[30] **viXra:1605.0286 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-28 12:14:20*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: My recent publication viXra 1605.0223 indicates that dark matter requires more energy than 34 GEV gamma radiation to annihilate: the best one can do is annihilate -H bosons with the aid of -Z bosons (2(H-Z)). The result doubles the number of -Z bosons very close to the centers of spiral galaxies. This lessens the energy needed to manufacture stars spiraling away from the center of the galaxy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1605.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-26 21:54:50*

**Authors:** Wook Koh

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The cosmological constant is a fundamental
problem in modern physics, and arises at the intersection between
general relativity and quantum field theory.
In this paper
we show how the cosmological constant problem can be solved by X-particles of dark energy with the repulsive force proportional to energy density.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1605.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-26 10:03:03*

**Authors:** Alexander F. Jonkeren

**Comments:** 1 Page. relativistic velocity redshift galaxies recessional expansion

This methods describes a new an direct way of establishing galactic relativistic velocities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1605.0259 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-16 21:52:43*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 28 Pages. v4 contains an improved development of the Lagrangian and geodesic gauge conditions, and a new section 7 presenting an energy flux equation for both gravitational and electrodynamic sources.

We summarize how the Lorentz Force motion observed in classical electrodynamics may be understood as geodesic motion derived by minimizing the variation of the proper time along the worldline of test charges in external potentials, while the spacetime metric remains invariant under, and all other fields in spacetime remain independent of, any rescaling of the charge-to-mass ratio q/m. In order for this to occur, time is dilated or contracted due to attractive and repulsive electromagnetic interactions respectively, in very much the same way that time is dilated due to relative motion in special relativity, without contradicting the latter’s well-corroborated experimental content. As such, it becomes possible to lay an entirely geometrodynamic foundation for classical electrodynamics in four spacetime dimensions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1605.0239 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-13 22:13:38*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 21 Pages. MINOR REVISION

The paper describes that science now has enough data on which a Theory of Everything. The data accrue from analysing cosmological, physics and philosophical information. However the Theory of Everything must imperatively be based on scientific information that explains the Theory of Everything, and on philosophical information that interprets the why of the Theory of Everything.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1605.0230 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-25 09:17:33*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 6 Pages. none

In this short note it is shown that the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) is a theory describing the reality correctly providing that certain conditions, which are encapsulated in the theory’s assumptions, are satisfied. This is demonstrated by using a simple capacitor, which avoids many difficulties of a relatively complex mathematics that leads many physics hobby enthusiasts to a wrong conclusion claiming that the theory cannot be correct and needs to be changed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1605.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-21 13:24:14*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: The latest experimentally measured 68.3%/26.8% dark energy/fermion mass ratio matches cyclic universe, E8 symmetry theory to within 1/2% if dark matter annihilation gamma radiation energy is 2 x 33.81 GEV. This is the positive mass-energy of 2(H-Z) bosons, and indicates that the Z dark bosons were not not annihilated but were re-incorporated in positive energy form.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1605.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-20 06:02:08*

**Authors:** Ernst Schmutzer

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The two preceding papers published recently in viXra [1] and in [2] are geometrically grounded and physically based on the following forces: gravitation, electromagnetism and scalarism (new phenomenon of Nature, hypothetically introduced
1980) [3]. The cosmology of a closed symmetric isotropic world model is treated, enlarging the Einstein theory, based on fundamental new field equations and conservation laws (additional terms), being the result of the projection onto the 4-dimensional space-time.
The physical basis of this world model is a two-component gas-mixture: mechanical dark-matter scalon-gas (particle: scalon) and electromagnetic
photon-gas. The numerical procedure by resolving the appearing system of equations yields: Urstart of the expansion (named by the author) without singularity (no Big Bang) [4]. This way leads to the acceleration effect of the cosmological expansion (about 8 billion years after Urstart), according to the empirical detection some years ago. Further correct rendering of the Hubble parameter. The age of finish of our world model yields 28 billion of years.
On such theoretical and (up to now) empirical basis we present here in this Paper 3 following results as hypotheses:
1. Gravitational-scalaric field of a sphere.
2. Geodetic equation and general equation of motion of a moving body.
3. Anomalous pioneer effect of moving space-crafts (departure from Newtonian behaviour).
4. Anomalous rotation curves of stars, moving around the centres of spiral galaxies (characteristic deviations from Newtonian mechanics).
5. Heat production in expanding moving bodies.
6. Reinterpretation of Maxwell-Faraday equations.
7. Status of Dark energy and accelerated cosmological expansion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1605.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-20 05:38:49*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A theoretical analysis examines the possibility that the black holes detected by LIGO serve as dark matter. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1605.0196 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-24 05:08:21*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

When an expanding uniform-density dust ball's radius doesn't sufficiently exceed the Schwarzschild value, its expansion rate will actually be increasing because the dominant gravitational time dilation effect diminishes as the dust ball expands. But such acceleration of expansion is absent in "comoving coordinates" because the "comoving" fixing of the 00 component of the metric tensor to unity extinguishes gravitational time dilation, as is evidenced in the "comoving" FLRW dust-ball model by the Newtonian form of its Friedmann equation of motion. Therefore we extend to all dust-ball initial conditions the singular Oppenheimer-Snyder transformation from "comoving" to "standard" coordinates which they carried out for a particular initial condition. In "standard" coordinates relativistic time dilation is manifest in the equations of motion of the dynamical radii of all of the dust ball's interior shells; the acceleration of expansion of the surface shell peaks when its radius is only fractionally larger than the dust ball's Schwarzschild radius. Even so, for a range of initial conditions a dust ball's expansion continues accelerating at all "standard" times, although that acceleration asymptotically decreases toward zero. Attempts to account for the observed acceleration of the
expansion of the universe by fitting a nonzero "dark energy" cosmological constant thus seem to be quite unnecessary.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1605.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-18 02:21:41*

**Authors:** Irfan Acikgoz, Figen Binbay, Mustafa Salti, Oktay Aydogdu

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Eur. Phys. J. Plus 131 (2016) 157.

Focusing on a fractal geometric ghost dark energy, we reconstruct the Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI)-essence–type scalar field and find exact solutions of the potential and warped brane tension.We also discuss statefinders for the selected dark energy description to make it distinguishable among others.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1605.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-18 02:51:08*

**Authors:** Ernst Schmutzer

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The Projective Unified Field Theory (PUFT) of the author is applied for a dark matter cosmos. Detailed results appeared recently in
two volumes [1]. The set of formulas needed for cosmology (including hypothetic empiric predictions) is presented in [2]. The main essence of this paper lays in following assumptions: dark matter basis of the mechanical
part of the cosmological gas component; taking into account the hypothetical scalarism phenomenon, introduced by the author at the GRG-congress 1980 in Jena [3]. One of our main results is the singularity-free beginning of the cosmos model investigated (Urstart instead of Big Bang). The occurring numerical result for the Hubble-parameter is physically full satisfactory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1605.0180 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-17 00:27:58*

**Authors:** Kenneth Dalton

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Journal-Ref: Hadronic J. 39(2), 169-173 (2016)

It is first shown that there is no exchange of energy-momentum during planetary motion. Then, starting with the field equations, it is shown that the gravitational field does not exchange energy-momentum with any form of matter.
Conclusion: In general relativity, there is no gravitational energy, momentum, stress, force or power.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1605.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-16 07:22:19*

**Authors:** Markos Georgallides

**Comments:** 96 Pages. The Origin of Spin , The Why and How particles move

Point in E-Geometry , which is nothing and Dimensionless , is Zero can be derived from the
addition of a Positive (+) and a Negative (-) number while Material point has Dimension the
Segment ds = [⊕⊝] , and originates in the same way . Adding it to numbers i.e. to Monads ,
creates the Primary Particles and all the Rest-Gravity constituent and all Atoms of Periodic
System in Planck`s Space -Level . Monads are Spinning because of the inner Electromagnetic
Waves E,P which create the External Spin and again Spin creates the Inner Electromagnetic
Waves E,P in monads continuing this eternal cycle . It is shown Why , How , and where
this Rotational momentum , the Spinning , is conserved .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1605.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-15 03:22:42*

**Authors:** Wook Koh, Soonhoi Ha

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

There are strong indications the general relativity theory is incomplete. Observational data that is taken as evidence for dark energy and dark matter could indicate the need for new physics. In this paper, general relativity is rewritten based on the X-particles of dark energy. The goal is to
help classical mechanics and general relativity to reconcile with the laws of quantum physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1605.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-14 10:47:00*

**Authors:** Ernst Schmutzer

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The short reproduction of the Projective Unified Field Theory of the author (including empiric predictions) will be presented during the
subsequent time:
Fundamental 5-dimensional physical laws within the projective space and projection of these basic laws onto space-time.
Transition from this 4-dimensional complex of the physical laws to the (better understandable) 3-dimensional version with new additional physical terms, being prepared for a physical interpretation (influence of cosmological expansion).
Numerical presentation of the predicted astrophysical and cosmological effects: anomalous motion of bodies according to the pioneer effect, anomalous rotation curve of rotating bodies around
a gravitational centre. One should take note of my hypothetic result that the true origin of these both effects (pioneer effect and
rotation curve effect) seems to have the same cause, namely the overwhelming dark matter existing in our Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1605.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-13 09:05:17*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Equivalence principle is the basement of general relativity theory. It points out that the gravitational force is equivalent to the inertial force. However, the general relativity theory does not give the reason. In this paper, we assume the space is a kind of elastic media. The energy can take pressure on the space. It will make the space curved. The curved space-time produces gravitational force. This paper gives the mathematical calculation based on elasticity theory to show that this assumption is true. It also gives the accurate relationship between mass and gravitational force. The relationship is in line with the conclusion of general relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1605.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-11 02:12:11*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 4 Pages. -

Formula relativity and more detailed consideration of the motion help to explain
the gravitational interaction using an electric interaction. The method was
considered even by Einstein, but he did not bring it to the end.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1605.0097 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-14 17:53:43*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Periodic (5.9 year) oscillations are observed in Newton's gravitational constant G which coincide with length of day (LOD) data obtained from the International Earth Rotation and Reference System (IERS). It is shown that the oscillations in G are dualistic with Gauss' gravitational constant k due to variations in the Earth's mean motion during the 5.9 year period. Falsifiable predictions are submitted to test the G/k duality hypothesis.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1605.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-10 03:39:01*

**Authors:** Luo Zhengda

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

According to the theory and opinion of natural external force and natural repulsive force, "gravitational wave" doesn't exist. Therefore, LIGO cannot detect gravitational wave produced by two black holes with stellar system level 1.3 billion years ago.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1605.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-09 04:41:30*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Here is the list of subheadings in this article -
1) TOPOLOGICAL UNIVERSE
2) ELECTROMAGNETISM FROM GRAVITY(REDEFINING THE BIG BANG, COSMIC INFLATION AND APPLICATION OF INFINITY TO THE UNIVERSE)
3) WAVE PACKETS
4) THE COMPLEX & THE IMAGINARY REDEFINE COSMOGENESIS & BIOGENESIS
5) POSITIVE GRAVITY/BLACK HOLES BALANCED BY NEGATIVE HYPERSPACE
6) DARK MATTER AND INVERSE SQUARE RESULT FROM HYPERSPACE
7) SUPERNOVAS, BLACK HOLES AND DARK ENERGY
8) REPELLING GRAVITY, OCEAN TIDES AND THE GROWING AU
9) RELATIVISTIC MUSINGS
10) INTERGALACTIC AND TIME TRAVEL VIA BLACK HOLES POSSIBLE BECAUSE E=mc^2 CAN TRANSFORM INTO (E=0) + (m=c^2)
11) WORLD PEACE AND IMMORTALITY
12) ENTANGLEMENT IN THE G-EM FIELD
13) DVD-TIME, REALITY WAVES AND BRAIN FOG

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1605.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-08 19:45:10*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Gabriele U. Varieschi and Zily Burstein in arXiv 1208.3706 showed that with Conformal Gravity Alcubierre Warp Drive does not need Exotic Matter. In E8 Physics of viXra 1602.0319 Conformal Gravity gives Dark Energy which expands our Universe and can curve Spacetime. Clovis Jacinto de Matos and Christian Beck in arXiv 0707.1797 said “... based on the model of dark energy a proposed by Beck and Mackey ... assume... that photons ... can exist in two different phases: A gravitationally active phase where the zeropoint fluctuations contribute to the [dark energy] cosmological constant /\, and a gravitationally inactive phase where they do not contribute to /\. ... this type of model of dark energy can lead to measurable effects in supeconductors,
via ... interaction with the Cooper pairs in the superconductor. ...
the transition between the two graviphoton’s phases ... occurs at the critical temperature Tc of the superconductor, which defines a cutoff frequency of opoint fluctuations ... Graviphotons can form weakly bounded states with Cooper pairs ... [which] ... form a condensate ...[in]... superconduct[ors] ... the cosmological cutoff frequency [could be measured] through the measurement of the spectral density of the noise current in resistively shunted Josephson Junctions ...”. Xiao Hu and Shi-Zeng Lin in arXiv 0911.5371 and 1206.516 showed that BSCCO superconducting crystals are natural Josephson Junctions. A Pentagonal Dipyramid configuration of 16 BSCCO crystals cannot close in flat 3-dim space, but can close if Conformal Dark Energy accumulated in the BSCCO Josephson Junctions curves spacetime. Such spacetime curvature allows construction of a Conformal Gravity Alcubierre Warp Drive that does not need Exotic Matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1605.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-05 21:29:46*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Abstract: It has been almost a year since I updated the cyclic universe E8 symmetry theory. The best starting point is the big bang. At this point our universe was the smallest it could be because gravity was active but all matter was in the special-entity form of fermibosons, which had effectively zero mass, and no big crunch could take place. Instead, the universe grew until it reached its present gigantic size and the fermibosons mostly disintegrated back into fermions and negative mc^2 dark matter. The dark matter eventually annihilated, producing 40 GEV gamma radiation and simple expansion of space. Someday the expansion will end: there will be a contraction (not a crunch) of the universe and the cycle will repeat.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1605.0064 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-10 10:53:29*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The consistency in stellar orbital speeds, independent from their distance from galactic nuclei, is shown to be associated with an increase in their angular frequencies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1605.0059 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-14 06:40:52*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Version 7 in English.

This article presents an alternative formulation of special relativity which can be applied in any inertial reference frame. In addition, a new universal force is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1605.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 10:55:15*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper we show how Einstein's relativity of simultaneity is fully consistent with anisotropic one-way speed of light. We get the same end result and observations as predicted by Einstein, but with a very different interpretation. We show that the relativity of simultaneity is an apparent effect due to an Einstein clock synchronization error, which is rooted in assuming that the one-way speed of light is the same as the well-tested round-trip speed of light. Einstein's relativity of simultaneity leads to several bizarre paradoxes recently introduced by Haug (2016a, 2016b).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1605.0039 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-21 08:39:48*

**Authors:** Tsuneaki Takahashi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Lorentz transformation handles an oblique frame of reference. Regarding to the oblique frame of reference system, investigation about scaling and distance is required for clear understanding how the Lorentz transformation can be derived.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1605.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 06:37:27*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper introduces a new way to synchronize clocks distanced apart and a way to synchronize clocks between reference frames. Based on a simple synchronization thought experiment, we claim that relativity of simultaneity must be incomplete. Einstein's special relativity theory predicts relativity of simultaneity and that two events that happen simultaneously in one reference frame will not happen simultaneously as observed from another reference frame. Relativity of simultaneity is directly linked to a particular way of synchronizing clocks (Einstein-Poincar\'{e} synchronization) that again assumes that the one-way speed of light is isotropic and identical with the well-tested round-trip speed of light. In the new thought experiment introduced here, there is reason to believe that two distant events can happen simultaneously in both frames. Still, we agree that these events will not happen simultaneously as measured with Einstein synchronized clocks. The claim here is that Einstein synchronized clocks lead to apparent relativity of simultaneity due to a clock synchronization error rooted in the assumption of isotropic one-way speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1605.0006 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-13 08:55:29*

**Authors:** Tsuneaki Takahashi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It may be hard to understand Lorentz transformation intuitively because it is derived inductively from the light speed constancy for every inertia systems. Specially the definition of space-axis (time zero line) is unclear although time-axis definition may be reasonable if the Lorentz transformation is recognized as a rotation of frame of reference on the Minkowski space. On such situation, Lorentz transformation may become understandable if the logic of space-axis definition becomes clear. And light speed constancy may not be an axiom, it should be what to be derived.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1605.0001 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-02 10:28:42*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 24 Pages. Spanish

The General Relativity is a nonlinear theory, this allows the equation of motion of a particle can be deduced from the field equations. The method was developed in 1938 by Einstein, Infeld and Hoffmann. We present this theory clarifying all calculations and demonstrating the theorems involved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology