[36] **viXra:1103.0113 [pdf]**
*replaced on 25 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Michael J Savins

**Comments:** 8 pages

There is considerable evidence to suggest that many apparent quasar galaxy pairs,
actually are pairs despite their difference in red shift. Therefore, the light leaving the
quasar must be gravitationally red shifted at source. However, one might expect the
quasar to be blue shifted relative to the galaxy in view of the truly gigantic amount of
energy being released ejecting huge volumes of material at relativistic speed. The
problem then is how to account for the difference, what mechanism is capable of turning
a blue shift into a considerable red shift other than cosmological expansion? The answer
is time or more precisely the rate of flow of time. A quasar alters the rate of flow of time
in its locality by the following Rt = E/m + -ma. The quasar by attempting to reverse time
in its vicinity slows down the universal rate of flow of time in its locality. This slow
down of the rate of flow of time or time dilation results in light leaving the quasar being
far red shifted at source. This rules out a black hole as being a candidate for the quasar as
black holes and galaxies share the same time frame, this means it has to be a white hole
which is time reversed in comparison to the rest of the universe

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1103.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Somnath Mukherjee

**Comments:** 11 pages

It has by now established that the universe consists
of roughly 25 percent dark matter and 70 percent
dark energy. Parametric lagrangian from an
exact k-essence lagrangian is studied of an unified
dark matter and dark energy model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1103.0109 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-29 02:17:05*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Published in: International Journal of Theoretical and Applied Physics (IJTAP), ISSN: 2250-0634, Vol.4, No. I (2014), pp. 9-26.

The axiomatization of general theory of relativity (GR) is done. The axioms of GR are compared with the axioms of the metric theory of relativity and the covariant theory of gravitation. The need to use the covariant form of the total derivative with respect to the proper time of the invariant quantities, the 4-vectors and tensors is indicated. The definition of the 4-vector of force density in Riemannian spacetime is deduced.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1103.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Udrea Sergiu

**Comments:** 7 pages.

Light as a wave needs a medium of propagation. The ether is the medium through
which propagate light waves. Light shows a surprising number of properties that
were difficult to explain relatively to the ether, but which must appear as naturals,
a normal result of the properties of ether. The ether must support the phenomena
related to light, particles and their interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1103.0104 [pdf]**
*replaced on 11 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Rainer W. Kühne

**Comments:** 25 pages.

I present a generalization of quantum electrodynamics which includes Dirac
magnetic monopoles and the Salam magnetic photon. This quantum electromagnetodynamics
has many attractive features. (1) It explains the quantization
of electric charge. (2) It describes symmetrized Maxwell equations. (3) It is
manifestly covariant. (4) It describes local four-potentials. (5) It avoids the unphysical
Dirac string. (6) It predicts a second kind of electromagnetic radiation
which can be verified by a tabletop experiment. An effect of this radiation may
have been observed by August Kundt in 1885. Furthermore I discuss a generalization
of General Relativity which includes Cartan's torsion. I discuss the
mathematical definition, concrete description, and physical meaning of Cartan's
torsion. I argue that the electric-magnetic duality of quantum electromagnetodynamics
is analogous to the spin-mass duality of Einstein-Cartan theory. A
quantum version of this theory requires that the torsion tensor corresponds to
a spin-3 boson called tordion which is shown to have a rest mass close to the
Planck mass. Moreover I present an empirically satisfied fundamental equation
of unified field theory which includes the fundamental constants of electromagnetism
and gravity. I conclude with the remark that the concepts presented
here require neither Grand Unification nor supersymmetry.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1103.0103 [pdf]**
*replaced on 5 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Michael J Savins

**Comments:** 3 pages.

The Pioneer anomaly is due to time dilation that is caused by the gravity of the Solar
System. As pioneer leaves the solar System the rate of flow of time increases causing a
doppler blue shift relative to our perspective. This blue shift reduces the expected red
shift so the red shift is not as far red shifted as expected. The craft is where it is supposed
to be, it just appears to be closer to us than it is.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1103.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Michael J Savins

**Comments:** 20 pages.

Much knowledge has been discovered about the Universe and is readily available. The Phoenix
Theory attempts to re-interpret it in a simple and intuitive manner that better fits what we see.
The Phoenix theory builds upon Einstein's theories of Relativity and General Relativity. His
simple equation E = mc^{2} explains a lot more about the universe than it has been credited with.
This theory fills in many of the missing details and attempts to complete the picture.
Everything in the universe is made of energy. This theory attempts to explain the relationship
between mass, energy and time in a cyclic universe, matter, antimatter ad infinitum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1103.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 11 pages.

FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM in Quantum FFF THEORY.
The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of
FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a
consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS BLACK HOLE, able to
convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to
explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, Comets and even Ball
Lightning.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1103.0096 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-05 04:28:50*

**Authors:** Dimitar Valev

**Comments:** 6 pages, minor changes, paper is published in Am. J. Space Sci., 2013, Vol. 1, Issue 2, pp. 145-149

Three new mass dimension quantities have been derived by dimensional analysis, in addition to the famous Planck mass mp ~ 10^(-8) kg. These masses have been derived by means of fundamental constants – the speed of light (c), the gravitational constant (G), the Plank constant (h_bar) and the Hubble constant (H). The enormous mass m1 ~ 10^53 kg practically coincides with the Hoyle-Carvalho formula for the mass of the observable universe. The extremely small mass m2 ~ 10^(-33) eV has been identified with the minimum quantum of energy, which seems close to the graviton mass. It is noteworthy that the Planck mass appears geometric mean of the masses m1 and m2. The mass m3 ~ 10^7 GeV could not be unambiguously identified at present time. Besides, the order of magnitude of the total density of the universe has been estimated by this approach.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1103.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Stephan J. G. Gift

**Comments:** 8 pages.

The one-way speed of light relative to a moving observer is determined using
the range measurement equation of the Global Positioning System. This equation has
been rigorously tested and verified in the Earth-Centred Inertial frame where light signals
propagate in straight lines at constant speed c. The result is a simple demonstration of
light speed anisotropy that is consistent with light speed anisotropy detected in other
experiments and inconsistent with the principle of light speed constancy. This light speed
anisotropy was not observed before because there has been no direct one-way
measurement of light speed relative to a moving observer.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1103.0087 [pdf]**
*replaced on 25 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 21 pages.

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that allows Superluminal Travel within
the framework of General Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions: The
Alcubierre Warp Drive discovered in 1994 and the Natario Warp Drive discovered in 2001. However
as stated by both Alcubierre and Natario themselves the Warp Drive violates all the known energy
conditions because the stress energy momentum tensor(the right side of the Einstein Field Equations)
for the Einstein tensor G_{00} is negative implying in a negative energy density. While from a classical
point of view the negative energy is forbidden the quantum theory allows the existence of very small
amounts of it being the Casimir effect a good example as stated by Alcubierre himself. But the stress
energy momentum tensor of both Alcubierre and Natario Warp Drives have the speed of the ship raised
to the square inside its mathematical structure which means to say that as fast the ship goes by then
more and more amounts of negative energy are needed in order to maintain the Warp Drive. Since the
total energy requirements to maintain the Warp Drive are enormous and since quantum theory only
allows small amounts of it,many authors regarded the Warp Drive as unphysical and impossible to be
achieved. We compute the negative energy density requirements for a Warp Bubble with a radius of
100 meters(large enough to contain a ship) moving with a speed of 200 times light speed(fast enough to
reach stars at 20 light-years away in months not in years)and we verify that the negative energy density
requirements are of about 10^{28} times the positive energy density of Earth!!!(We multiply the mass of
Earth by c^{2} and divide by Earth volume for a radius of 6300km). However both Alcubierre and Natario
Warp Drives as members of the same family of the Einstein Field Equations requires the so-called Shape
Functions in order to be mathematically defined. We present in this work two new Shape Functions one
for the Alcubierre and another for the NatarioWarp Drive Spacetimes that allows arbitrary Superluminal
speeds while keeping the negative energy density at "low" and "affordable" levels.We do not violate any
known law of quantum physics and we maintain the original geometries of both Alcubierre and Natario
Warp Drive Spacetimes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1103.0074 [pdf]**
*replaced on 9 May 2011*

**Authors:** Jorge de Sousa e Meneses

**Comments:** 6 pages

It is accepted from the beginning that nothing can escape from the Universe and a
distance is found at which the expansion and compression of the space around a mass
are in equilibrium. With this in mind the density of the space is calculated. The
value obtained matches the value obtained experimentally by measuring cosmologic redshifts.
Applying this concept to the mass of the Universe a second equation is found. This
equation, together with the first one, allows the age of the Universe to be calculated
and a value is found which is between the normally accepted limits. The same equations
allow the deduction of the density equation calculated by Milne and the relativistic
equation deduced by Friedmann. Finally, with these equations, the relation between
the mass of the Universe, the speed of light and the universal constant of gravitation
is found. This relation indicates possibly new areas of investigation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1103.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** A. Beckwith

**Comments:** 15 pages, 3 tables, two figures.; Has arguments in simplified form as to what will be brought up for
presentation by the author in rencontres de Moriond, in a GW symposium

We examine whether gravitational waves would be generated during the initial phase, δ_{0} of the
universe when triggered by changes in space-time geometry; i.e. We hope to find traces of the breakdown
of the Entropy/QM space-time regime during δ_{0}. In particular, we look at if higher dimensions affect the
relative strength of Ω_{GW} , and comment as to how this magnitude may affect opportunities for detection of
GW from relic sources. In particular, we will explain the reason why GW O of the pre big bang model
is so strong, up to 10 to the - 6 power, while the Ω_{GW} of ordinary inflation is so weak. In relic
conditions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1103.0061 [pdf]**
*replaced on 15 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** John R. McWhinnie

**Comments:** 14 pages

This paper shows that the theory that we know as the Theory
Of Relativity is more accurately described as A Theory Of Information. Explained
from an informational perspective and the conclusions that its author,
Albert Einstein came to, come into question through the natural viewpoint
as the entire theory being simply about the transfer of information between
informational systems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1103.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Javier Bootello

**Comments:** 7 pages

The solution to the unexplained anomalous precession of the perihelion of
Mercury, was the first success of GR (Einstein 1915), event which is near to
reach its first centenary. We propose in this paper, to update the classic test of
relativity, studying the gradual progression of one-orbit precession, not only in
its perihelion, but also along a complete trajectory around the Sun. Just to
underline GR results, we have confronted it with other virtual and
mathematical potentials which, leading to an identical secular advance of the
perihelion, offer different equations of motion with only theoretical meaning.
Spacecraft Messenger will begin to orbit Mercury next March 18, and during
twelve months, both will make 4.2 revolutions around the Sun. That event
should afterwards allow us, to measure and draw accurately, the geometry of
the whole geodesic orbit as an open free-fall path, isolated from other planets
gravitational interference. This update must verify the GR issues with modern
standards, throughout an accessible test to perform, with clear results, unlike a
complex test, expensive and with uncertain conclusions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1103.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 6 pages

Careful reading of the reported geometry of Einstein's gravitational field reveals
that the physicists have committed fatal errors in the elementary differential
geometry of a pseudo-Riemannian metric manifold. These elementary
errors in mathematics invalidate much of the reported physics of Einstein's
gravitational field. The consequences for astrophysical theory are significant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1103.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 15 pages

The notion of black holes voraciously gobbling up matter, twisting spacetime
into contortions that trap light, stretching the unwary into long spaghetti-like
strands as they fall inward to ultimately collide and merge with an infinitely
dense point-mass singularity, has become a mantra of the astrophysical community.
There are almost daily reports of scientists claiming that they have again
found black holes again here and there. It is asserted that black holes range in
size from micro to mini, to intermediate and on up through to supermassive behemoths
and it is accepted as scientific fact that they have been detected at the
centres of galaxies. Images of black holes interacting with surrounding matter
are routinely included with reports of them. Some physicists even claim that
black holes will be created in particle accelerators, such as the Large Hadron
Collider, potentially able to swallow the Earth, if care is not taken in their production.
Yet contrary to the assertions of the astronomers and astrophysicists
of the black hole community, nobody has ever found a black hole, anywhere, let
alone imaged one. The pictures adduced to convince are actually either artistic
impressions (i.e. drawings) or photos of otherwise unidentified objects imaged
by telescopes and merely asserted to be due to black holes, ad hoc.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1103.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 2 pages

Using a manifold with boundary various line-elements have been proposed as solutions
to Einstein's gravitational field. It is from such line-elements that black holes,
expansion of the Universe, and big bang cosmology have been alleged. However, it
has been proved that black holes, expansion of the Universe, and big bang cosmology
are not consistent with General Relativity. In a previous paper disproving the black
hole theory, the writer made an error which, although minor and having no effect on
the conclusion that black holes are inconsistent with General Relativity, is corrected
herein for the record.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1103.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 4 pages

The alleged existence of so-called Planck particles is examined. The various methods
for deriving the properties of these "particles" are examined and it is shown that their
existence as genuine physical particles is based on a number of conceptual flaws which
serve to render the concept invalid.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1103.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 6 pages

It is demonstrated herein that:-

1. The quantity 'r' appearing in the so-called "Schwarzschild solution" is
neither a distance nor a geodesic radius in the manifold but is in fact the
inverse square root of the Gaussian curvature of the spatial section and
does not generally determine the geodesic radial distance (the proper radius)
from the arbitrary point at the centre of the spherically symmetric
metric manifold.

2. The Theory of Relativity forbids the existence of point-mass singularities
because they imply infinite energies (or equivalently, that a material
body can acquire the speed of light in vacuo);

3. Ric=R_{μν} =0 violates Einstein's 'Principle of Equivalence' and so does
not describe Einstein's gravitational field;

4. Einstein's conceptions of the conservation and localisation of gravitational
energy are invalid;

5. The concepts of black holes and their interactions are ill-conceived;

6. The FRW line-element actually implies an open, infinite Universe in
both time and space, thereby invalidating the Big Bang cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1103.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 12 pages

The so-called 'Schwarzschild solution' is not Schwarzschild's solution,
but a corruption of the Schwarzschild/Droste solution due to David
Hilbert (December 1916), wherein m is allegedly the mass of the source
of the alleged associated gravitational field and the quantity r is alleged
to be able to go down to zero (although no proof of this claim
has ever been advanced), so that there are two alleged 'singularities',
one at r=2m and another at r=0. It is routinely alleged that r=2m
is a 'coordinate' or 'removable' singularity which denotes the so-called
'Schwarzschild radius' (event horizon) and that the 'physical' singularity
is at r=0. The quantity r in the usual metric has never been
rightly identified by the physicists, who effectively treat it as a radial
distance from the alleged source of the gravitational field at the origin
of coordinates. The consequence of this is that the intrinsic geometry
of the metric manifold has been violated in the procedures applied to
the associated metric by which the black hole has been generated. It is
easily proven that the said quantity r is in fact the inverse square root
of the Gaussian curvature of a spherically symmetric geodesic surface
in the spatial section of Schwarzschild spacetime and so does not denote
radial distance in the Schwarzschild manifold. With the correct identification
of the associated Gaussian curvature it is also easily proven
that there is only one singularity associated with all Schwarzschild metrics,
of which there is an infinite number that are equivalent. Thus, the
standard removal of the singularity at r=2m is actually a removal of
the wrong singularity, very simply demonstrated herein.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1103.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 27 pages

The so-called 'Schwarzschild solution' is not Schwarzschild's solution, but a corruption,
due to David Hilbert (December 1916), of the Schwarzschild/Droste solution,
wherein m is allegedly the mass of the source of a gravitational field and the quantity
r is alleged to be able to go down to zero (although no proof of this claim has
ever been advanced), so that there are two alleged 'singularities', one at r=2m and
another at r=0. It is routinely asserted that r=2m is a 'coordinate' or 'removable'
singularity which denotes the so-called 'Schwarzschild radius' (event horizon) and that
the 'physical' singularity is at r=0. The quantity r in the so-called 'Schwarzschild
solution' has never been rightly identified by the physicists, who, although proposing
many and varied concepts for what r therein denotes, effectively treat it as a radial
distance from the claimed source of the gravitational field at the origin of coordinates.
The consequence of this is that the intrinsic geometry of the metric manifold
has been violated. It is easily proven that the said quantity r is in fact the inverse
square root of the Gaussian curvature of a spherically symmetric geodesic surface in
the spatial section of the 'Schwarzschild solution' and so does not in itself define any
distance whatsoever in that manifold. With the correct identification of the associated
Gaussian curvature it is also easily proven that there is only one singularity
associated with all Schwarzschild metrics, of which there is an infinite number that
are equivalent. Thus, the standard removal of the singularity at r=2m is, in a very
real sense, removal of the wrong singularity, very simply demonstrated herein. This
has major implications for the localisation of gravitational energy i.e. gravitational
waves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1103.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 4 pages

The proponents of the black hole make much fanfare of the quantity r that appears in
the so-called "Schwarzschild solution". They treat this issue with complicated
mathematics and thereby confuse those not versed in the relevant mathematics. They
routinely claim that this r is the radius, one way or another. However, this is false
because it is not even a distance in "Schwarzschild" spacetime since it is easily
proven that it strictly plays the role of the inverse square root of the Gaussian
curvature of the spherically symmetric geodesic surface in the spatial section of
"Schwarzschild" spacetime and so does not itself denote any distance whatsoever in
"Schwarzschild" spacetime. Now one does not even need to understand the abstruse
mathematics surrounding this issue to see that the black hole is invalid, making this
complicated mathematical matter irrelevant, as I now show.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1103.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 8 pages

All arguments for the black hole are based upon the same fundamental idea in that they
conceive of a region that in actual fact does not exist. This fictitious region the relativists call
the 'interior', i.e. the region they think is contained by their a spherically symmetric surface
they call the 'event horizon'. But there is no such region. The notion comes from a failure to
recognise that the centre of spherical symmetry of the problem at hand is not located where
they think it is, at their r = 0. I shall discuss this now in more detail.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1103.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 5 pages

It is claimed that the LIGO and LISA projects will detect Einstein's gravitational waves. The
existence of these waves is entirely theoretical. Over the past forty years or so no Einstein
gravitational waves have been detected. How long must the search go on, at great expense to
the public purse, before the astrophysical scientists admit that their search is fruitless and a
waste of vast sums of public money? The fact is, from day one, the search for these elusive
waves has been destined to detect nothing. Here are some reasons why.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1103.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-08-29 01:15:26*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

It is often claimed that cosmology became a true scientific inquiry with the advent of the General Theory of Relativity. A few subsequent putative observations have been misconstrued in such a way as to support the prevailing Big Bang model by which the Universe is alleged to have burst into existence from an infinitely dense point-mass
singularity. Yet it can be shown that the General Theory of Relativity and the Big Bang model are in conflict with well-established experimental facts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1103.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 13 pages

The physicists have misinterpreted the quantity 'r' appearing in the socalled
"Schwarzschild solution" as it is neither a distance nor a geodesic
radius but is in fact the inverse square root of the Gaussian curvature
of a spherically symmetric geodesic surface in the spatial section of
the Schwarzschild manifold, and so it does not directly determine any
distance at all in the Schwarzschild manifold - in other words, it determines
the Gaussian curvature at any point in a spherically symmetric
geodesic surface in the spatial section of the manifold. The concept of
the black hole is consequently invalid. It is also shown herein that the
Theory of Relativity forbids the existence of point-mass singularities
because they imply infinite energies (or equivalently, that a material
body can acquire the speed of light in vacuo), and so the black hole
is forbidden by the Theory of Relativity. That Ric=R_{μν} = 0 violates
Einstein's 'Principle of Equivalence' and so does not describe Einstein's
gravitational field, is demonstrated. It immediately follows that Einstein's
conceptions of the conservation and localisation of gravitational
energy are invalid - the General Theory of Relativity violates the usual
conservation of energy and momentum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1103.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 5 pages

The notion of black holes voraciously gobbling up matter, twisting spacetime into
contortions that trap light, stretching the unwary into long spaghetti-like strands as they
fall inward to ultimately collide and merge with an infinitely dense point-mass
singularity, has become a mantra of the astrophysical community, so much so that even
primary-school children know about the sinister black hole, waiting patiently, like the
Roman child's Hannibal, for an opportunity to abduct the unruly and the misbehaved.
There are almost daily reports of scientists claiming that they have again found black
holes again here and there. It is asserted that black holes range in size from micro to mini,
to intermediate and on up through to supermassive behemoths. Black holes are glibly
spoken of and accepted as scientific facts and it is routinely claimed that they have been
detected at the centres of galaxies. Images of black holes having their wicked ways with
surrounding matter are routinely included with reports of them. Some physicists even
claim that black holes will be created in particle accelerators, such as the Large Hadron
Collider, potentially able to swallow the Earth, if care is not taken in their production. Yet
despite all this hoopla, contrary to the assertions of the astronomers and astrophysicists of
the black hole community, nobody has ever found a black hole, anywhere, let alone
'imaged' one. The pictures adduced to convince are actually either artistic impressions
(i.e. drawings) or photos of otherwise unidentified objects imaged by telescopes and
merely asserted to be due to black holes, ad hoc.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1103.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** A. Beckwith

**Comments:** 12 pages, one figure, three tables. Predictions of page 8 will be proved rigorously in the near future.

We examine whether gravitational waves would be generated during the initial phase,
of the universe when triggered by changes in spacetime geometry; i.e. We hope to find
traces of the breakdown of the Entropy/QM spacetime regime during initial phase change
induced by the geometry of space time alterations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1103.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Constantinos Ragazas

**Comments:** 3 pages

In this short note we mathematically prove that if we assume that
the speed of light is constant, then light propagates as a wave.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1103.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** A. Beckwith

**Comments:** 22 pages, three figures, 4 tables. Provides foundations of GW astronomy as being developed by Chonqujing University department of physics

We ask if Octonionic quantum gravity [1] is a relevant consideration near the
Planck scale. Furthermore, we examine whether gravitational waves would be
generated during the initial phase, and look into multiple universe generation.
And an Ergodic mapping which may allow multiple universe embedding of Octonionic
gravity as a starting point to inflation

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1103.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Andrew Walcott Beckwith

**Comments:**
6 pages, one table. An entry into the 11 DSTA conference, in Lotz, Poland, in December 5-8, 2011m
put in to facilitate mathematical development and continuation/ improvement of a suggestion brought
up by Dr. R. Penrose which the author was
priviliged to attend in summer , 2007, at the inagural opening of the new Penn State gravitational
physics center.

We present how a Gaussian mapping, combined with what we hope to turn
into a strange attractor for re cycling prior universe matter-energy may enable
quantum gravity to form. And embed it in a larger- non linear theory. The key
development to be worked upon would be turning into a strange attractor the
supposition R. Penrose made as to re cycling the 'history' of the universe without the
necessity of a 'big crunch', i.e. a contracting universe. The nature of the attractor
would be instrumental in helping us come up with conditions enabling the evolution
of pre Planckian embedding of non linear ' analog reality' ( 'classical' ) physics
meshing into, with an increase in degrees of freedom into 'digital reality' ( 'quantum
mechanics') and de facto quantum gravity , at the start of Planckian space time. This
Planckian space time would mark the beginning of inflation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1103.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** A. Beckwith

**Comments:**
11 pages, 3 tables. Submitted by invitation to Advances in Astronomy. Coverse material part of presentation for

This document will briefly outline some of the issues pertinent to early inflation and how it affects both
strain readings for a GW detector, GW wave lengths, the number of gravitons which may be collected per
phase space, among other issues. Different inflation models will also be briefly alluded to.explain in part
what may be happening, as far as rates of alternations of wavelengths of GW 's from their genesis in terms
of pre inflation to inflationary generation. We also mention a standard as far as GW measurement and how
the 'metric' of measurement varies between the different models To summarize we state that the best
chances for relic GW measurements are Ω_{GW} ~ 10^{6} are in the 1Hz < f < 10 GHz range. This
according to the pre big bang models, and the QIM model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1103.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** A. Beckwith

**Comments:**
15 pages, 3 figures. Submitted to Advances in Astronomy

The case for a four dimensional graviton mass (non zero) influencing reacceleration of the universe
in five dimensions is stated, with particular emphasis upon if five dimensional geometries as given
below give us new physical insight as to cosmological evolution. One noticeable datum, that a
calculated inflaton φ (t) may partly re-emerge after fading out in the aftermath of inflation. The
inflaton may be a contributing factor to, with non zero graviton mass, in re acceleration of the
universe a billion years ago. Many theorists assume that the inflaton is the source of entropy. The
inflaton also may be the source of re acceleration of the universe, especially if the effects of a re
emergent inflaton are in tandem with the appearance of macro effects of a small graviton mass,
leading to a speed up of the rate of expansion of the universe one billion years ago, at red shift value
of Z ~ .423. The key formula, for joint DM-DE shows up in terms of deceleration parameter, Q(z).
The choice of the DM-DE eqn. may eventually illuminate how early BBN may affect the formation
of low levels of lithium for early star formation which we reference toward the end of this document.
We also discuss what is necessary for not only proper BBN, but also to the implications for 'atoms'
of space time congruent with relic GW production, i.e. the thermodynamics of emergent structure.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1103.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Nikiforos A. Sideris

**Comments:**
137 pages.

The first Edition of this work was published as a book in English under the
title "THE FIRST 10^{-35} SECONDS" (ISBN: 960-630-425-6) in Athens on 2005.
The circulation of this book however was restricted mainly in the little community
of the Greek physicists. Thanks to the very smart development of the viXra.org. I
considered that it would be good to present it to the wide International Physics
Community in electronic form since the ideas and findings from my work bring new
information in the sectors of Elementary Particle Physics and in Cosmology. Some of
these new results are based on other works of mine that have already been published
mainly in the international journal Physics Essays and also in my new book published
in Greek under the title "The Machinary of Newtonian Gravitation and the fallacies of
General Relativity" (ISBN: 978-960-8160-49-1). I hope that for many physicists will be
useful to be informed that to many as yet unsolved problems of physics, this presentation
will give answers that may be discussed. I thank in advance and I congratulate the viXra.
organization for their contribution to transfer to the physics community new ideas that
perhaps, to my opinion, will bring a little restlessness to some of the top leading minds
of the contemporary physics. Perhaps this is one of the reasons that new ideas are
prevented to be exposed by some of the top journals on physics. But the ancient Greeks
had a proverb: Nothing can be hidden under the Sun.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1103.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:**
4 pages.

A theory of everything , or, grand unified theory (which Einstein had been working on
without success, with Superstring Theory now being a good candidate), is one which unites
all the forces of nature, viz., gravity, electromagnetism, the strong nuclear force and the
weak nuclear force. Important as this theory might be, it is lacking in one important
fundamental aspect, viz., the role of consciousness, which could in fact be considered the
most fundamental aspect of physics. This paper explains that a theory of consciousness is
more important than a theory of everything or grand unified theory and should be the
theory of everything instead, or, at least, a part of the theory of everything.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology