[24] **viXra:1802.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 06:17:18*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

This author has already proposed a new theory, Apparent Source Theory ( AST ), that can explain the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect, the Silvertooth experiment, the Roland De Witte experiment, the Venus planet radar range data anomaly ( analyzed and reported by Bryan G Wallace ) and other experiments. According to AST, there will be an apparent change in position of a light source as seen by the observer, for absolutely co-moving source and observer. The 'null' result of the Michelson-Morley experiment (MMX) is explained as follows. The effect of absolute motion is just to create an apparent change in position of the light source relative to the detector. There will be no (significant) fringe shift in the MMX for the same reason that there will be no (significant) fringe shift if the source position was actually, physically shifted slightly. The fringe shift in Sagnac effect is explained as follows. The source will be apparently shifted away relative to the detector when looking in the backward direction and shifted towards the detector when looking in the forward direction, hence creating a path difference. Einstein's thought experiment ( 'chasing a beam of light' ) is re-interpreted and used as one of the foundational arguments in this paper. The new interpretation is that it is the phase velocity of light that is always constant irrespective of source, observer and mirror velocity. The group velocity behaves in a more conventional way: it is independent of source (absolute) velocity but depends on observer and mirror velocity. For an observer moving near the speed of light away from a light source, the phases will still move past the observer at the speed of light while the group will be at rest relative to the observer. The new theoretical framework consists of two theories: 1. Apparent Source theory 2. Exponential Doppler Effect of light theory . The results of many light speed experiments can be derived from these two theories. Apparent Source Theory determines the phase and group delay of light, whereas Exponential Doppler Effect theory determines the frequency/wavelength of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1802.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 07:50:14*

**Authors:** Karan R.Takkhi

**Comments:** 4 pages, 1 figure

The value of the cosmological constant obtained according to the quantum field theory is 10^120 times larger than the observed small value of the cosmological constant. Such huge discrepancy with the cosmological constant, known as the cosmological constant problem would cause a vacuum catastrophe. Since the discrepancy involved with the cosmological constant is unimaginably very high, therefore, molecular diffusion model has been introduced in this paper as an alternative to dark energy in order to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe. The molecular diffusion model considers the distribution of large-scale structures as molecules inside a vacuum chamber. Since large-scale structures are ensemble of atoms, therefore, they can be treated as distribution of molecules possessing finite amount of energy. Instead of considering that space is expanding, the manuscript emphasizes upon the recession of large-scale structures upon a stationary space-time continuum. Since the discrepancy with the cosmological constant is very large, therefore, instead of considering that empty space possesses energy, it would be much more prudent to consider that large-scale structures possess energy by the virtue of which they recede, quite similar to a molecule that recedes by the virtue of energy that it possesses, after all, “the diffusion or free expansion of gas molecules inside a vacuum chamber by the virtue of vacuum energy or dark energy” has never been heard of; such claim, if true, would only suggest that gas molecules do not possess any energy. Instead of considering distant Type 1a supernova as a standard candle, I have considered the Sun as the standard candle. The study shows that the large-scale structures are receding at a constant rate, instead at an accelerated rate. The actual or the finite recessional velocity that a massive galaxy cluster attains by the virtue of its finite energy has also been unravelled in this paper along with the corresponding value of their “true” redshift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1802.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-18 17:16:26*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

We test counter examples of conditions for the speed of light as s:
If possibly c is not equivalent to s, and c is less than or greater than s, then: (1.2)
If possibly c is not equivalent to s, and possibly c is less than or greater than s, then: (1.3)
If possibly c is equivalent to s, or possibly c is less than or greater than s, then: (1.4)
The result is that E=mc^2 not tautologous after all.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1802.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-18 11:09:01*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 6 pages

In its basic form, the Special Relativity’s famous mass-energy equivalence equation doesn’t seem to hold for massless particles. To get around this deficiency, another form (energy-momentum relation) of the same equation incorporating a momentum term has been introduced by the physics mainstream. The adopted mainstream derivation of the energy-momentum relation is based on certain assumptions using Minkowski spacetime four-momentum, forcing a solution towards the energy-momentum relation. This form of the mass-energy equivalence equation appears to hold for massless particles. However, in this paper, an analysis of the mainstream derivation of the energy-momentum relation is carried out, highlighting the made assumptions, and revealing a resulting contradiction. It is clearly shown, through a straight forward derivation, that the energy-momentum relation still doesn’t hold for massless particles. Consequently, the energy-momentum relation requires that a photon must have an infinitesimal rest mass, for which its speed only approaches c. Thus, the speed of light will no longer be invariant with respect to all inertial reference frames, as postulated by Einstein in his formulation of the Special Relativity!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1802.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-18 01:15:56*

**Authors:** Durgadas Datta.

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Review and re think.

Re look cosmology observations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1802.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-16 14:42:23*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 29 Pages. Last paper in the author's series on Theory of Everything

Members of the public and intellectuals do appreciate that the universe appears to be something
beyond explanations. It is a colossal miracle, because there is no evidence of any kind, capable
of indicating how such an impossible reality could have arisen, without attributing it to superintelligent
induction, based on nothing like the science and physics we know of. We should not
use the limitation of human knowhow, to claim that it all of existence arose from nothing, or from
a few grams of vacuum energy, based on science which did not exist. This third article is the last,
before the author publishes his Theory of Everything, in his coming book, later this year, 2018.
Elaborating a genuine Theory of Everything (TOE) is obviously a very demanding proposition. To
start with, you can never be certain it has been correctly formulated, because we are just humans,
created without the capacity to possess supernatural knowledge. The TOE remains the only
universal unified concept having a future, after Glashow two years back openly admitted that the
Grand Unified Theory of his and Georgi, of 1974, was dead. To start with, the TOE should be an
all-encompassing model that provides answers to many questions from scientists and the public
about the origin and nature of our universe. Historically, the seeds of a theory of our universe
were sown in efforts to produce a field unification theory, in 1864, when Maxwell published his
dynamical theory of electromagnetic field. This influenced Einstein in 1905 to use Maxwell’s
constancy of the speed of light to unify space and time into the concept of spacetime. Later
Einstein conceived of curved four-dimensional spacetime to describe gravity in his General
Relativity. Some years later Weyl in 1919 came up with the gauge electromagnetic field theory,
which eventually led to the concept of Grand Unified Theory, which was believed to be one in
which all forces would merge into a single force, due to different fields being able to “merge” into
a unified one.
2
Kaluza in 1921 envisaged General Relativity as a 5-dimensional entity in which Klein, in 1926,
suggested that the fourth dimension could be curled up to illustrate gravitational force. These
varied developments were the earliest attempts at trying to understand the universe in unified
field theories, and it was in this rather confused context, as from 1930, that Einstein embarked on
an ambitious journey into a 25 year-dedication to formulate a classical Unified Field Theory, which
never materialised, and he was still scribbling some equations on his last day in 1955. A decade
later, there started a new realisation about unifying the electromagnetic force with the Weak
Interaction, arising from the work of Higgs, Glashow, Weinberg and Salam that produced the
unified Electroweak Theory, the unification of the electromagnetic and weak forces. This trend
encouraged physicists to contemplate that perhaps at very high energies, not yet possible under
contemporary technologies, all forces might unify into one grand unified theory, the GUT, which
when unified with gravity, would produce a theory of everything. Recent data suggest that a Grand
Unified Theory is either a theoretical curiosity, misunderstood, or a mirage. Speculations went
much further, for there have been suggestions that a GUT, championed by Salam and others,
would produce at the highest energy a single combined field of all forces, from which would
emerge evidence of the occurrence of superparticles, for each of the standard particles in today’s
physics. The important questions are why the universe requires such physical entities and how
do they fit into the final explanations of the realities of our laws of nature, for instance the nature
of consciousness and other phenomena of existence, like Darwin’s theory of evolution or black
holes or the Big Bang theory, or even about the origin of our universe.
This being so, several efforts, in the physics and cosmology domains, try to dig into the strata of
universal knowledge to search for our ultimate relevance and future, but the topic of finding a TOE
was seen to be even more elusive. However, scientists were convinced that the Theory of
Everything was first and foremost a concept of our ultimate realities and of existence. It is believed
it would harbour major components of physics in intimacy with philosophy. You need philosophical
inspiration to see the physics, which then tells you how the philosophy should be like, or you need
to see the philosophy to understand why the physics is as it is. The physics is pure physics and
the philosophy pure philosophy, but they might both be imperative towards understanding the
origin and the meaning of existence.
What we have currently is a collection of narratives about the origin of our universe, all spinning
around contrasting centres of philosophical influence. Even here in intellectual work, there is an
implication of entropy for once the culture of defining various theories of everything has reached
a certain maximum, the true Theory of Everything could find a greater likelihood to emerge. In
3
entropy, including intellectual entropy, there will be factors of determinism and indeterminism,
such that they would interplay in the process of the evolution of ideas, where entropy would ensure
we always move from maximum order, with loads of data, to maximum disorder, in framed
concepts on which little more conceptual work is possible, a fact which means that the Theory of
Everything, describing the most evolved universal tenets of existence, would represent the most
disorderly intellectual system, at the highest intellectual entropy. That would be the universal
explanatory key conceived by humans for humans, based on philosophy and physics, to unlock
the mysteries of the universe that was masterminded by a Supernatural Power.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1802.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 14:18:02*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 4 Pages. none

This paper investigates the General Relativity Theory (GRT) by studying the relativistic free fall of a small test body in a uniform gravitational field. The paper compares the predictions of energy loss, perhaps by radiation, in a free fall obtained from the GRT and the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that the gravitational mass dependence on velocity in GRT is not correct, because it predicts a negative loss of energy while the MTG predicts correctly a positive loss.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1802.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-16 01:01:27*

**Authors:** Wei Xu

**Comments:** 5 Pages. The related articles are available at http://vixra.org/author/wei_xu

By discovering *Asymmetric World Equation*, we formulate the astonishing results: the *Third Universal Motion Equations, *which produce a consequence of laws of conservations and commutations, and characterize universal evolutions of *Ontology* and *Cosmology*:

- Flux Commutations and classical General Relativity,
- Animation and Reproduction of Physical Ontology,
- Creation and Annihilation of Virtual Ontology
- Motion Dynamics of Cosmology, and
- Field Equations of Cosmology.

Finally, the philosophical terminology is outlined as the inspirational highlights of “*Universal and Unified Field Theory”*.

[16] **viXra:1802.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 09:03:56*

**Authors:** R. I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 3 Pages. 20th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, GR-20, Sydney Australia Jan 29-30, 2018. Conference Proceedings

As is well known, the energy-momentum pseudotensors of the gravitational field allow you to calculate the total mass of a body and its gravitational field. We performed such a calculation and found a positive contribution of the pseudotensor to the mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1802.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 08:46:18*

**Authors:** John Hunter

**Comments:** 5 pages + references and appendices, total 14 pages.

In order to deal with the coincidence problem a new scalefactor-redshift relation is considered. With the new relation a constant rate of expansion with no cosmological constant matches observations well. There is thus the possibility that the dark energy phenomenon is an illusion caused by the use of an incorrect relation.
The new relation arises naturally in a cosmological model which expands - yet appears static, incorporating the perfect cosmological principle. It is found that the new relation also leads to a natural resolution of the tension between Hubble constant values from the distance ladder and Cosmic Background Radiation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1802.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 01:34:32*

**Authors:** Valentín Ibáñez Fernández

**Comments:** 58 Pages.

The estimation obtained in this work convincingly confirms that, due to the errors previously committed in Albert Einstein's theory of special relativity, the resulting mathematical transformation is erroneous and the two physical systems described in the special theory of relativity are not inertial systems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1802.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-13 02:22:05*

**Authors:** Lev I. Verkhovsky

**Comments:** 15 Pages. In 2000 I published in Russian a brochure "Memoir on the Theory of Relativity and a Unified Field Theory": http://viXra.org/abs/1801.0305. Now I present the English translation of version II of the brochure with minor differences from the version 2000 (

Lorentz transformations in their originally more general form, i.e. with the scale factor are considered. It is shown, that H. Lorenz, A. Poincare, and A. Einstein put this factor equal to one without proper foundations. It is clarified the physical sense of this factor – he describes the Doppler effect. As the result the paradoxes of the special theory of relativity are removed, grandiose simplifications occur in GR and the natural path to the construction of unified field theory is opening.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1802.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-11 20:35:42*

**Authors:** Evgeny A Novikov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract
The creation of the universe is described in a form of conversation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1802.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-11 22:29:30*

**Authors:** Jody A Geiger

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Unifying quantum and classical physics has proved difficult as their postulates are conflicting. Using the notion of counts of the fundamental measures—length, mass, and time—a unifying description is resolved. A theoretical framework is presented in a set of postulates by which a conversion between expressions from quantum and classical physics can be made. Conversions of well-known expressions specific to gravitation, special and general relativity exemplify the approach and mathematical procedures. The postulated integer counts of fundamental measures changes our understanding of length and allows a straight-forward application of the principles of relativity to a gravitational field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1802.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-12 01:09:49*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Expansion of the universe by Hubble, allows you to calculate the expansion at a minimum distance. What makes it possible to set a correction to the limiting speed of information transfer, which is used in the theory of relativity. At the same time, the corrections in different local regions differ from each other. The amendments, albeit insignificantly small, can unexpectedly give some results, as shown in the example.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1802.0111 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-11 09:14:50*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 4 Pages. non

This paper investigates the possibility of testing the General Relativity Theory (GRT) by
studying the relativistic free fall of a small test body in a uniform gravitational field. The constant
improvements in technology lead to increased precision of measurements, which opens up new
possibility of testing the GRT. The paper compares the free fall predictions obtained from the Newtonian
physics theory, the GRT, and the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that it might be possible to
distinguish between the GRT and the MTG theories with a reasonable confidence and thus determine by
experimental methods which theory is actually correct.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1802.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-09 02:26:11*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An isolated physical system of elastic collision between two identical
objects is chosen to manifest the physics law,
conservation of momentum, in two inertial reference frames. In the
first reference frame,
the center of mass (COM) is stationary. In the second reference frame, the center of mass
moves at a constant velocity. By applying
Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both objects, total momentum before and
during the collision in the second reference frame can be compared. The comparison
shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold
when both objects move together at the same velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1802.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-07 07:34:13*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In deep space, accurate timekeeping is vital to navigation, but many spacecraft lack precise timepieces on board. [5] Physics is sometimes closer to philosophy when it comes to understanding the universe. Donald Chang from Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, China, attempts to elucidate whether the universe has a resting frame. [4] This paper explains the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1802.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-05 13:32:20*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci, Pe

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Ever since the Laser Interferometer Gravitational–Wave Observatory (LIGO), one each at Hanford, Washington, and Livingston, Louisiana, allegedly detected gravity waves from merging binary black holes on September 14, 2015, there have been numerous challenges to the claim (and to subsequent claims for further detections, including even gravity waves from merging binary neutron stars on August 17, 2017). These challenges range from denying the very existence of black holes to “liberties” taken with the interpretation of the signals received at the different sites, especially the fact that these signals were pre-simulated to align with the theory of gravitational waves themselves, such that their “detection” was no more than a self-fulfilling prophecy. One particularly astute challenge stems from the claim that, if a gravity wave were to distort space-time, then not only light waves, but also the physical dimensions of LIGO itself, would be distorted, such that any alleged “perturbation” claimed to be a gravity wave due to generation of an interference pattern from the LIGO lasers could not be due to gravity waves. This possibility is examined here, with an alternative as aether disturbances included as what LIGO actually has detected.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1802.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-09 14:53:24*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An isolated physical system of inelastic collision between two identical
objects is chosen to manifest the physics law,
conservation of momentum, in two inertial reference frames. In the
first reference frame,
the center of mass (COM) is stationary. In the second reference frame, one
object is at rest before collision. By applying
Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both objects, total momentum before and after the collision in the second reference frame can be compared. The comparison shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold
when both objects move together at the same velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1802.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-02 16:17:51*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Paper submitted to Frontiers in Science

It is shown that galaxies close to galactic sheets are attracted towards them with an approximate Hooke’s law force. Thus, as they get closer to the sheets, the more their velocities increase, and the more the magnitude of their accelerations decrease. Therefore, the so-called acceleration of the Universe is completely misleading. A sort of molecular potential exists for galaxies inside voids. It is suggested that the Universe is a new kind of amorphous solid. For the first time it is estimated that the universal expansion is of the order of one trillion years.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1802.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-01 15:43:26*

**Authors:** Szostek Roman, Góralski Paweł, Szostek Kamil

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Gravity waves in Newton's gravitation and test proposition of Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave (LIGO) (in Polish)

W artykule wykazane zostało, że z prawa ciążenia Newtona wynika istnienie fal grawitacyjnych.
W artykule pokazane zostały różnice pomiędzy przebiegiem fal grawitacyjnych wynikających z grawitacji Newtona oraz przebiegiem fal grawitacyjnych wynikających z Ogólnej Teorii Względności, których pomiar został ogłoszony przez zespół LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory).
Według obu teorii fale grawitacyjne są cyklicznymi zmianami natężenia pola grawitacyjnego.
W artykule zaproponowana została metoda testowania interferometru laserowego do pomiaru fali grawitacyjnej używanego w obserwatorium LIGO.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1802.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-01 22:17:09*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

We define the twin paradox without resort to stopping because we assume that instant velocity commences and terminates at an instant state of rest.
Twins occupy the same fiducial point from which one twin obtains an instant velocity to a non-fiducial point, then obtains another instant velocity back to the fiducial point. The question is are the twins the same at the fiducial point before and after the separation and travel of the one twin. This is the state of affairs without special relativity.
We also test the above as the counter example for the state of affairs with special relativity.
[T]he twin paradox is not a paradox, but rather something else, namely, a state of affairs that is not tautologous and not contradictory.
What follows is that special relativity is suspicious.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1802.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-02 01:36:32*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An isolated physical system of elastic collision between two identical
objects is chosen to manifest the
conservation of momentum in two inertial reference frames. In the first reference frame,
the center of mass (COM) is stationary. In the second reference frame, one
object is at rest.
The second frame is created by a temporary
acceleration from the first frame. By applying both
velocity transformation and
conservation of momentum to this isolated system, mass transformation
is derived precisely.
The result shows that the mass of an object is independent of its motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology