0537 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-26 16:33:26

A Graph for Describing Events in TSR

Authors: Per Hokstad
Comments: 6 Pages.

Abstract. We present a graphical approach which illustrates a chain of events within the theory of special relativity (TSR). The graph represents an alternative to the ‘world line’, and presents the standard time & position–parameters. Further, the graph provides the so-called ‘proper time’, which we refer to as ‘internal time’. The object we follow has a velocity being piecewise constant; a condition that can be relaxed. The travelling twin provides an example.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[25] viXra:1908.0534 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-25 10:23:37

Logical Composition up to Special Relativity Theory

Authors: Tsuneaki Takahashi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Science theory is composed of definitions, logic and facts. Facts are real and not deniable. Logic could have multiple expressions. So we need to choose most appropriate expression. A composition from definitions, facts and logic to Special Relativity Theory is tried here.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[24] viXra:1908.0504 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-29 07:56:34

The Irrelevance of Abstract Reference Frames in Physics

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 15 Pages.

In the past century, abstract mathematical reference frames have become the universal way to formulate and understand the fundamental laws of physics. Galileo's principle of relativity and Einstein's special relativity theory states that the laws of physics are the same in all inertial reference frames. The subtly hidden assumption in this statement is that the laws of physics can be formulated correctly at least in one inertial reference frame, which is shown to be wrong. In the general theory of relativity (accelerating) reference frames can even affect the laws of physics. The true laws of physics became hidden by the very idea of using reference frames as the observers. In the reference frame concept, the laws of physics are formulated as seen by the third observer, i.e. reference frame. The mystery that has eluded physicists so far is that a third observer (reference frame) is irrelevant or cannot see the true nature of electromagnetic interaction between two charges, for example. Electromagnetic and gravitational phenomena are elusive in that they do not act in the classical way expected by the third observer (reference frame). The traditional concept of reference frames was based on classical, conventional thinking and experience, such as the motion of a ball or the propagation of classical waves as seen in two relatively moving inertial frames. Einstein's special relativity theory was built upon the fallacious Galileo's reference frames. Galileo's relativity is only approximately correct and applies only to ordinary, everyday experiences and is fundamentally wrong. According to the new theory proposed in this paper, the observer is fundamentally the body or particle directly experiencing electromagnetic or gravitational fields and waves. The observer is the atom, molecule, electron or proton directly detecting or experiencing electromagnetic and gravitational fields and waves, such as the atoms in light detecting devices, the human eye or massive bodies experiencing gravitation of another body. Einstein (correctly) discovered his chasing a beam of light thought experiment. However, since physicists universally thought in terms of reference frames, this ( wrongly ) led him to the special theory of relativity. The principle of relativity should be discarded ; reference frames, whether inertial, accelerating or rotating , are irrelevant in the formulation of the fundamental laws of physics. The concept of reference frames must be abandoned altogether. The fundamental laws of physics cannot be correctly formulated in any reference frame, i.e. relative to the third 'observer' who is not directly experiencing electromagnetic or gravitational phenomena. A new way of formulating the laws of physics relative to (as seen by ) the direct observer is introduced. Newton's and Mach's views on inertia will be reconciled.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[23] viXra:1908.0484 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-16 10:16:13

Cutting the Gordian Knot of Theoretical Physics (The Unification of Gravitational and Maxwellian Fields)

Authors: Rolf Warnemünde
Comments: 33 Pages. c 2019 CC BY-NC-ND

It concerns the unification of Maxwell-Field and Gravitational-Field without compromise consisting of: 1. A derivation of the general equations of continuously differentiable fluctuating 3-dimensional vector fields turning out to be generalized Maxwell-Equations 2. Identifying the Einstein-Space as the result of deforming an Euclidean Space, 3. Identifying the fluctuating hypersurface of the Einstein-Space as gravitational wave propagating with the velocity of light seen from an observer space or rather coordinate space, This leads to 1. the quantitative unification of Maxwell-Field and Gravitational-Field, 2. the facilitation of quantizing gravitational fields, 3. considerations of general gravitational waves from a new perspective. With the described unification electromagnetism is directly led back to the most fundamental terms of physics, space and time.Last but not least the importance of the Einstein-Equations for microphysics is proved
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[22] viXra:1908.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-21 23:05:24

An Explanation of Foucault Pendulum Leads to no-Shape Substance (Subquantum Aether) and Some Implications

Authors: Victor Christianto, Robert Neil Boyd, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 15 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Comments are welcome

The present paper explains Foucault Pendulum experiment which leads to No-Shape Substance form of SQ Aether of Qi Ji. We also discuss some related phenomena. This paper can be viewed as a dialogue effort to find connection between the notion of aether by Western scientists in the past and No-Shape Substance by Qi Ji et al.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[21] viXra:1908.0410 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-27 00:24:37

Sagnac Effect on Inertial Motion

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 3 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications

Wang, Zheng, and Yao carried out an experiment in 2004 to determine if the Sagnac effect can be applied to the inertial motion. Their experiment showed that there was indeed phase difference between the two light beams passing through the same optical fiber in inertial motion. However, the focus of their experiment was on the rest frame of the light source. They did not realize that the time difference from the phase difference should exist in all reference frames. The difference in the elapsed time taken by two light beams to pass through the linear fiber segment in the rest frame of the segment effectively corresponds to the speed difference between two light beams. The Sagnac effect in inertial motion provides a precise experimental evidence that the speed of light is different in a different reference frame.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20] viXra:1908.0409 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-22 09:34:08

Can the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation be Doppler Shifted Light from Receding Superluminal Galaxies ?

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper we propose a new idea that the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation ( CMBR ) could be Doppler shifted light from receding superluminal distant galaxies. One immediate objection to this idea is that superluminal velocities do not exist in nature. However, we know that superluminal galaxies have already been observed. Moreover, in my recent paper entitled " Absolute Motion, Light Speed Limit, Superluminal Galaxies and Star Light Bending " , I have shown how absolute motion, light speed limit and superluminal galaxies can co-exist in the universe. Hubble's law also predicts superluminal galaxies at sufficiently large distances. A new exponential law of Doppler effect is introduced: λ' = λ eV/c and f ' = f e -V/c , where e is Euler's constant. Using the new law of Doppler effect, CMBR frequency and Hubble's law we estimate the distance and speed of the superluminal galaxies the CMBR radiation is mainly coming from. The new theory (" Doppler shifted light from superluminal galaxies" ) can also explain the origin of apparently unrelated cosmic X ray background radiation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19] viXra:1908.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-18 10:08:45

Compton Scattering Not Well Verified

Authors: Chan Rasjid Kah Chew
Comments: 6 Pages.

Compton scattering cannot yet be said to have been verified beyond any doubt. The only verification experiment performed is still the original experiment of A.H.Compton from 1922. To date, there is not another experiment done to corroborate the 1922 findings. There are modern experiments done in the laboratories of today’s universities to verify Compton scattering with γ-ray sources from radionuclides where the energies of the rays are measured with NaI scintillation detectors or germanium detectors. Such experiments are shown to be invalid as the result that shows clear agreement with the theory is all due to the calibration of the detectors and nothing besides. Furthermore, a verification that the inverse of energy 1/E varying linearly with (1 − cos θ) is insufficient as a verification of the full Compton scattering formula for wavelength changes. A proper verification requires verifying the wavelength formula where the wavelength is measured directly.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18] viXra:1908.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-19 02:32:39

Absolute Motion, Light Speed Limit, Superluminal Galaxies and Star Light Bending

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper we assert that absolute motion is not motion relative to the hypothetical ether. Absolute motion is fundamentally motion of a body relative to all matter in the universe. Hence absolute motion does exist but the ether doesn't exist. The ether has been disproved by the Michelson-Morley experiment and the Arago and the Airy star light refraction and aberration experiments. On the other hand, absolute motion has been detected in the Silvertooth, the CMBR anisotropy, the Marinov, the Roland De Witte and other experiments. We show how this view of absolute motion can also be compatible with the observed phenomena of light speed limit, superluminal galaxies. We show that star light deflection near the Sun doesn't exist.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[17] viXra:1908.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-16 20:00:45

Anthropic Principle in Human Relationships - Why Couples Fight

Authors: Daniel Stedman
Comments: 2 Pages. From Medium.com

Wheeler's Anthropic Principle applied to marriage and co-habitation. Why do relationships experience disturbances? Because we are here!
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[16] viXra:1908.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-15 19:16:52

An Exact Solution of the Einstein Equations with Cosmological Term for Cylindrically Symmetric Space

Authors: Xuan Zhong Ni
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this article, we derived an exact solution of the Einstein equations with cosmological term for cylindrically symmetric space .
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15] viXra:1908.0309 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-19 02:38:06

Inertia as a Net Magnetic Effect and Gravity as a Net Electrostatic Force

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper reveals the long standing mysteries of inertia and gravity, based on Weber's electrodynamics formula. Conventionally it is presumed that the electrical and magnetic force of interaction between opposite charges is equal in magnitude to the force of interaction between similar charges. Changing this view leads to a very compelling theory of inertia and gravity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14] viXra:1908.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-14 10:33:32

Causality Between Events with Space-Like Separation

Authors: G. L. Harnagel
Comments: 6 Pages.

Since the first part of the twentieth century, it has been maintained that faster-than-light movement could produce time travel into the past with its accompanying causality-violation paradoxes. This paper demonstrates that this assumption is false because of misinterpretation of the Minkowski diagram and the Lorentz transformation (LT) upon which it is based, plus the completely unsubstantiated belief that the past is “back there somewhere.”
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[13] viXra:1908.0256 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-21 13:52:33

The Higgs Boson and the Weak Force IVBs: Gatekeepers of the Multiverse

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 7 Pages. replacing postscript

Abstract The Higgs boson and its associated IVBs may be fairly characterized as "gate-keepers" of the Multiverse, in that they control/regulate the asymmetric products (such as our "matter only" Cosmos) that emerge from the "all-symmetric" domain of the Multiverse (i.e., the quantum-mechanical universal "void" of Heisenberg/Dirac).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[12] viXra:1908.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-13 03:09:39

Brief Overview of the Theory of Relativity and Modern Science.

Authors: Valentín Ibáñez Fernández
Comments: 13 Pages.

ABSTRACT The special theory of relativity has been adopting as the basis of modern theoretical physics. Any assumption or contradiction is declaring erroneous. Nevertheless, because of the lack of argument, and therefore not understanding, many people think that the special theory of relativity is true, although they do not know why. In addition, there are still three scientific assessments in the academic environment. 1. The theory is correct and is one of the most outstanding discoveries of the 20th century. 2. The theory is a combination of truth and untruth. 3. The theory is absurd. Some consideration of modern science on the special theory of relativity. The Nobel Prize Committee refused to award premium to Einstein for the special theory of relativity. Consequently, it is vital to investigate the essence of theory. This investigation is of unprecedented importance in terms of developing the science, philosophy and technology.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[11] viXra:1908.0238 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-12 12:05:58

'c' for Yourself! (Why a Speed Limit?)

Authors: David Colasante
Comments: 4 Pages. append figure numbers

The Euclidean lens of interval-time coordinates reveals explanations for, rather than mere descriptions of finite, universal, constant and invariant speed limit c.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[10] viXra:1908.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-10 06:28:05

There is no Coordinate System Without Mass

Authors: Milan D. Nešić
Comments: 11 Pages.

Even a mathematical coordinate system without any physical quality cannot be without mass because it must assume both on the abscissa and on the ordinate some measuring units (numbers), even if they have been entered by a person at random. On the other hand, science is impossible without an analytical mathematical description that would be checked by an experiment, by man and his mass too. Then how can cosmology answer the question of the origin of the cosmos, which has mass, if the mass is assumed in advance as existing? So that by no means, nor tacitly too, will man consider his technical coordinate system as absolute; by taking into account, therefore, the coordinate systems without any measuring unit, neither of the length nor of the time. But is this then the coordinate system and any science at all? The article exposes the true interpretation of Einstein's postulate c=const and a way of entering the philosophy of science and cosmology by which can be perhaps guessed the answer to the question: How come the World exists?
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[9] viXra:1908.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-09 00:27:18

Consistent Coordinate Transformation for Relativistic Circular Motion and Speeds of Light

Authors: Yang-Ho Choi
Comments: 27 Pages.

A world system is composed of the world lines of the rest observers in the system. We present a relativistic coordinate transformation, termed the transformation under constant light speed with the same angle (TCL-SA), between a rotating world system and the isotropic system. In TCL-SA, the constancy of the two-way speed of light holds, and the angles of rotation before and after the transformation are the same. Additionally a transformation for inertial world systems is derived from it through the limit operation of circular motion to linear motion. The generalized Sagnac effect involves linear motion, as well as circular motion. We deal with the generalized effect via TCL-SA and via the framework of Mansouri and Sexl (MS), analyzing the speeds of light. Their analysis results correspond to each other and are in agreement with the experimental results. Within the framework of special and general relativity (SGR), traditionally the Sagnac effect has been dealt with by using the Galilean transformation (GT) in cylindrical coordinates together with the invariant line element. Applying the same traditional methods to an inertial frame in place of the rotating one, we show that the speed of light with respect to proper time is anisotropic in the inertial frame, even if the Lorentz transformation, instead of GT, is employed. The local speeds of light obtained via the traditional methods within SGR correspond to those derived from TCL-SA and from the MS framework.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8] viXra:1908.0184 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-29 07:49:25

Question to Physical Societies That Believe Special Relativity Is Consistent

Authors: Yang-Ho Choi
Comments: 2 Pages.

Most physical societies seem to firmly believe that the special theory of relativity (STR) has been experimentally verified and dose not have any inconsistencies. However, the equivalence of inertial frames under light speed constancy is mathematically infeasible. I present a basic question of STR to show it, and ask the societies, especially the American Physical Society, to answer the public question.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7] viXra:1908.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-07 13:56:17

Coordinates and Static Sphere Metric Solutions

Authors: Karl De Paepe
Comments: 1 Page.

We show there is a scalar function calculated from a metric solution to the Einstein field equations for a static spherically symmetric sphere that depends on coordinates.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[6] viXra:1908.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-07 22:57:29

Random Liquid Cosmological Model of the Universe

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 12 Pages. 5 figures. Including Russian abstract.

There are many universe models, and the universe model based on general relativity has gained wide acceptance. The Big Bang theory is a view that many researchers accepted. However, what is the mechanism of The Big Bang in the universe, why the Universe Big Bang is produced, and what happened to the universe before the Big Bang in the universe, none of which is a good theory to explain. If we agree that there is Virtual Spacetime, we can explain the current expansion of the universe and the possible shrinkage from the mutual oscillation relationship between Virtual Spacetime and Real Spacetime. It is the expansion and contraction of the universe that is caused by the back and forth oscillation of the real spacetime and virtual spacetime component energy forms of the universe. That is, the mass and energy of the universe's Virtual and Real Spacetime transform each other, causing the expansion and contraction effects of the universe. The energy of Virtual Spacetime reflects the mass in Real Spacetime. In Real Spacetime, the reduction of the mass of the universe leads to an increase in the kinetic energy of Real Spacetime. Conversely, if the kinetic energy of Real Spacetime is reduced and the total mass of the universe is increased, it reflects the contraction of the universe. In addition, through the assumptions of Virtual Spacetime, we can also obtain a variety of states that may exist in the universe, including at least two states of gas and liquid. That is to say, if we look at the material composition of the universe from the scale of the universe, the forms of these substances include at least two forms, gaseous and liquid. The division of these two states of the universe also means that we can use the knowledge of fluid mechanics to deal with various problems of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[5] viXra:1908.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-05 10:21:56

Unified Gravito-Kinematics Theory Version March 2019

Authors: Peter Hlava�?ka
Comments: 14 Pages. New version of original 2016 publication

Unified gravito-kinematics theory unifies gravity and kinematics on deeper level as current theories. It is generally compatible with quotations of General relativity, but it extends it and introduces different explanations to selected underlying principles on which is General relativity based. Unified gravito-kinematics theory explains or solves following open problems: primary cause and underlying mechanism of inertia, explanation of speed of light as speed limit, primary cause and underlying mechanism of relativity (Lorentz transformations), explanation of creation of rings of planets explanation of increasing speed of expansion of universe (dark energy), explanation of galaxy rotation problem, solving of some singularities in relativity theory and solution for compatibility of relativity theory with quantum mechanics, which will open door to merge of quantum mechanics and what is now relativity theory. What is most important, Unified gravito-kinematics theory makes very specific predictions, which can be tested by experiments and by astronomic observations. This paper includes one proposed rotation experiment and explanation of creation of rings around planets and smaller objects.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[4] viXra:1908.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-02 08:23:29

The COSMOS: A Uniformly Spherical Expansion model (U.S.E.)

Authors: F. J. Gheeraert
Comments: Language=Dutch, 55 pages

A model of the COSMOS based on the assumption that the limit of gravitational forces, although capable of keeping galaxies "together", cannot influence anymore the velocity at which the galaxies themselves are moving away from the point Omega (point of Big Bang).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3] viXra:1908.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-02 15:36:20

A Sceptical Analysis of Quantized Inertia

Authors: Michele Renda
Comments: 6 Pages.

We perform an analysis of the derivation of Quantized Inertia (QI) theory, formerly known with the acronym MiHsC, as presented by McCulloch (2007, 2013). Two major flaws were found in the original derivation. We derive a discrete black-body radiation spectrum, deriving a different formulation for $F(a)$ than the one presented in the original theory. We present a numerical result of the new solution which is compared against the original prediction.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2] viXra:1908.0010 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-14 09:35:38

Proposal for a New Light Speed Anisotropy Experiment Based on Time of Flight Method by Continuous Exchange of a Short Light Pulse Between Two Light Transponders

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 17 Pages.

A new light speed anisotropy experiment is proposed that is based on time of flight technique. Two light transceivers (transponders) A and B are fixed to each end of a rigid rod. A short light pulse initially emitted by transponder A is detected by transponder B, upon which B is triggered to emit a light pulse, which in turn is detected by A, upon which A is triggered to emit another light pulse which will be detected by B, and so on. A short light pulse is continuously exchanged between two light transponders. An electronic counter counts the pulses emitted. Changing the orientation of the rod with respect to Earth's absolute velocity direction will cause a variation of the number of pulses counted in a given period of time ( i.e. the frequency ). The unique feature of this experiment is that Earth's absolute velocity can be determined, theoretically, with any desired accuracy. The new 'transponder' technique may reveal many of the mysteries of the speed of light, including light speed anisotropy and the dependence of group velocity of light on mirror velocity, which would not be possible or difficult otherwise. Conventional methods involve a single pulse with spatially separated emitter and detector and clock synchronization. The new technique involves a free running, continuous exchange of a short light pulse, with the frequency determined by the round trip time of the light pulse itself. Change in the (group) velocity of light is detected as change in the frequency of the light pulses.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1] viXra:1908.0005 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-12 15:55:54

Error in Modern Astronomy

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 7 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications

The conservation of the interference pattern from double slit interference proves that the wavelength is conserved in all inertial reference frames. However, there is a popular belief in modern astronomy that the wavelength can be changed by the choice of reference frame. This erroneous belief results in the problematic prediction of the radial speed of galaxy. The reflection symmetry shows that the elapsed time is conserved in all inertial reference frames. From both conservation properties, the velocity of the light is proved to be different in a different reference frame. This different velocity was confirmed by lunar laser ranging test at NASA in 2009. The relative motion between the light source and the light detector bears great similarity to the magnetic force on a moving charge. The motion changes the interference pattern but not the wavelength in the rest frame of the star. This is known as the blueshift or the redshift in astronomy. The speed of light in the rest frame of the grism determines how the spectrum is shifted. Wide Field Camera 3 in Hubble Space Telescope provides an excellent example on how the speed of light can change the spectrum.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology