[29] **viXra:1808.0676 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-31 21:00:31*

**Authors:** Berry C. Ives

**Comments:** 24 Pages. In the full text of the article, the abstract is also presented in French.

We present an empirical analysis of redshift of 580 supernovae type 1a using special relativistic Doppler to derive velocity of recession. A theory of cosmological scale is developed in which scale history is parabolic in relation to observed distance and time. The parabolic relationship suggests that the present lies on the accelerated contraction side of the scale history. The first-order coefficient of the scale equation matches very precisely the post-Planck value of the Hubble parameter, H0. The second-order coefficient of the parabolic scale history is taken as an acceleration parameter, I0. H0 is thus merely the slope of the parabola at the present time, and it can be eliminated by shifting the abscissa so that t = 0 aligns with the vertex. In this way, the scale history is entirely dependent on the acceleration parameter, I0. A methodology is used to infer physical radial distance from scale. The resulting acceleration rate precisely matches modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) universal acceleration a0 and thus appears to provide a general cosmological link to that phenomenon, implying a universe under accelerated contraction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1808.0675 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-31 21:10:36*

**Authors:** Qing-Ping Ma

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

This study has examined the logic in the interpretation of the increased lifetime of high speed elementary particles, an important experimental evidence of the Lorentzian or Einsteinian relativistic time dilation. When analyzed with the particle frame being the rest frame, the interpretation based on the Einsteinian special relativity leads to a velocity paradox and inconsistency between the invariance of space-time intervals in the Minkowski space and the constancy of the speed of light. The Lorentz ether theory and the Standard Model Extension might avoid this inconsistency because they allow privileged reference frames. Therefore, although the mainstream physicists have chosen Einstein’s special relativity as the correct theory, the Lorentz ether theory might be superior in explaining experimental evidence of time dilation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1808.0652 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-29 07:50:37*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 12 Pages. To cite this paper: Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Vol.6, No.6, 2018.

It has been critically argued by V.A. Leus (Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Novosibirsk, Russia) that in my proof that Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity is logically inconsistent and therefore false, I violated the basic tenets of Special Relativity and foisted an alternative theory upon Einstein’s. A careful study of the critical analysis reveals however a failure to address the key arguments I adduced to prove Special Relativity logically inconsistent, and a concomitant invocation of Einstein’s theory to try to argue that my analysis is incorrect because it does not concur with Einstein. There is therefore no proof advanced of any alleged error in my analysis. In my paper I did not introduce an alternative theory. The aforementioned critical paper affords opportunity in rebuttal to amplify the invalidity of A. Einstein’s tacit assumption, in constructing the Special Theory of Relativity, that systems of clock-synchronised stationary observers consistent with Lorentz Transformation can be mathematically constructed. Since such systems of observers have in fact no mathematical existence the Special Theory of Relativity is logically inconsistent. It is therefore invalid. The consequences for physics, astronomy, and cosmology, are significant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1808.0646 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-28 11:48:42*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper it is considered the physical meaning of the one-way speed of light. Usually in the standard Special Relativity what is considered is the Einstein one-way speed of light that has been introduced by Einstein in the 1905 paper, by definition. In the standard interpretation the one-way speed of light it is not considered since the Einstein speed of light is considered to be the speed of light. However in our previous work we have shown that this is a terminological confusion. Now we explain why this is so with a very simple example using two methods of synchronization, with rods and with light signalling, that shows the physical meaning of absolute simultaneity and also the physical meaning of Einstein simultaneity in connection with the two concepts “speed of light”. As a result of this analysis an experimental method for the determination of the one-way speed of light emerge.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1808.0642 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-29 11:49:21*

**Authors:** Stanley L. Robertson

**Comments:** 7 page main text, 10 pages appendixes

In Einstein’s General Relativity, gravitation is considered to be only an effect of spacetime
geometry. Einstein considered the sources of gravitation to be all varieties of mass and energy
excepting that of gravitational fields. This exclusion leaves General Relativity correct only
to first order. By considering gravitational fields to be real entities that possess field energy
densities and including them as source terms for the Einstein tensor, they contribute to spacetime
curvature in a way that prevents the formation of event horizons and also has the effect of
accelerating the expansion of the cosmos without any need for a cosmological constant (aka
“dark energy”).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1808.0631 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-30 04:19:03*

**Authors:** Oleg Tcherepanov

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The simplest experiment with relativity absolutely changes the physical meaning of Einstein's theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1808.0626 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-28 11:20:59*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: We are now able to make a more accurate calculation of the mass of the proton thanks to Majoranic neutrino effects

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1808.0623 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-29 15:10:53*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 18 Pages. REPLACEMENT WITH A NEW UPDATED FILE

Summary
The topics of Dark Matter and Dark Energy and of the Higgs phenomenon, are amongst the dramatic examples of the universe being to a large extent unknown. Reported in the late 1990’s by S. Perlmutter, B. Schmidt and A. Riess, the Nobel Committee in awarding the Nobel Prize to them in 2011 said: Their “findings have unveiled a universe that is to a large extent unknown to science”. That is still true today and is likely to be so for decades to come. These findings were based on the behaviour of the Type 1a Supernovae which, due to their consistent brightness, have developed the reputation of being reliable standard candles in cosmological research. Perlmutter, Schmidt and Riess found that these supernovae, as earlier workers for decades had observed, are dimmer than what expected, and they concluded that they must be accelerating faster than believed, in their motion. The work of Riess et al proposed that dark energy, must be a kind of energy that could have an anti-gravitational pull, thus explaining the strange behaviour of the Type 1a supernovae as they move away from us, into the infinite horizon of the universe. Now in the late second decade of the 21st century, no dark energy reality has been discovered at all, and the same applies to the dark matter hypothesis that came out of the work that was awarded the Nobel Prize 2011. It appears like there will perhaps never be any proof of the existence of dark matter and dark energy particles, for these are claimed to be unable to interact with normal matter and energy and not to have any radiation. This is a typical example of why perhaps a Theory of Everything is required to throw some light on the mysterious realities of existence, if possible. Actually explaining something that has no material or energy evidence of any kind, makes that something as impossible to explain as God. They do not interact with anything at all. However, if the Theory of Everything can explain how the universe originated, it might surely also provide evidence of whether dark matter and dark energy exist or not. This appears very tricky for they have been claimed as being totally invisible and insensitive to any kind of experimental set up.
2
The Higgs boson came out dramatically in the work of Higgs, Salam, Weinberg, Glashow and others, that found linkages between the weak force and the electromagnetic force. It is believed in relation to the Higgs boson, even if it is not true, that all particles should have zero mass. Several different eminent physicists thought of rather similar ways of explaining mass and its origin. Generally, it was felt that a new Field that was later called the Higgs Field, permeated the universe, and the property of mass was acquired when particles interacted with this field whose particle was named the Higgs boson, the simplest manifestation of the field. However many physicists believe the Higgs phenomenon and its particle discovered in 2012 should be a more elaborate mechanism, on which further work is ongoing, particularly at the LHC. The feeling is that the phenomenon of mass has not understood in its full reality.
It goes without saying that in the absence of a Theory of Everything, it is not possible to really know, as far as possible, the nature and fate of the universe, mainly because the universe was conceived on a deliberate master plan. The implication is that there could have existed only one such specific plan: the supernatural plan to create our universe, which to humans is the Theory of Everything as far as possible, capable to describe our universe. The fact humans are destined to discover the Theory of Everything, according to Kepler and Whewell, indicates there was supernatural creation of the universe, and therefore finding the Theory of Everything is an astounding perspective.
The scientific/philosophical Theory of Everything will be describes soon, is coming at a historical juncture where several well-known cosmologists are talking about natural creation from practically nothing or based solely on mathematics. Since most intellectuals and members of the public believe the universe had a supernatural creation, a scientific concept of the origin of the universe by a Supernatural Mind or God, would be of enormous interest. It will be the collision of the traditional imaginary Godless concepts of the origin of our universe with a scientific concept that creates an extraordinary historical event in our current intellectual, scientific, philosophical and theological world. Since the Theory of Everything will be really, as far as possible, a universal and metaphysical concept of the universe, it can produce an intellectual revolution in the scientific and philosophical sectors, that will impact on theology in ways not seen before. There whole world will benefit, for the total
3
confusion that surrounds the comprehension of the realities and origin of our universe would reach a turning point, never seen before. It will demonstrate the power of intellectual knowledge as the torch bearer of humanity. The reason is that intellectual ideas are capable to turn humanity into one collective mind in the universe.
The universe under GRT is expanding, and there was never been any tendency for the universe to contract and collapse into an unimaginable black hole. Penrose’s hypothesis of a cosmic crunch and the rebirth of the universe (CCC), is not a possibility, because the uncertainly in science is at the quantum microscale, and not at the macro or universal scale. Gravity was correctly explained by Einstein. He referred to it as pseudo-force, causing the warping of space time, being perhaps a kind of variation of the electromagnetic force. The truth is that the nature of black holes happens to be as misunderstood as is the nature of the universe. Cosmology has been a precariously understood domain, the reason being the lack of adequate cosmological understanding of how the universe came into existence. This is not surprising, as I explain in my coming second book on the origin of the universe, for our world is, historically, at the beginning phase of its modern scientific era, being hardly one century old, if we take the golden age of physics of the first decades of the last century, as marking the beginning of our modern scientific culture.
No wonder we do not know the real nature of forces, particles, space, time, atoms, matter, gravitation, expansion of the universe, dark energy, dark matter, and the origin and fate of the universe, topics addressed in my second book due in late 2018. Our extraordinary universe must have been inspired by a scientifically precise and elaborate design. Gravity remains one of the greatest mysteries of science for it has no quantum particulate physical identity, its imagined particle, the graviton cannot exist, and up to now gravity can only be calculated and described, for instance in the equations of Newton and Einstein. It exists because it arises due to totally natural reasons, which were largely seen in Descartes’ belief there must exist a law of the universal conservation of the quantity of motion. The quantum nature of spacetime, if it is not a particle, must have physical realities that are sensitive to acceleration, indicating that spacetime is perhaps fractal in its physical reality or at least mathematically, the reason why Einstein was very precise in his description of general and special relativity. String Theory, a great intellectual exercise, has the weakness of not explaining how exactly the strings acquire their
4
property of vibration. Any Theory of Everything must incontrovertibly explain the origin of motion and of gravitation. The physics of the universe are intimately fused with the philosophy of existence, not surprisingly, as the purpose of creation must have been for producing a conscious being, not solely the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1808.0601 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-27 23:38:11*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 79 Pages.

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$.Alcubierre used the so-called
$3+1$ original Arnowitt-Dresner-Misner($ADM$) formalism using the
approach of Misner-Thorne-Wheeler to develop his warp drive
theory.As a matter of fact the first equation in his warp drive
paper is derived precisely from the original $3+1$ $ADM$ formalism
and we have strong reasons to believe that Natario which followed
the Alcubierre steps also used the original $3+1$ $ADM$ formalism
to develop the Natario warp drive spacetime.Several years ago some
works appeared in the scientific literature advocating two new
parallel $3+1$ $ADM$ formalisms.While the original $ADM$ formalism
uses mixed contravariant and covariant scripts one of the new
parallel formalisms uses only contravariant scripts while the
other uses only covariant scripts.Since the Natario vector is the
generator of the Natario warp drive spacetime metric in this work
we expand the original Natario vector including the coordinate
time as a new Canonical Basis for the Hodge star generating an
expanded Natario vector and we present $6$ equations for the
Natario warp drive spacetime $3$ of them with constant velocities
one for the original $ADM$ formalism and $2$ other for the
parallel formalisms. We also present the corresponding $3$
extended versions of the Natario warp drive spacetime metric which
encompasses accelerations and variable velocities both in the
original and parallel $ADM$ formalisms.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1808.0596 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-28 05:16:18*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In the context of DICE2018, S. Adler launched the interesting idea of an effective observer dependent cosmological constant. We discuss this suggestion in the context of covariant quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1808.0581 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-26 03:47:49*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It was shown that the density of the Black Hole Universe is over 17 times bigger than the density of the Friedman’s Universe. Our model does not require the assumption of the existence of dark energy and matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1808.0580 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-26 03:53:40*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 3 Pages. In Polish.

Wykazano, że gęstość Czarnodziurowego Wszechświata jest ponad 17 razy większa niż gęstość Wszechświata Friedmana. Nasz model nie wymaga przyjęcia założenia o istnieniu ciemnej energii i materii.
###
It was shown that the density of the Black Hole Universe is over 17 times bigger than the density of the Friedman’s Universe. Our model does not require the assumption of the existence of dark energy and matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1808.0562 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-07 07:05:24*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

I have already proposed a new theory known as Apparent Source Theory( AST ) that has been highly successful in explaining the hitherto enigmatic and apparently contradictory light speed experiments. For example, to this date, there is no known, accepted theory of the speed of light that truly reconciles the 'null' result of the Michelson-Morley experiment and the fringe shift in the Sagnac effect. Apparent Source Theory is formulated as follows: the effect of absolute motion for co-moving light source and observer is to create an apparent change in position of the light source relative to ( as seen by ) the observer. Therefore, in the Michelson-Morley experiment ( MMX ), there will be an apparent change in position of the light source as seen from the point of light detection. There will be only a small fringe shift due to apparent change of source position for the same reason that there will be only a small fringe shift if the position of the light source was actually/physically changed. The ether doesn't exist, as disproved by the Michelson-Morley experiment, but absolute motion does exist, as proved by the Silvertooth and other experiments. Apparent Source Theory has successfully explained the conventional and modern Michelson-Morley experiments, the Sagnac effect, the enigmatic Silvertooth experiment, the Venus radar ranging experiment anomaly ( as analyzed by Bryan G Wallace ), the Marinov experiment, the Roland De Witte experiment and moving source and moving mirror experiments.In this paper,Iwill present a new analysis and interpretation of the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect and the phenomenon of stellar aberration. There have been two interpretations of the Michelson-Morley experiment (MMX)within the physics community: the 'null' interpretation and the non-null interpretation. From the point of view of stationary ether theory, the MMX result is essentially null because the observed fringe shift is much smaller than the expected value. On the contrary, the MMX result is non-null from the perspective of relativity theories, mainly the classical emission theory and the Special Relativity Theory (SRT ) because there were always small but significant fringe shifts observed, as in the Miller experiments. Therefore, the MMX disproves not only the ether theory, but also the emission theory and SRT. A correct theory of the speed of light, therefore, should account not only for the 'null' interpretation, but also for the non-null interpretation. To this date there is no such known, accepted theory of light. Apparent Source Theory (AST )has resolved this century old puzzle by explaining the small fringe shifts observed in MM experiments. In this paper it will be shown that AST predicts a maximum fringe shift of about 0.013 fringes for the 1881 Michelson experiment. Michelson measured a maximum fringe shift of about 0.018 fringes !The discrepancy may be reduced if more details of the dimensions of the original Michelson apparatus are obtained. For example, slight variation of the dimensions have resulted in a fringe shift of 0.02125 fringes. AST has successfully resolved the enigmatic contradiction between the Michelson-Morley experiment and the Sagnac effect. No known existing theory of light, including SRT, has achieved this.AST also explains why conventional Michelson-Morley experiments gave small fringe shifts, but modern Michelson-Morley experiments using optical cavity resonators give almost a complete null result. Despite all these successes, AST is found to be in conflict with stellar aberration, a simple analysis I overlooked for years. This was a serious problem that made me resort to speculative ideas*. This contradiction has been resolved at last in my other recent paper that gives a new interpretation to the phenomenon of stellar aberration.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1808.0558 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-09-03 03:44:05*

**Authors:** S.M.Hosseini, M.I.Kendrick

**Comments:** 7 Pages. The formula change to include c (speed of light)

Abstract
Controversy will result in the Age of the Universe as , ( is the age of the Universe at the present epoch and the Hubble constant at present) due to accelerating expansion of the Universe.
If at any time the universes expansion starts to accelerate then the age of the Universe as the inverse of the Hubble constant will start to go backward and the Universe will become younger. This implicates the idea that the time cannot travel backward or the Universal clock has only forward direction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1808.0374 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-20 11:45:49*

**Authors:** Albert Zur Ph.D

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A new theory is proposed describing one-dimensional, open-ended, cumulative, deformable and non-vibrating energy strings as fundamental building blocks for space and particles. The energy strings bear an intrinsic longitudinal momentum which causes each end of a string to expand or contract. The ends of space energy strings expand or contract in opposing directions. Empty-space of the universe is composed of space energy strings and bears dark-energy as well as a newly described dark-momentum. Particle energy strings have ends that expand and contract in the same direction, resulting in net translatory displacement. Particles are composed of particle energy strings which interact with space, inducing 3D-space curvatures embedded in a flat 4D-space. These space curvatures define a longitudinal and a transverse direction of particles and the gravity of particles. The theory provides a universal description of space and particles using similar building blocks, with the following predictions:
1)A newly-defined dark-momentum is the sole contributor to the cosmological constant in Einstein field equations. Energy of the Quantum vacuum is no longer relevant to the cosmological constant, solving the "Cosmological Constant Problem". The new theory also supports the possibility of an expanding-contracting cyclic universe.
2)All particles perform an equal distance of translatory displacement in 4D-space, reflecting a universal displacement rate of particles relative to a generally Euclidian absolute 4D-space.
3)Frames of 3D-space+time are mixed domains: 3 spatial coordinates of position-space and a temporal coordinate of momentum-space, whereby space longitudinally displaces over mass particles and is observed as proper time. Time is a displacement property of mass particles, and frames of 3D-space+time are the perspective by which mass particles experience 4D-space. In frames of 3D-space+time, the position-space of the temporal dimension is inaccessible.
4)In frames of 3D-space+time, the displacement of particles in 4D-space can only be observed by their projection components into the temporal and the spatial coordinates of the frames. The projected displacement components of a particle form a Lorentz 4-vector, which transforms between inertial frames by the Lorentz matrix and its inverse, irrespective of position. This establishes the basis for a Quantum compatible theory of Relativity represented in the momentum-space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1808.0282 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-17 10:23:36*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In the general relativity theory, we find the electro-magnetic wave function and equation
in Rindler space-time. Specially, this article is that electromagnetic wave equation is
corrected by the gauge fixing equation in Rindler space-time. We define the force in
Rindler space-time We find Lorentz force (electromagnetic force) by electro-magnetic
field transformations in Rindler space-time. In the inertial frame, Lorentz force is
defined as 4-dimensional force. Hence, we had to obtain 4-dimensional force in Rindler
space-time. We define energy-momentum in Rindler space-time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1808.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-17 08:37:44*

**Authors:** Pantelis M. Pechlivanides

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

The force experienced by a rotating body that lies in the G field of another rotating body depends both on the G field and on its own angular velocity of rotation that affects the magnitude and direction of the exerted force. The force is in general not central and not symmetric. The cases of the non rotating observer and the far away observer are examined for rotation with and without slippage. It is shown that the force may be repulsive or attractive or alternating between attractive and repulsive depending on the angular velocities of the rotations and distance.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1808.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-16 12:22:04*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: It is observed that the mass of the tau lepton matches closely the date of the last signing of the Declaration of Independence

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1808.0205 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-17 12:24:57*

**Authors:** John Hodge

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity applies where gravitation is insignificant. There are many observations that remain poorly explained by the standard models of either the big of cosmology or the small of Quantum mechanics. Each of the STOE axioms has been used in the development of models of observations in the big and the small. The strength of the Scalar Theory Of Everything (STOE) is its ability to describe an extremely wide range of observations and to predict observations. The axioms that replace Special Relativity are: (1) Time progression (d$t$) is a constant in the universe rather than the speed of light. (2) The diameter of the hods is the same throughout the universe. (3) The distance between hods is related to plenum density$\rho$. Higher $\rho$ reduces the distance between hods. (4) The speed of photons and hods is the greatest of any matter in a given environment. And (5) The speed of the plenum wave is much faster than the speed of the hods. The STOE passes the tests of Special Relativity and does much more. The STOE is a major paradigm shift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1808.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-13 11:21:55*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: Calculation of the mass of the neutron can be done accurately utilizing only the mass of the Z(4430) tetraquark together with an understood factor and another not understood but smaller factor the neutron has in common with the proton

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1808.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-14 03:47:16*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 3 Pages. In Polish.

Pokazano, że temperatura Hawkinga Czarnodziurowego Wszechświata jest wprost proporcjonalna do stałej Hubble’a. Oszacowano wartość tej temperatury, moc promieniowania, energię emitowaną w ciągu jednego roku oraz długość fali odpowiadającą maksymalnej mocy promieniowania.
###
It has been shown that the Hawking temperature of the Black Hole Universe is directly proportional to the Hubble constant. The value of this temperature, the power of radiation, the energy emitted in one year and the wavelength corresponding to the maximum radiation power were estimated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1808.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-14 03:50:52*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It has been shown that the Hawking temperature of the Black Hole Universe is directly proportional to the Hubble constant. The value of this temperature, the power of radiation, the energy emitted in one year and the wavelength corresponding to the maximum radiation power were estimated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1808.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-10 20:32:26*

**Authors:** Kathleen A. Rosser

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A review of refutations of general relativity commonly found in today’s literature is presented, with comments on the status of Einstein’s theory and brief analyses of the arguments for modified gravity. Topics include dark matter and the galactic rotation curve, dark energy and cosmic acceleration, completeness and the equation of state, the speed of gravity, the singularity problem, redshift, gravitational time dilation, localized energy, and the gravitational potential. It is conjectured that the contemporary formalism of general relativity offers an incomplete description of gravitational effects, which may be the most compelling reason for seeking new theories of gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1808.0122 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-05 12:13:40*

**Authors:** DT Froedge

**Comments:** 15 Pages. First 4-space connection between gravitation and path integrals

Gravitation defined in curved space has never been found to be compatible with quantum mechanics or quantum field theory. This is likely due to the fact that one theory is based in local conservation of energy and the other defines energy globally, and not locally conserved [Noether 1]. Equations mixed with variables from the two conservation laws, could neither be invariant nor covariant under coordinate transformations. This paper presents a theory for a gradient in c induced by QFT equivalent to the gradient in c induced by gravitation. In previous papers the author has illustrated that for photons, and confined light speed particles, a gradient in c demonstrates the effect of gravitation. The illustration of a gradient in c generated by Quantum Field Theory equivalent to gravitation therefore creates a theoretical mechanism for gravitation within a Lorenz, local conservation four-space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1808.0117 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-24 16:27:25*

**Authors:** Mesut Kavak

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

After midnight just before sleeping, I noticed in my bed, that free space itself can cause a parachute effect on the moving bodies especially the bodies move in low gravitational fields like in Pioneer Anomaly. Because of this reason, while speed of a satellite is decreasing, speed of another one which spins around the world on different axis can increase; a satellite wandering in interstellar medium can speed up as also it can slow down; low frequency light and high frequency light behave differently; galaxies have lower mass can spin faster since mutual gravitation is not only option. These are only a few examples.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1808.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-08 10:26:48*

**Authors:** Tarzan

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

As outlined in Part I of this series there are many types of paired- and multi-object systems which exemplify emergent and fission systems. This report describes the
CLTG (clone or compact, later-type galaxy) multi-object system. The CLTG have a variety of morphological appearances albeit many are non-spiral ‘stellate’ types and contrast with clones or late spiral type objects. Along with this collection of CLTG families we include a data-driven method of classification members of the family. We also created several ad hoc descriptions of patterns formed by family objects.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1808.0096 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-15 01:48:11*

**Authors:** Ting-Hang Pei

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

We use the Kerr-Newman metric based on the general relativity to discuss the superluminal phenomenon of light at the black hole whether it is observable astronomically at infinity or the weakly gravitational place like on Earth. The black hole have the rotation term a and the charge term RQ as well as the Schwarzschild radius RS. The geodesic of light in the spacetime structure is ds2=0 and the equation for three velocity components (dr/dt, rdθ/dt, r*sinθ*dϕ/dt) is obtained in the spherical coordinate (r, θ, ϕ) with the coordinate time t. Then three cases of the velocity of light (dr/dt, 0, 0), (0, rdθ/dt, 0), and (0, 0, r*sinθ*dϕ/dt) are discussed in this research. According to our discussions, only the case of (dr/dt, 0, 0) gives the possibility of the occurrence of the superluminal phenomenon for r between RS and (R_Q^2+a^2*(sinθ)/^2 2)/R_S at sinθ>0 when RS~RQ. The results reveal that the maximum speed of light and the range of the superluminal phenomenon are much related to the rotational term a and the charged term RQ. It is at least reasonable at two poles and in the equatorial plane when light propagates along the radial direction. Generally speaking, the superluminal phenomena for light can possibly occur in these cases that the radial velocity dr/dt is dominant and the other two velocity components are comparably small. When the relative velocity between the observer coordinate frame and the black hole is not large, the superluminal phenomenon is possibly observable at infinity or in a weakly gravitational frame like on Earth.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1808.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-08 03:50:51*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Thank you for reding

In the general relativity theory, we define the force in Rindler space-time We find
Lorentz force (electromagnetic force) by electro-magnetic field transformations in
Rindler space-time. In the inertial frame, Lorentz force is defined as 4-dimensional
force. Hence, we had to obtain 4-dimensional force in Rindler space-time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1808.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-08-06 13:49:28*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Presenting a summary of my website regarding a "Theory of Everything".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology