[15] **viXra:1808.0374 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-20 11:45:49*

**Authors:** Albert Zur Ph.D

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A new theory is proposed describing one-dimensional, open-ended, cumulative, deformable and non-vibrating energy strings as fundamental building blocks for space and particles. The energy strings bear an intrinsic longitudinal momentum which causes each end of a string to expand or contract. The ends of space energy strings expand or contract in opposing directions. Empty-space of the universe is composed of space energy strings and bears dark-energy as well as a newly described dark-momentum. Particle energy strings have ends that expand and contract in the same direction, resulting in net translatory displacement. Particles are composed of particle energy strings which interact with space, inducing 3D-space curvatures embedded in a flat 4D-space. These space curvatures define a longitudinal and a transverse direction of particles and the gravity of particles. The theory provides a universal description of space and particles using similar building blocks, with the following predictions:
1)A newly-defined dark-momentum is the sole contributor to the cosmological constant in Einstein field equations. Energy of the Quantum vacuum is no longer relevant to the cosmological constant, solving the "Cosmological Constant Problem". The new theory also supports the possibility of an expanding-contracting cyclic universe.
2)All particles perform an equal distance of translatory displacement in 4D-space, reflecting a universal displacement rate of particles relative to a generally Euclidian absolute 4D-space.
3)Frames of 3D-space+time are mixed domains: 3 spatial coordinates of position-space and a temporal coordinate of momentum-space, whereby space longitudinally displaces over mass particles and is observed as proper time. Time is a displacement property of mass particles, and frames of 3D-space+time are the perspective by which mass particles experience 4D-space. In frames of 3D-space+time, the position-space of the temporal dimension is inaccessible.
4)In frames of 3D-space+time, the displacement of particles in 4D-space can only be observed by their projection components into the temporal and the spatial coordinates of the frames. The projected displacement components of a particle form a Lorentz 4-vector, which transforms between inertial frames by the Lorentz matrix and its inverse, irrespective of position. This establishes the basis for a Quantum compatible theory of Relativity represented in the momentum-space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1808.0282 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-20 03:32:50*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we find the electro-magnetic wave function and equation
in Rindler space-time. Specially, this article is that electromagnetic wave equation is
corrected by the gauge fixing equation in Rindler space-time. We define the force in
Rindler space-time We find Lorentz force (electromagnetic force) by electro-magnetic
field transformations in Rindler space-time. In the inertial frame, Lorentz force is
defined as 4-dimensional force. Hence, we had to obtain 4-dimensional force in Rindler
space-time. We define energy-momentum in Rindler space-time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1808.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-17 08:37:44*

**Authors:** Pantelis M. Pechlivanides

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

The force experienced by a rotating body that lies in the G field of another rotating body depends both on the G field and on its own angular velocity of rotation that affects the magnitude and direction of the exerted force. The force is in general not central and not symmetric. The cases of the non rotating observer and the far away observer are examined for rotation with and without slippage. It is shown that the force may be repulsive or attractive or alternating between attractive and repulsive depending on the angular velocities of the rotations and distance.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1808.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-16 12:22:04*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: It is observed that the mass of the tau lepton matches closely the date of the last signing of the Declaration of Independence

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1808.0205 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-17 12:24:57*

**Authors:** John Hodge

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity applies where gravitation is insignificant. There are many observations that remain poorly explained by the standard models of either the big of cosmology or the small of Quantum mechanics. Each of the STOE axioms has been used in the development of models of observations in the big and the small. The strength of the Scalar Theory Of Everything (STOE) is its ability to describe an extremely wide range of observations and to predict observations. The axioms that replace Special Relativity are: (1) Time progression (d$t$) is a constant in the universe rather than the speed of light. (2) The diameter of the hods is the same throughout the universe. (3) The distance between hods is related to plenum density$\rho$. Higher $\rho$ reduces the distance between hods. (4) The speed of photons and hods is the greatest of any matter in a given environment. And (5) The speed of the plenum wave is much faster than the speed of the hods. The STOE passes the tests of Special Relativity and does much more. The STOE is a major paradigm shift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1808.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-13 11:21:55*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: Calculation of the mass of the neutron can be done accurately utilizing only the mass of the Z(4430) tetraquark together with an understood factor and another not understood but smaller factor the neutron has in common with the proton

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1808.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-14 03:47:16*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 3 Pages. In Polish.

Pokazano, że temperatura Hawkinga Czarnodziurowego Wszechświata jest wprost proporcjonalna do stałej Hubble’a. Oszacowano wartość tej temperatury, moc promieniowania, energię emitowaną w ciągu jednego roku oraz długość fali odpowiadającą maksymalnej mocy promieniowania.
###
It has been shown that the Hawking temperature of the Black Hole Universe is directly proportional to the Hubble constant. The value of this temperature, the power of radiation, the energy emitted in one year and the wavelength corresponding to the maximum radiation power were estimated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1808.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-14 03:50:52*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It has been shown that the Hawking temperature of the Black Hole Universe is directly proportional to the Hubble constant. The value of this temperature, the power of radiation, the energy emitted in one year and the wavelength corresponding to the maximum radiation power were estimated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1808.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-10 20:32:26*

**Authors:** Kathleen A. Rosser

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A review of refutations of general relativity commonly found in today’s literature is presented, with comments on the status of Einstein’s theory and brief analyses of the arguments for modified gravity. Topics include dark matter and the galactic rotation curve, dark energy and cosmic acceleration, completeness and the equation of state, the speed of gravity, the singularity problem, redshift, gravitational time dilation, localized energy, and the gravitational potential. It is conjectured that the contemporary formalism of general relativity offers an incomplete description of gravitational effects, which may be the most compelling reason for seeking new theories of gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1808.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-09 12:41:39*

**Authors:** DT Froedge

**Comments:** 14 Pages. first draft

Gravitation defined in curved space has never been found to be compatible with quantum mechanics or quantum field theory. This is likely due to the fact that one theory is based in local conservation of energy and the other defines energy globally, and not locally conserved [1]. Equations mixed with variables from the two conservation laws, could neither be invariant nor covariant under coordinate transformations. This paper presents a theory of gravitation constructed within the locally conserved concepts of QFT. In previous papers the author has illustrated that for photons, and confined light speed particles, a gradient in c demonstrates the effect of gravitation. The illustration of a gradient in c generated by Quantum Field Theory equivalent to gravitation therefore could create a theory of gravitation within a Lorenz, local conservation of energy four-space.
With a few assumptions regarding the nature of photons and the reality of path integrals, gravitation can be illustrated as a feature of Quantum Field Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1808.0117 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-14 05:40:07*

**Authors:** Mesut Kavak

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

After midnight just before sleeping, I noticed in my bed, that free space itself can cause a parachute effect on the moving bodies especially the bodies move in low gravitational fields like in Pioneer Anomaly. Because of this reason, while speed of a satellite is decreasing, speed of another one which spins around the world on different axis can increase; a satellite wandering in interstellar medium can speed up as also it can slow down; low frequency light and high frequency light behave differently; galaxies have lower mass can spin faster since mutual gravitation is not only option. These are only a few examples.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1808.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-08 10:26:48*

**Authors:** Tarzan

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

As outlined in Part I of this series there are many types of paired- and multi-object systems which exemplify emergent and fission systems. This report describes the
CLTG (clone or compact, later-type galaxy) multi-object system. The CLTG have a variety of morphological appearances albeit many are non-spiral ‘stellate’ types and contrast with clones or late spiral type objects. Along with this collection of CLTG families we include a data-driven method of classification members of the family. We also created several ad hoc descriptions of patterns formed by family objects.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1808.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-07 08:08:13*

**Authors:** Ting-Hang Pei

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

We use the Kerr-Newman metric based on the general relativity to discuss the superluminal phenomenon of light at the black hole. The black hole have the rotation term a and the charge term RQ with the Schwarzschild radius RS. The geodesic of light is ds2=0 and the equation for three velocity components (dr/dt, rdθ/dt, rsinθdϕ/dt) is obtained in the spherical coordinate (r, θ, ϕ) with the coordinate time t. Then three cases of the velocity of light (dr/dt, 0, 0), (0, rdθ/dt, 0), and (0, 0, rsinθdϕ/dt) are discussed in this research. According to our discussions, only the case of (dr/dt, 0, 0) gives the possibility of the occurrence of the superluminal phenomenon for r between RS and (R_Q^2+a^2 sin^2 θ/2)/R_S at sinθ>0 when RQ∼RS. The calculations of the velocity of light reveal that the maximum speed of light and the range of the superluminal phenomenon are much related to the rotational term a. Generally speaking, the superluminal phenomena for light can possibly occur in these cases that the radial velocity dr/dt is dominant and the other two velocity components are comparably small. When the relative velocity between the reference frame and the black hole is not heavy, these results of the superluminal phenomenon are suitable for the observations by an observer in a reference frame at infinity or very weak gravitation like on Earth.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1808.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-08 03:50:51*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Thank you for reding

In the general relativity theory, we define the force in Rindler space-time We find
Lorentz force (electromagnetic force) by electro-magnetic field transformations in
Rindler space-time. In the inertial frame, Lorentz force is defined as 4-dimensional
force. Hence, we had to obtain 4-dimensional force in Rindler space-time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1808.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-06 13:49:28*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Presenting a summary of my website regarding a "Theory of Everything".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology