[30] **viXra:1212.0169 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-01-06 10:13:34*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this article I pick up with [4] and [3] and show that the mathematical relations of quantum mechanics derive from classical electrodynamics, albeit without the use of the principle of indeterminacy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1212.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-12-23 15:18:45*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup, Daniel Rocha

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. The first of these solutions was discovered by the
Mexican mathematician Miguel Alcubierre in $1994$.The Alcubierre
warp drive seems to be very attractive because allows interstellar
space travel at arbitrarily large speeds avoiding the time
dilatation and mass increase paradoxes of Special Relativity.
However it suffers from a very serious drawback:Interstellar space
is not empty:It is fulfilled with photons and particle dusts and a
ship at superluminal speeds would impact these obstacles in highly
energetic collisions disrupting the warp field and placing the
astronauts in danger.This was pointed out by a great number of
authors like Clark,Hiscock,Larson,McMonigal,Lewis,O'Byrne,
\newline
Barcelo,Finazzi and Liberati.
\newline
In order to travel significant interstellar distances in
reasonable amounts of time a ship would need to attain $200$ times
the speed of light but according to Clark,Hiscock and Larson the
impact between the ship and a single photon of Cosmic Background
Radiation(COBE)would release an amount of energy equal to the
photosphere of a star like the Sun.And how many photons of COBE we
have per cubic centimeter of space?This serious problem seems to
have no solution at first sight.
\newline
However some years ago Harold White from NASA appeared with an
idea that may well solve this problem:According to him the ship
never surpass the speed of light but the warp field generates a
Lorentz Boost resulting in an apparent superluminal speed as seen
by the astronauts on-board the ship and on the Earth while the
warp bubble is always below the light speed with the ability to
manoeuvre against these obstacles avoiding the lethal collisions.
\newline
In this work we examine the feasibility of the White idea using
clear mathematical arguments and we arrived at the conclusion that
Harold White is correct.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1212.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-12-22 14:39:45*

**Authors:** R. Wayte

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Abstract. The numerical value of G has been derived in terms of electron sub-structure and the Coulombic field, by using action principles. Theoretical values are within experimental error:
G = 6.6737846x10^-11 m^3kg^-1s^-2, and (e/m)^2/G = 4.1659308x10^42 .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1212.0129 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-12-21 17:02:16*

**Authors:** Seshavatharam U.V.S, Lakshminarayana S

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Look forward to receive your kind and valuable comments

During the cosmic evolution, magnitude of Planck’s constant increases with increasing cosmic time. This may be the root cause of observed cosmic red shifts. Thus the observed red shift is directly proportional to the age difference of our galaxy and distant galaxy. Hubble’s linear law can be derived with these new ideas.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1212.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-12-20 10:46:44*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 12 references

It is hypothesized that the mechanism for allowing the universe to operate with zero resistance (indefinitely/forever) is superconductivity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1212.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-12-19 11:43:51*

**Authors:** James J Keene

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Quantitatively large effects of lunar surface temperature on apparent gravitational force measured by lunar laser ranging (LLR) and lunar perigee may challenge widely accepted theories of gravity. LLR data grouped by days from full moon shows the moon is about 5 percent closer to earth at full moon compared to 8 days before or after full moon. In a second, related result, moon perigees were least distant in days closer to full moon. Moon phase was used as proxy independent variable for lunar surface temperature. The results support the prediction by binary mechanics that gravitational force increases with object surface temperature.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1212.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-12-18 22:15:52*

**Authors:** Richard A Peters, Walter A Johnson

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The fundamental forces of nature are mediated by the exchange of particles; photons mediate the electromagnetic force, gluons the strong force, W and Z particles the weak force. It is shown that the duration of the exchange of a force or messenger particle between two interacting particles is a function of the velocity through space of the two interacting particles and is also a function of the orientation of the two particles relative to their common velocity. The greater the velocity of the two particles the longer it takes for the particle exchange between them. The interaction between two particles is thus slowed by their motion through space. This slowing with velocity of the interaction between particles underlies the fundamental process occurring in any physical entity (proton, nucleus, atom, or macro object). It is the essence of time dilation. The dependence of time dilation on the orientation of two interacting particles relative to their common velocity is an important finding of this study and may appear to contradict the ‘known’ singular dependence of time dilation on velocity. The dependence of time dilation on the orientation of the interacting particles is overcome when a large number of particles are aggregated and their orientations relative to the velocity of the aggregate body or entity are randomized. Alternatively, the rapidly changing orientation of two particles in the turbulence of space will itself randomize the orientation of the particles and cause the value of time dilation of the particles to ‘average out’. We can look at time dilation in two ways; 1) time actually slows for the fast moving entity or 2) the basic process that governs the entity takes longer as the entity moves through space, but time itself does not slow down. This may be more a philosophical question than a scientific one. The momentum of current thought is clearly with time slowing down for the moving entity. The conclusion of this paper is that time dilation is a slowing of the fundamental process of an entity when the entity is moving through space, not a slowing of time itself.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1212.0113 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-01-30 08:41:43*

**Authors:** R.A.Isasi

**Comments:** 11 pages, 3 tables and 1 figure

In this article, we analyze some unspecific detalis which are significant in certain experiment related to Casimir effect. At the "point of closest approach", as the Casimir force equals the Coulombic force, we can calculate the the static energy density. Also, identical phenomena occurs in the cosmological H and HeI Rydberg atoms. In spite of the marked contrast between both scales, by extrapolation utilizing a dynamical expression for this microscopic magnitudes, we can obtain the Cosmological Constant. Due to its intesives form, these finding are fascinating, since from a specific microscopic empty cavity, we can equalize its expansive energy density with respect to the cosmological energy density.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1212.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-12-14 20:19:32*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Within the expanding cosmic Hubble volume, Hubble length can be considered as the gravitational or electromagnetic interaction range. Product of ‘Hubble volume’ and ‘cosmic critical density’ can be called as the ‘Hubble mass’. Based on this cosmic mass unit, authors noticed four peculiar semi empirical relations. With the observed relations it is possible to say that, in atomic and nuclear physics, there exists a cosmological physical variable. By observing its rate of change, the future cosmic acceleration can be verified. Fine structure ratio may be considered as the index of present cosmic expansion. By observing its cosmological rate of change, future cosmic acceleration can be verified.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1212.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-19 18:08:28*

**Authors:** Michael J. Burns

**Comments:** Pages. mburns92003@yahoo.com

Be sure to use proper tensor rank and orientation. The recent efforts by Professor Kip S. Thorne do not meet this need. The utility of a correct method is remarkably strong. Here's how!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1212.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-12-12 07:49:27*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A note in favor of the correctness of the relativity, special and general.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1212.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-12-10 08:13:56*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The universe that the light’s velocity is instead of and is likely parallel universe names the alpha-parallel universe.The theory is the relativity theory in the alpha-parallel universe. In this time, this alpha-parallel universe is the universe that can treat inertial systems. In this universe, be able to consider that the light has the velocity instead of and the permittivity constant instead of , the permeability constant is instead of . Hence, In this theory, be able to consider that the light has the velocity instead of . Hence, In this theory, each alpha-parallel universe has each light velocity. Each light velocity or each permittivity constant and each permeability constant distinguishes each alpha-parallel universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1212.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-12-09 08:49:15*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Professor Martin Rees, Astronomer Royal, gave a public lecture in the Great Hall at the University of Sydney on 9th November 2012, 6:30pm to 8:00pm. The lecture was titled ‘BIG BANGS, BIOSPHERES AND THE LIMITS OF SCIENCE’. The website announcing the lecture is:
http://sydney.edu.au/sydney_ideas/lectures/2012/professor_martin_rees.shtml
In the preamble on the aforementioned website we find the words, “But there are intimations that physical reality is hugely more extensive than the domain our telescopes can probe. Indeed we may inhabit a 'multiverse' – living in the aftermath of one among an infinity of 'big bangs'.” This short Letter proves that the black hole does not exist because it violates the physical principles of General Relativity and that General Relativity violates the usual conservation of energy and momentum and is therefore invalid. Many of Professor Rees’ arguments in his public lecture are based on the assumption of the validity of General Relativity and are therefore untenable. Professor Rees has also written much in various papers on the existence and properties of black holes. What followers is the content of a letter sent to Professor Rees in advance of his public lecture in Sydney.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1212.0043 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-01 04:33:12*

**Authors:** Justin Lee

**Comments:** 12 Pages. This is a preprint of an article published in International Review of Physics, Vol. 7 No. 1, p1-6.

This paper introduces a new theory called, "the theory of absolutivity", which challenges the two postulates of the special theory of relativity (special relativity). This paper analyzes how special relativity derives the time dilation, and then explains how it leads to a disagreement on the first postulate: the principle of relativity. Next, this paper continues to explain a disagreement on the second postulate: the universal speed of light. Furthermore, the paper written by Gjurchinovski on the reflection of light from a uniformly moving mirror is interpreted to give a classical explanation for the null result of Michelson-Morley experiment, by justifying Lorentz contraction of length without referring to special relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1212.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-12-06 02:39:16*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

f(R) gravity generalizes Einstein general relativity,therefore f(R) gravity is wrong

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1212.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-12-05 10:46:34*

**Authors:** Andrej Rehak

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Through a link with the speed of light, explained is the nature of ubiquitous but one of the most secretive and controversial phenomenon in nature, gravity. Implicitly, explained is the nature of constantly measured speed of light and the vector of time. From this simple, rigid and tautological relation, without the use of physical constants, derived are universal formulas for motion.
Basic concept of concisely presented Universal Principle is compared with conventional, far more complex model, indicating the crucial Relativistic problem of understanding the indivisible scalar nature of space-time entity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1212.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-12-05 10:54:33*

**Authors:** Andrej Rehak

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Applying the principle of tautological relationship of gravity and the speed of light (g=cd), solved and explained, by conventional physics misinterpreted nature of Pound-Rebka experiment. Also presented is an accurate universal formula for calculating the spectral shift between the measured points of any altitude difference, equivalent to the Special and General relativistic. Eventually, demonstrated is the link between gravitational, transversal and radial dilatations as a result of speed. Implicitly, presented is the evidence of the infinitely variable nature of universal scalar, the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1212.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-12-05 10:59:19*

**Authors:** Andrej Rehak

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Application of the universal space-time principle (g=cd) explains a Pioneer’s anomaly, whose simple solution also proves the principle. Due to its rigid nature, despite the high degree of approximation of calculated values, plotted curves of annual trajectory shortage so as the accumulation of differences between predicted and registered positions of probe are equivalent to those recorded.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1212.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-12-05 11:04:27*

**Authors:** Andrej Rehak

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Implementation of tautological relation of light speed and gravity (g=cd) solved and explained the anomaly observed during the OPERA experiment. The observed disagreement with the predicted time has been calculated up to the level of tolerance of +3.375 ns, which is 4.236 times less than the specified tolerance. The only used data from the experiment was the length of a specific baseline. Because of the rigidity of the principle, the degree of approximation from the use of mean values of the Earth's radius and acceleration is irrelevant in the solution of the anomaly.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1212.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-12-04 09:37:02*

**Authors:** Mahgoub. A. Salih, I. B.I. Tomsah, Tayssir. M. Al Mahdi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We use the Modified Reissner-Nordstrom solution to Einstein's field equation for static charged
spherical black hole in microscopic scale, by redefine the potential. Therefore, we obtained circular
orbits and horizons in atomic domain. Generalization of special relativity in the sense of the model,
predicted proton radius, mass defect, bending of light and precession of perihelion. Mass defect used in
estimation electron, positron, neutrino and anti-neutrino mass, in addition of proton decaying energy
and mass charge equivalent relation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1212.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-12-03 16:42:35*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup, Daniel Rocha

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$. However as stated by both
Alcubierre and Natario themselves the warp drive violates all the
known energy conditions because the stress energy momentum
tensor(the right side of the Einstein Field Equations) for the
Einstein tensor $G_{00}$ is negative implying in a negative energy
density. While from a classical point of view the negative energy
is forbidden the Quantum Field Theory allows the existence of very
small amounts of it being the Casimir effect a good example as
stated by Alcubierre himself.The major drawback concerning
negative energies for the warp drive are the huge negative energy
density requirements to sustain a stable warp bubble
configuration. Ford and Pfenning computed these negative energy
and concluded that at least $10$ times the mass of the Universe is
required to sustain a warp bubble configuration. However both
Alcubierre and Natario warp drives as members of the same family
of the Einstein Field Equations requires the so-called shape
functions in order to be mathematically defined. We present in
this work two new shape functions for the Natario warp drive
spacetime based on the Heaviside step function and one of these
functions allows arbitrary superluminal speeds while keeping the
negative energy density at "low" and "affordable" levels.We do not
violate any known law of quantum physics and we maintain the
original geometry of the Natario warp drive spacetime We also
discuss briefly Horizons and infinite Doppler blueshifts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1212.0019 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-04-14 08:36:13*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 183 Pages.

Following the Special Theory of Relativity, Florentin Smarandache generalizes the Lorentz Contraction Factor to an Oblique-Contraction Factor, which gives the contraction factor of the lengths moving at an oblique angle with respect to the motion direction. He also proves that relativistic moving bodies are distorted, and he computes the Angle-Distortion Equations.
He then shows several paradoxes, inconsistencies, contradictions, and anomalies in the Theory of Relativity.
According to the author, not all physical laws are the same in all inertial reference frames, and he gives several counter-examples. He also supports superluminal speeds, and he considers that the speed of light in vacuum is variable.
The author explains that the redshift and blueshift are not entirely due to the Doppler Effect, but also to the medium composition (i.e. its physical elements, fields, density, heterogeneity, properties, etc.).
He considers that the space is not curved and the light near massive cosmic bodies bends not because of the gravity only as the General Theory of Relativity asserts (Gravitational Lensing), but because of the Medium Lensing.
In order to make the distinction between “clock” and “time”, he suggests a first experiment with a different clock type for the GPS clocks, for proving that the resulted dilation and contraction factors are different from those obtained with the cesium atomic clock; and a second experiment with different medium compositions for proving that different degrees of redshifts/blushifts would result.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1212.0016 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-12-29 04:50:05*

**Authors:** Demjanov V.V.

**Comments:** 14 Pages. corrected typos and added Russian text

It is shown, that the measured speed of light (and the phase and group) everywhere on Earth, and in near-Earth of air atmosphere, and in cosmic vacuum, has the same of variative characteristic, like y many natural phenomena. For describ of constant value of tempo of relativistic processes need quite another measure. She is named here "tempo aether-permeability" of electromagnetic waves (EMW) through light-carrying medium.
Because of the refusal from aether, in SRT in more 100 years did not know "mechanism aether-permeability" space EMW and have no to him of interest. Instead this mechanism being imposed erroneous declaration of "sameness" of phenomena and velocities of EMW in the "vacuum" of still and moving inertial reference of systems (IRS). Created in 1870th aether-dinamic theory EMW (Maxwell's) has revealed only a unity electric and the wave nature of light phenomena , but not "sameness" speed and procedural characteristics of their implementation, strongly emphasizing the variety of speeds to implement them in the expanse of the world.
Formed on the basis of Maxwell's theory in the period 1890-1904s efforts Lorentz and Poincare aether-dinamic theory of relativity (ADTR) was based on more accuracy wording of "postulates relativity movements". According them: 1) the speed of light in different IRS is is not constant, but only is finite as well as unattainable for infinite accelerating objects, since particles was considered "clusters" the aether; 2) only the formulas of laws in different ways of moving IRS is identical (Lorentz-invariant), but not their proces implementation. Namely ADTR, not his the "without-aether kinematic copy" of SRT, with efforts of genius of relativists 20th century gives the successful development of industrial applications. On this of worthy the basis we is explain, how to maintain the moment of EMW at different speeds (c*=c/n) by propagation in a medium with a refraction n≠1. This resolves a long-standing dilemma of the Abraham-Minkowski and to prove invariance the radical of the Lorentz transformations not only for n=1, but also in the mediums with n≠1.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1212.0015 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-25 19:30:33*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The self-gravitational correction to a localized spherically-symmetric static energy distribution is obtained from energetically self-consistent upgraded Newtonian gravitational theory. The result is a gravitational redshift factor that is everywhere finite and positive, which both rules out gravitational horizons and implies that the self-gravitationally corrected static energy contained in a sphere of radius r is bounded by r times the fourth power of c divided by G. Even in the absence of spherical symmetry this energy bound still applies to within a factor of two, and it cuts off the mass deviation of any quantum virtual particle at about a Planck mass. Because quantum uncertainty makes the minimum possible energy of a quantum field infinite, such a field's self-gravitationally corrected energy attains the value of that field's containing radius r times the fourth power of c divided by G. Roughly estimating any quantum field's containing radius r as c times the age of the
universe yields a "dark energy" density of 1.7 joules per cubic kilometer. But if r is put to the Planck length appropriate to the birth of the universe, that energy density becomes the enormous Planck unit value, which could conceivably drive primordial "inflation". The density of "dark energy" decreases as the universe expands, but more slowly than the density of ordinary matter decreases. Such evolution suggests that "dark energy" has inhomogeneities, which may be "dark matter".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1212.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-12-02 15:39:55*

**Authors:** Janko Kokosar

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Relativistic mass is not incorrect. The main argument against it is that it does not tell us anything more than the relativistic energy tells us. In this paper it is shown that this is not true, because new aspects of special relativity (SR) can be presented. One reason for this definition is to show a relation between time dilation and relativistic mass. This relation can be further used to present a connection between space-time and matter more clearly, and to show that space-time does not exist without matter. This means even a simpler presentation than is shown with Einstein's general covariance. Therefore, this opposes that SR is only a theory of space-time geometry, but it needs also rest mass. Phenomenon of increasing of relativistic mass with speed can be used for a gradual transition from Newtonian mechanics to SR. It also shows how relativistic energy can have properties of matter. The postulates, which are used for the definition of SR, are therefore still clearer and the whole derivation of the Lorentz transformation is clearer. Such derivation also gives a more realistic example for the confirmation of Duff's claims.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1212.0012 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-08 16:21:21*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This paper is not consistent with my latest paper.Posted for a different reason.

This paper presents a ‘paradox’ which is meant to challenge the firmly established belief that the speed of EM waves (light) is an absolute constant, C. An electromagnetic wave travelling on a transmission line (terminated by an antenna) which itself is moving relative to an observer will be investigated to show the contradictions arising from the assumption of the source independent speed of electromagnetic waves (light) and to invalidate the postulate that the speed of light is a universal constant and the highest possible speed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1212.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-12-02 11:57:18*

**Authors:** Reginald B. Little I

**Comments:** 51 Pages. Previously submitted to sciprint.org in 2005

The Little Rule and Effect describe the cause of phenomena of physical and chemical transformations on the basis of spin antisymmetry and the consequent magnetism of the most fundamental elements of leptons and quarks and in particular electrons, protons and neutrons causing orbital motions and mutual revolutionary motions (spinrevorbital) to determine the structure and the dynamics of nucleons, nuclei, atoms, molecules, bulk structures and even stellar structures. By considering the Little Effect in multi-body, confined, pressured, dense, temperate, and physicochemically open systems, new mechanisms and processes will be discovered and explanations are given to the stability of multi-fermionic systems for continuum of unstable perturbatory states with settling to stable discontinuum states (in accord to the quantum approximation) to avoid chaos in ways that have not been known or understood. On the basis of the Little Effect, the higher order terms of the Hamiltonian provide Einstein’s missing link between quantum mechanics and relativity for a continuum of unstable states.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1212.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-12-02 12:05:04*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This document is the transcript of an interview of me conducted by American
scientists who requested me to explain in as simple terms as possible
why the black hole does not exist. I provide five proofs, four of which each
prove that General Relativity does not predict the black hole, and one which
proves that the theoretical Michell-Laplace Dark Body of Newton’s theory
of gravitation is not a black hole. The interview is located at this URL:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fsWKlNfQwJU

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1212.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-12-02 09:03:58*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It will be experimentally shown why gravity is not a force. It will be understood that gravitation is probably a secondary process similar to heat and light or even a tertiary process such as buoyancy or wind.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1212.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-12-01 03:51:37*

**Authors:** s Orlov

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Are investigated a trajectory of new type in distant, space flights unlike usual trajectories of direct flight to heavenly object (Moon) it is supposed to use asymmetry of a gravitational field and to carry out flight bypassing the most power gravitational impact on the spacecraft. It leads to economy of power for 20-30 %.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology