[34] **viXra:1612.0384 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-28 23:59:57*

**Authors:** Mugur B. Răuţ

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper shows that the variation of certain fundamental constants is practically impossible in a physical time frame of reference. We can have as many time frames of reference we want but when we transform them all into physical time frames of reference, with time as a measure of movement, physical equations retain their form and meaning and values of certain physical quantities and fundamental constants are the same. Therefore the question of variation of certain fundamental constants is only possible for those frames of reference other than physical time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1612.0366 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-28 11:53:11*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: Supermassive black holes were utilized in the early universe to eliminate redundant -H bosons after their use in transferring +mass fermions from the previous universe. The large initial masses of the holes later decreased as some of the +mass transferred was captured by the negative intrinsic mass H bosons, leaving previously active galaxies with smaller or no central black holes

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1612.0365 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-15 06:44:00*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, Polarized Fermions (Nuclear Quarks) are supposed to be the origin of non accelerated motion through the resistive oscillating vacuum (Axion) Higgs field.
Recent observations in the LHC do support the idea of Fermion polarization into a constant specific space based direction, which could support the idea of a constant battle between a resistive vacuum and polarized spinning propeller shaped Fermions pushed forward by the same vacuum at the same time to compensate the resistance.
Even a so called Lorentz Fitzgerald contraction seem to be the logic result, which was described by John Bell in his essay: “How to Teach Special Relativity”
The recently observed Axial symmetric pear shaped atom nuclei ( LHC) are an extra support for the atomic interaction with a new massless oscillating Axion-Higgs vacuum reference frame postulated by Quantum FFF Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1612.0358 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-27 15:53:21*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here we will assume that there is a Planck length limit on the maximum length contraction that is related to the reduced Compton wavelength. Our focus will be on the maximum velocity of subatomic particles, which “have” what is known as a reduced Compton wavelength. We assume that the reduced Compton wavelength of a moving particle as measured from the laboratory frame (“rest” frame) cannot be shorter than the Planck length as measured with Einstein-Poincare synchronized clocks.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1612.0356 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-30 14:40:02*

**Authors:** Declan Traill

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is currently accepted in Physics that General Relativity can explain the observed amount of Gravitational Lensing but Classical Physics cannot. The Newtonian calculation for the deflection angle of light, treating light as a gravitating mass, gives only half of the observed amount, whereas General Relativity gives the correct amount. However, in Energy Field Theory space is modeled as being an aether type field that determines the local speed of light and rate of time (due to both light and matter waves being slowed in the space around a mass) so this Classical Physics approach can fully explain the observed amount of Gravitational Lensing, in agreement with General Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1612.0341 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-11 01:48:26*

**Authors:** Richard Benish

**Comments:** Typo fixed in penultimate paragraph of page 6. Os changed to phis in Uggerhoj's name.

Motivated by the benefits of improving our knowledge of Newton's constant G, Feldman et al have recently proposed a new measurement involving a gravitational clock launched into deep space. The clock's mechanism is supposed to be the linear oscillation of a test mass falling back and forth along the length of a hole through the center of a spherical source mass. Similar devices — ones that would have remained in orbit around Earth — were proposed about 50 years ago for the same purpose. None of these proposals were ever carried out.
Further back, in 1632 Galileo proposed the thought experiment of a cannonball falling into a hole through the center of Earth. Curiously, no one has yet observed the gravity-induced radial motion of a test object through the center of a massive body. Also known as a gravity-train, not a one has yet reached its antipodal destination. From this kind of gravitational clock, humans have not yet recorded a single tick.
The well known reliability of Newton's and Einstein's theories of gravity may give confidence that the device will work as planned. Nevertheless, it is argued here that a less expensive apparatus — Small Low-Energy Non-Collider — ought to be built first, simply to prove that the operating principle is sound. Certain peculiar facts about Schwarzschild's interior solution are discussed here; and a novel way of interpreting gravitational effects will be presented in Part II, together adding support for the cautious advice to more thoroughly look before we leap to the outskirts of the Solar System.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1612.0334 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-24 13:05:30*

**Authors:** Robert Nazaryan, Hayk Nazaryan

**Comments:** 88 Pages. Armenian Theory of General Relativity Is a New and Solid Mathematical Theory, Because it Satisfies the Conditions to be Called a New Theory.

In this new - second volume of the visual crash course of "Armenian Theory of Relativity", which is organic sequel of the first volume, we discuss the case (Case B) where observing coordinate systems moving against each other with arbitrary acceleration. We also used the most general considerations and only a pure mathematical approach, and in so doing, we build a theory of general relativity (kinematics) and received Armenian direct and inverse transformation equations for observed test particle coordinates differentials.
Our visual book, which is also made for broad audiences of physicists, does not generalize legacy theory of general relativity, but using totally new approach and without limitations, in one dimensional physical space, building more logical and correct theory of general relativity (for now kinematics only), which has one additional new universal constant (s).
Our received Armenian direct and inverse transformation equations for moving test particle coordinates differentials we can also obtain in a very easy way from the Armenian Theory of Special Relativity (Volume A) transformation equations, by just taking test particle coordinates two infinitesimal points, where reciprocal relative velocities between observing systems are instantaneous variable velocities.
But we prefer to go hard way to show the fact that Armenian Theory of Relativity is a solid mathematical theory. In this volume we also faced contradictions and our next volumes we will solve those "contradictions".
We also advise readers to be very cautious when comparing legacy theory relativity with the Armenian Theory of Relativity, especially when instead of trying to understand the new theory, they use their whole energy trying to find “mistakes” or “paradoxes” in Armenian Theory of Relativity. Please just try to remember that legacy theories of relativity are symmetric theories, but Armenian Theory of Relativity is asymmetric theory of relativity.
Proofs in this volume are also very brief and therefore readers need to put sufficient effort to prove all providing formulas.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1612.0332 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-24 12:51:08*

**Authors:** Robert Nazaryan, Hayk Nazaryan

**Comments:** 80 Pages. This book is dedicated to the 25-th anniversary of independence of Armenia

In this visual book we showed that the «Armenian Theory of Special Relativity» is full of fine and difficult ideas to understand, which in many cases seems to conflict with our everyday experiences and legacy conceptions. This new crash course book is the simplified version for broad audiences. This book is not just generalizing transformation equations and all relativistic formulas; It is also without limitations and uses a pure mathematical approach to bring forth new revolutionary ideas in the theory of relativity. It also paves the way to build general theory of relativity and finally for the construction of the unified field theory – the ultimate dream of every truth seeking physicist.
Armenian Theory of Relativity is such a mathematically solid and perfect theory that it cannot be wrong. Therefore, our derived transformation equations and all relativistic formulas have the potential to not just replace legacy relativity formulas, but also rewrite all modern physics. Lorentz transformation equations and other relativistic formulas is a very special case of the Armenian Theory of Relativity when we put s = 0 and g = -1 .
The proofs in this book are very brief, therefore with just a little effort, the readers themselves can prove all the provided formulas in detail. You can find the more detailed proofs of the formulas in our main research book «Armenian Theory of Special Relativity», published in Armenia of June 2013.
In this visual book, you will set your eyes on many new and beautiful formulas which the world has never seen before, especially the crown jewel of the Armenian Theory of Relativity - Armenian energy and Armenian momentum formulas, which can change the future of the human species.
The time has come to reincarnate the ether as a universal reference medium which does not contradict relativity theory. Our theory explains all these facts and peacefully brings together followers of absolute ether theory, relativistic ether theory and dark matter theory. We just need to mention that the absolute ether medium has a very complex geometric character, which has never been seen before.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1612.0330 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-03 21:57:45*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This article is prompted by realization that the demonstration of the vanishing of the GR d'Alembertian of the space-time coordinates when the contracted affine connection vanishes requires those coordinates to be treated as GR scalars; there is no such demonstration when the space-time coordinates are treated as a GR four-vector. That the "harmonic coordinate condition", namely the vanishing of the contracted affine connection, thus fails to live up to its "harmonic coordinate" appellation removes its qualification to be the description of the coordinates routinely used by observational/empirical physical scientists. It is suggested instead that the GR coordinate condition which corresponds to those coordinates is that a Lorentz-scalar attribute of the metric is fixed to its Minkowski-limit value; Lorentz-scalar attributes of the metric include its determinant and its contraction with the Minkowski tensor. Examination of the corresponding two Minkowski-limit GR coordinate conditions in the case of the Schwarzschild solution shows that Minkowski-limit fixing of the value of the metric's determinant permits the Schwarzschild radius to be made arbitrarily small but not zero, whereas Minkowski-limit fixing of the value of the metric's contraction with the Minkowski tensor permits the Schwarzschild radius to be made zero. The latter GR coordinate condition thus seems a viable hypothesis for the routinely used observational/empirical coordinates.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1612.0329 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-24 06:06:15*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Physicists have found the strongest evidence yet for no violation of Lorentz symmetry, one of the fundamental symmetries of relativity. [6] Scientists behind a theory that the speed of light is variable-and not constant as Einstein suggested-have made a prediction that could be tested. [5] Physicists' greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought " theory of everything. " This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4] The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1612.0322 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-23 09:41:20*

**Authors:** John Freidenfelds. PhD

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

It is well-known that, according to special relativity, there is an absolute “speed limit” on objects traveling in space-time: nothing can travel faster than light. It turns out that an object’s acceleration is also limited by the geometry of space-time, but in a more complex manner.
For objects viewed as points (negligible spatial extent), special relativity imposes no particular constraints on the magnitude of their acceleration. For objects that have spatial extent, however, it turns out that the geometry of space-time does impose limits.
The case we are considering here is what has been defined as “rigid motion” (Born [1], Franklin [2]). This is motion in which an object’s speed is changed in such a way that it is neither stretched nor compressed. All of our discussion is limited to a single spatial dimension plus time (a moving rod). We assume that acceleration is applied all along the rod’s length with no assumptions required about its rigidity. Nor do we include such dynamic physical effects as momentum or elasticity.
It turns out that speed changes cannot be uniform along the length of the rod if it is to remain in rigid motion. Franklin [2] derived a formula relating the required accelerations of various points along the rod. His derivation was for the special case in which acceleration is constant over time. Here we show that Franklin’s key formula (Equation 14 in [2]) applies to acceleration that is non-constant as well.
Franklin’s formula reveals an interesting property of space-time: If the rod’s acceleration exceeds a fixed, finite bound the rod must experience distortion -- stretching or compressing in the direction of the acceleration. Furthermore, if a rod is accelerated at this bound, in order to maintain rigid motion, its trailing end must accelerate instantaneously (infinite acceleration), while its leading end accelerates at a finite constant rate. The rod’s trailing end will acquire its new speed in zero time, while the leading end takes a finite time. That is, the leading end ages, during this acceleration, over the trailing end.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1612.0320 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-03 04:39:02*

**Authors:** Gocho V. Sharlanov

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

To upload a manuscript to the e-print archive of Cornell University, you need endorsement (recommendation), which you will never get if the content of the manuscript contradicts the theory of relativity. Of course, physics journals with the highest impact factor in the world directly refuse the publication of evidence, which can discredit the theory of relativity. Nobody can assume that a professor of physics at world-renowned university does not know what a coordinate reference system means. It is unclear, why the physical society is not standing decidedly behind the strong evidence that the measured velocity of light is not the same in all frames of reference. This fact was proven not only in the past century, but also by the last experiments carried out by means of modern technologies. In fact, the only remaining argument of the dominant orthodox part of the scientific community for more than one century is that “if the theory of relativity is mathematically proven – then this theory is correct…”, but… “not everyone can understand the theory of relativity”. The inaccessibility distance is actually silently supported to all, who “do not understand” the theory of relativity. We all know the anecdote concerning Ludwik Silberstein and Arthur Eddington about – “who are the three men who actually understood the theory of relativity?”… Actually, the main reason for the fact that this theory is incomprehensible is not that the mathematical apparatus is complex, but that the people do not accept illusory claims. The real statement can always be explained in a simple and comprehensible way for everyone. That is why, the book “THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY = THE BIGGEST DELUSION IN PHYSICS FOR 20TH CENTURY” (in 3 parts) was published at Amazon. This book is understandable for everyone who studied mathematics in secondary school.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1612.0317 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-22 03:31:44*

**Authors:** Gou Nakano

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

When we consider the beginning of the universe, the Big Bang theory is currently the mainstream. And it is said that the universe was born out of nothing. Inflation started immediately after the start of the universe, the universe expanded at a speed exceeding the speed of light, the universe became huge.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1612.0311 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-21 02:06:26*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 4 Pages. In Russian

Implications from Milankovitch cycles and changes of „torsion” field of the Earth to near Earth
object orbit prediction quality are discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1612.0304 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-20 11:31:52*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** 5 Pages. I only made a small correction without changing any significance.

Several aspects of the dark matter proposal are discussed. It is shown that the existing baryonic mass in galaxies is sufficient for closing the Universe. It is concluded, then, that dark matter does not exist at all in the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1612.0292 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-01 11:18:56*

**Authors:** Paolo Bolzoni

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

n this study we want to propose a heuristic model to compute and to interpret the dark energy content of our universe. To this purpose we include the mass-energy of the static gravitational field and compute its effect at very small distances. From its analysis, we obtain for the smallest surface scale for the empty space $\tau=2h\gamma/5c^3$. After that we show, how this result can be used to compute a natural energy cutoff $k_c$ for all quantum fields and study its utility in computing the dark energy density and its implications on the content of fermionic and bosonic elementary fields. Indeed for the vacuum equation of state w=p_{vac}/\rho_{vac} we obtain w=}-128\pi^2/(15\Delta N), where \Delta N\= N_f - N_b$ represents the difference between the number of species of fermions and bosons. Finally comparing our result with the measured cosmological parameters, we discus general constraints on the field content beyond the Standard Model of the elementary particles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1612.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-16 17:15:00*

**Authors:** H. J. Spencer

**Comments:** 198 Pages. This is a key paper in our new EM program as it replaces Maxwell's field forces.

This is the fifth report on a new research programme investigating the fundamental electromagnetic (EM) interaction. This paper completes the analysis of the interaction between two electrons described in the two previous papers. Each of these electron papers imposed a new, discrete restriction on the EM interaction. This paper now adds two new restrictions to the asynchronous interaction between two electrons. A pair-wise ray-like form of the EM impulse is proposed whose magnitude diminishes linearly with temporal separation to a finite, fixed value. Additionally, the discrete EM interaction is universalized by proposing a simple, new form for quantizing both the dynamical and kinematical activity between interacting pairs of electrons. This constrains both the linear momentum and kinetic energy of the two electrons to be exchanged across each interaction in fixed quanta. This dynamical exchange of quantized action (h/2) replaces Coulomb’s unproven spherical, continuous and instantaneous ‘law’ of electrostatics with a new, unified, discrete and dynamical basis for electromagnetism.
This fulfills Maxwell’s quest for extending Newtonian (particle) mechanics to the phenomena of electricity and magnetism but now for all relative distances and speeds: unifying both EM and classical and relativistic mechanics. This new EM model replaces Planck’s arbitrary (mathematical) quantum of action ‘rule’ (first injected mathematically into EM radiation theory and then later into atomic physics) and thereby providing a universal physical explanation for all atomic phenomena. This paper provides the first complete analytical solution of the isolated two-electron interaction – both attraction and repulsion.
The present theory shows that negative and positive electrons are two complementary manifestations of the same type of entity, phase-shifted from one another in the timing of their interactions. It is proposed that both forms of the electron execute a four-step transverse, cyclic trajectory across space (in opposite directions). This new physical and mathematical EM model provides a simple, discrete mechanical explanation for the foundational (but mysterious) two-valued quantum phenomenon of electron ‘spin’. Since this motion is sub-microscopic, this may be viewed as the ‘hidden quantum degree of freedom’ that characterizes this most mysterious behavior of the electron. The intrinsic (‘clicking’) motion of the electron is proposed here as the spatial component (where) of the fundamental interaction between pairs of electrons. The other new component is now intimately associated with when and how an electron interacts with other electrons. These ideas result in electrons stepping cyclically through four interaction states (the positron goes through the same four states but in the opposite sequence). This provides novel insights into Dirac’s Equation of the Relativistic Electron while avoiding all taint of negative energy states.
This new two-time theory unifies an asynchronous version of Newton’s physics of point particle motion (at all velocities) with all of the experimental phenomena of classical and quantum EM while avoiding use of single-time field theories and their necessary relativistic transformations of space and time. The new theory now forms the foundation for a new quantum theory of atoms, nuclei and elementary particles that is easier to visualize (geometric) while its finite algebraic basis (rather than continuous calculus) make it much easier to calculate and extend than prior continuum theories; the new results of these further extensive investigations will be presented in a series of subsequent papers.
* Surrey B.C. Canada (604) 542-2299spsi99@telus.net
© H. J. Spencer Version 1.250 16-12-2016 Begun 23-06-2008 (675 KB, 196pp)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1612.0256 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-02 11:43:43*

**Authors:** Valentin Ibanez Fernandez

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Abstract
The paper presents a deep theoretical analysis of the special theory of relativity. Unfortunately, the special theory of relativity was violated the basic principle of relativity. According to this principle all the laws of nature are the same in all inertial motion systems

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1612.0249 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-23 09:53:14*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This note discusses an absurdity that is rooted in the modern physics interpretation of Einstein’s relativistic mass formula when v is very close to c. Modern physics (and Einstein himself) claimed that the speed of a mass can never reach the speed of light. Yet at the same time they claim that it can approach the speed of light without any upper limit on how close it could get to that special speed. As we will see, this leads to some absurd predictions. Because even if a material system cannot reach the speed of light, an important question is then, “How close can it get to the speed of light?” Is there really no clear-cut bound on the exact speed limit for an electron, as an example?
Key words: Relativistic mass, maximum velocity of subatomic particles, boundary condition, Haug maximum velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1612.0230 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-19 11:16:09*

**Authors:** Silas Sacheli Santos

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Relativistics equations are derived using concepts of Newton, Lewis, Doppler and non-instantaneos forces. And the theory is in agreement with particle collision, mass variation, time dilation, transversal Doppler effect, kinetic energy, etc.
We propose a mass spectroscopy experiment to test the theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1612.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-11 11:04:25*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Reitze lectured high school science teachers at a conference at UQ: http://www.staq.qld.edu.au/pd-events/steeagmm/?

On Tuesday the 6th of December 2016, professor David Reitze, the Director of LIGO, delivered a 'keynote' conference lecture to high school science teachers at the University of Queensland. He reiterated claims that the LIGO-Virgo Collaboration detected gravitational waves produced by two merging black holes some 1.3 billion light years from Earth. By and large the school teachers sat passively, thoughtlessly absorbing his claims without criticism. Big bang cosmology is now taught to students as young as twelve in Queensland, as a matter of official curriculum. Yet this cosmology is demonstrably false on many levels. When scientific facts were put to him professor Reitze retreated to 'hand waving'. That LIGO did not detect gravitational waves or black holes is easily proven. The letter herein was sent to professor Reitze, inviting his arguments in defence of LIGO.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1612.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-09 14:28:50*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: -H and -Z particles were plentiful in the very early universe in form of Briggs fermibosons with negative matter bosonic components. After these components did their job of transferring matter from the dying universe to the new universe, the redundant -H particles came together to quickly form super massive black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1612.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-09 09:11:56*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Public Lecture: The dark Side of the Universe, Professor Manfred Lindner: http://sydney.edu.au/sydney_ideas/lectures/2016/professor_manfred_lindner.shtml

On the evening of the 29th of November 2016, Professor Manfred Lindner from the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, gave a public lecture at the University of Sydney, on dark matter and cosmology, and the Xenon1T project searching for dark matter particles by means of neutrino collisions and recoils in a 1 tonne vat of liquid xenon. At the conclusion of his lecture I questioned him on his presentation of an all-sky 'CMB' anisotropy map. He confirmed that the map was from the Planck satellite. The Planck satellite's 4 K 'blackbody' reference loads failed. This failing, ironically, proved that there is no monopole signal at L2, and hence no 'CMB'. Without its 'CMB', big bang cosmology is dead.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1612.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-09 09:21:28*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Based on classical electromagnetic theory and special theory of relativity, three thought experiments are conducted and analyzed here. In all these cases, the Lorenz force law clashes with special theory of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1612.0128 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-05 13:26:24*

**Authors:** Blair D. Macdonald

**Comments:** Pages.

Continuing the debate on whether the universe is fractal by nature: an experiment was undertaken on the ‘simple’ Koch Snowflake fractal to test whether fractal geometry matches observations and conjectures. The Koch Snowflake was inverted to model observations from within an iterating fractal set it: simulating a static or ‘measured’ position. Converse to the fractal snowflake emergence – where triangle sizes diminish; the sizes of new triangles were held constant, and earlier triangles in the set expanded as the set iterated. Kinematic velocities and accelerations were calculated for both the area expansion of the total fractal, and the distance between points and the ‘observer’ within the fractal set. The inverted fractal was tested for the Hubble's Law. It was found area(s) expanded exponentially; and as a consequence, the distances between points – from arbitrary locations within the set – receded away from the ‘observer’ at increasing velocities and accelerations. The model was consistent with the standard ΛCDM model of cosmology and demonstrated: a singularity ‘Big Bang’ beginning; homogeneous isotropic expansion consistent with the observed CMB; Hubble's Law expansion – with a Hubble diagram and Hubble's constant; and accelerating expansion with a ‘cosmological’ constant an expansion rate consistent with, and capable of explaining the conjecture of early inflation epoch of the universe. The model predicts and matches current galaxy distribution observations – clustered nearby and smooth on large scales – and thus is inconsistence with the cosmological principle. The mechanism of expansion is consistent with quantum mechanical descriptions: the vacuum catastrophe is addressed and concluded to be as a consequence of fractal behaviour. It was concluded that the universe behaves as a general as a fractal object, where we are observing inside it.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1612.0121 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-08 04:52:05*

**Authors:** Mesut Kavak

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A short time ago, I published an article about deceleration of the universe. It was especially based on entropy, and it explains how does matter work, produce free energy by using its own creation motion without external energy; also is about instant communication and jumping interstellar by imitating starting condition of matter called as big-bang as a side effect on itself that the same with faster than light expansion as creation motion and outer space motion are accepted together. In this work, it was performed some analysis of the some specific subjects such as deceleration, uncertainty, particle formation, black hole, gravitation, energy, mass and light speed for identical simulation computations of the entire universe as the most sensitive as possible being related that article. There are some informations about escaping from black holes, event horizon lengths, viscosity of free space, re-derivation of Planck constants and infrastructure of some basic laws of existence mathematically as matter is directly dependent of geometric rules. Also, some elements were given for the readers to solve some required constants as the most sensitive manner. As the constants are not enough in the name of engineering, also finally I found a working algorithm which reduces process number of the power series to process number of the quadratic equations like calculating a root of an integer as an irrational number by solving equation; so also it can be used to calculate trigonometric values in the best manner for simulations of the entire universe besides physical constants as irrational values. Also there are new informations about the pioneer anomaly, gamma ray burst and non-observational universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1612.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-05 14:21:42*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 84 pages

In this dissertation, we will describe the phenomenon of anti-gravity in the framework of general relativity, and we will give examples of its use, such as black holes and a new model of the universe. Gravity and anti-gravity has layer-like nature. Our Universe can be treated as a gigantic homogeneous black hole. It is isolated from the rest of universe by an area of spacetime where anti-gravity occurs.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1612.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-05 08:39:43*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In order to prove if the magnetism is a relativistic side effect of the electrostatics, an experiment was designed and performed. The experimental result does not support the notion that the magnetism is a relativistic side effect of Electrostatics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1612.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-05 05:04:49*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, the slowdown mechanism of the moving mechanical clock is derived. The whole deductive process is based on velocity transformation and length contraction of the special relativity. The result shows that when in moving the mechanical clock runs slower in the exactly same proportion as the light clock does.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1612.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-07 19:40:36*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, a paradox resulted from the mass increasing with speed is presented. In this paradox, the same system appears two conflict states. The system is stay in good order for an observer who is moving together with the system, but it is damaged for an observer who is at rest. To avoid this contradiction while leaving relativity intact, we have to introduce the assumption that the strength of a substance will increase with its speed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1612.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-04 07:47:50*

**Authors:** Tamas Lajtner

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Nowadays black holes in physics are considered real objects; supermassive black holes exist in the centers of most (all?) galaxies. The creation of black holes is a theory based on space-time. A new theory called space-matter theory has another explanation. The action-reaction phenomenon between space and matter causes that space waves. Masses decrease the energy of the space wave increasing its wavelengths. Lots of masses set up this effect causing very long waves. Black hole is made in a galaxy if the masses of celestial bodies are big "enough". Space regions can be depleted, where the density of the space wave is so small that space as space ceases to exist. This "lack of space" is replaced with space we don't know or with matter we can't find in our physics books.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1612.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-03 07:44:56*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 6 Pages. -

With the help of the general theory of relativity and the principle of least action, we get the formula of interaction of two charged particles. The strength of the interaction on the particle repulsion (Identically charged) is less than the force attracted exactly the same particles (Charged differently). The bodies are made up of such particles and, therefore, are always attracted, according to the theory of relativity and the principle of least action.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1612.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-01 14:59:01*

**Authors:** René Friedrich

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

How can interfering light waves transport particle characteristics? Up to now it was supposed that wave-particle duality was a quantum mechanical phenomenon which was not accessible to any classical explanation. The present article is disproving this assumption, by showing o n e single case which is entirely subject to a classical explanation: Photons in vacuum.
The suggested classical explanation of wave-particle duality is simple, and it is deriving directly from special relativity: The particle characteristics are transported directly from A to B, without any intermediate of spacetime, because the interval is zero. The observed wave is a sort of placeholder in our spacetime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1612.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-01 18:07:05*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 11 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether

It is commonly thought that the Michelson-Morley experiment from 1887 and Kennedy-Thorndike experiment from 1932 demonstrated that the ether does not exist and that the velocity of light in vacuum is absolutely constant. The analysis of this experiment led to the creation of the Special Theory of Relativity (STR).
In this article, a different transformation of time and position than the Lorentz transformation is derived on the basis of the geometric analysis of the Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike experiments. The transformation is derived based on the assumption that the universal frame of reference, called the ether, exists. Our concept states that the ether is not a substance with physical properties, as it was understood in the past, but a frame of reference in which the velocity of light is constant in every direction. In inertial frames of reference moving in the ether, the velocity of light may be different. The obtained transformations are transformations from the ether to the inertial frame and from the inertial frame to the ether.
The article explains why Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike experiments could not detect the ether.
Based on the new transformation, the Special Theory of Ether (STE) was created [3], [4], [5], [6].

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology