[31] **viXra:1706.0573 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-30 15:05:28*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: The recent success of cyclic universe E8 symmetry theory in predicting the ordinary and total positive mc^2 matter density of the universe is now followed by the prediction that early super massive black holes were filled entirely with dark matter H particles

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1706.0571 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-31 11:41:52*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The frame-dragging effect tells us that when a body rotates around itself the metric of spacetime around its surface is dragged. This occurs, for example, in the metric of the spacetime around the Earth surface, and produces the well-known phenomenon of shifting of the orbits of the satellites near the Earth. Such as the orbits of the satellites, the force lines of the gravitational field produced by rotating bodies are also affected by the frame-dragging effect. This means that the direction of a gravitational central force in a rotating body should be radially displaced, in respect to their initial position. In this work, we show that the radial displacement angle depends on the angular velocity of the rotating body, and that this fact point to the possibility of controlling the direction of these gravitational central forces, simply by controlling the angular velocity of the rotating body.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1706.0541 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-16 03:11:43*

**Authors:** BuMe Rang

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Simple theory of "Black" Hole

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1706.0540 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-29 01:24:22*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a Novel Technique to Create a Positive or/ and Negative Time Beam.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1706.0528 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-29 09:32:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 47 Pages.

A renewed suggestion that dark energy may not be real—dispensing with 70% of the stuff in the universe—has reignited a longstanding debate. [32] Physicists from the University of Liverpool have made a huge step forwards towards building a novel experiment to probe the "dark contents" of the vacuum. [31] Researchers at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai have proposed a theory that predicts how dark matter may be annihilating much more rapidly in the Milky Way, than in smaller or larger galaxies and the early Universe. [30] Two teams working independently have conducted studies with similar results suggesting the possibility that some of the cosmic rays striking the Earth arise from dark matter particles colliding with one another. [29] A mysterious gamma-ray glow at the center of the Milky Way is most likely caused by pulsars – the incredibly dense, rapidly spinning cores of collapsed ancient stars that were up to 30 times more massive than the sun. [28] Further evidence of the existence of dark matter – the mysterious substance that is believed to hold the Universe together – has been produced by Cosmologists at Durham University. [27] Researchers at the University of Waterloo have been able to capture the first composite image of a dark matter bridge that connects galaxies together. [26] In an abandoned gold mine one mile beneath Lead, South Dakota, the cosmos quiets down enough to potentially hear the faint whispers of the universe's most elusive material—dark matter. [25] The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1706.0526 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-28 10:58:18*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 123 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know:
-The dilatation of time, and
-The contraction of the Lorentz Length.
The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1706.0505 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-26 22:57:25*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this research investigation the author has presented a novel technique of creation of a Time Beam.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1706.0498 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-27 02:13:08*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Simultaneity Symmetry

Two identical stopwatches moving at the same speed will elapse the
same time after moving the same distance. If both stopwatches were started at the same time, there will be no time difference between
these two stopwatches after both stopwatches have
elapsed the same time. Both stopwatches will continue to show no time difference under identical acceleration.
Therefore, both stopwatches show identical time in an accelerating reference frame if both stopwatches were restarted at the same time in a stationary reference frame.
Consequently, a physical system that exhibits Translational Symmetry in
its motion demonstrates that two simultaneous events in one reference frame should be simultaneous in another reference frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1706.0467 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-25 05:30:44*

**Authors:** C. K. Raju

**Comments:** 12 pages, 3 tables, 6 graphs

We use Lorentz covariant retarded gravitation theory (RGT), without simplifications, to validate the earlier calculations for the flyby anomaly as a gravitational effect of Earth's rotation at the special relativistic (v/c) level. Small differences persist between the theoretical predictions of RGT and the data reported by Anderson et al. That reported data, however, is not direct observational data but consists of un-modeled residues. To settle doubts, we propose a 3-way experimental test to discriminate between RGT, Newtonian gravitation (no flyby anomaly), and Anderson et al.'s formula. This involves two satellites orbiting Earth in opposite directions in the equatorial plane in eccentric orbits. For these orbits, Earth's rotation should not affect velocity on (1) Newtonian gravitation and (2) the formula of Anderson et al. However, (3) on RGT, one satellite gains and the other loses velocity, by typically a few cm/s/day, which is easily measurable by satellite laser ranging.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1706.0429 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-22 05:16:29*

**Authors:** Fang Zhou

**Comments:** 37 pages in Chinese

Zhoufang Transformation (Z-Transformation) is the only objectively existing in nature transformation of space (the co-ordinates of material points) and time (the parameter of events) for the case of observers’ mutual uniform translatory motion and limited light velocity, and actually underlies the theoretical and methodological basis for the motion observation theory.The article presents two methods of physical-mathematical derivation for Zhoufang Transformation (Z-Transformation).One method relies on algebra means, and the other on vector analysis as well.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1706.0415 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-21 11:13:29*

**Authors:** Marco Pereira

**Comments:** 107 Pages.

This paper presents a simple and purely geometrical Grand Unification Theory. Quantum Gravity, Electrostatic and Magnetic interactions are shown in a unified framework. Newton's Gravitational Law, Gauss' Electrostatics Law and Biot-Savart's Electromagnetism Law are derived from first principles.
Gravitational Lensing and Mercury Perihelion Precession are replicated within the theory. Unification symmetry is defined for all the existing forces. This alternative model does not require Strong and Electroweak forces.
A 4D Shock-Wave Hyperspherical topology is proposed for the Universe which together with a Quantum Lagrangian Principle and a Dilator based model for matter result in a quantized stepwise expansion for the whole Universe along a radial direction within a 4D spatial manifold. The Hypergeometrical Standard Model for matter, Universe Topology and a new Law of Gravitation are presented. Newton's and Einstein's Laws of Gravitation and Dynamics, Gauss Law of Electrostatics among others are challenged when HU presents Type 1A Supernova Survey results. HU's SN1a results challenge current Cosmological Standard Model (L-CDM) by challenging its Cosmological Ruler d(z). SDSS BOSS dataset is shown to support a new Cosmogenesis theory and HU proposal that we are embedded in a 5D Spacetime. The Big Bang Theory is shown to be challenged by SDSS BOSS dataset. Hyperspherical Acoustic Oscillations are demonstrated in the SDSS BOSS Galaxy density. A New de-Broglie Force is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1706.0405 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-20 08:42:54*

**Authors:** Richard Palkovac

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In 2003, I was thinking about would happen if we pushed two fundamental particles of matter into ourselves (in the same location in space, in the same point). My intuition told me that it could not be mass anymore and therefore gravity would cease to have an effect. After I developed this idea, I also found the cause for the expansion of the universe and, ultimately, its acceleration.
The basic idea of my hypothesis is: "Gravitational mass is being lost in black holes (Grey Objects)."
It is clear to me that the physical definition of the term "black hole" is something other than what I use in this hypothesis.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1706.0401 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-20 10:30:41*

**Authors:** Robert D. Bock

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We present a simple model of light propagation that allows for the one-way speed of light, or equivalently, the simultaneity convention, to depend on the distance between the emitter and the absorber. This is distinct from variable speed of light (VSL) theories that assume the two-way speed of light is variable. We show that this model predicts wavelength shifts that are consistent with wavelength shifts measured from light propagating on astrophysical scales, thus eliminating the need to propose ad hoc mechanisms, such as dark matter, dark energy, and cosmological expansion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1706.0396 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-30 23:23:19*

**Authors:** Cyrus Master-Khodabakhsh

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper endeavours to explain why light and elementary particles have dual wave and
particle characteristics, and proposes a physical interpretation of Huygens’ principle. It also
explains why the famous Michelson and Morley experiment did not give the expected result,
and to show that it did, in fact, detect the ether but was not correctly interpreted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1706.0394 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-19 21:20:19*

**Authors:** Azzam K I Almosallami

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper I study the precession of Mercury’s perihelion and the free fall from the point of view of the field theory and retardation. SRT and GR do not support the field theory and retardation, that is because They consider the reality in physics is observer independent according to the Minkowski Geometry of space-time continuum. According to that SRT and GR must be understood from the point of view of the field theory and thus the reality must be observer dependent and in this case the mathematics that describe the physical reality will be different.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1706.0374 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-13 09:20:01*

**Authors:** Per Hokstad

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Abstract. We investigate time dilation in the theory of special relativity, and discuss some basic questions and controversies. Starting out from the Lorentz transformation, we stress that the location of clocks used for time readings is essential for the magnitude of the observed time dilation. We focus on three observational principles: 1) A reference frame may apply a single clock (SC); 2) It may apply multiple clocks (MC); or 3) There is a completely symmetric situation between the two reference frames. We specify two types of simultaneity. First, there can be a direct comparison of clock readings at identical positions, (‘basic simultaneity’). Further, there is simultaneity ‘in the perspective’ of any reference frame. By also using an auxiliary reference frame – in combination with symmetry considerations – we also define ‘simultaneity at a distance’; becoming an essential concept in our investigations. Throughout there is a focus on symmetry. A main statement is to stress that the Lorentz transformation has a fully symmetric solution with respect to the two reference frames: We will always observe that a single clock on any reference frame goes slower than the passing clocks on the other frame. This is mutual for both frames. We use the obtained framework to give a thorough discussion of the travelling twin paradox, and arrive at a conclusion regarding the twins’ ages, which deviates from the prevalent view regarding this example.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1706.0371 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-07 16:32:56*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here we will show the existence of a simple relationship between Einstein’s and Newton’s formulas. They are closely connected in terms of fundamental particles. Without knowing so, Newton indirectly conceptualized E = mc^2 two hundred years before Einstein. As we will see, the speed of light (which is equal to the speed of gravity) was hidden within Newton’s formula.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1706.0364 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-16 08:10:58*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Friedmann Equation which is often described as the most important equation in cosmology can be derived from Newtonian gravity without General Relativity. However, it is shown here that this derivation is mathematically incorrect and cannot even be a good approximation specifically because of invalid application of the shell theorem. Derivations from general relativity and Machian derivation are also without foundation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1706.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-12 02:16:13*

**Authors:** Valentin Ibanez Fernandez

**Comments:** 84 Pages.

Abstract
The paper is the second part of PHYSICAL & MATHEMATICS THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF SPECIAL RELATIVITY, Albert Einstein. It presents a deep theoretical analysis of the historical overview to the special theory of relativity. Unfortunately, the special theory of relativity violated the basic principle of relativity. The wrong development of processing of experiments affected all subsequent development of the special theory of relativity and other areas.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1706.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-14 06:13:56*

**Authors:** Jan Helm

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

A relativistic rotator is a pair of black-holes moving around their center-of mass (com) on GR-orbits in their own gravitational field. First we present a GR-solution in the com-frame for non-rotating (Schwarzschild) black-holes in the usual spherical coordinates (t,r,theta,phi) using a complex transformation of the radius r . with the condition that for r→∞ the resulting orbit equations must be the Newtonian equations. We analyze the solution and show examples of orbits. In a second step we generalize it to the case of rotating (Kerr) black-holes

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1706.0135 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-10 03:13:32*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 66 Pages. Spanish

We understand the principle of Mach as the assertion that the inertia of a body is not an intrinsic quality of matter, but is the effect of the action of the whole Universe. The forces of inertia act when a body is accelerated. But if we assume that is the Universe that is accelerated, it will generate a gravitational inductive force on the body, which can be understood as the force of inertia.
In this research we calculated the gravitational induction produced on a body by the accelerated movement of the whole of the Universe. We used the linearized theory of General Relativity, therefore the results are approximate, but sufficient to give us an idea of how the Universe conforms the inertia of the bodies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1706.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-08 16:09:05*

**Authors:** Bill Gaede

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Different cultures around the world have independently discovered time in antiquity and developed calendars and clocks to measure this mysterious unknown. We say ‘mysterious’ because to this day no one has defined what ‘time’ is or means. Yet Mathematical Physics, particularly Special and General Relativity, are founded on time; neither can do without this strategic term. Time dilation is one of the three pillars of Special Relativity and the dimension of time is the fourth leg of General Relativity’s ubiquitous space-time. What is it that theoreticians are stretching? What are they warping? Is time a dimension? Is it legal to replace height with time on a Cartesian chart and turn it into a Feynman diagram? And if time was born at the Big Bang, what is it that came to life? What does the babe look like? A closer analysis reveals that time is not a dimension. We discover that time cannot do without an observer. More fundamentally, we discover that unless we define this enigmatic word we will never understand what anyone who uses it is talking about.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1706.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-08 02:53:44*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 3 pages

The period of a light wave emitted by an oscillating electron in a “stationary” reference frame was determined in a relatively moving frame using the Lorentz transformation applied on different event intervals; one being between two events on the wave propagation path, and the other between two co-local events on the oscillating source path. A critical inconsistency in the Special Relativity was revealed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1706.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-06 09:05:48*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this paper an elaboration of the physical concept of inertia is presented and it leads to a definition of the Generalized Principle of Inertia and of inertial motions in the order of a wider view that considers also the presence of the gravitational field. At last the paper terminates with the examination of a few paradoxes of time that certainly represent evident contradictions inside theories that prove the existence of relativistic effects of time that would be generated by imaginary changes of spacetime due to the inertial speed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1706.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-06 02:38:42*

**Authors:** Laszlo A. Marosi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, I reconsider the interpretation of Hubble’s Law as recession velocity of distant galaxies, in association with novel theories of the physical properties of the quantum vacuum, by assuming thermalization of starlight into a homogeneous black-body energy distribution. I present scientific theories and experimental results supporting the assumption that the proposed equilibration process might take place without any material mediator. The equilibration follows from the interaction between quantum states of the excited spacetime entity, and therefore, energy equilibration has to be looked at as a natural quantum physical process, instead of as a physically unlikely one. Cosmological implications of the presented theory are discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1706.0042 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-05 14:44:43*

**Authors:** C. A. Laforet

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In the current paper, the internal Schwarzschild solution is examined in the context of a cosmological model. The model gives a vacuum solution where the center of gravity is an infinitely dense point in time rather than space. The internal metric is dynamic and describes two phases. In the first phase, space starts off infinitely sparse and then collapses to infinite density in a finite proper time measured by an inertial observer. In the second phase, the space expands out from this infinitely dense state (the temporal center of gravity) back to the zero density state. The geodesics remain well defined when traversing this infinitely dense state. It is shown that the second phase corresponds to current observations of the expansion history of our Universe, namely that the initial expansion is infinitely fast, and then the expansion slows for some time followed by an accelerated expansion. With a simple coordinate change we get a metric resembling the FRW metric for flat space with a time dependent scale factor. It is shown that the singularity at r=0 can be interpreted as a point in time where the geodesics reverse sharply, causing the expansion and collapse of the Universe to cycle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1706.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-05 07:44:56*

**Authors:** Mohammed Mezouar

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We show that even Special Relativity predicts, as a consequence of length contraction, a kind of light’s
deflection for an observer having a relativistic speed relative to the source.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1706.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-04 16:36:31*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** Pages.

This is a short note to show how the speed of light c can be derived from dimensional analysis from the Gravitational constant, the Planck constant and the Planck length.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1706.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-04 06:25:09*

**Authors:** Ricardo Gil

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Like stars in the universe so are freckles and moles on the body. In the universe one can see constellation but on a certain persons body there is a Pulga Constellation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1706.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-03 12:18:13*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

A new simple cosmological model is shown to be able to overcome all major problems of modern cosmology without using ad hoc elements and without any modification in general relativity or quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1706.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-02 11:17:25*

**Authors:** Hubert J. Veringa

**Comments:** 49 Pages.

In this document an attempt is made to explain the origin of gravity. The basis for the analysis is a merger of Quantum theory and Relativity. Nowhere in the analysis there is any need to deviate from well proven and successful concepts of both theories and rules of calculation, and no exotic new particles will have to be introduced. By doing so it is demonstrated that, next to its local interactions of a multi-particle system, the Schrödinger equation leads to pairs of two and only two members. This solution is used as the invariant term in the quantized Einstein energy equation which finally leads to gravitational interactions between members of the pairs. With this particular solution for the quantum-mechanical wave function it is found that gravity is a second order effect operating over a long range. In this document it is tried to give a complete and consistent account of all steps that have been taken in de derivation of the classical Newton’s law. Further the document emphasizes precise justification of some of the basic assumptions made, on the historical context into which it should be placed, how it affects the ordering of our immediate environment and how it works out works out on a cosmological ale. It is also found that the generator of gravity is contributing mass to particles that have gravitational interaction. This contribution is therefore related to cosmological parameters and will be further elucidated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology