[41] **viXra:1802.0430 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-28 23:27:08*

**Authors:** Richard L Amoroso, Elizabeth A Rauscher

**Comments:** 8 Pages. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789812839312_0001

Critics of the Big Bang have said every time the Big bang fails an adjustment to the theory is made or a new parameter added to fix it. While a valid criticism it misses the mark in that this is the business of science, constant tinkering until truth is eventually found. Our complaint is in the quotes above. Others have said that there is no truth in science because a theory can never be proven true only falsified. However, there is another wrinkle in that respect; when a ‘best’ theory is finally found and later falsified what remains is Absolute Truth [3]. Absolute truth in science refers to a finite regime described by a theory that has been falsified. This somewhat rarefied condition is best said about Newton’s theories. They remain absolute truth in reference to the finite classical regimes they describe [4]. The aim of this work is to provide sufficient insight that Big Bang cosmology may finally be falsified.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1802.0410 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-03 09:18:34*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Version 9 in English.

This article presents a new formulation of special relativity which is invariant under transformations between inertial and non-inertial (non-rotating) frames. Additionally, a simple solution to the twin paradox is presented and a new universal force is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1802.0405 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-27 07:22:32*

**Authors:** Amit Kumar Jha

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Thevariantofthequintessencetheoryisproposedinordertogetanaccelerated
expansionoftheFriedmannianUniverseintheframeworksofrelativistictheoryof
gravitation.Thesubstanceofquintessenceisbuiltupthescalarfieldofdarkenergy.
Itisshown,thatfunctionV(Φ),whichfactorisingscalarfieldLagrangian(isa
scalarfield)hasnoinfluenceontheevolutionoftheUniverse.Somerelations,
allowingtofindexplicitdependenceΦontime,werefound,providedgiven
function.V(Φ

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1802.0399 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-27 10:40:08*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Abstract: An alternate forward-time, reverse-time energy cycle of the 9th cycle of an HCE8S universe for a full loop of the cycle is shown

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1802.0397 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-15 06:17:24*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 39 Pages. Added note on spacetime engineering (pp. 38-39).

Commemorating 110 years of Hermann Minkowski's lecture RAUM UND ZEIT, given at the 80th Meeting of the German Society of Scientists and Physicians in Cologne on 21 September 1908 and based on the crucial contributions to the theory of Special Relativity by Hendrik Lorentz, Albert Einstein and Henri Poincaré, I am happy to announce my video lecture, entitled: Platonic Theory of Spacetime. It will be posted on YouTube on 21 September 2018 at 10 AM GMT.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1802.0375 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-26 00:45:43*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In the history of physics, kinetic energy has been represented by two expressions.
One from Issac Newton, the other from Special Relativity. Both expressions are expected
to describe a physical system that demands conservation of momentum. By examining
the expression of momentum in a projectile motion, the kinetic energy from Issac Newton
is found to obey conservation of momentum while the kinetic energy from Special
Relativity is found to violate conservation of momentum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1802.0372 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-25 11:36:00*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In the unified theory of dynamic space the quantum time is identical to the elementary motion, traveled by electrically opposite elementary units (in short units) in the interval (click-shift) of the quantum dipole length at the speed of light. The quantum time in the units region is the Natural time, that replaced the conventional time, i.e. the second. Nature understands time, as a crowd of moving units, as a length traveled with click-shifts and as a volume occupied by the units. Therefore, time is reflected in the structures of space by the number of their units. However, motion is a form of space deformation, created by force that is reduced from the dynamic space
as motion force, which is accumulated on the spherical zone of the particle, due to the
difference of cohesive pressure in front of and behind it. This accumulation is made by force talantonion (oscillator) per quantum time in the formations region as quantum force, causing harmonic change to the difference of cohesive pressure in proximal space of the particle as a motion wave (wave-like form), the so-called de Broglie's wave- particle. The Physical meaning of Planck's constant is interpreted as the product of three Nature's entities, namely the force talantonion (which is the foundation of
motion), the quantum dipole length and the quantum time in the formations region. The "relative" mass has now been proved and the proof is not based on the second postulate of relativity. So, the particle mass does not in fact increase, when it moves, but only the final force (of gravity and motion), which causes the new dynamics of particle motion, increases. This new dynamics appears as a tension of space, which is maintained in a different way for each uniform motion, resulting the change of the Physics Laws in different inertial systems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1802.0368 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-27 05:37:27*

**Authors:** Arjun Dahal, Naresh Adhikari

**Comments:** 7 Pages. ©2017-2018 Journal of St. Xavier's Physics Council

Black holes are one of the fascinating objects in the universe with gravitational pull strong enough to capture light within them. Through this article we have attempted to provide an insight to the black holes, on their formation and theoretical developments that made them one of the unsolved mysteries of universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1802.0356 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-25 08:51:42*

**Authors:** Shant Khlghatyan

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Studying evolution of angular momentum in Kerr field and obtained some conditions on the parameters of motion for different types of orbits

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1802.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-23 23:19:18*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 8 Pages. -

Expansion of the universe by Hubble, allows you to calculate the expansion at a minimum distance. What makes it possible to set a correction to the limiting speed of information transfer, which is used in the theory of relativity. At the same time, the corrections in different local regions differ from each other. The amendments, albeit insignificantly small, can unexpectedly give some results, as shown in the example. And the example itself and subsequent conclusions can be exactly the step to a great unification of interactions.
ул. Софьи Ковалевской дом 14, корпус 1, квартира 70

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1802.0327 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-22 14:35:33*

**Authors:** Michael R. Feyereisen

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

A model of a quantum cosmology motivated from fundamental physical principles is proposed, in which the intrinsic spin of both matter and the vacuum explains the existence of a cosmological scale factor a with a constant H0, the existence and magnitude of the cosmological constant Λ, the thermal history of the Universe, and the nature of the Dark Matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1802.0326 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-23 00:22:26*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

An isolated physical system of gravitational force between two identical
particles is chosen to manifest the physics law,
conservation of momentum, in a random inertial reference frame under Lorentz Transformation.
In this random reference frame, the center of mass
moves at a constant velocity. By applying
Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both particles, total momentum
in this random inertial reference frame can be calculated and
is expected to remain constant as gravitational force accelerate both particles toward each other.
The calculation
shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold under Lorentz Transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1802.0307 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-30 21:28:58*

**Authors:** Julian Williams

**Comments:** 65 Pages.

Einstein's Field Equations can be derived from a Lagrangian using Action Principles. At a different level, this paper explores the possibility of gravity being connected to what we define as an "Invariant Spherically Symmetric Four Volume Action Density of Cosmic Wavelength Gravitons". Infinitesimal changes (at least locally) to the Energy Momentum Tensor are required, but with profound effect at cosmic scale: Flatness without Inflation and Exponentially increasing expansion with no need for Dark Energy. This may also relate with the present tension in the different ways of measuring the Hubble parameter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1802.0304 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-11 19:47:18*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The derivation of the Lorentz transformation normally rests on two a priori demands, namely that reversing the direction of the transformation's constant-velocity boost inverts the transformation, and that the transformation leaves light-speed invariant. It is notable, however, that the simple light-clock concept, which is rooted entirely in
light-speed invariance, immediately implies reciprocal time dilation, and it has been demonstrated that reciprocal time dilation implies length contraction. Reciprocal time dilation and length contraction are the pivotal consequences of the Lorentz transformation, so demanding only inertial transformation-invariance of light-speed apparently already uniquely produces the Lorentz transformation. We show that the demand of x-direction inertial transformation-invariance of the light-cone space-time locus uniquely produces the x-direction Lorentz transformation, and also that the demand of x-direction inertial transformation-invariance of light speed itself has the same consequence; in the latter case the velocity, instead of the space-time, version of the general x-direction inertial transformation must be used. The x-direction Lorentz transformation is also uniquely produced by the reciprocal time dilation and length contraction implications of light clocks.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1802.0300 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-06 05:03:22*

**Authors:** Jack Wenger

**Comments:** 131 Pages. Added Appendix A with further discussion of spatial systems viewed as interfaces.

Abstract: Try another way of looking at the universe. Consider spatial dimensions as measurements of interfaces. These interfaces can have two or more sides. We can see this if we think of thick oil spreading on water. We have three 3D substances, water, oil, and air. There is a water/oil 2D interface, an oil/air 2D interface and ahead of the oil intrusion a water/air 2D interface. Furthermore there is a linear or 1D interface at the front where the oil is advancing and all 3D substances touch. This interface has three sides. This relationship could also be described this way: Where two 3D substances meet they form a (3-1)D interface and where three or more 3D substances meet they form a (3-2)D interface.
This allows the speculation that all higher dimensional systems may form interfaces in this fashion when substances within those systems interact in a manner similar to that described above.
The pattern suggested is:
When N (as in ND) is a whole number greater than 1, two adjacent ND substances can form an (N-1)D interface between them and three or more ND substances can meet at a (N-2)D interface. This interface has three or more sides.
This in turn allows the suggestion that there could be an infinite 5D sphere made up of infinitely small 5D units that have settled into concentric fluidic layers according to some analogs to gravity and density, and that a higher (or lower) layer, having undergone a change in density, is in the process of reestablishing itself in the layer hierarchy. This could entail its intrusion between two layers having only slightly different densities.
If this were the case and the 5D substances followed the pattern described above, it would have two 4D (5-1) interfaces where it contacted the fluids on either side and a 3D (5-2) interface where all three fluids met, at the front of intrusion.
Infinitely small 5D substance units (5D molecules, 5D atoms) would allow the layers to be extremely thin, thinner than any observable 3D object at the 3D interface but still the size of these units could have ratios to the layer's thickness similar to the ratio of a water molecule's size to the depth of the deepest ocean. Much would be allowed under these conditions.
When considering a great circle along the 3D interface, the speed of its expansion would be 2pi times the rate of intrusion. That is the change in the radius will always equal 1/2pi the change in circumference size.
If the circumferential expansion of the 3D interface was equal to the expansion rate of our cosmic horizon, the intrusion rate would be 1.007 times our light speed. If its circumference was greater, maybe many times the size of our cosmic horizon, the rate of intrusion would be many times light speed. We suggests that the speed of intrusion within the Shear Dependant Universe (SDU) would probably be many times light speed. These speeds would not need to be constant. They would be affected by the rate of fluid entry at the source.
The high speed of intrusion and perhaps other characteristic of the fluids could create shear. This shear could be expressed as vortices at all interfaces, if all fluids were similar in "density". If the 5D sphere were rotating, vortices at the upper 4D interface would rotate opposite those at the lower, when moving in the same direction along the 3D interface, therefore the 3D interface would contact vortices of both rotations. The picture here is of dense chaotic vortex fields on all sides of all interfaces. In addition, vortices can merge or concentrate to form structures at the 3D interface as described below.
Vortices create wakes by applying torque to the 3D interface as they move over it. Those at the upper 4D interface create torque wakes that are opposite those at the lower. Vortices tend to draw closer together or concentrate with others having similar torque wakes and move way from those with incompatible wakes when traveling in the same 3D direction. However vortices having opposite rotation can concentrate if they are traveling in opposite 3D directions. Vortices with incompatible wakes move away from each other.
Combined torque wakes of sufficient intensity can capture "swarms of vortices" on any or all sides of the 3D interface. These swarms can result in fields with various shapes. The shape of some of these fields is cyclonic with tubular centers or eyes, their bases attached to the 3D interface via compatible torque. Others have an anti cyclonic form with oppositely rotating eyes that are also attached to the 3D interface through appropriate torque contours. A single torque pattern at the 3D interface can accommodate several cyclonic or anti cyclonic swarms on any of its sides, these swarms will simply rotate in appropriate directions. Opposite rotation is allowed because these swarms are on opposing sides of the 3D interface and cannot conflict with each other.
These are diffuse columnar swarms with highly concentrated centers where there is maximum torque or deformation of the 3D interface. If a swarm conglomerate is set in motion, torque is increased on the side of motion direction by an increased encountering and accumulation of background shear. This increased vortex concentration and torque, ahead of the eye causes the whole swarm to shift in this direction which in turn reestablishes the higher vortex concentration and maintains the off center torque, constantly reinforcing the direction of travel. This feedback loop with background shear becomes the basis for inertial mass.
Those solo swarms that occupy only the outside of one the 4D interfaces (one quark) are swept away by the backflow immediately. Swarm pairs that occupy both sides of a single 4D interface (two quarks) and have some attachment with the 3D interface remain in contact a little longer but are also swept away. Swarm trios or quartets, that occupy all sides of the 3D interface (three quarks) and are anchored by a common torque pattern at the 3D interface, remain attached. They are still occupying only three fluid sectors so they could appear as only three objects (three quarks) from the 3D point of view. These would be matter and anti matter.
Torque energy is never gained or lost. It is always recaptured by background shear forming photonic structures, other transient swarms or it transforms complex swarms or alters their motion.
Vortices also cause indentations to form on the 3D interface via drag. Large swarms of vortices have considerable drag and tend to allow collections within the indentations. The indentations do not need to be very deep to be highly "attractive" because the 3D interface at the indentations is no longer perpendicular to the direction of intrusion, so they acquire a tiny fraction of the intense back flow from the interface advancement, forming "virtual wells" which when present in accumulations are the foundation of SDU gravity. These shear vortices contribute both to mass and "virtual wells" (gravity) and become the grounds for an SDU Equivalence principle
Photonic structures follow the same rules stated above but form perpendicular sheets in response to waves of passing torque (which are a winding and then unwinding of the 3D interface). Shear vortices become oriented in one direction as the interface winds up. They also tend to coalesce to a point in response to their tendency to merge. As the wave meets its maximum and begins to unwind, vortices in the first orientation escape up the connecting 4D interface and shear immediately provides a second generation of vortices in the new orientation which again coalesce and so the action is continuously repeated until all cycles of torque have passed. Thus the wave is maintained and confined to the 3D interface by background shear. This involvement with the background shear also limits the speed of passing torque waves.
The action of coalescing is never completed in any of these structures. In light, background shear continues to move in the direction of the highest torque during the whole cycle, so there is a field of vortex motion extending for quite a distance on either side of the coalescing point. In matter there are also merging fields of vortex motion all around the cylindrical swarms. All of these structures can interfere with themselves under the right conditions.
In this setting, vortex swarms become the currency between matter and energy.
If each fluid is viewed as a 5D compartment around the 3D interface, the system is compatible with either 16D or 18D spacetime scenarios depending on whether time is the extra dimension of the whole or of each compartment. 5D+5D+5D+1D of time=16D 5D+1D of time+5D+1D of time+5D+1D of time=18D
However the collision debris characteristics of each compartment could seem to come from different 5D (or 6D spacetime) systems if compartmentalization is not considered.
Thus the properties of the least dense fluid in the upper compartment are consistent with those of a "heavier quark" in that the collision debris would contain many more "particles" and therefore have greater mass than the other two quarks. These particles would also have shorter life spans then those of the intruder compartment because of the upper fluid's backwash
. The lower compartment debris would also have shorter life spans because of the lower fluid's backwash but fewer particles because of its greater density and be viewed as a "lighter quark".
The intruder compartment would have properties of "strange quarks" in that its collision debris would be comprised of varying percentages of "positive and negative" charged particles depending on the nature of the colliding matter.
SDU baryons would have swarms within all three partitions (three quarks). SDU mesons would have two swarms, one each on two sides of the 3D interface (one quark and one antiquark). SDU lepton swarms would occupy only one partition and would not be perceived as quarks.
It is relatively easy to describe many physical phenomena in these terms such as the four known forces (gravitational, strong, weak, and electromagnetic) and the many quantum phenomena. Light speed is dependant upon the rate of shear creation. The universal expansion rate varies with fluid input at the source. Dark matter simply becomes a variant swarm configuration. Faster than light, waveforms are allowed within the fluids between the interfaces.
The above description becomes the scenario for a universe very similar to ours.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1802.0286 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-25 00:36:31*

**Authors:** Robert Spoljaric

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The classical theories making up modern physics are: Newtonian mechanics, Maxwell’s equations, statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, special relativity and general relativity. We also mention nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, which is considered to be a nonclassical theory. Excluding Maxwell’s equations the Newtonian concept of mass plays a fundamental role in each of these theories even though no one really knows what mass is. Starting with relativistic mass we will reason our way to the conclusion that mass is an illusion, and tidal effects are local. That is, behind the illusion of mass lay the mass-free foundations of a mass-free paradigm of Relativity that transcends all the theories mentioned, and shows just why general relativity does not go far enough. Further, the true significance of Planck’s four-dimensional constant is to be found in this new paradigm of Relativity. The maths employed here have been used in [1] and [2].

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1802.0263 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-21 13:51:46*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

An isolated physical system of elastic collision between two identical charged
particles is chosen to manifest the physics law,
conservation of momentum, in a random inertial reference frame under Lorentz Transformation.
In this random reference frame, the center of mass
moves at a constant velocity. By applying
Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both particles, total momentum
during the collision in this random inertial reference frame can be calculated and
is expected to remain constant.
The calculation
shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold under Lorentz Transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1802.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-20 00:36:57*

**Authors:** Yu-Ching, Chou

**Comments:** Pages.

Einstein's general relativistic eld equation is a nonlinear partial dierential equation that lacks an easy way to obtain exact solutions. The most famous examples are Schwarzschild and Kerr's black hole solutions. The Kerr metric has astrophysical meaning because most of cosmic celestial bodies are rotating. The Kerr metric is even more diffcult to derive than the Schwarzschild metric specically due to off-diagonal term of metric tensor. In this paper, a derivation of Kerr metric was obtained by ellipsoid coordinate transformation, which causes elimination a large amount of tedious derivation. This derivation is not only physics enlightening, but also further deducing some
characteristics of the rotating black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1802.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 06:17:18*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

This author has already proposed a new theory, Apparent Source Theory ( AST ), that can explain the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect, the Silvertooth experiment, the Roland De Witte experiment, the Venus planet radar range data anomaly ( analyzed and reported by Bryan G Wallace ) and other experiments. According to AST, there will be an apparent change in position of a light source as seen by the observer, for absolutely co-moving source and observer. The 'null' result of the Michelson-Morley experiment (MMX) is explained as follows. The effect of absolute motion is just to create an apparent change in position of the light source relative to the detector. There will be no (significant) fringe shift in the MMX for the same reason that there will be no (significant) fringe shift if the source position was actually, physically shifted slightly. The fringe shift in Sagnac effect is explained as follows. The source will be apparently shifted away relative to the detector when looking in the backward direction and shifted towards the detector when looking in the forward direction, hence creating a path difference. Einstein's thought experiment ( 'chasing a beam of light' ) is re-interpreted and used as one of the foundational arguments in this paper. The new interpretation is that it is the phase velocity of light that is always constant irrespective of source, observer and mirror velocity. The group velocity behaves in a more conventional way: it is independent of source (absolute) velocity but depends on observer and mirror velocity. For an observer moving near the speed of light away from a light source, the phases will still move past the observer at the speed of light while the group will be at rest relative to the observer. The new theoretical framework consists of two theories: 1. Apparent Source theory 2. Exponential Doppler Effect of light theory . The results of many light speed experiments can be derived from these two theories. Apparent Source Theory determines the phase and group delay of light, whereas Exponential Doppler Effect theory determines the frequency/wavelength of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1802.0244 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-26 07:29:06*

**Authors:** Karan R.Takkhi

**Comments:** 5 pages, 1 figure

The value of the cosmological constant obtained according to the quantum field theory is 10^120 times larger than the observed small value of the cosmological constant. Such huge discrepancy with the cosmological constant, known as the cosmological constant problem would cause a vacuum catastrophe. Since the discrepancy involved with the cosmological constant is unimaginably very high, therefore, molecular diffusion model has been introduced in this paper as an alternative to dark energy in order to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe. The molecular diffusion model considers the distribution of large-scale structures as molecules inside a vacuum chamber. Since large-scale structures are ensemble of atoms, therefore, they can be treated as distribution of molecules possessing finite amount of energy. Instead of considering that space is expanding, the manuscript emphasizes upon the recession of large-scale structures upon a stationary space-time continuum. Since the discrepancy with the cosmological constant is very large, therefore, instead of considering that empty space possesses energy, it would be much more prudent to consider that large-scale structures possess energy by the virtue of which they recede, quite similar to a molecule that recedes by the virtue of energy that it possesses, after all, “the diffusion or free expansion of gas molecules inside a vacuum chamber by the virtue of vacuum energy or dark energy” has never been heard of; such claim, if true, would only suggest that gas molecules do not possess any energy. The study shows that large-scale structures will attain a constant recessional velocity in distant future.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1802.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-18 17:16:26*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

We test counter examples of conditions for the speed of light as s:
If possibly c is not equivalent to s, and c is less than or greater than s, then: (1.2)
If possibly c is not equivalent to s, and possibly c is less than or greater than s, then: (1.3)
If possibly c is equivalent to s, or possibly c is less than or greater than s, then: (1.4)
The result is that E=mc^2 not tautologous after all.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1802.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-18 11:09:01*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 6 pages

In its basic form, the Special Relativity’s famous mass-energy equivalence equation doesn’t seem to hold for massless particles. To get around this deficiency, another form (energy-momentum relation) of the same equation incorporating a momentum term has been introduced by the physics mainstream. The adopted mainstream derivation of the energy-momentum relation is based on certain assumptions using Minkowski spacetime four-momentum, forcing a solution towards the energy-momentum relation. This form of the mass-energy equivalence equation appears to hold for massless particles. However, in this paper, an analysis of the mainstream derivation of the energy-momentum relation is carried out, highlighting the made assumptions, and revealing a resulting contradiction. It is clearly shown, through a straight forward derivation, that the energy-momentum relation still doesn’t hold for massless particles. Consequently, the energy-momentum relation requires that a photon must have an infinitesimal rest mass, for which its speed only approaches c. Thus, the speed of light will no longer be invariant with respect to all inertial reference frames, as postulated by Einstein in his formulation of the Special Relativity!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1802.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-18 01:15:56*

**Authors:** Durgadas Datta.

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Review and re think.

Re look cosmology observations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1802.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-16 14:42:23*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 29 Pages. Last paper in the author's series on Theory of Everything

Members of the public and intellectuals do appreciate that the universe appears to be something
beyond explanations. It is a colossal miracle, because there is no evidence of any kind, capable
of indicating how such an impossible reality could have arisen, without attributing it to superintelligent
induction, based on nothing like the science and physics we know of. We should not
use the limitation of human knowhow, to claim that it all of existence arose from nothing, or from
a few grams of vacuum energy, based on science which did not exist. This third article is the last,
before the author publishes his Theory of Everything, in his coming book, later this year, 2018.
Elaborating a genuine Theory of Everything (TOE) is obviously a very demanding proposition. To
start with, you can never be certain it has been correctly formulated, because we are just humans,
created without the capacity to possess supernatural knowledge. The TOE remains the only
universal unified concept having a future, after Glashow two years back openly admitted that the
Grand Unified Theory of his and Georgi, of 1974, was dead. To start with, the TOE should be an
all-encompassing model that provides answers to many questions from scientists and the public
about the origin and nature of our universe. Historically, the seeds of a theory of our universe
were sown in efforts to produce a field unification theory, in 1864, when Maxwell published his
dynamical theory of electromagnetic field. This influenced Einstein in 1905 to use Maxwell’s
constancy of the speed of light to unify space and time into the concept of spacetime. Later
Einstein conceived of curved four-dimensional spacetime to describe gravity in his General
Relativity. Some years later Weyl in 1919 came up with the gauge electromagnetic field theory,
which eventually led to the concept of Grand Unified Theory, which was believed to be one in
which all forces would merge into a single force, due to different fields being able to “merge” into
a unified one.
2
Kaluza in 1921 envisaged General Relativity as a 5-dimensional entity in which Klein, in 1926,
suggested that the fourth dimension could be curled up to illustrate gravitational force. These
varied developments were the earliest attempts at trying to understand the universe in unified
field theories, and it was in this rather confused context, as from 1930, that Einstein embarked on
an ambitious journey into a 25 year-dedication to formulate a classical Unified Field Theory, which
never materialised, and he was still scribbling some equations on his last day in 1955. A decade
later, there started a new realisation about unifying the electromagnetic force with the Weak
Interaction, arising from the work of Higgs, Glashow, Weinberg and Salam that produced the
unified Electroweak Theory, the unification of the electromagnetic and weak forces. This trend
encouraged physicists to contemplate that perhaps at very high energies, not yet possible under
contemporary technologies, all forces might unify into one grand unified theory, the GUT, which
when unified with gravity, would produce a theory of everything. Recent data suggest that a Grand
Unified Theory is either a theoretical curiosity, misunderstood, or a mirage. Speculations went
much further, for there have been suggestions that a GUT, championed by Salam and others,
would produce at the highest energy a single combined field of all forces, from which would
emerge evidence of the occurrence of superparticles, for each of the standard particles in today’s
physics. The important questions are why the universe requires such physical entities and how
do they fit into the final explanations of the realities of our laws of nature, for instance the nature
of consciousness and other phenomena of existence, like Darwin’s theory of evolution or black
holes or the Big Bang theory, or even about the origin of our universe.
This being so, several efforts, in the physics and cosmology domains, try to dig into the strata of
universal knowledge to search for our ultimate relevance and future, but the topic of finding a TOE
was seen to be even more elusive. However, scientists were convinced that the Theory of
Everything was first and foremost a concept of our ultimate realities and of existence. It is believed
it would harbour major components of physics in intimacy with philosophy. You need philosophical
inspiration to see the physics, which then tells you how the philosophy should be like, or you need
to see the philosophy to understand why the physics is as it is. The physics is pure physics and
the philosophy pure philosophy, but they might both be imperative towards understanding the
origin and the meaning of existence.
What we have currently is a collection of narratives about the origin of our universe, all spinning
around contrasting centres of philosophical influence. Even here in intellectual work, there is an
implication of entropy for once the culture of defining various theories of everything has reached
a certain maximum, the true Theory of Everything could find a greater likelihood to emerge. In
3
entropy, including intellectual entropy, there will be factors of determinism and indeterminism,
such that they would interplay in the process of the evolution of ideas, where entropy would ensure
we always move from maximum order, with loads of data, to maximum disorder, in framed
concepts on which little more conceptual work is possible, a fact which means that the Theory of
Everything, describing the most evolved universal tenets of existence, would represent the most
disorderly intellectual system, at the highest intellectual entropy. That would be the universal
explanatory key conceived by humans for humans, based on philosophy and physics, to unlock
the mysteries of the universe that was masterminded by a Supernatural Power.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1802.0199 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-23 15:44:27*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 6 Pages. none

This paper investigates the General Relativity Theory (GRT) by studying the accelerated motion simulating the relativistic free fall of a small test body in a uniform gravitational field. The paper compares the predictions of energy loss, perhaps by radiation, in an accelerated motion obtained from the GRT and from the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that the gravitational mass dependence on velocity in GRT is not correct, because it predicts a negative loss of energy while the MTG predicts correctly a positive loss. The energy loss for a true free fall in a uniform gravitational field of a curved space-time is also investigated. The energy conservation law is satisfied only for the MTG.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1802.0195 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-17 22:02:20*

**Authors:** Wei Xu

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

** Abstract**: By discovering

*Asymmetric**Flux Commutations and General Relativity -*Interpret the asymmetric entangling commutation and*General Relativity*.*Animation and Reproduction of Physical Ontology -*Reveal the law of asymmetric conservation of scalar entangling commutation of the physical supremacy.*Creation and Annihilation of Virtual Ontology -*Decipher the law of asymmetric conservation of scalar entangling commutation of the virtual supremacy.*Motion Dynamics of Cosmology -*Reveal the law of asymmetric conservation of vector entangling commutation of the physical supremacy.*Field Equations of Cosmology -*Decipher the law of asymmetric conservation of vector entangling commutation of the virtual supremacy*.*

Finally, the philosophical terminology is outlined as the inspirational highlights of “*Universal and Unified Field Theory”.*

[15] **viXra:1802.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 09:03:56*

**Authors:** R. I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 3 Pages. 20th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, GR-20, Sydney Australia Jan 29-30, 2018. Conference Proceedings

As is well known, the energy-momentum pseudotensors of the gravitational field allow you to calculate the total mass of a body and its gravitational field. We performed such a calculation and found a positive contribution of the pseudotensor to the mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1802.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 08:46:18*

**Authors:** John Hunter

**Comments:** 5 pages + references and appendices, total 14 pages.

In order to deal with the coincidence problem a new scalefactor-redshift relation is considered. With the new relation a constant rate of expansion with no cosmological constant matches observations well. There is thus the possibility that the dark energy phenomenon is an illusion caused by the use of an incorrect relation.
The new relation arises naturally in a cosmological model which expands - yet appears static, incorporating the perfect cosmological principle. It is found that the new relation also leads to a natural resolution of the tension between Hubble constant values from the distance ladder and Cosmic Background Radiation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1802.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 01:34:32*

**Authors:** Valentín Ibáñez Fernández

**Comments:** 58 Pages.

The estimation obtained in this work convincingly confirms that, due to the errors previously committed in Albert Einstein's theory of special relativity, the resulting mathematical transformation is erroneous and the two physical systems described in the special theory of relativity are not inertial systems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1802.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-13 02:22:05*

**Authors:** Lev I. Verkhovsky

**Comments:** 15 Pages. In 2000 I published in Russian a brochure "Memoir on the Theory of Relativity and a Unified Field Theory": http://viXra.org/abs/1801.0305. Now I present the English translation of version II of the brochure with minor differences from the version 2000 (

Lorentz transformations in their originally more general form, i.e. with the scale factor are considered. It is shown, that H. Lorenz, A. Poincare, and A. Einstein put this factor equal to one without proper foundations. It is clarified the physical sense of this factor – he describes the Doppler effect. As the result the paradoxes of the special theory of relativity are removed, grandiose simplifications occur in GR and the natural path to the construction of unified field theory is opening.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1802.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-11 20:35:42*

**Authors:** Evgeny A Novikov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract
The creation of the universe is described in a form of conversation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1802.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-12 01:09:49*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Expansion of the universe by Hubble, allows you to calculate the expansion at a minimum distance. What makes it possible to set a correction to the limiting speed of information transfer, which is used in the theory of relativity. At the same time, the corrections in different local regions differ from each other. The amendments, albeit insignificantly small, can unexpectedly give some results, as shown in the example.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1802.0111 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-13 23:03:04*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 6 Pages. none

This paper investigates the possibility of testing the General Relativity Theory (GRT) by studying the relativistic free fall of a small test body in a uniform gravitational field. The constant improvements in technology lead to increased precision of measurements, which opens up new possibility of testing the GRT. The paper compares the free fall predictions obtained from the Newtonian physics theory, the GRT, and the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that it might perhaps be possible to distinguish between the GRT and the MTG theories with a reasonable confidence and thus determine by experimental means which theory is actually correct.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1802.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-09 02:26:11*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An isolated physical system of elastic collision between two identical
objects is chosen to manifest the physics law,
conservation of momentum, in two inertial reference frames. In the
first reference frame,
the center of mass (COM) is stationary. In the second reference frame, the center of mass
moves at a constant velocity. By applying
Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both objects, total momentum before and
during the collision in the second reference frame can be compared. The comparison
shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold
when both objects move together at the same velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1802.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-07 07:34:13*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In deep space, accurate timekeeping is vital to navigation, but many spacecraft lack precise timepieces on board. [5] Physics is sometimes closer to philosophy when it comes to understanding the universe. Donald Chang from Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, China, attempts to elucidate whether the universe has a resting frame. [4] This paper explains the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1802.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-05 13:32:20*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Ever since the Laser Interferometer Gravitational–Wave Observatory (LIGO), one each at Hanford, Washington, and Livingston, Louisiana, allegedly detected gravity waves from merging binary black holes on September 14, 2015, there have been numerous challenges to the claim (and to subsequent claims for further detections, including even gravity waves from merging binary neutron stars on August 17, 2017). These challenges range from denying the very existence of black holes to “liberties” taken with the interpretation of the signals received at the different sites, especially the fact that these signals were pre-simulated to align with the theory of gravitational waves themselves, such that their “detection” was no more than a self-fulfilling prophecy. One particularly astute challenge stems from the claim that, if a gravity wave were to distort space-time, then not only light waves, but also the physical dimensions of LIGO itself, would be distorted, such that any alleged “perturbation” claimed to be a gravity wave due to generation of an interference pattern from the LIGO lasers could not be due to gravity waves. This possibility is examined here, with an alternative as aether disturbances included as what LIGO actually has detected.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1802.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-09 14:53:24*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An isolated physical system of inelastic collision between two identical
objects is chosen to manifest the physics law,
conservation of momentum, in two inertial reference frames. In the
first reference frame,
the center of mass (COM) is stationary. In the second reference frame, one
object is at rest before collision. By applying
Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both objects, total momentum before and after the collision in the second reference frame can be compared. The comparison shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold
when both objects move together at the same velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1802.0023 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-02 19:27:47*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Accepted for publication in Frontiers in Science

It is shown that galaxies close to galactic sheets are attracted towards them with an approximate Hooke’s law force. Thus, as they get closer to the sheets, the more their velocities increase, and the more the magnitude of their accelerations decrease. Therefore, the so-called acceleration of the Universe is completely misleading. It is concluded that galaxies are subject to potential wells close to voids walls. It is suggested that the Universe is a new kind of amorphous solid. For the first time it is estimated that the universal expansion is of the order of one trillion years.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1802.0012 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-09-18 04:25:56*

**Authors:** Szostek Roman, Góralski Paweł, Szostek Kamil

**Comments:** 20 Pages. From the General Theory of Relativity do not result any gravitational waves, but just ordinary modulation of the gravitational field intensities caused by rotating of bodies (in Polish).

Najważniejszym wnioskiem z tego artykułu jest to, że z Ogólnej Teorii Względności nie wynikają żadne fale grawitacyjne tylko zwyczajna modulacja natężenia pola grawitacyjnego spowodowana wirowaniem ciał. Jeżeli zespół LIGO cokolwiek zmierzył, to tylko tą modulację, a nie falę grawitacyjną rozumianą jako nośnik grawitacji. Dyskusja ta pokazuje, że posługiwanie się w fizyce zbyt skomplikowaną matematyką prowadzi do błędnej interpretacji wyników (w tym przypadku być może winny jest rachunek tensorowy). Formalnie można obliczać różne rzeczy, ale nie wiedząc, co takie rachunki oznaczają przypisywać im błędną interpretacje.
Ponieważ modulację natężenia pola grawitacyjnego nazwano we współczesnej fizyce falą grawitacyjną, dlatego my także postąpiliśmy w ten sposób, chociaż takie nazewnictwo jest mylące.
W artykule wykazane zostało, że z prawa ciążenia Newtona wynika istnienie fal grawitacyjnych bardzo podobnych do tych, które wynikają z Ogólnej Teorii Względności.
W artykule pokazane zostały różnice pomiędzy przebiegiem fal grawitacyjnych wynikających z grawitacji Newtona oraz przebiegiem fal grawitacyjnych wynikających z Ogólnej Teorii Względności, których pomiar został ogłoszony przez zespół LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory).
Według obu teorii fale grawitacyjne są cyklicznymi zmianami natężenia pola grawitacyjnego.
W artykule zaproponowana została metoda testowania interferometru laserowego do pomiaru fali grawitacyjnej używanego w obserwatorium LIGO. Przedstawiona została także krytyka wyników opublikowanych przez zespół LIGO.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1802.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-01 22:17:09*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

We define the twin paradox without resort to stopping because we assume that instant velocity commences and terminates at an instant state of rest.
Twins occupy the same fiducial point from which one twin obtains an instant velocity to a non-fiducial point, then obtains another instant velocity back to the fiducial point. The question is are the twins the same at the fiducial point before and after the separation and travel of the one twin. This is the state of affairs without special relativity.
We also test the above as the counter example for the state of affairs with special relativity.
[T]he twin paradox is not a paradox, but rather something else, namely, a state of affairs that is not tautologous and not contradictory.
What follows is that special relativity is suspicious.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1802.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-02 01:36:32*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An isolated physical system of elastic collision between two identical
objects is chosen to manifest the
conservation of momentum in two inertial reference frames. In the first reference frame,
the center of mass (COM) is stationary. In the second reference frame, one
object is at rest.
The second frame is created by a temporary
acceleration from the first frame. By applying both
velocity transformation and
conservation of momentum to this isolated system, mass transformation
is derived precisely.
The result shows that the mass of an object is independent of its motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology