Relativity and Cosmology


The Schwarzschild Solution and Its Implications for Gravitational Waves

Authors: Stephen J. Crothers

The so-called �Schwarzschild solution� is not Schwarzschild�s solution, but a corruption, due to David Hilbert (December 1916), of the Schwarzschild/Droste solution, wherein m is allegedly the mass of the source of a gravitational field and the quantity r is alleged to be able to go down to zero (although no proof of this claim has ever been advanced), so that there are two alleged �singularities�, one at r=2m and another at r=0. It is routinely asserted that r=2m is a �coordinate� or �removable� singularity which denotes the so-called �Schwarzschild radius� (event horizon) and that the �physical� singularity is at r=0. The quantity r in the so-called �Schwarzschild solution� has never been rightly identified by the physicists, who, although proposing many and varied concepts for what r therein denotes, effectively treat it as a radial distance from the claimed source of the gravitational field at the origin of coordinates. The consequence of this is that the intrinsic geometry of the metric manifold has been violated. It is easily proven that the said quantity r is in fact the inverse square root of the Gaussian curvature of a spherically symmetric geodesic surface in the spatial section of the �Schwarzschild solution� and so does not in itself define any distance whatsoever in that manifold. With the correct identification of the associated Gaussian curvature it is also easily proven that there is only one singularity associated with all Schwarzschild metrics, of which there is an infinite number that are equivalent. Thus, the standard removal of the singularity at r=2m is, in a very real sense, removal of the wrong singularity, very simply demonstrated herein. This has major implications for the localisation of gravitational energy i.e. gravitational waves.

Comments: 27 pages

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Submission history

[v1] 14 Mar 2011

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