[41] **viXra:1509.0285 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-30 01:47:06*

**Authors:** Mustafa Salti, Oktay Aydogdu, Hilmi Yanar

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Accepted for publication in MLPA

In the present study, we mainly investigate the nature of entropy function in non-flat Kaluza-Klein universe. We prove that the first and generalized second laws of gravitational thermodynamics are valid on the dynamical apparent horizon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1509.0281 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-29 11:34:02*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We propose two distinct interpretations of extended probabilities which are realistic for the physical world.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1509.0280 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-29 11:36:11*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

We start by rewriting classical mechanics in a quantum mechanical fashion and point out that the only diﬀerence with quantum theory re- sides at one point. There is a classical analogon of the collapse of the wavefunction and an extension of the usual Born rule is proposed which might solve this problem. We work only with algebra’s over the real (com- plex) numbers, general number ﬁelds of ﬁnite characteristic allowing for ﬁnite dimensional representations of the commutation relations are not considered given that such ﬁelds are not well ordered and do not give rise to a well deﬁned probability interpretation. Our theory generalizes however to discrete spacetimes and ﬁnite dimensional algebra’s. Looking at physics this way, spacetime itself distinguishes itself algebraically by means of well chosen commutation relations and there is further nothing special about it meaning it has also a particle interpretation just like any other dynamical variable. Likewise, there is no reason for the dynamics to be Hamiltonian and therefore we have a nonconservative formulation of quantum physics at hand. The harmonic oscillator (amongst few oth- ers) distinguishes itself because the algebra forms a ﬁnite dimensional Lie algebra; the classical and quantum (discrete) harmonic oscillator are stud- ied in a some more generality and examples are given which are neither classical, nor quantum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1509.0279 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-29 05:10:51*

**Authors:** Chan Rasjid Kah Chew

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

That motion is relative is an accepted physical principle as everything is in motion relative to some other thing in the universe. The rule of additive relative velocity is based on this simple principle. If the speed of light as measured on the ground is c, then the velocity of light as measured by an observer moving at speed w towards the source would be c+w. There is no need of any experiment to confirm if indeed the speed would be c+w as it is simply the speed that would result following the accepted practice of how physical measurements of distances and time are made - speed is just distance divided by time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1509.0272 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-18 22:48:08*

**Authors:** Laszlo G. Meszaros

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Although more than a century has passed since Einstein introduced his Special Theory of Relativity (STR), the relation to reality of its predictions, such as length contraction, for instance, still seems obscure. This might not be surprising, if one considers the strangeness of physical reality, whose features are allowed to vary depending on the observer. Here, a simple thought-experiment is put forward, which shows that relativistic length contraction (a prediction of the STR) leads to contradictions, if considered real. Taking this together with the Einstein-proposed observer-dependent reality, it is suggested that the STR is simply an account of an "optical illusion", a result of the assumed invariance of light speed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1509.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-28 12:42:27*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: To have an E8-symmetry cyclic universe a key requirement is spin 0 and spin 1 boson fermibosonic matter to transfer matter from the old universe to the new universe starting with the big bang without destroying the universe's flatness. Study indicates this material must be supersymmetric. Both spin types have now been confirmed with with the ttH and the tZ and t anti-t Z entities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1509.0262 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-28 08:49:29*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Although many scholars consider that original non-closed and non-symmetric solution for planetary motion equation of general relativity can be used to solve the problem of advance of planetary perihelion, it has some shortcomings really. This paper discusses the closed and symmetric solution for planetary motion equation of general relativity, and that means that general relativity cannot be used to solve the problem of advance of planetary perihelion. Also, if the solution for planetary motion equation of general relativity is unique, then the non-closed and non-symmetric solution including infinite terms should tend to the closed and symmetric solution. According to "partial and temporary unified theory of natural science so far" including all the equations so far related to natural science and its variational principle, the optimization method can be used to reach the optimal approximate closed and symmetric solution for problem of advance of planetary perihelion. On the basis of the closed and symmetric solution, the planetary orbit should be a rotating ellipse or a rotating approximate ellipse; namely the advance of planetary perihelion is the combined result of two motions: the first motion (the elliptical motion decided by law of gravity or the closed and symmetric approximate elliptical motion decided by planetary motion equation of general relativity) creates the perihelion, and the second motion (solar system’s vortex motion) creates the advance of perihelion; while the parameters of advance will be decided by general relativity or accurate astronomical observation.
Key words: General relativity, planetary motion equation, closed and symmetric solution, partial and temporary unified theory of natural science so far, variational principle, advance of planetary perihelion, rotating ellipse

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1509.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-27 16:02:50*

**Authors:** Evgeny A. Novikov

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This work is based on modification of the general relativity, which includes effects of production /absorption of matter by the vacuum. The theory (without fitting parameters) is in good quantitative agreement with cosmological observations (SnIa, SDSS-BAO and reduction of acceleration of the expanding universe). In this theory, there is no Big Bang at the beginning, but some local bangs during the evolution are probable. Also, there is no critical density of the universe and, therefore, no dark energy. Based on exact Gaussian solution for the scale factor, it is shown that an effective age of the universe is about 327 billion years. Production of primary dark matter particles have started 43 billion years later. It is shown that characteristic distance between particles is 30 times smaller than the thermal de Brogle wavelength, so that quantum effects, including formation of the Bose-Einstein condensate, can dominate. "Ordinary" matter was synthesized from dark matter in galaxies. Supplementary exact solutions are obtained for various ranges of parameters. From the theory we get an interface between dark and ordinary matter (IDOM), which very likely exist not only in cosmos, but everywhere, including our body and our brain.
Key words: cosmology; age of the universe; dark matter; interface between dark and ordinary matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1509.0258 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-27 05:54:49*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 18 Pages. In Spanish.

This article presents a didactic and relatively simple example that can be very useful to examine the twin paradox.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1509.0257 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-30 01:05:58*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Specifically reformatted to give a conclusion, i.e. a first ever link of E and M and Quantum Mechanics, in the formulation of a "massive" graviton, plus NLED put in explicitly with a nod to 5th forces. Cleaned up confusion in the earlier document

We use a linkage between gravitation and electrodynamics the author shared with
Unnishkan . First step will be to write up a Yukawa potential modification of Gravity for
the usual 1/r potential, and comparing it to fifth force potentials.. Details as to NLED and
Unnishkhan’s theories are added for an electromagnetic flavor to fifth force considerations.Leading to a first principle evaluation of the primordial graviton mass as linked to NLED.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1509.0254 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-28 03:45:38*

**Authors:** Tibor Endre Nagy

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

If rapid motion is added in the form of redshift to the Earth as a result of expansion of space which in turn complements the notion of an expanding universe, the information may be used to calculate both distances and time periods. In this same manner, by applying the known formula for light propagation in moving systems to the motion of the Earth (as a component of the Milky Way Galaxy), the radius of the universe and the time period required for the development of the cosmos can be estimated. When the above is combined with Einstein’s principle of equivalence and it is applied to situations when an accelerated system and gravitational field exist together at the same time, a ‘short evolving distance’ pointing towards the origin of the universe can be calculated. Furthermore, knowledge of the entire plane angle and the deviating angle of a light beam grazing the surface of the Earth renders it possible to determine enormous distances by utilizing the rules of trigonometry. This ‘long evolving distance’ in the range of the radius of the universe can be converted into ‘evolving time’ by dividing it by the speed of light. Based upon this alternative dating method, at a figure of 3.1415 redshift, the universe may have been formed 13.7355 billion years ago. In the case of the inverse ratio of the angles, the size of the Sun and the planets equates to what is known.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1509.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-27 13:35:53*

**Authors:** Jerry Zhompson

**Comments:** 8 Pages. May the persecution of the unknown be forever dissolved

We prove, absolutely, that Einstein is wrong. We then propose a theory of everything, a unified theory of physics, that time is made of light according to the equation E=c. We also show that, with this new theory in hand, the government has used alien weaponry in a global conspiracy, weaponry made of pure light, and has carried out false flag attacks for the Illuminati. I also reveal how I have been persecuted by the Illuminati.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1509.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-27 10:33:00*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract – Based on a countless number of discussions regarding the validity of the Special Theory of Relativity (STR) I have to conclude that the definition of the postulate named Principle of Relativity (PoR) has been substantially distorted, to the point of corrupted, over the past 100 years, in the end initiated by Einstein himself in 1905. This significant distortion has led to the situation that the majority of physicists hardly distinguishes anymore between the PoR and the STR.
“A description of the past, in order to show (the physicist) the way to the future.”

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1509.0250 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-27 10:44:19*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper I look at MOND from the perspective of my elementary particle Dark matter halo hypothesis. First I repeat the core elements of my model, in order for the paper to be self contained. Then I show how the energy equation for the rotation curve with an extra constant term can give the natural but deceptive impression that Newton's Laws have to be corrected for the ultra low regime, if this energy perspective is missing. Special attention is given to the virtual aspect of the acceleration, virtual as in not caused by Newton's force of gravity, due to a constant kinetic energy caused by the Dark Matter halo at large distances. The rotation curve equations are discussed and the one from my model is given. Conclusions are drawn from the $\Lambda$CDM core-cusp problem in relation to this new perspective on MOND as hiding a Dark Matter model perspective. My model might well be the bridge between MOND at the galactic scale and $\Lambda$CDM at the cosmic level.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1509.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-26 07:29:07*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages. for the Marcel Grossman conference. The NLED argument is completely new, as a link to upper values of a graviton mass

This paper is to address what a fluctuation of a metric tensor becomes in early universe conditions. This metric fluctuation in conjunction with Barbour’s work on emergent time, allows for a lower bound to a graviton mass, and this lower bound mass for the graviton is contrasted with the NLED (non linear electrodynamic) calculations which may lead to an upper bound to a graviton mass. We show that the supposition of flat space uncertainty in energy is not supportable in initial phases of GR

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1509.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-26 02:18:13*

**Authors:** Rev. Thomas Scott Zolotor

**Comments:** 1 Page. The Big Crunch is coming.

Rev. Thomas Scott Zolotor free the souls predicted that the universe would stop expanding and fall back on itself known as the big crunch. He had this idea since 1992 when he figured out the calculations needed to explain it. He wrote a paper on it that was rejected by an astronomer back in 1994. Years later it turns out Zolotor was correct all along.
IN 2012 Zolotor wrote this to JJ Dewey his friend. JJ also came to the same conclusion that the universe was collapsing on itself. Here is the site:
http://www.freeread.com/keys-posts-2012-part-16/
And here is the link to the new exciting research that shows we are headed for the big crunch.
http://www.iflscience.com/physics/big-crunch-back-possible-end-universe

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1509.0228 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-09 08:38:31*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we find the electro-magnetic field transformation and the electro-magnetic field equation (Maxwell equation) in Rindler spacetime. Specially, this article say the uniqueness of the accelerated frame because the accelerated frame can treat electro-magnetic field equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1509.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-21 08:16:31*

**Authors:** Manjunath.R

**Comments:** 217 Pages.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF EVERYTHING: Quarks, Leptons and the Big Bang is a clear, readable and self – contained introduction to chaos of physics and related areas of science. It bridges the gap and addresses the questions that are of interest to us all or at least to all of us reading this book and lead us to study science in the first place.
The book concentrates on presenting the subject from the understanding perspective of physics and brings the reader right up to date with curious aspects of physics established over the last few centuries. Necessary background information on physics is included but advanced mathematics is avoided. The book assumes science a journey not a destination and the advance of knowledge is an infinite progression towards a goal that forever recedes. This book will be of interest to students, teachers and general science readers interested in fundamental ideas of physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1509.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-21 03:57:12*

**Authors:** Robert Nazaryan, Haik Nazaryan

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Armenian Theory of Relativity is The Only Theory of Relativity

In this current article we are analyzing in detail, T-symmetry (time reversal transformation) and P-symmetry (spatial inverse transformations) phenomenons in Armenian Theory of Relativity in one dimensional physical space. For that purpose we are referring and using our previous articles results, especially in the case of research mirror reflection phenomena (spatial inversion) where we are mostly referring to our main research article, published in Armenia on June 2013 (96 pages).
We are delighted to know that Armenian Theory of Relativity has passed the first phase of total ridicule and now is in the phase of active discussion in scientific communities across the world. This article can be considered as an answer to the physicists who criticize the Armenian Theory of Relativity by saying that the Armenian relativistic transformations and formulas are not an invariant under time-reversal transformation and therefore Armenian Theory of Relativity is wrong.
In the first section of our article we are showing that in the case of time-reversal, Armenian Theory of Relativity is in full agreement with legacy physics and therefore our opponents criticisms in that matter are baseless.
In the case of spatial inversion (in our case mirror reflection) Armenian Theory of Special Relativity does not contradict in quality with legacy physics, but gives a more detailed and fine description of that phenomena, which in the macro-world is mostly unobservable but plays a very significant role in the micro-world.
Our received results can explain many parity irregularities in elementary particle physics, especially the violation parity process in weak interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1509.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-21 04:30:17*

**Authors:** Robert Nazaryan, Haik Nazaryan

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Published February 2007 in Los Angeles

In our article, we derive a new transformation of relativity for inertial systems using the following guidelines:
1. We use vector notations to obtain new transformation equations in a general form.
2. In the process of deriving the general new transformation equations in vector form, we keep the cross product term VxR as well.
3. We add one more postulate to the existing two, to resolve ambiguity problems in the orientation of the inertial coordinate systems axes.
4. Newly obtained transformation equations need to satisfy the linear transformation fundamental laws.
5. Addition of velocities we calculate in two different ways: by linear superposition and by differentiation, and they need to coincide each other. If not, then we force them to match for obtaining the final relation between coefficients.
After using the above mentioned general guidelines, we obtain direct and inverse transformation equations named the Armenian transformation equations and they are expressed in two notations: by absolute relative velocity and by local relative velocity.
Armenian transformation equations are the replacement for the Lorentz transformation equations in three dimensions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1509.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-20 07:29:41*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** 10 pages

In this paper I introduce a new Dark matter hypothesis. I assume that every elementary particle has a Dark Matter halo. Given a rest mass m_0 at r=0, it will have an additional spherical Dark Matter halo containing an extra mass in the sphere with radius r as m_DM = (r/R_DM)m_0 with the constant Dark Matter radius R_DM having a measured value somewhere in between 10 kpc and 20 kpc, so approximately once or twice the radius of an average luminous galaxy. The total rest mass of an elementary particle contained within a sphere with radius r will then be given by m = m_0 + (r/R_DM)m_0. The correlated mass density is \rho_DM = m_0/(4 pi r^2 R_DM). The new Newtonian gravitational energy will be
U_g = - GM_0 m_0/r - G M_0 m_0/R_DM resulting in an unchanged Newtonian force of gravity but with a correct galaxy velocity rotation curve, due to the still applicable virial energy theorem. The axiom is theory of gravity neutral because it is a statement about mass and mass density distribution only. But it implies that WIMP's and the like aren't necessary to explain Dark Matter; my proposal isn't WIMP neutral. Beyond the scale of galaxy clusters the model becomes problematic due to an extra halo halo interaction term becoming active at that scale.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1509.0181 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-21 22:23:57*

**Authors:** Shinsuke Hamaji

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A frequency shift is described that is derived from the difference of the kinetic energy of the particle and its gravitational potential. The frequency of photons emitted and the wave speed with an increase in the kinetic energy of the light source is decreased, and frequency of the observed photon is a combination of primary Doppler shift. The shift in gravitational frequency is due to the difference in heights, changes in the frequency of light emitted from its source, and changes in the speed of the wave and its wavelength during propagation. As an example, the flyby anomalies observed with ranging telemetry from certain spacecraft are analyzed in terms of the differences in the transverse Doppler shift and the delayed clock of the observer at infinity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1509.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-19 17:46:27*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Criticism and Comments are Welcomed

Because of the vagueness in the nature of the cosmological constant , it remained a subject of theoretical and empirical interest. This papers aims to make a brief analysis for the possibilities of the cosmological constant and to show how it could be a source of both problems and solutions in the cosmological studies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1509.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-20 02:43:37*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 6 pages. Journal of Vectorial Relativity, September 2008, Vol. 3, No. 3, P.30 – 35.

The energy of the gravitational field and the mass related to it are calculated. The momentum of the gravitational field of a moving body and the appropriate mass of the field are determined. Comparison of the given masses shows their difference. The reasons of violation of relativity and equivalence principles are discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1509.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-18 04:20:39*

**Authors:** Omar Shabsigh

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The September 2015 Issue of Scientific American about centenary of the General Relativity Theory is full of exaggerations and false statements that have one purpose namely: to give a God-like picture of Einstein.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1509.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-17 11:56:05*

**Authors:** E. A. Abdo

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Rejected by modern science, the geocentric theory (in Greek, ge means earth), which
maintained that Earth was the center of the universe, dominated ancient and medieval
science. It seemed evident to early astronomers that the rest of the universe moved about a
stable, motionless Earth. The Sun, Moon, planets, and stars could be seen moving about
Earth along circular paths day after day. It appeared reasonable to assume that Earth was
stationary, for nothing seemed to make it move. Furthermore, the fact that objects fall
toward Earth provided what was perceived as support for the geocentric theory. Finally,
geocentrism was in accordance with the theocentric (God-centered) world view, dominant
in in the Middle Ages, when science was a subfield of theology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1509.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-16 23:13:53*

**Authors:** Reginald T Cahill

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A quantum gravity experiment was reported in Cahill, Progress in Physics 2015, v.11(4), 317-320, with the data confirming the generalisation of the Schrodinger equation to include the interaction of the wave function with dynamical space. Dynamical space, via this interaction process, raises and lowers the energy of the electron wave function, which is detected by observing consequent variations in the electron quantum barrier tunnelling rate in reverse-biased Zener diodes. This process has previously been reported and enabled the measurement of the speed of the dynamical space flow, which is consistent with numerous other detection experiments. However Vrba, Progress in Physics, 2015, v.11(4), 330, has suggested the various experimental results may have been caused by magnetic field effects, but without any experimental evidence. Here we show experimentally that there is no such magnetic field effect in the Zener Diode Dynamical Space Quantum Detectors.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1509.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-13 18:01:11*

**Authors:** Dariusz Dudało

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Another point of view

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1509.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-11 05:37:24*

**Authors:** W.Q. Sumner

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In 1907 Einstein used special relativity to prove that vacuum permittivity is a function of gravity by assuming that acceleration and gravity are equivalent. Vacuum permittivity is the scalar in Maxwell's equations that determines the speed of light and the strength of electrical fields. Predictably, vacuum permittivity also changes with spacetime curvature in general relativity. When spacetime curvature changes, the wavelengths of both photons and atomic emissions shift. In Friedmann geometry, curvature changes in time. A photon today has a different wavelength than it did yesterday. Yesterday, an atom emitted a photon with a different wavelength than it emits today. Considered together, the evolution of atoms and photons reverse the interpretation of Hubble redshift. Hubble redshift implies that the Friedmann universe is closed and collapsing. During collapse, both atomic emissions and photons blueshift. Atomic emissions blueshift about twice as much as photons blueshift. This means that blueshifted photons seen in a telescope today are redder than blueshifted reference photons emitted by atoms today. With this insight, supernovae redshift observations are fit simply using the physics of Maxwell, Einstein, Bohr, and Friedmann from the 1920's. There is no need to postulate dark energy. Supernovae redshift data imply that the universe is very nearly flat and will collapse in about 9.6 billion years. High-z redshift observations up to 11.9 suggest that the universe is at least 2000 billion years old. This is more than a hundred times greater than a typical star's lifetime. It is probable that most dark matter is the residue of stellar evolution. The changes in atoms and photons derived here confirm Schrödinger's 1939 proof that quantum wave functions expand and contract proportionally to the radius of a closed Friedmann universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1509.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-08 09:57:44*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 61 pages

Applying basic classical physics concepts of time and space, while considering event information was ultimately communicated through light—or electromagnetic—signals, it was shown that proper time interval measured in an inertial reference frame (labeled as the “traveling frame”) between two co-local events occurring at the frame origin underwent apparent alteration and perceived as an altered interval in another inertial frame (labeled as the “stationary frame”), when the two frames were in relative motion. It was shown through obtained modified Galilean transformations that “apparent” length contraction and expansion were associated with “apparent” time dilation and contraction, respectively. In the case the Emission Theory of light was considered, symmetry in regard to the time and space alteration factors between the frames was shown. The known classical Doppler Effect was readily derived from the established alteration factors. For all classical approaches, and in the case of light, the wave length was deemed invariant.
In the case the Special Relativity approach was considered, i.e. when the speed of light was assumed constant with respect to all inertial reference frames, inconsistent time “alterations” were perceived, so an ad hoc assumption was required, imposing an artificial conversion factor, leading to the Lorentz transformation, applicable under special conditions of the space coordinates in the direction of motion. Misconceptions in the Special Relativity interpretation of the Lorentz transformation were systematically revealed. Time alteration was perceived dilated for receding frames, and contracted for approaching ones.
When the frames receded and then approached during equal proper time intervals, the net time interval is perceived dilated by for the Special Relativity approach, as opposed to for the Light Emission theory. For the Ether Theory assumption, either time dilation or time invariance was obtained depending on whether the traveling frame was taken to be the ether frame.
The known relativistic Doppler Effect was readily derived. For the case of light, the perceived frequency exhibiting a blue shift in the case of approaching frames was in line with the established time contraction in this study, contradicting the Special Relativity prediction of time dilation. In addition, the wavelength exhibited an increase in the case of receding frames, whereas it decreased when the source was approaching.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1509.0092 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-08 23:53:22*

**Authors:** Miroslav Josipović

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In the article Chappell, Hartnett, Iannella, Iqbal, Abbott, “Exploring the origin of Minkowski spacetime” [2] authors almost completely revise their article [3], but there is some mathematical and other discrepancies in their articles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1509.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-07 18:51:15*

**Authors:** Mueiz gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Comments and criticism are Welcomed

It is shown that there is an essential difference between the expansion of the universe and the expansion of the ordinary systems and they cannot be handled by the same laws.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1509.0064 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-21 06:00:51*

**Authors:** Peter Sujak

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper shows that the purpose of physical theories by theoretical physicists produced in the 20th century (special and general relativity, quantum mechanics, force fields theories using force mediating particles, the standard model of quark theory, the Big Bang and the Higgs boson theories) is to conceal the existence of physical fields as a real material media.
Force action of these media is replaced in these theories by the mathematics of kinematical quantities. In fact, these kinematical quantities describe the physical material world, which works on the principle of balance and changes of pressure of the densities of the material body and of material force fields surrounding these bodies. Under the supervision of power structures and the mass information media these physically deformed theories are an untouchable truth of the order of the universe, as was the case in the past, in the case of Ptolemy’s geocentric mathematical description of the universe, an untouchable truth for 1500 years.
Special relativity has removed from the physics of the ether as a real physical media discovered by many generations of physicists at hundred year intervals exploring the phenomena of electricity and magnetism throughout the 19th century. General relativity eliminated the ether from physics as a real physical media of the gravitational field discovered by many generations of physicists around Newton. Big Bang theory removed the media from the Intergalactic Space (ether, dark energy) about which the Hubble (until the end of his life) assumed that it may be the main cause of the observed red shift in the spectra of galaxies. Quantum mechanics and the theory of Higgs boson removes the ether from physics, in quantum physics known initial medium at creation and annihilation of matter particles from and into the electromagnetic waves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1509.0059 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-05 19:54:57*

**Authors:** Azzam Almosallami

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

In this paper I propose a quantization of gravity which leads to photon mediates gravitation. My quantization of GR depends on the modified special relativity MSRT which introduces a new interpretation to the Lorentz transformation equations depending on quantum theory (Copenhagen school) [25, 26, 27, 43, 47]. In my new transformation I propose there is no space-time continuum as in SRT, it is only time and space is invariant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1509.0056 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-23 00:47:19*

**Authors:** George Kirakosyan

**Comments:** 33 Pages. The article is published in IJAA, 2016, 6, 23-55

An attempt to epistemological completion of formal-math theories of relativity is presented. Causal
interpretations of SR and GR are suggested. The problem to physical gist of gravity is explained
as a contradiction of cognition vs. intuition. Gravity phenomena are represented as unexplored
peculiarity of basic particles. The gravity constant is deduced from the known parameters of the
electron.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1509.0050 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-18 18:00:29*

**Authors:** D. G. Taylor

**Comments:** Pages.

There are parallels between the time distortion equations of General and Special Relativity. The time distortion in Special Relativity limits the “Real” velocity of a particle to the speed of light |c| by slowing the velocity of bosons/energy and increasing the mass of fermion||lepton (or matter) particles. In General Relativity, the gravitational slowdown of bosons/gravitons limits the escape velocity | | to light speed. The equation |v_{Esc} = (2GM/r)^{.5}| can also be written as ||v_{Esc}^{2} = (2GM/r)|. So an alternate grammar for the equation could be:
Time’ = Time / (1 – 2GM/rc^{2})^{.5}
Time’ = Time / (1 – (2GM/r)*1/c^{2})^{.5}
Time’ = Time / (1 – (v_{Esc}^{2})*1/c^{2})^{.5}
Time’ = Time / (1 – v_{Esc}^{2}*1/c^{2})^{.5}
The above contests currently held properties of Schwarzschild Objects. Relativistic theory predicts the slowdown of gravitons/bosons, while their velocity only approaches zero. The different mathematical logic of Gravitational Force||GF|| GF = GMm / r^{2}would mean no limit on the force. Matter formed through compression of bosons can escape after formation by absorbing kinetic energy from the slowing photons/bosons in its surroundings. So matter formation can occur via a steady-state mechanism. The limit on v_{Esc}allows matter to escape in events that parallel both the Big Bang and Cyclic cosmology. Additional arguments are made as to the validity of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1509.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-04 04:53:39*

**Authors:** Subhayan Sahu

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This report contains a short review of the thermal WIMP model of Dark matter, followed by an improved numerical analysis that takes into account the evolution of effective degrees of freedom for Standard Model particles to solve the evolution equation. The result dictates that for low-mass WIMPs, the cross section required to match the current Dark Matter relic density is significantly different from the oft-quoted value.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1509.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-29 16:40:09*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, a comparison is made between the standard cosmological model and a proposed model with spherical space and radial time and the field equation with the average density of the universe as another constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1509.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-02 22:59:29*

**Authors:** Louai Hassan Elzein Basheir

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show the mathematical proof of the Lorentz-Fitzgerald length contraction to be an eect of the Doppler factor instead of the Lorentz factor.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1509.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-03 01:46:35*

**Authors:** Louai Hassan Elzein Basheir

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show that we can derive the Lorentz transformation and the Doppler transformation directly from Galilean transformation by using the experiment fact of the constancy of the speed of light in the relative frames of references.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1509.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:10:47*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Let us consider here the question relative to gravitational field of second type, to elliptical orbits and to precessional motions that happen in this type of gravitational filed. Here the cause of precessional phenomena is identified with conic motions of axes of rotation of Sun and of planets, that are not perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic but they have an angle of inclination. These inclinations are due to reciprocal interactions of central star and of orbital planets. The paper reaches the necessity to define a new law that in the event of the Sun system is the fourth law that has to be added to Kepler's three well-known laws.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology