[24] **viXra:1507.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-30 09:25:11*

**Authors:** Sundar Narayan

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper derives a formula for the lifetime of an unbound or free neutron and shows that neutron lifetime can be related to Newton’s gravitational constant, G, providing a much-needed theoretical formula for G, enabling G to be computed with greater accuracy than today’s experiments allow. Another equally accurate formula for G is derived based on the properties of the virtual electrons that very briefly exist in a quantum vacuum. Also, Newton’s law of gravity and Coulomb’s electrostatic law are derived from the same equation, providing a simple proof of the well-known connection between these two laws.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1507.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-27 15:29:10*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: The boson count of 8 for the cyclic universe theory included 4 massless gauge bosons. These should not have been included in the particle count (all massive). Correction of this error results in an E8-symmetry cyclic universe of 248 different massive particles,

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1507.0194 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-15 04:50:42*

**Authors:** Klimets A.P.

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Model of special relativity is built. The model shows the basic formulas of the special relativity and their physical sense.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1507.0193 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-28 19:53:50*

**Authors:** Gianluca Perniciano

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A solution of general relativity is presented that describes an Alcubierre propulsion system in which it is possible to travel at superluminal speed while reducing the energy density and energy by an arbitrary value.Here we investigate the negative energy in the Pfenning zone or warped region, and the quantum inequalities involved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1507.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-23 19:18:18*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 9 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Foundations of Physics (FOOP). Your comments are welcome.

In this paper, I argue that it is possible to model many physical phenomena in terms of classical wave equation. I already discussed this issue for the case of Maxwell equations and Sachs-Wolfe effect, and then I shall show how linearised version of Einstein’s field equations reduce to wave equation form. The latter can be generalized further into a fractal wave equation for Cantor sets. The proposed equation may be called: Fractal gravitational wave on Cantor sets. As far as I know, such an equation has never been considered elsewhere before. However, I should emphasize that the proposed model as outlined here is not complete yet. Therefore, more research is needed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1507.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-22 10:43:24*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Prespacetime Journal for review. Your comments are welcome

In a recent paper I derived an exact analytical solution of Riccati form of 2D Navier-Stokes equations with Mathematica. Now I will present a possible route from an exact analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations to Navier-Stokes Cosmology on Cantor Sets. The route is by showing that Raychaudhury equation leads to Friedmann equation when the vorticity vector, shear tensor and tidal force tensor vanish. Then I show how one can generalize it further to Navier-Stokes systems on Cantor Sets. While this paper contains nothing new except for pedagogical purpose, it may serve as an outline towards Navier-Stokes Cosmology on Cantor Sets.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1507.0165 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-10 21:03:13*

**Authors:** Gianluca Perniciano

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A solution of general relativity is presented that describes an Alcubierre propulsion system in which it is possible to travel at superluminal speed while reducing the components of the energy- impulse tensor (thus reducing energy density) by an arbitrary value.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1507.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-20 13:32:31*

**Authors:** Richard Benish

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This single-page Chart (not a paper, per se) plots the masses and densities of physical objects spanning the whole Universe. It covers over 80 orders of magnitude of mass and over 70 orders of magnitude of density. All raw data are taken from standard literature. The pattern established thereby suggests a continuous extension at the high density end that deviates from General Relativity-based conceptions of "black hole" singularities. The Chart also strongly suggests that preoccupation with the "Planck-scale," as invoked in many standard unification and "quantum gravity" schemes, is a meaningless distraction that has nothing to do with our physical Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1507.0153 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-12 10:59:44*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The calculations of Oppenheimer and Snyder showed that quasi-Newtonian cycloidal metric and energy density singularities in the behavior of an initially stationary uniform dust ball in "comoving" coordinates fail to carry over to "standard" coordinates, where that contracting dust ball at no finite time attains a radius (quite) as small as its Schwarzschild radius. This physical behavior disparity reflects the singular nature of the "comoving" to "standard" transformation, whose cause is that "comoving time" requires the clocks of an infinite number of different observers, making that "time" inherently physically unobservable. Notwithstanding the warning implicit in the Oppenheimer-Snyder example, checking other "comoving" dust ball results by transforming them to physically reliable coordinates is seldom emulated. We
here consider the analytically simplest case of a dust ball whose energy density always decreases; its "comoving" result has a well known singularity at a sufficiently early time. But after transformation to "standard" coordinates, that singularity no longer occurs at any finite time, nor is this expanding dust ball at any finite time (quite) as small as its Schwarzschild radius. But this dust ball's expansion rate peaks at a substantial fraction of the speed of light when its radius equals a few times the Schwarzchild value, and the "standard" time when this inflationary expansion peak occurs is roughly equal to the "comoving" time of the "occurrence" of the unphysical "comoving" singularity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1507.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-16 23:00:22*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Australian National University astronomer Professor Brian Schmidt is a Nobel Laureate for physics. On Monday the 15th of September 2014 he appeared on the ABC national Australian television programme Q&A. His response to a question put to him by an eleven year old boy in the audience is a typical example of why it is very unwise to passively accept the word of an Authority. Presented here are a number of the nonsensical claims made by a Nobel Laureate on matters of cosmology and mathematics; symptomatic of just how intellectually decrepit astronomy and astrophysics have become.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1507.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-15 10:01:29*

**Authors:** Khrapko R

**Comments:** 8 Pages. XIIth International Conference on Gravitation, Astrophysics and Cosmology June 28-July 5, 2015, PFUR, Moscow, Russia

The Pseudotensor is absurd. Gravitational mass equals inertial mass

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1507.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-14 12:01:39*

**Authors:** Jeffrey P Baugher

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Parallel line segments are the basic graphical foundation for geometrical field theories such as General Relativity. Although the concept of parallel and curved lines have been well researched for over a century as a description of gravity, certain controversial issues have persisted, namely point singularities (Black Holes) and the physical interpretation of a scalar multiple of the metric, commonly known as a Cosmological Constant. We introduce a graphical and notational analysis system which we will refer to as Integral Geometry. Through variational analysis of perpendicular line segments we derive equations that ultimately result from the changes in the area bounded by them. Based upon changing area bounded by relative and absolute line segments we attempt to prove the following hypothesis: General Relativity cannot be derived from Integral Geometry. We submit that examination of the notational differences between GR and IG in order to accept the hypothesis could lead to evidence that the inability to merge General Relativity and Quantum Physics may be due to notational and conceptual flaws concerning area inherent in the equations describing them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1507.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-14 08:42:47*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Published in American Journal of Space Science, 6 July 2015: http://thescipub.com/PDF/ofsp.9977.pdf

Various line-elements purporting different types of black hole universes have been advanced by cosmologists but a means by which the required infinite set of equivalent metrics can be generated has evaded them. Without such a means the theory of black holes is not only incomplete but also ill-posed. Notwithstanding, the mathematical form by which the infinite set of equivalent metrics is generated was first revealed in 2005, from other quarters and it has in turn revealed significant properties of black hole universes which cosmology has not realised. The general metric ground-form from which the infinite set of equivalent ‘black hole’ metrics can be generated is presented herein and its consequences explored.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1507.0090 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-20 07:04:13*

**Authors:** Mirosław J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

General Relativity is a theory which a since about 100 years describes the gravitational phenomena as geometric properties of the space-time. What happens if the space-time will be eliminated and replaced with the material medium. We discuss physical consequences of asuch exchange.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1507.0074 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-05 18:12:57*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Some scientists think the Universe was created with equal amounts of matter and antimatter.
However today's observations indicate that there is not enough antimatter to match the amount of
matter observed in the universe. Thus, it seems that matter has, for some reason, taken over. Putting together an idea from two lead physicists: John Wheeler and Richard Feynman, Hugh Everett's theory of the many-worlds, and the theory of the Pre-universe that I developed in 2012, I found that the possible cause of the imbalance is time travel. I also found that the imbalance must have began at the very beginning of normal time. Because matter and antimatter were created by a gradual and relatively very fast process (known as Meta-transformation), it is possible that most of the imbalance took place during the first instants after the Big Bang.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1507.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-14 04:12:09*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Version 2 corrects some punctuation.

People so often place their trust in the word of an Authority that they don’t carefully think about what they have been told. Consequently, that when upon a little reflection is recognised as utter fantasy, is passively accepted as true on the word of an Authority. Perhaps physics is the most pitiful example of the word of dogmatic Authority carrying sway over rational thought. Presented here are a few simple examples of the nonsensical claims made by physicists that reveal just how decrepit they and their science have become, and by which, hopefully, remedy is secured for the pensive reader.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1507.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-11 07:18:04*

**Authors:** Ichiro Nakayama

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

It was found that the universe is inflating with accelerated speed in 1998. But until today there is no theory to explain it. This time, a stationary space model instead of inflating model was made up that accounts for the cause of galaxies’ leaving each other with accelerating speed, by presuming space is equivalent to elementary particles. Also it explains gravity generation. Gravity and dark energy are created at the same time of a star formation by space’s change to elementary particles. After space changed to elementary particles around the center of the universe, it is transported to the verge of the universe. And around the verge of the universe, stars and galaxies change back to energy body again, after bursting into elementary particles. This is the space convection system. And the interaction by gravity or dark energy is caused by the energy level difference of energy body.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1507.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-09 10:51:16*

**Authors:** William E. Rush

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

It is proposed that the strong force is the force of space. Development of this concept leads to the prediction that the mass of all matter increases as the universe expands. This mass (energy) increase is absorbed from space and leads to the force of gravity. The rate of mass increase necessary to bring about the known force of gravity is calculated. A relationship between matter mass increase and matter length increase is developed and then used to calculate the rate of increase of matter length. This same rate of increase in length applies to all other lengths and orbits including galactic orbital distance. This fractional expansion rate is determined to be Gm/c(r)^2 where m and r are mass and radius of some smallest particle of definable dimensions. If m and r of a proton is chosen, this equation predicts that gravitational orbits double in length approximately every 45-85 million years. Orbits within galaxies, with orbital periods of hundreds of millions of years, will therefore be outward spirals as measured by time zero length, though orbital distances will always be measured as unchanging. Higher orbital speeds are required to maintain these spiral orbits than the orbital speeds required to maintain circular orbits at the same orbital radii. Calculations within show that for a typical galaxy (M31) at typical galactic distances of about 15 - 30 kpc, the galactic orbits increase in radius, or can be considered to ``accelerate" outward, at approximately the same acceleration rate as the gravitational acceleration rate required to hold stars in a circular orbit at the observed rotational velocity. These equivalent accelerations are near the MOND critical value of 10^-10 m/sec^2. This may explain the anomaly of galactic rotational velocities without dark matter. The concepts proposed here require that the fundamental constants change with the expanding universe; however, if the principle of relativity (not the theory) is embraced, then this requires that these physical and fundamental constants are linked such that they appear to remain unchanged.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1507.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-08 22:47:57*

**Authors:** Declan Traill

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

By inverting a key assumption of Relativity Theory, one can understand its predicted odd effects of time dilation, length contraction
and mass increase in terms of Classical Physics. The belief that must be suspended is that “Light always travels at constant speed”.
The alternative premise is that “Light and matter waves travel through a field generated by mass, at a variable speed determined by
the field’s intensity”. This new premise also leads to a Classical explanation for the attraction of Gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1507.0045 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-15 06:53:39*

**Authors:** Miroslav Josipović

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Geometric algebra is a powerful mathematical tool for description of physical phenomena. Algebra Cl3, based on Euclidean 3D vector space is a possible framework for physical theories, especially the new, broader definition of Lorentz transformations. Here we discuss several consequences from that broader definition. Among other things, we derived some consequences to the special theory of relativity, a change in speed limit for example.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1507.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-05 16:05:33*

**Authors:** A.W.Beckwith

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Will be submitted to a journal

We examine the consequence of experimentally determining what the consequences of massive gravitons from the big bang would be, in terms of Clifford Will’s model of the speed of gravitational waves via a local inertial frame , with variation from the speed of light in GW propagation caused by gravitational rest mass non zero and E as a graviton rest energy. One of the consequences, being that the wavelength of GW would be 1/100 the radius of the present universe, with unimaginably low frequencies for GW of the order of 10^-16 Hertz, if there were maximally favourable conditions for generation of GW at the start of inflation, which puts restrictions we will specify as to an initial scale factor, the maximal red shift Z so specified, plus other details.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1507.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-06 00:13:40*

**Authors:** James A. Tassano

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Additional information at jimtassano.com

This paper is a continuation of a series of papers on the universe as the surface volume of a four dimensional, expanding hyperverse. We argue that the whole universe is undergoing a geometric mean expansion, and is larger than the observable hyperverse by a factor of (R_sub_H / 2 Planck lengths)^4 , and its radius is larger by a factor of (R_sub_H / 2 Planck lengths)^4/3. The growth rate of the whole is actually accelerating, compared to the constant, 2c velocity we measure for the observable universe. We show that the ratio of the length of the small energy quantum (SEQ), to the small radius quantum (SRQ), values discussed at length in earlier hyperverse papers, is increasing at the same rate as the whole radius is increasing. We also show that, depending on the type of particle, the amount of time it takes for a particle to travel the distance of one SEQ length, approximately 10^-23 seconds, matches the time it takes for the particle to absorb one SEQ of energy. The quantum of time is the time it takes for an elementary particle to absorb one SEQ quantum of energy. The unit of quantum time is not a constant, but increases in duration at the same rate as the increase in the velocity of the whole hyperverse, canceling it, giving us the constant, 2c radial expansion rate.
Significantly, our equation for the quantum of time, derived from the hyperverse model, using only the values of c, G, h-bar and the radius of the observable hyperverse, matches the quantized time interval calculated for the electron by Piero Caldirola, using classical electron theory. His 'chronon', and our quantum absorption time, are identical values. Equating the two quantum time equations produces the correct equation of electric charge, further supporting the validity of the hyperverse model and the unit of quantum time. We continue by showing that the relation between particle mass and quantum absorption time is governed by the time-energy uncertainty relationship, allowing easy calculation of the quantum time values for all elementary particles, and supporting the concept of the geometric mean expansion of space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1507.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-02 07:25:19*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

With simple, but vivid argument I am proving, what the Universe has the Beginning, will have the End and is finite in volume. Tell the others on Facebook, Twitter, etc, to make this world a better place to live and think.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1507.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-01 03:40:35*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Satisfied all possible experimental misses of General Relativity by simple and logical modification of Einstein equations. Namely to the left hand is added besides the cosmological constant the Dark Matter tensor. Hereby the Dark Matter is not discovered as the material one, because it is the phantomic matter: just the modification of the geometry rules. Tell the others on Facebook, Twitter, etc, to make this world a better place to live and think.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology