[27] **viXra:1707.0418 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-31 14:29:32*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: (H-Z) x mc^2 "quanta of the universe", universe matter density and the cosmological constant are all closely related to Planck's constant of quantum mechanics save for its time dependence.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1707.0379 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-29 04:04:04*

**Authors:** Xiaogang Ruan

**Comments:** 25 pages with 4 figures and supplementary information of 13 pages.

The invariance of light speed (ILS) is the mainstay of Einstein's special relativity (SR). However, to this day, we do not even know why the speed of light is invariant, why the speed of light cannot be exceeded, and why the photon has no mass. Here, we have theoretically derived the theory of observational relativity (OR) from the most basic facts and prerequisites, which reveals the truth behind the ILS. OR have unified Einstein's SR and de Broglie's theory of matter wave. More importantly, as the result of logical derivation, the light speed in the Lorenz factor has been replaced by the speed of information wave (IW) that carries and transmits the spacetime information of observed objects. OR has gotten a vital logic inference of pure rationality (rather that a hypothesis like the ILS): the invariance of IW speed. Only when light is employed as IW, can the ILS be valid, and can Einstein's SR be a special case of OR. OR suggests that: Einstein's theory of relativity is flawed and limited. Actually, all relativistic effects are observational effects rather than real natural phenomena. The theory of OR will profoundly change our view of spacetime and endow physics with a significant mission to explore superluminal IWs so that we can break though the observational limit of light and observe a more abundant and more objective natural world.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1707.0376 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-08-31 17:57:48*

**Authors:** Chris Laforet

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The black hole Schwarzschild solution is examined in the context of a cosmological model where the Universe is a 3D shell surrounded by a vacuum of time. The anisotropy of the metric is discussed and it is shown by analyzing light signals on a Kruskal-Szekeres coordinate chart that since the anisotropy lies along the time dimension, we will still observe isotropic space in the internal metric. It is shown that the model predicts an accelerated expansion that agrees with current observations of the expansion history of our Universe, namely that the initial expansion is infinitely fast, and then the expansion slows for some time followed by an accelerated expansion. Using measured data for the Hubble constant and transition redshift, the limits for the coordinate age of the Universe and total lifetime of the Universe are calculated. Using these values, distance modulus (calculated from the model) is plotted against redshift and compared to cosmological data. The angular portion of the metric is interpreted, and it is discussed in terms of the celestial spheres of the CMB and Big Bang. In particular, it is shown that the internal Schwarzschild metric is able to describe the spherical nature of the Big Bang (the Big Bang must be a sphere behind the CMB since it occurred in the finite past and is fully contracted in the spatial dimension).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1707.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-25 16:14:38*

**Authors:** Peter Sujak

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper is partially an excerpt from a third chapter of author's in July 2017 newly published book titled "Einstein's destruction of physics". Book is distributed directly by author's link www.createspace.com/7339672 or by Amazon.com or .de or co.uk.
In this paper Einstein’s destruction of physics and scientific principles is documented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1707.0307 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-24 13:10:06*

**Authors:** C. A. Laforet

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Birkhoff’s theorem says that the spacetime inside a spherically symmetric collapsing shell is Minkowskian. Given this fact, signals exchanged between the shell and a central observer as well as between observers on the shell itself are examined, and it is shown that these signals will become infinitely blueshifted as the shell approaches its Schwarzschild radius. It is also shown that the space inside the shell will contract to zero volume in the frame of a shell observer as the shell approaches its Schwarzschild radius.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1707.0303 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-11 02:53:49*

**Authors:** Ll. Bel

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Errata and minor errors correctrd

The Postulate of General covariance, a last choice that Einstein introduced in his General relativity theory of gravitation, endows the theory with an excessive generality that needs to be restrained. Otherwise it is easy to check that, beyond the first order of approximation, several space-time models, all of them derived from the original Schwarzschild's initial solution of Einstein's field equations corresponding to a static spherical source, would predict different results to two fundamental experiments: the measure of the force acting on a given passive test mass at a distance $R$ of the center of the source, or equivalently, its initial acceleration when falling from rest, and the comparison of two way transit times of light traveling into an optic fiber along a vertical direction and along a meridian. The last section describes how to find numeric, static and spherically symmetric, interior models with pre-selected mass $m$ and radius $R$ with $m/R<1$ or $m/R>1$ solving the horizon problem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1707.0300 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-29 08:54:36*

**Authors:** Tsuneaki Takahashi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In order to think about energy of mass point considering Special Relativity Theory, important point is equality of space and time dimension, which is core of the Theory.
Because mass change of a mass point might be possible like nuclear fission, mass change should be included in energy calculation formula if necessary, and the mass change should be pure mass change fixing other elements

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1707.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-22 14:18:09*

**Authors:** Giacomo Roccaforte

**Comments:** 79 Pages. This version is in Italian, but conclusions are in English.

This theory arises from the analysis of specific situations that the Special Theory of Relativity does not consider, or for which it does not provided information about them.
These situations are listed as critical points, scenarios that would lead to ambiguous, contradictory or unexplained conclusions, using the same principles as the theory itself.
Using the same experimental data as the basis for the birth of the Special Theory of Relativity, and which are normally used to confirm the theory itself, we comes to a solution where these critical points would be eliminated.
We then come to a theory where the results would be unambiguous, independent by how we choose to consider variables, in line with data experiences and established theory principles, such as the constancy of the speed of light and its independence from the motion of the source , means the same elements that are in Special Theory of Relativity, but interpreted in a different way.
It would therefore provide a new explanation of the Nature of Light, and a basis for further studies not yet examined.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1707.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-21 20:38:29*

**Authors:** Evgeny A. Novikov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In frame of the quantum modification of general relativity (Qmoger), supported by cosmic data (without fitting), a new physically distinguished scale is obtained. This scale indicate a mechanism of formation new particles from the background matter. At the same time that scale corresponds to the size of a living cell.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1707.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-21 13:19:06*

**Authors:** Bandaru Ramu

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Many thinkers and scientists tried to prove that Relativity is wrong. But this article show EXPERIMENTAL PROOFS TO PROVE THAT THE THEORY OF RELATIVTY IS WRONG.
In this article, two experiments are explained.
EXPERIMENT-1 PROVES:( whatever the relative constant velocities may be 50, 75, or 90 percent of `C` the velocity of light, The information P Simultaneity not follow any time dilations when compared with the information `Q`)
Michelson and Morley’s experiment conducted many times. But all their
experiments were conducted in only one inertial frame. But if that experiment extended up to two inertial frames, which Results will be taken place?
1.Simultaneity not depend on the concept time interval.
2.‘C` not stand to calculate the time.
3.Time dilation can not keep the speed of light rays constant. It can not keep the relation - inversely proportional between the frequency and wave length.
4.The light rays not travel with equal velocity in all directions in vacuum. According to Max well, “The velocity of electromagnetic waves is specific.” This truth is valid in the observer’s own inertial frame not in vacuum because light rays not run in vacuum independently. The traveling of light rays is dependent on inertial frame. They run interacting along with the surroundings of inertial frames such as massive bodies.
EXPERIMENT -2 reveals:
1. According to Relative theory, Physical laws take place in one concerned inertial frame and follow the time of that inertial frame. Physical laws are interactive and dependent. These physical laws or interactions take place among many inertial frames.
Thus the interactions cannot follow any relative time among the inertial frames. that interaction should consider the relative velocity of concerned inertial frames.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1707.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-16 14:46:05*

**Authors:** Baihua Qi, Tian Qi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The source of gravitation may come from the virtual electron-positron pairs generated by vacuum polarization and the force carrier particles would be pairs of virtual photons generated by the virtual electron-positron pair that travels in unison, and the origin of gravitation would be electron-positron pair that exchanges virtual photons. Based on this assumption, we establish a theory to describe gravitation. We discuss Barnett effect

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1707.0226 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-30 10:01:14*

**Authors:** Bandaru Ramu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

I. Accelerating aspects can follow General relativity?
II. Dialogues between :
1.Acceleration by dark energy and Acceleration by gravitation
2. Expanding Universe and Rotating Universe
3. Finite space and infinite space

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1707.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-16 07:10:07*

**Authors:** A.V. Mamaev

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this article using Einstein’s method from his known 1905 year article the formulas for the Dopler effect and aberration valid in my new relativistic space-time theory are derived.
Key words: relativity, Doppler effect, aberration

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1707.0190 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-09 12:47:15*

**Authors:** Mamaev A.V.

**Comments:** 4 Pages. The article is published in the journal "The Scientific Heritage" # 14 (14) 2017

This paper introduces an idea of experimental demonstration of electrons superluminal speed existence or non-existence in vacuum of near-Earth space of Universe. As according to Einstein’s special relativity theory superlight speeds of
both particles having non-zero mass and particles with zero mass are forbidden, such an experiment will either confirm Einstein’s special relativity theory in the part of absence in Nature of superlight speeds of any particles or disprove
Einstein’s theory clearly, crudely and seeably.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1707.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-13 10:22:39*

**Authors:** Richard Palkovac

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Although contemporary cosmology and physics allow the mass to be pushed into the singularity (dimensionless point) in the center of black holes, it still doesn't understand that mass in such a state loses the quality of matter. Matter, being a substance and field, is the energy distributed in space. If we take away space from energy, it then changes to a different quality, to pure energy. Today it is often called the negative, dark energy, causing the expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1707.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-13 10:30:27*

**Authors:** Richard Palkovac

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Can there be universes in dimensions other than those of our 3 (or 4 if we are talking about a time-space) ?
When we want to talk about it, we must first make sure there is a logical reason for the existence of other dimensions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1707.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-11 07:05:04*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 7 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

Relativistic physics is based on the principle of least action. Conclusions from the proposed theory give formulas that the electrical interaction makes responsible for the gravitational interaction, inertia and accelerated "expansion of the universe." The calculations are all extremely elementary and indisputable, since they use the conclusions of relativistic physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1707.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-11 09:17:53*

**Authors:** Mohammed Mezouar

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Einstein’s relativism is not only “physical” but also philosophical because it forbids any concept leading to the idea of the absolute. But this phobia is translated into flight forward without giving decisive answers to the crucial questions raised by the paradoxes arising from Special Relativity. In what follows, we show by a thought experiment that absolute rest has it’s discreet but real place in the Einsteinian reasoning under the pseudonym of stationary system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1707.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-09 12:27:37*

**Authors:** Fayaz Ahmed Siyal

**Comments:** 6 Pages. my research have well application for the resolution of black hole information paradox and singularity solution . author have prove it by mathematically

Contemporary physics of this century have measured many problems regarding the behaviour of gravity, black hole evolution and its information paradox. Our physicists have struggled to resolve these problems but they again and again failed. The reason of their failure has been resolved by author. The general relativity narrates the behaviour of masses and their gravitational fields on the basis of their space time curvatures. The reason scientist failed to measure the relation of mass and space time curvature because, always they made their calculations in inertial frame of reference for space time curvature but the galaxies, stars, sun, earth, etc are continued in acceleration or moving in accelerating frame of reference so, their space time curvature must be in acceleration. Then space time curvature should behave like variable accelerating wave (these are same waves which have been discovered by LIGO gravitational waves) and by author with mathematical proof it is estimated that space time curvature is the classical property of matter or mass depending upon alternation in the quantum energy of mass or matter. Then the Schrödinger, Hamilton operator H and time evolution operator are applicable for the calculation of space time geometry and its energy. From the author creational research black hole problems are easily solved. Even the unification of general relativity and quantum mechanics can be done.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1707.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-07 12:56:14*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 6 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

Calculations of relativistic physics are based on the principle of least action. Conclusions from the proposed theory give formulas that the electrical interaction makes responsible for the gravitational interaction, inertia and accelerated "expansion of the universe." The calculations are all extremely elementary and indisputable, since they use the conclusions of relativistic physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1707.0087 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-26 11:06:39*

**Authors:** C. A. Laforet

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, the integration of a function over a curved manifold is examined in the case where the curvature of the manifold results in a varying density of coordinates over which the function is being integrated where the upper bound of the of integration is infinity. It is shown that when the coordinate density varies in such a case, the true area under the curve is not correctly calculated by traditional techniques of integration. This situation is then applied to the Schwarzschild metric and geodesic equation of General Relativity to examine the proper time taken for a freefalling observer to reach the event horizon of a black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1707.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-04 13:57:13*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 5 Pages. 0

Relativistic physics is built on the principle of least action. The conclusions from this theory give the formulas that the electrical interaction makes responsible for the gravitational interaction, inertia and accelerated "expansion of the universe." The calculations are all extremely elementary and indisputable, since they use the conclusions of relativistic physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1707.0050 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-21 17:40:26*

**Authors:** Dino Bruniera

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In the article titled “Each Point of Space in Expansion is the Preferred Refer-ence Frame for Any Object Transiting to that Point”, published on March 30th, 2017, I presented a theory that demonstrates the existence of the Preferred Reference Frame and at which speed the Earth moves relative to it. I also stated that further theories about various phenomena of the Universe, may be derived from this theory and that therefore, opens a new path towards the truth about how the Universe works.
And now, with this article, I will tray to begin to walk the above path, exposing some hypotheses explaining various phenomena of the Universe, in a way compatible with said theory.
Here are, in short, these hypotheses.
The Universe is exclusively composed of an infinity of space quanta, which tend to expand and thus cause it to expand, as a consequence.
Matter manifests on sets of space quanta, which are compressed and thus en-able the neighbouring quanta, and later the quanta further apart, to expand fur-ther.
Gravity is the effect of the fact that each object tends to move towards the least compressed space quanta and, therefore, towards other objects.
Speed of light depends on the degree of compression of space quanta in the places (or points) in which it transits, meaning that the greater the compression, the higher the speed.
But since also clocks move more or less rapidly according to their degree of compression, speed of light results always the same at any place.
Therefore, in the past, when the degree of compression of space quanta was greater, speed of light was also greater.
Cosmological redshift is due to the speed of the place in which the celestial ob-ject receiving photons, is moving, compared to the place in which the celestial object emitting it, has moved, in a Universe in decelerating expansion. In sup-port of this hypothesis, I present two tables that simulate the journey of the photons of a high-redshift galaxy and that of CMBR photons.
I also present a formula for calculating the apparent brightness of high-redshift celestial objects, which I believe being more compatible with the observations than that supported by the scientific community, and which allows it to be used as a factor to calculate the speed of the expansion of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1707.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-05-04 17:07:00*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 18 Pages. The new physical theory called the Special Theory of Ether.

In this article, we derive the properties of kinematics of bodies from the universal frame of reference (UFR, ether), which we called the Special Theory of Ether.
The article explains why Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike experiments could not detect the universal frame of reference.
In article, a different transformation of time and position than the Lorentz transformation is derived on the basis of the geometric analysis of the Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike experiments. The transformation is derived based on the assumption that the universal frame of reference exists. UFR is a frame of reference in which the velocity of light is constant in every direction. In inertial frames of reference moving in the UFR, the one-way velocity of light may be different.
Formulas for summation for absolute speed and relative speeds has been derived. The formulas for length contraction and dilatation of time were also derived.
The entire article contains only original research conducted by its authors.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1707.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-05-04 17:10:26*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 19 Pages. The new physical theory called the Special Theory of Ether (in Polish).

W artykule wyprowadzamy własności kinematyki ciał z uniwersalnym układem odniesienia (universal frame of reference - UFR, eter), którą nazwaliśmy Szczególną Teorią Eteru.
W artykule wyjaśniono dlaczego eksperyment Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a nie były w stanie wykryć uniwersalny układ odniesienia.
W artykule wyprowadzamy na podstawie geometrycznej analizy eksperymentów Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a inną transformację czasu i położenia niż transformacja Lorentza. Transformację wyprowadzamy przy założeniu, że istnieje uniwersalny układ odniesienia. UFR jest układem odniesienia wyróżniającym się tym, że prędkość światła jest w nim stała w każdym kierunku. W inercjalnych układach odniesienia poruszających się względem UFR, jednokierunkowa prędkość światła może być inna.
Wyprowadzone zostały wzory na sumowanie prędkości dla prędkości bezwzględnej oraz prędkości względnych. Wyprowadzone zostały także zależności na skrócenie długości oraz dylatację czasu.
Cały artykuł zawiera tylko oryginalne badania autorów publikacji.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1707.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-03 01:31:47*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 16 Pages. This is a backup for my files of my entry in the "Catch A Star" contest for 2017

AN ASTRONOMICAL HYPOTHESIS IN 6 PARTS -
1) Uniting Quantum Mechanics with General Relativity
2) Special Relativity Viewed from Einstein's Unified Field
3) MATHEMATICS AND UNIFICATION
4) IMAGINARY TIME, QUANTUM GRAVITY AND CREATING THE COSMOS
5) NEGATIVE ENTROPY AND ETERNAL LIFE
6) DARK ENERGY, DARK MATTER, AND THE UNIFYING QUBIT IN A NONEXPANDING AND TOPOLOGICAL COSMOLOGY
Science today - this report focuses on physics, quantum physics, cosmology and mathematics - is naturally very dependent on the empirical aspects of observation and experiment. The trend in modern physics is towards a unified theory of the universe - starting with the unified theories of the 20th century (notably Einstein's) and extending to string theory. At present, no observation or experiment can confirm or deny the existence of unification. The main point of this report is to show how sciences, and maths, could be altered by a unified space-time. In 1919, Einstein wrote a paper asking if gravitational waves play an essential role in forming elementary particles. If so, the waves that fill the space-time between particles would connect them in a unified field which a future LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory) may be able to detect.* With waves that travel forwards in time being potentially cancelled by waves going back in time (see TIQM and Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory in this report), the cancelling of the waves might unite Relativity's gravity with quantum mechanics by producing what we call entanglement.
* See "Physicists use Einstein’s ‘spooky’ entanglement to invent super-sensitive gravitational wave detector" - May 17, 2017 by David Blair.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1707.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-02 02:38:21*

**Authors:** Bill Gaede

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The black hole and dark matter are two pillars of contemporary General Relativity. Week after week, we read about them in the specialized journals and in popularization magazines. Here we show that the term ‘black hole’ has yet to be defined scientifically. To pique the skeptic, mathematical physicists assign many dimensions to the black hole, confess that they have never seen one, and have no idea what these alleged objects are mad of. For its part, dark matter is nothing more than an ad hoc variable that Mathematical Physics invented to plug holes in its leaky conception of gravity. The Rope Model of Light and Gravity offers a rational alternative for phenomena attributed to magical black holes and invisible dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology