[46] **viXra:1905.0611 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-31 09:22:11*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

The theory of special relativity showed that particles of light, photons, travel through a vacuum at a constant pace of 670,616,629 miles per hour-a speed that's immensely difficult to achieve and impossible to surpass in that environment. [28] Scientists believe that time is continuous, not discrete-roughly speaking, they believe that it does not progress in "chunks," but rather "flows," smoothly and continuously. [27] Physicists theorize that this time-reversal violation is the key ingredient needed to unravel the cosmic mystery of the missing antimatter. [26] The arrow of time and the accelerated expansion are two fundamental empirical facts of the universe. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[45] **viXra:1905.0606 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-31 11:39:09*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: The frequency of the numbers 4 and 8 appearing in Majoranic Holographic Cyclic E8 Symmetric theory is sufficiently high that these numbers can be taken as a useful signal of the theory in operation

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[44] **viXra:1905.0604 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-31 18:28:36*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

as the photon goes larger distances it stops spinning its space inside round and round more and so it calms down and has less frequencies and more "wavelength" and then ends up redshifting

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[43] **viXra:1905.0602 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-31 22:04:34*

**Authors:** Edwin Eugene Klingman

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Special relativity is non-intuitive, leading to logical contradictions. For over a century there has been no alternative theory capable of explaining the many relativity experiments, especially time-dilation experiments. Unlike quantum mechanics, relativity is interpreted only in terms of space-time symmetry. Here we derive and discuss an alternative theory, Energy-time dynamics, that explains relativistic experiments and does not yield the logical contradictions of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[42] **viXra:1905.0596 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-30 14:34:55*

**Authors:** Andrew Goldfarb, Nok Zgrgl

**Comments:** 5 pages.

This is a review of the main work on the ancient and experimental issues in the study of the potential for inflation in the framework of the classical general relativity. The major subjects considered include the extension of general relativity to the universe in a curved spacetime, and the implications of new and innovative methods for peculiar and general theories of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[41] **viXra:1905.0595 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-06-28 12:34:50*

**Authors:** Ting-Hang Pei

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The metric for describing the spacetime geometry of a charged and rotating source in general relativity is the Kerr-Newman metrics, and it is an appropriate one to discuss the movement on the Earth. It is explicit that the velocity of light we measure is dependent on the rotation and net charges of the Earth, and usually the measurements are less than it in the really free space, at infinity or the gravity-free space, as long as the net charges of the Earth are less than 1.4x10^19 C. According to this, the velocity of light in the really gravity-free space should be corrected. When we adopt the coordinate time at infinity as the unified time at each measurement placement on the Earth, it is 0.2085 m/s slightly larger than what we identify in vacuum on the Earth, 2.9979458x10^8 m/s. The calculations also show the tiny deviation on the speed of light along the longitudinal direction between two poles and the equator, and it also exists deviation between the left-handed circularly light and the right-handed circularly one in the equator. We also discuss the difference on the speed of light in the local reference frame by using the proper time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1905.0549 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-05-29 08:16:03*

**Authors:** Christopher Pilot

**Comments:** 7 Pages. For some reason, the original version, was not transmitted correctly.

This is a short note, based on previous work, which shows how a time varying gravitational constant may help solve the current tension in Hubble's constant, and the predicted age of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1905.0532 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-27 09:51:44*

**Authors:** Michael C Dickerson

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The escape velocity between two opposite electrical charges can be treated in a similar fashion as the escape velocity of two gravitational masses. For a given positive and negative charge, one can ask at what radial distance would a particle need to travel at the speed of light in order to escape the electrical attraction towards the other charged mass. In an electron-proton system this distance is found to be 5.62 x 10^-15 meters, which is several times larger than the proton radius. It is proposed that once inside this radius, where it would have to travel the speed of light to escape the electrical attraction of the proton, it can never move to that radius or beyond toward the outside world. This new bound composite particle would be stable, electrically neutral, have no chemical properties, and a mass in the range of 1.73 x 10^-26 kg. It could have also been produced in copious amounts in the early universe when it was extremely hot and dense, in which case it could be a dark matter candidate.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1905.0508 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-05-27 21:22:09*

**Authors:** Robert Bennett

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Application of Newton’s laws to elastic collisions in different inertial frames produces disturbing violations of the revered laws of physics known as the conservation laws of momentum and energy. The analysis that follows will illustrate the problem – ignored by physics academia – but obvious to those with open and rational minds.
We intend to repeat classical collision theory in the reference frame of the laboratory - the ECEF as known by NASA – the same frame in which Galileo, Newton and subsequent experimentalists derived the primitive laws of motion and established the foundations of dynamics. Then the motion solution in the relative frame of motion will be considered... wherein lies the surprise. The findings are not surprising for adherents to the ALFA model of reality, one of whose key premises is the Earth as fixed and immovable. Yes, the geocentric Earth, revealing itself humbly in the simplest of motion – the laws governing particle collisions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1905.0506 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-27 00:03:37*

**Authors:** Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

For the first time in 100 years, an explanation of the Paradox of twins with the help of Poincaré’s Theory of Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1905.0492 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-24 13:33:36*

**Authors:** Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

If we want to get the Derived quantities Lorentz transformation we must be finds the Lorentz transformations for Fundamental Physical Quantities

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1905.0473 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-23 09:47:03*

**Authors:** John Raymond

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

I provide you with scientific clues for you to consider with respect to whether Einstein may have suffered some sort of oversight or not when he first released his Special Relativity Theory in 1905.
I briefly discuss the 1887 Michelson and Morely Ether experiment and then provide you with ideas to consider as to whether some sort of Ether like field [say like a dynamic fluid condition] exists in the universe. The question that I then ask you to think about is if there is such a field is it possible that the Earth is moving through this field at a specific and measurable rate of speed? I conclude by asking you to consider what the possible ramifications are for contemporary mainstream physics if this eventually proves to be the case.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1905.0472 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-23 10:43:01*

**Authors:** Daniele Zamori

**Comments:** 4 pages, possible model regarding the Big Crunch and the fate of the Universe.

In this paper there will be a theory about the destiny of the Universe, regarding a solution about the future movement of the Universe. Examinating the actual theories about the destiny of the Universe, and ,doing a reductio ad absurdum, we could formalize a solution. Unfortunately the things that we know about the Big Bang are few, and without any kind of evidence it is pretty difficult to create a plausible solution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1905.0466 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-23 22:25:58*

**Authors:** Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The paradox of the twins.
The decision with the help of the Theory of Relativity Poincare. Language is Russian.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1905.0438 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-22 17:04:42*

**Authors:** Dariusz Dudało

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Analiza eksperymentu myślowego Einsteina i pokazanie błędu w założeniach.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1905.0424 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-21 10:35:58*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** Today is my 95th birthday and this is my most important 1 page note to date.

Abstract: A highly accurate critical value of Hubble's constant of 78.20 (Km/s)/Mps has been found including the 4430 MeV heavy Majorana 4th neutrino.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1905.0413 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-21 17:02:21*

**Authors:** Alfonso Leon Guillen Gomez

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

The author discusses the theory of the time-space fluid that results from the supposed gravitational waves that would have detected LIGO, and reaffirms the spacetime as a structural geometric property of the dynamic matter, now with the strong argument that in an unnatural way, the physicists and philosophers of science confer the conception of the author to that ridiculous material spacetime, while depriving matter, of the intrinsic spacetime. In addition, he warns about the conceptual contradiction existing between NASA and Caltech over gravitational waves, being absurd the concept of Caltech, operator of LIGO, since gravitational waves would propagate in five non-detectable dimensions. NASA validly recognizes that they would be waves of space; therefore, there are no spacetime waves that correspond to gravitational waves that, according to the great current of relativistic physicists, would exist. Finally, the author reaffirms that quadrupole waves detected by LIGO are waves of quantum vacuum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1905.0408 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-22 02:25:53*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

so the main idea of relativity is that motion is relative to get a feel for that lets look at point A and point B and a car moving from one to the other now lets say that point A is moving away from point B you would need more speed to achieve the same velocity of the car originally and if point A goes nearer to point B you would need less velocity to reach with the car from point A to point B

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1905.0344 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-18 18:07:48*

**Authors:** Tony Bermanseder

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

The experimental data collected by the various supernova observers, and under utility of the Hubble Space Telescope to track the brightness variations of discovered supernovae type Ia, now converged in 1998 to the conclusion, that distant supernovae are between 20% and 30% dimmer than expected and as a consequence of their measured redshift they appear to be further away than theory permits.
An interpretation of this discovery implies, that the universe's expansion is accelerating; the measured redshift depicting a distance further away for a dimmer brightness than anticipated by theory.
Closer analysis of the redshift data shows an expected distribution of luminosity, calibrated to their distances in the Chilean Cala-Tololo data, up to a redshift of about 0.11 and with a redshift-gap until a redshift of 0.3; after which the 'High-Z's' begin to show the 'curving away' from a predicted decelerating expansion rate in concordance with an Euclidean flat universe of Einsteinian General Relativity.
The highest redshift recorded in 1998 was that of 'supernova Iae' at (z=1.1) by the 'High-Z-Team'.
Why is there a redshift gap between z=0.11 and z=0.30 approximately?
Does this imply a scarcity of supernovas in this redshift interval or is there a cosmological reason for this gap?
Is this cosmological reason at the core of the Dark Energy implication and the 'factuality' of an accelerating universe?
This treatise shall elucidate the cosmological nature of Dark Energy and the inferred accelerating cosmology of an accelerating universe, stipulated to begin some 5-6 Billion years ago and as a change from a measured deceleration from light speed in the early universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1905.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-15 10:35:29*

**Authors:** Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis

**Comments:** 8 pages, 6 figures

For more than a hundred years, discussion has been going on in physics: is gravity a force or a curvature of space? This article shows that gravity is both a force and a curvature of space simultaneously. The forcefield of gravity and space are synonyms. Gravity, like other potential forcefields, has allowed different energy levels.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1905.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-15 12:56:08*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Because of misidentity, the heavy Majorana neutrino has been mistaken for the tetraquark, resulting in a falsely low value of Hubble's constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1905.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-14 19:40:27*

**Authors:** Simon WW Manley

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The copious data records from Dayton Miller’s heroic experiments have been analyzed and re-analyzed for nearly a century by authors wishing to reinstate some version of an ether theory with a preferred frame of reference. These authors claim that a small but significant signal at the period of half a rotation in the Miller data represents anisotropy in the propagation of light, the “ether drift” effect sought in Michelson and Morley’s 19th century experiment. The analysis of variance presented in this paper, however, shows a component at the period of a full rotation, which can only be a systematic in the machine or the observer. The magnitude of the systematic matches that of the component at the half-rotation period. The remarkable aspect of the story is that the implications of the full rotation systematic, which comprehensively invalidates the claim that the data reveals an “ether drift,” or any other meaningful physics, has gone virtually unnoticed for nearly 100 years.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1905.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-13 21:33:19*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

a brief discussion why temporal curvature is not accepted by convention as an explanation for gravitation

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1905.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-12 11:34:21*

**Authors:** Nikhil Karth, Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

this paper talks about the mass energy equivalence theorythis is how we derived some aspects of the equivalence
its known that work is the force*distance or w=fd and that energy is work multiplied by time or E=wt
now E=fdt which is equal to E=madt which is equal to
E=m(d^2)/t which looks like E=m (x^2)/t which is equal to the equivalence principle E=mc^2

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1905.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-12 19:12:17*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

When a physical system loses energy instead of gaining it, another kind of relativity holds, that of lost energies and, as we will see, the atom
will give us a numerical proof of all that.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1905.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-13 04:26:12*

**Authors:** Ayman Kassem

**Comments:** 178 Pages.

The mechanism of the universe’s inflation is variation of energy in
space and in time , the relationship between space and time
varying energy fields is governed by energy constraining inside a
Planck scale entity : the quanton
as energy varies in space or in time, it creates associated fields
and through their interactions, inflationary momentum and the
fundamental forces are generated
this model comes in three parts : energy constraining , the
evolution of the quanton and its different transitions are discussed
until the stable state is reached
the second part , electromagnetic waves in terms of space and
time varying energy fields and role of Maxwell equations in the
evolution of the quanton
the third part , energy fields and their interactions , while using
basic physics concepts , it shows that the origin many of the
physical phenomena can be traced back to the Planck scale world

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1905.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-11 11:07:00*

**Authors:** Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Assume mass and electric current are Fifth and sixth dimensions in Special Relativity and Redefinition of the point as a circle. According to Einstein's first hypothesis only, it can be reached to transfer formats between reference frames in the special theory of relativity

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1905.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-11 19:24:48*

**Authors:** Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Conclusion of
(1)Relativistic transformation of electrical current.
(2) Charge is constant from frame to frame
(3) Lorentz transformation of a charge-current density

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1905.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-10 12:06:17*

**Authors:** eva K deli

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Page and Wootters’ mechanism (PaW) predicts that quantum entanglement leaves the state of the universe static. We satisfy the principle by dividing the cosmos into compact and non-compact dimensions, by insulating the wave function from space and gravity. In this scenario, entangled sister particles satisfy conservation principles independently of distance but modify the local volume. Either pressure or vacuum generates an orthogonal transformation (interaction) to restore symmetry. Over time space contracts or expands to develop curvature. The universe degenerates into poles, two-dimensional black holes, and four-dimensional white holes, connected by a smooth topology. Dimensional anisotropy turns gravity into a bipolar force. The verifiable and elegant hypothesis supersedes general relativity by satisfying Mach’s principle; it also offers a possible path for unification with quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1905.0152 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-05-13 23:52:05*

**Authors:** Julian Williams

**Comments:** 127 Pages. This paper specifically addresses Milgrom's galaxy rotation laws without dark matter

Dark matter and dark energy are auxilliary hypotheses added to the standard cosmology model to explain both Milgrom's galaxy rotation laws and accelerating expansion. This paper looks at a different mechanism to Einstein's general relativity (GR) that explains the warping of spacetime as a direct consequence of the forming of fundamental particles from blue, green and red spin zero virtual preons in groups of eight. At solar system scale it obeys GR, at galaxy scale it obeys Milgrom, and at cosmic scale it accelerates expansion. Space has to be flat on average with no need of inflation or a critical density. It does this in a manner that fits closely with key observational phenomena.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1905.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-11 00:38:42*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The relative motion between a pair of observers represents a reflection symmetry. In the rest frame of first observer, the second observer moves at a distance away. In the rest frame of the second observer, the first observer moves with the same speed at
an identical distance away but in the opposite direction.
The reflection symmetry shows that the elapsed time in each observer's rest frame is conserved in both rest frames.
The light takes the same elapsed time to move between two observers in both rest frames.
However, the distance traveled by the light is different in different rest frame.
With identical elapsed time but different distance, the speed of light is proved to be different in different reference frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1905.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-09 19:27:47*

**Authors:** Michael C Dickerson, Charles Dickerson

**Comments:** 8 Pages. American Mathematical Society Presentation 2013

The standard cosmological model calculates the gravitational mass-energy contribution of the Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR) to the mass of the Universe from the single energy density currently observed. The model assumes a homogeneous energy distribution at zero red shift and applies the energy density across the Universe. After reviewing the Friedmann equations for a matter dominated universe and Lematre extension of the space time metric to relativistic energy, we offer an alternative mathematical calculation of the gravitational mass-energy of the CBR component. A complete propagation history of the photons comprising the CBR is used rather than only the current energy density. Because the effects of gravity travel at the speed of light (according to general relativity), and using hot big bang cosmology, we suggest that the higher energy states of the CBR photons in the past also contribute to the currently observed gravitational effects. In our alternative calculation, the CBR energy density is integrated over a range of red shifts in order to account for the gravitational effects of the radiation energy density as it was in the past. By accounting for propagation effects, the resultant gravitational mass-energy calculated for the CBR radiation component almost exactly equals the amount attributed to dark energy. The calculation suggests an extension of the standard cosmological model in which co-moving distance at higher red shift increases with red shift more slowly than it does in the standard model. When compared with Type 1A Supernova data (in an available range of red shift from z = 0.4 to z = 1.5), distance predictions from the extended model have reasonable agreement with observation. The predictions also compare closely with the standard model (up to z = 1.0). Further observations are needed for z > 1.5 to make a final comparison between the standard model and the proposed extended model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1905.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-07 18:40:00*

**Authors:** Louiz Akram

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This is an article that I made , I wish to read your reactions too.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1905.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-07 18:54:27*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Theory of Relativity has got a Newtonian origin.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1905.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-07 05:25:54*

**Authors:** Özgen Ersan

**Comments:** 4 Pages. S. Hawking had said that “Philosophers have not kept up with modern developments in science. Particularly physics.” However/in my opinion, nature scientists also miss the inferences of philosophy and cognitive evolution, At first the concept of “managin

If length contraction is real, the electrical resistance value of a conductive cable must change in accordance with its different directions because of the Earth’s universal motion. Trouton-Rankine experiment was replicated and reinterpreted by managing of precision in accordance with current methodology and cosmological knowledge. Our electrical resistance based experiment did not indicate an evidence for the length contraction; all measured values are isotropic.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1905.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-05 10:25:05*

**Authors:** Акованцев Пётр Иванович

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

В статье изложена связь космологического красного смещения с
температурой среды распространения излучения. На сплошной спектр
видимого излучения далѐких галактик накладываются фраунгоферовы линии
поглощения определѐнной частоты водородом-средой распространения. Эти
линии смещаются в длинноволновую сторону, что говорит об изменении
свойств водорода, как среды распространения, а не свойств самого излучения
(изменении длины волны) и связаны эти изменения, прежде всего с
температурой. А это, в свою очередь говорит о том, что Вселенная в своѐм
эволюционном развитии нагревается.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1905.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-05 19:53:34*

**Authors:** Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid

**Comments:** 176 Pages.

The basic idea is to write the special relativity theory in 11 dimension Using basic physical quantities as a dimensions And the conclusion of transfers of basic physical quantities And constants that change from frame to frame With a change in the speed of light in different dimensions With proof that all quantities become constant at the speed of light Basic physical quantities

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1905.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-05 20:35:22*

**Authors:** Simon Zhou

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Michelson-Morley experiment is a test of light, a representation of reality, there is no right and wrong in it. And people will get different conclusions under different assumptions: under the assumption that the speed of light is affected by inertia, the experimental results are completely consistent with the expectation; on the contrary, under the assumption that the speed of light is not affected by inertia, the assumptions and experimental results Inconsistent, for this reason people have made Lorentz-style accommodation, making this assumption seem more satisfactory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1905.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-04 10:53:38*

**Authors:** Enrico Cavallo

**Comments:** 2 Pages. translation of the article in english, the original one is in Italian

Big bang or long bang? What the theory of relativity says about it

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1905.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-04 17:02:10*

**Authors:** سامي عمر محمود

**Comments:** 232 Pages. البحث وافق عليه العديد من المتخصيين في السودان واليمن

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
ملخص كتاب خطأ النسبية وبديلها الشامل
نهدف من هذا الكتاب إلى إثبات خطأ النظرية النسبية، ومن ثم تقديم تفسير جديد لظاهرة ثبات سرعة الضوء المحيرة التي لوحظت أواخر القرن التاسع عشر، وهو تفسير سيؤدي إلى بناء فيزياء جديدة متكاملة تحل محل فيزياء النسبية.
أولاً: إثبات خطأ النسبية الخاصة: كان برهان النسبية على ثبات سرعة الضوء هو قدرة تحويل لورنتز على الانتقال من معادلة كرة ضوئية منتفخة بسرعة الضوء بالنسبة لنظام إحداثيات إلى معادلة كرة منتفخة بسرعة الضوء في نظام إحداثيات آخر. وكان يبدو ألا وجود لأي إشكال من الناحية الرياضية في هذا البرهان؛ فالمعادلة الأولى معادلة كرة، والمعادلة النهائية التي وصلنا إليها بعد التعويض بالتحويل وخلط وترتيب الحدود هي معادلة كرة، ولكن يظهر الإشكال من الناحية الفيزيائية، إذ كيف يمكن لراصدين في نظامي إحداثيين أن يريا نفسيهما في مركز نفس النبضة الضوئية رغم وجود سرعة نسبية بينهما؟! ذاك هو المستحيل الذي لا يمكن أن يجيزه أي تصور علمي صحيح! فكيف أجازت الرياضيات النسبوية ذلك المستحيل؟!
ثانياً: التفسير الجديد لظاهرة ثبات سرعة الضوء: يرجع سبب ثبات سرعة الضوء عند قيمة بالنسبة لسطح الأرض، وكذلك ثبات سرعة الضوء القادم إلينا من الأجرام الفلكية المختلفة من الاتجاهات المختلفة عند قيمة ، إلى وجود ذلك الوسط الذي تتطلبه الطبيعة الموجية للضوء، وهذا الوسط لابد أن يكون ملتصقاً بالأرض ومحيطاً بها ومتحركاً معها في حركتها الكونية تماماً كما يحيط المجال المغناطيسي بمغناطيس ويتحرك متنقلاً معه من مكان إلى آخر، وهذا الوسط بهذا الوصف لن ينطبق إلا على المجال الجاذبي للأجرام الفلكية، والذي ثبت أن له تأثير على أمواج الضوء يوازي تأثير أي وسط على أمواجه التي تنتشر فيه، من حيث إجباره لأمواج الضوء على أن تعبره دائماً بنفس السرعة بغض النظر عن حركة المصدر، وهذا ما أثبته الدكتور الفرنسي ساديه في تجربته التي أجراها عام 1963، ففيها انطلقت فوتونات جاما بسرعة بالنسبة لسطح الأرض غير متأثرة بسرعة المصدر المنطلقة منه والتي بلغت نصف سرعة الضوء، والذي جعلنا نستنتج أن المجال الجاذبي هو الوسط المرجح لانتشار الضوء وجود تأثير ملموس للمجال الجاذبي على أمواج الضوء، والأدلة على هذا التأثير هي تلك التي اعتُبِرت من أدلـة النسبيّـة العامّـة؛ مثل انحراف صور الأجرام الفلكية عن مواقعها الحقيقية، والزحزحـة التثاقليّة الحمراء، وظاهرة شابيرو .. إن الانحراف في أشعة الضوء القادم من النجوم عند مرورها بالقرب من قرص الشمس دليل جلي على أن الضوء تأثر بالمجال الجاذبي للشمس، لا كمجال قوة، بل كوسط انتشار، أثرت شدته المتغيرة تدريجياً على سرعته فحرفته عن مساره تماماً كما يحدث في ظاهرة السراب أو انكسار الضوء، أما تأخر إشارات الرادار في ظاهرة شابيرو فدليل أن العلاقة بين سرعة الضوء وشدة المجال الجاذبي هي علاقة عكسية؛ كلما زادت شدة المجال الجاذبي قلت سرعة الضوء فيه، وعليه فهي بالقرب من سطح الأرض، وأكبر من عند القمر، وأقل من عند الشمس . بهذا الشكل سيكون المجال الجاذبي للأجرام الفلكية مجال قوة بالنسبة للكتلة يؤثر عليها بتسارع ثابت تعتمد قيمته على شدة المجال، ووسط انتشار بالنسبة للأمواج الكهرومغناطيسية يؤثر عليها بسرعة ثابتة تعتمد قيمتها أيضاً على شدة المجال .. إن ثبات سرعة الضوء التي أسفرت عنها تجربة مايكلسون ومورلي يرجع إلى أن الضوء انتشر في وسطه المحيط بسطح الأرض والساكن بالنسبة لها، وهذا التفسير لا يتناقض مع نتيجة تجربة الدكتور الفرنسي ساديه، فالضوء فيها انتشر في وسطه الساكن بالنسبة لسطح الأرض، وثبات سرعته الدائم عند قيمة رغم حركة المصدر دليل على الطبيعة الموجية للضوء، فالأمواج وحدها من يحتفظ بسرعة ثابتة لا تتأثر بحركة المصدر .. أما ثبات سرعة الضوء القادم من الأجرام الفلكية عند قيمة فيرجع إلى أن وسط انتشاره الساكن والملاصق للأرض كان يفرض عليه دائماً تلك السرعة، سواء كان الضوء قادماً من جرم ساكن بالنسبة للأرض أو متحركاً بالنسبة لها، وهذا التفسير الأخير يفرض علينا اشتقاق صيغة مختلفة عن صيغة دوبلر لحساب مقدار الانزياح نحو الأحمر لتلك الأجرام المتباعدة، حيث ستكون أوساط انتشار الضوء (المجالات الجاذبية) متداخلة ومنسحبة من بعضها البعض،

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1905.0048 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-06-15 07:38:26*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Here we introduce a non-commutative extension to statistical physics granting it the ability to associate an entropy to arbitrary space-times. Generally speaking, statistical physics connects a set Q of 'microstates' (a.k.a the microscopic description) to a set of functions on Q (a.k.a. the bulk state) by the use of Lagrange multipliers, and under the principle of maximum entropy. In the present case, the 'microscopic' object of study is the space-time event, the bulk state is the space-time curvature, and the Lagrange multiplier is the speed of light. A partition function of such events can be constructed by using generators of the Clifford algebra. These generators ascribe geometric properties to the equation of state of such a system. Finally, the Einstein field equations are obtained by applying the principle of stationary action to the equation of state. The framework provides numerous new insight regarding the passage of time; for instance, the arrow of time becomes an arrow of space-time, and also from an entropy standpoint; specifically, the future is the region of space-time hidden from the observer by an entropy. We end the paper with a discussion of these insights.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1905.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-03 17:53:30*

**Authors:** Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

فكرة لتوحيد النسبية العامة وميكانيكا الكم

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1905.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-04 02:26:01*

**Authors:** Dan Ivan

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Physics is based on images created by us through observation and transmitted for mathematical or experimental confirmations. In modern physics and cosmology, what could not be noticed, being below or above the limit of observation of our instruments, are simple hypotheses that mathematical sciences have to confirm. Confirmation of the image is not confirmation of reality.
We evaluate reality, dividing the universe into macrocosm and microcosm and establishing absolute results for distance and masse relative .The multiverse is composed of forces that are not the quantities that measure an action that produce to a object : a change in speed, direction, shape or pressure. The forces being in fact the change of speed, direction, shape, the pressure.
Objects and particles, and their characteristics, such as mass, volume and density, are only images of these changes, not representing reality.The shrinkage velocity of the multiverse is C =299 792 458 m / s. Our image for multiverse shrinkage is radiation. The speed of light, c, is in fact the shrinkage speed of the multiverse, C. The fact that this velocity is the same for all observers and can not be exceeded, was the basis of the theories of modern phisics . But also the shrinkage of the C-speed multiverse lead to the mathematical and experimental results of these theories. Moreover, gravity is the effect of the accelerate motion of the shrinking three-dimensional multiverse, imagined so far as a curvature of the four-dimensional space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1905.0029 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-05-05 22:47:11*

**Authors:** Declan Traill

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

I demonstrate that the centre piece of General Relativity, the Einstein Field Equation, is completely compatible with the concept of an Aether type field, and that a simple rearrangement of the terms in that equation changes the meaning such that variable geometry space-time is removed and an energy field filling flat Euclidean space is described by the equation. Such a field will, by the very definition of the Field Equation, have the same observed (and verified) properties as that used by General Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1905.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-01 01:29:06*

**Authors:** Dong-Yih Bau

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Einstein is one among a select few in humanity. Einstein’s cosmos is the main subject of the modern science of the twenty-first century. Herein, we discuss Einstein’s scientific thoughts on the cosmos and principle theory. We also present a comparison of two theories of the mesocosmos: the success/failure system as part of Einstein’s principle theory, and the theory of planetary evolution based on the ideas of Feynman, Polanyi, and Weinberg. The aim of this paper is to exalt Einstein by urging the general public, scientists, and philosophers to participate in researching Einstein’s cosmos, either directly or indirectly. We believe that Einstein’s scientific teachings represent a blessing to humanity and comprise one of humanity’s highest sources of intellectual wisdom. Our work on Einstein’s scientific thoughts includes principle theory, the success/failure system, and the cosmos. These concepts deserve widespread attention, investigation, and experience, and should be the focus of scientific discovery and credit.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1905.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-01 05:38:52*

**Authors:** Durgadas Datta.

**Comments:** 8 Pages. GRAVITOETHERTON SUPERFLUID.

vacuum energy catastrophe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology