Relativity and Cosmology

1205 Submissions

[22] viXra:1205.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-31 08:17:57

Four Poission-Laplace Theory of Gravitation (I)

Authors: G. G. Nyambuya
Comments: 5 Pages. Two Full Research Papers on the Pioneer Anomaly and the Titius-Bode Law will follow this reading. These follow up papers put flesh to the theory here set-forth.

The Poisson-Laplace equation is a working and acceptable equation of gravitation which is mostly used or applied in its differential form in Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) modelling. From a general relativistic standpoint, it describes gravitational fields in the region of low spacetime curvature as it emerges in the weak field limit. For none-static gravitational fields, this equation is not generally covariant. On the requirements of general covariance, this equation can be extended to include a time dependent component, in which case, one is led to the Four Poisson-Laplace equation. We solve the Four Poisson-Laplace equation for radial solutions, and apart from the Newtonian gravitational pole, we obtain four new solutions leading to four new gravitational poles capable (in-principle) of explaining e.g. the rotation curves of galaxies, the Pioneer anomaly, the Titius-Bode Law and the formation of planetary rings. In this letter, we focus only on writing down these solutions. The task to show that these new solutions might explain the aforesaid gravitational anomalies, has been left for separate future readings.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[21] viXra:1205.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-31 01:12:57

Observations About a Particular Clock co-Moving with Inertial Frame K’, by a Particular Clock co-Moving with Inertial Frame K

Authors: Chandru Iyer
Comments: Number of pages = 5

The observation that a moving clock runs slow is usually observed by a set of spatially separated, co-moving and synchronized clocks. The synchronization of these co-moving and spatially separated clocks is achieved by the Einsteinian synchronization convention. The universal validity of this convention has been debated by researchers for over a hundred years. In this paper we present the Doppler Effect as a phenomenon to eliminate the issues associated with the synchronization problem. The Doppler Effect involves two objects, the light source and the receptor in relative motion. The ratio of the frequencies expected to be observed by the receptor as estimated by the inertial frames co-moving with the source and the receptor respectively is (1-v2/c2), assuming that light travels at speed c in all directions with respect to the source and receptor respectively. The relativistic prediction is the geometric mean of these two estimates. The inertial frame co-moving with the source reconciles this difference by stating that the clock at the location of the moving receptor is running slow by a factor (1-v2/c2)1/2. A similar explanation is given by the inertial frame co-moving with the receptor – the clocks at the location of the moving source run slow by a factor (1-v2/c2)1/2, that is the actual emission frequency is less than what the source of light itself observes, due to the slow running of the clock co-moving with the source. Thus the relativistic Doppler Effect is reconciled with the predictions of the individual inertial frames by the slow running of moving clocks. This essentially means that moving clocks run slow – even when we do not use the Einsteinian synchronization convention and use the opportunity presented by the Doppler Effect to observe a ‘moving’ clock by a ‘stationary’ clock, assuming that the speed of light is c in all directions. This essentially means that a moving clock actually runs slow as compared to the usual statement that a ‘moving’ clock is observed to run slow (by ‘stationary’, spatially separated and synchronized (by a convention) clocks). The consequence of the actual slow running of moving clocks is discussed in the conclusion section.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20] viXra:1205.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-30 19:54:04

Conjecture on Time Dilation, Gravity and Inertia

Authors: Richard A. Peters
Comments: 13 Pages.

This conjecture postulates the existence of a field of particles in space that I’ll call the temporal-inertial (TI) field, but will refer to simply as space or the field. This field provides a frame of reference for motion such that the motion of an object (sub-atomic particle, atom, clock, etc.) with respect to that field causes two effects. The velocity of an object with respect to the field causes time dilation for that object and the acceleration of an object with respect to the field causes the familiar inertial reaction force. It is argued that the successful functioning of the Global Positioning System requires that the Earth not move with respect to this TI field. This assertion demands that the TI field move with Earth and that the field must therefore be subject to gravity and orbit the Sun just as the Earth and planets. The response of the TI field to gravity requires particles of the field in the vicinity of Earth to accelerate toward the center of the Earth. As a result, gravitational time dilation and gravitational redshift in a reference frame within the field are caused by the velocity of the particles of this field relative to the reference frame, not directly by gravity itself. Lastly, it is argued that the gravitational force is mediated indirectly by the acceleration of the TI field relative to matter particles in the field. In response to the acceleration of the TI field by gravity, the field asserts a force on matter particles in the direction of the acceleration of the field relative to the matter particles, just as for the inertial force. Accordingly, matter particles are not directly subject to the gravitational force.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19] viXra:1205.0101 [pdf] replaced on 2012-06-01 05:08:26

How the Presence of Particle in the Light-Carrying Zone of the Michelson Interferometer Produces Anisotropy of the Speed of Light

Authors: Victor V. Demjanov
Comments: 14 Pages. English and Russian variants; in v2 misprints corrected

      In 1877 Maxwell suggested the idea of measuring anisotropy of the speed of light c in aether by the observing finite effects of the 2nd-order of the kinetic relationship υ/c. He kept in mind translationally moving (with velocity υ) the light-carrying zones of the interferometer with cross beams. Maxwell's doubts were by caused smallness of relationship υ2/c2~10-8, which may appear to be the main difficulty of monitoring the Earth's orbital velocity. Planning the experiments of 1881 and 1887 Michelson expected to obtain values of the effects of the 2nd-order in thousands times higher (0.04 and 0.4, respectively) than Maxwell predicted. Even more surprising there appeared that the measure-ments gave the "zero" fringe shift. Basing on these measurements, in 1905 Einstein rejected Maxwell non-zero esti-mations, but has believed to Michelson "zero"-experiments, and postulated the refusal from the aether.
      Miller built (1905-1925) more sensitive Michelson interferometers (MI) with a length beams l||=l ~32 m. Over 20 years of their improvement he achieved repeatability of velocity of "aether wind" measurements in the range 5<υ<12 km/s. These evidences about the aether worried very much the author of the SRT. In 1926 in his article "My theory and Miller's experiments," Einstein said that those experiments "should" contain "fundamental error" because there must not be the anisotropy of the speed of light in vacuum. Otherwise, the SRT is not correct. Kennedy (1926), Illingworth (1927) and Joos (1930) were quick to verify it experimentally. Kennedy used helium in the MI, and Joos evacuated his MI. By such inadequate to Miller's experiment ways they obtained the velocity υ in 3–10 times less. But no one of them guessed that it was connected with ignorance of different contribution of the atoms polarization in the permittivity of the light-carriers consisting of the particles of air, helium and laboratory vacuum.
      Below it is proved that the recognition of the aether as real medium without loss reconciles Maxwell's idea of the existence of anisotropy of the translationally moving material media with the Einstein's reasoning about the absence of anisotropy in "pure" vacuum. At the same time, the recognition of aether reconciles as well the positiveness of Miller's experiments (with non-zero fringe shift in the air) with an apparent "negative" experiments of Kennedy and Illingworth (in helium), and Joos's experiments - in laboratory vacuum.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18] viXra:1205.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-24 16:33:26

Tricritical Quantum Point and Inflationary Cosmology

Authors: Lawrence B. Crowell
Comments: 11 Pages. This essay received an honorable mention in the 2012 Essay Competition of the Gravity. Also at

The holographic protection due to inflationary cosmology is a consequence of a quantum tricritical point. In this scenario a closed spacetime solution transitions into an inflationary de Sitter spacetime. Saturation of the holographic entropy bound is prevented by the phase change in the topology of the early universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[17] viXra:1205.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-24 07:33:18

Black Hole Universe and to Verify the Cosmic Acceleration

Authors: U.V.S.Seshavatharam, S.Lakshminarayana
Comments: 4 Pages.

Based on the big bang concepts- in the expanding universe, ‘rate of decrease in CMBR temperature’ is a measure of the cosmic ‘rate of expansion’. Modern standard cosmology is based on two contradictory statements. They are - present CMBR temperature is isotropic and the present universe is accelerating. In particle physics also, till today laboratory evidence for the existence of ‘dark matter’ and ‘dark energy’ is very poor. Recent observations and thoughts supports the existence of the ‘cosmic axis of evil’. Independent of the cosmic red shift and CMBR observations, cosmic acceleration can be verified by measuring the `rate of decrease' in the fine structure ratio. In this connection an attempt is made to study the universe with a closed and growing model of cosmology. If the primordial universe is a natural setting for the creation of black holes and other non-perturbative gravitational entities, it is also possible to assume that throughout its journey, the whole universe is a primordial (growing and rotating) cosmic black hole. Instead of the Planck scale, initial conditions can be represented with the Coulomb scale. Obtained value of the present Hubble constant is close to 70.75 Km/sec/Mpc.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[16] viXra:1205.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-24 05:45:54

To the Absoluteness Theory (К теории абсолютности)

Authors: Etkin V.A.
Comments: 14 Pages. In Russian

It is shown, that a principle of a indistinguishability, underlying the special and general theory of a relativity, it is expedient to replace on opposite to him principle of discernability of processes that lead to the absoluteness theory (В статье обосновывается целесообразность замены принципа неразличимости процессов, лежащего в основе СТО и ОТО, на противоположный ему принцип их различимости, ведущий к теории абсолютности).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15] viXra:1205.0094 [pdf] replaced on 2012-05-29 03:56:44

On Nature of Gravity

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 2 Pages.

In 1976 in this paper we found a new gravitational formula
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14] viXra:1205.0086 [pdf] replaced on 2013-01-08 10:29:36

The Hamiltonian in Covariant Theory of Gravitation

Authors: Sergey G. Fedosin
Comments: 48 pages. Advances in Natural Science, 2012, Vol. 5, No. 4, P. 55 – 75.

In the framework of covariant theory of gravitation the Euler-Lagrange equations are written and equations of motion are determined by using the Lagrange function, in the case of small test particle and in the case of continuously distributed matter. From the Lagrangian transition to the Hamiltonian was done, which is expressed through three-dimensional generalized momentum in explicit form, and also is defined by the 4-velocity, scalar potentials and strengths of gravitational and electromagnetic fields, taking into account the metric. The definition of generalized 4-velocity, and the description of its application to the principle of least action and to Hamiltonian is done. The existence of a 4-vector of the Hamiltonian is assumed and the problem of mass is investigated. To characterize the properties of mass we introduce three different masses, one of which is connected with the rest energy, another is the observed mass, and the third mass is determined without taking into account the energy of macroscopic fields. It is shown that the action function has the physical meaning of the function describing the change of such intrinsic properties as the rate of proper time and rate of rise of phase angle in periodic processes.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[13] viXra:1205.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-21 01:05:09

On the “Size” of Einstein’s Spherically Symmetric Universe

Authors: Stephen J. Crothers
Comments: 5 Pages.

It is alleged by the Standard Cosmological Model that Einstein’s Universe is finite but unbounded. Although this is a longstanding and widespread allegation, it is nonetheless incorrect. It is also alleged by this Model that the Universe is expanding and that it began with a Big Bang. These are also longstanding and widespread claims that are demonstrably false. The FRWmodels for an expanding, finite, unbounded Universe are inconsistent with General Relativity and are therefore invalid.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[12] viXra:1205.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-18 03:18:39

The New Gravitational Formula and The Expansion Theory of The Universe

Authors: Chun-Xuan Jiang
Comments: 9 Pages.

Using the tachyonic theory we find the new gravitational formula(16) and establish the expansion theory of the universe see Fig.2,(22)-(25).We show that gravitons can be converted into the rest mass,see Fig.2,(24)-(25)。We point out that Newtonian theory is approximate and the general theory of relativity is wrong
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[11] viXra:1205.0069 [pdf] replaced on 2013-12-20 10:14:09

From Magnitudes and Redshifts of Supernovae, Their Light-Curves, and Angular Sizes of Galaxies to a Tenable Cosmology

Authors: Hartmut Traunmüller
Comments: 22 Pages. Accepted for publication in Astrophysics and Space Science

Early physical cosmologies were based on interpretations of the cosmic redshift for which there was insufficient evidence and on theories of gravitation that appear to be falsified by galactic dynamics. Eventually, the big bang paradigm came to be guarded against refutation by ad hoc hypotheses (dark matter, cosmic inflation, dark energy) and free parameters. Presently available data allow a more satisfactory phenomenological approach. Using data on magnitude and redshift from 892 type Ia supernovae, it is first shown that these suggest that the redshift factor (1 + z) is simply an exponential function of distance and that, for “standard candles”, magnitude m = 5 log[(1 + z) ln(1 + z)] + const. While these functions are incompatible with a big bang, they characterize certain tired light models as well as exponential expansion models. However, the former are falsified by the stretched light curves of distant supernovae and the latter by the absence of a predicted 1+z increase in the angular sizes of galaxies. Instead, the observations suggest that physical processes speed up and objects contract uniformly as an exponential function of time, standards of measurement not excluded, and only free waves being excepted. Distant events proceed, then, more slowly, while angular sizes remain unaffected, approximately as observed. Since all objects contract in proportion, the Universe retains a static appearance. A corresponding physical theory, which should also explain galactic dynamics, remains yet to be derived from first principles. A way to do this, satisfying also Mach’s principle, is vaguely suggested.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[10] viXra:1205.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-13 12:04:50

The Whole Universe in Three Numbers

Authors: Leonardo Rubino
Comments: 29 Pages.

In this paper you can find around 15 numerical relations which supply the correct values for the main physical constants; these relations are based on a Universe described by just three numbers: its mass, its radius and its age. Later, in the paper, I will also give an explanation for the subsistence of all those relations, also proving that oscillations are a basis for all the Universe, for all its essence and for all its existence and all those physical constants are in perfect harmony with an oscillating Universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[9] viXra:1205.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-12 05:38:01

Relativistic Thermodynamic State Functions

Authors: Mirza Wasif Baig

To embrace special theory of relativity with chemical thermodynamics correct Lorentz transformations of thermodynamic state functions are formulated. All of these Lorentz transformations of state functions equally supports time dilation phenomenon which is experimentally verified fact. Relativistic Boltzmann constant proves entropy to be Lorentz variant. Twin paradox thought experiments proves heat flux to be Lorentz variant. Lorentz transformation of entropy and heat flux proves temperature Lorentz invariant. All thermodynamic state functions are proved to be Lorentz variant which is shown in accord with Lorentz transformation of thermodynamic work.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8] viXra:1205.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-09 00:54:56

Nondecelerative Universe Model

Authors: Miroslav Sukenik, Jozef Sima
Comments: 25 Pages.

In the present paper, the model of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe is analysed. The model involves an assumption of the nonexistence of big bang, inflation phase of expansion, dark energy, and extradimensions. Utilizing the model allows localize the energy of gravitation field, quantify the gravitation field and establish the Universe wavefunction. The exact value of the mass of the Higgs boson (mH = 125.39 GeV) and the axion (max = 1.28  106 eV) is calculated. The value of the neutron dipole moment (1.8  1030 ecm) is predicted.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7] viXra:1205.0044 [pdf] replaced on 2012-05-09 12:34:50

Cosmic Red Shift, Microwave Background, and New Particles

Authors: Sergey G. Fedosin
Comments: 23 Pages. Galilean Electrodynamics, Spring 2012, Vol. 23, Special Issues No. 1, P. 3 – 13.

The explanation of the red shift in spectra of remote galaxies and cosmic microwave background radiation from the concept of an expanding Universe seems inadequate, and invites other explanations. The present paper studies the idea of cosmic red shift and microwave background radiation as a consequence of interaction between photons and previously unknown particles. It shows that the overall mass of the new particles in the Universe has the same order of magnitude as the mass of all the nucleons. Thus the problem of invisible dark matter may be solved. The question must be raised about the need for the existence of dark energy. In particular, the effect of attenuation of radiation from the distant supernovas is considered to be the consequence of scattering of photons on the new particles, but not the result of the dark energy activity
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[6] viXra:1205.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-07 14:12:22

Relativity from the Eagles Point of View

Authors: Mourici Shachter
Comments: 27 Pages.

In the following paper I will explain how I can derive Relativity and Newton's laws from just one equation: lamda*f=c This equation can explain also, why Relativity is the perfect theory of universe while Newtonian Mechanics lake the ability to describe nature correctly. Unfortunately, because of our life experience, our mind was adapted to mechanical physics. Einstein's theory of Relativity enable us to translate Newtonian Mechanics to Relativistic Mechanic by using some mathematicl expression that Einstien gave us And than solve the problem, and than translate the solution back to the familiar mechanical world. It is also shown in that paper that our universe is entirely wavy. It is shown that space is bend by the electric field and bend much less by gravitational field. Therefore particle movement in straight line is rare. The curved space due to electrostatic force and the fine structure constant are responsible to quantum behavior of the atom. I also found that wave of matter are circular. While light can move in straight lines.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[5] viXra:1205.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-06 11:27:07

On the Origin of the Lifetime Dilatation of High Velocity Mesons

Authors: Thierry DeMees
Comments: 5 Pages.

We analyze here the influence of gravitomagnetism upon fast moving particles and we find a physical mechanism for the lifetime dilation of mesons at very high velocities. One of the later arguments in favor of the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) was the discovery of a lifetime dilation of high velocity mesons. However, it has also been found that the observed lifetime dilation didn't correspond to SRT predictions. Moreover, SRT neither General Relativity Theory (GRT) ever explained any physical mechanism. When using gravitomagnetism, it becomes clear that not a time delay, but an self-inductive gravitomagnetic compression component is responsible for a delayed decay of the meson. We also find that relativistic mass doesn't exist, but that only the gravitational field gets accumulated to high values when the object's speed is close to the speed of light.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[4] viXra:1205.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-05 11:41:46

Did Einstein cheat ?

Authors: Thierry DeMees
Comments: 13 Pages.

Since one century, Gravitation has been in the spell of Einstein's Relativity Theory. Although during decades,dozens of scientists have provided evidences for the incorrectness of this theory. And often successfully, butwithout finding a sympathetic ear. Here we will discover what is wrong with the theory, and what brings a lot ofscientists -in spite of that- to not dump it. We will not only discover that the Relativity Theory of Einstein is atricked variant of the authentic Gravitation Theory, but we will also be able to form an idea about how and whyEinstein did this. Did Einstein cheat? is no attack on the person of Einstein, or on its working method. For that thereasons are too few. But it is a beautiful example, in these times, of a too long idolatry of a theory, just like it wasthe time before Galileo in astronomy and the time before Vesalius in medicine. Most remarkable is that the correctGravitation Theory is an older theory than the Relativity Theory itself. In Did Einstein cheat? both theories areexamined and compared, put in their historical and scientific context, and applied on some essential physicalphenomena: the progress of the perihelion of Mercury and the bending of the light close to the sun.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3] viXra:1205.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-05 12:26:02

Towards an Absolute Cosmic Distance Gauge by using Redshift Spectra from Light Fatigue

Authors: Thierry DeMees
Comments: 7 Pages.

Light is an electromagnetic wave with a dynamic mass, and with a zero rest mass. A fourth parameter is gyrotation, the second field of the Newtonian gravitation, discovered by using the Maxwell Analogy for Gravitation. Here, we apply gyrotation for light. The dynamics analysis of the gyro-gravitation parameters for light turns out in the possible existence of a very tiny light fatigue and a very tiny redshift as a direct consequence. This redshift however is frequency-dependent, unlike the other causes for redshift, as the Doppler effect, the Ashmore effect, the gravitational redshift and the temperature redshift. The discovery of this quadratically frequency-dependent redshift allows us to set up the basis for an universal cosmic distance measurement gauge.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2] viXra:1205.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-05 03:09:06

Scientific Journal for 1 May 2012

Authors: Glenn A. Baxer
Comments: 15 pages

Your author, Glenn A. Baxter, P.E., has joined NPA, the Natural Philosophical Alliance, and they have asked me to speak at their July, 2012 international conference (See ) in New Mexico and submit a summary paper of my paper, Not So Fast, Dr. Einstein (See ) for their 2012 conference transactions. I have accepted. See Also asked and accepting to speak was Dr. Chung Y. Lo. Dr. Lo appears to agree with your editor’s conclusions about the many errors in Dr. Einstein’s relativity theory and derivations thereof, most notably We have asked Dr. Lo to also speak and present a paper at the August, 2012 physics colloquium in Portland, Maine. Dr. Lo’s credentials are incredible (PhD from MIT), and joins he the very short list of world wide scientists at the doctoral level who challenge Dr. Einstein’s relativity theory. Heading this list is Dr. Daniele Sasso of Italy. We also feature papers by your editor and also Electrical Engineer Greg Volk who also disagrees with Dr. Einstein. Other authors include John Huang.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1] viXra:1205.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-02 16:48:59

Npa 2012 Summary of not so Fast, DR. Einstein

Authors: Glenn A. Baxter (P.E)
Comments: 10 pages

The author proves that the speed of light, relative to any observer, is not constant in and also, by contradiction in this paper. This leads to mathematical disproof of Special Relativity and its derivatives such as Dr. Einstein’s famous mass – energy equivalence, E = MC^2, which he incorrectly derived. Thus the very foundation of 21st century physics is invalid. This leads to the anti-neutron theory/model of the atom as detailed in
Category: Relativity and Cosmology