Relativity and Cosmology

0702 Submissions

[19] viXra:0702.0044 [pdf] submitted on 25 Feb 2007

Real or Imaginary Space-Time? Reality or Relativity?

Authors: C. K. Thornhill
Comments: recovered from sciprint.org

The real space-time of Newtonian mechanics and the ether concept is contrasted with the imaginary space-time of the non-ether concept and relativity. In real space-time (x, y, z, ct) characteristic theory shows that Maxwell's equations and sound waves in any uniform fluid at rest have identical wave surfaces. Moreover, without charge or current, Maxwell's equations reduce to the same standard wave equation which governs such sound waves. This is not a general and invariant equation but it becomes so by Galilean transformation to any other reference-frame. So also do Maxwell's equations which are, likewise, not general but unique to one reference-frame. The mistake of believing that Maxwell's equations were invariant led to the Lorentz transformation and to relativity; and to the misinterpretation of the differential equation for the wave cone through any point as the quadratic differential form of a Riemannian metric in imaginary space-time (x, y, z, ict). Mathematics is then required to tolerate the same equation being transformed in different ways for different applications. Otherwise, relativity is untenable and recourse must then be made to real space-time, normal Galilean transformation and an ether with Maxwellian statistics and Planck's energy distribution.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18] viXra:0702.0043 [pdf] submitted on 25 Feb 2007

Real and Apparent Invariants in the Transformation of the Equations Governing Wave-Motion in the General Flow of a General Fluid

Authors: C. K. Thornhill
Comments: recovered from sciprint.org

The ten equations are derived that govern, to the first order, the propagation of small general perturbations in the general unsteady flow of a general fluid, in three spacevariables and time. The condition that any hypersurface is a wave hypersurface of these equations is obtained, and the envelope of all such wave hypersurfaces that pass through a given point at a given time, i .e . the wave hyperconoid, is determined. These results, which are all invariant under Galilean transformation, are progressively specialized, through homentropic flow and irrotational homentropic flow, to steady uniform flow, for which both the convected wave-equation and the standard waveequation, with their wave hypersurfaces, are finally recovered. A special class of reference-frames is considered, namely those whose origins move with the fluid. It is then shown that, for observers at the origins of all such reference frames, the wave hypersurfaces satisfy specially simple equations locally. These equations are identical with those for waves in a uniform fluid at rest relative to the reference frame, except that the wave speed is not constant but varies with position and time in accordance with the variable mean flow. These specially simple equations appear to be invariant for Galilean transformations between all such observers. These results are briefly applied, in reverse order, to Maxwell's equations, and to equations more general than Maxwell's, for the electric and magnetic field-strengths.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[17] viXra:0702.0041 [pdf] submitted on 25 Feb 2007

A Note on Holographic Dark Energy

Authors: Gao Shan
Comments: recovered from sciprint.org

The unknown constant in the holographic dark energy model is determined in terms of a recent conjecture...
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[16] viXra:0702.0038 [pdf] submitted on 25 Feb 2007

The Foundations of Relativity

Authors: C. K. Thornhill
Comments: recovered from sciprint.org

Maxwell's equations were, and still are, derived for a uniform stationary ether and are not, therefore, the general equations of electromagnetism. The true general equations, for an ether in general motion, have been derived and given in the literature for many years but are continually ignored. Here, a further attempt is made to bring home irrefutably the mathematics which negates the concepts of no-ether and non-Newtonian relativity. Alternative derivations of the general equations of electromagnetism are given in the simplest possible terms, from basic principles. It is shown that the mathematical techniques required are exactly the same as those which were used to derive the general equations of fluid motion, long before the advent of Maxwell's equations.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15] viXra:0702.0036 [pdf] submitted on 25 Feb 2007

The New Aspects of General Relativity

Authors: Dmitri Rabounski
Comments: recovered from sciprint.org

It is possible one thinks that the General Theory of Relativity is a fossilized science, all achievements of which were reached decades ago. In particular it is right - the mathematical apparatus of Riemannian geometry, being a base of the theory, remains unchanged. At the same time the mathematical technics have many varieties: general covariant methods, the tetrad method, etc. Developing the technics we can create new possibilities in theoretical physics, unknown before.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14] viXra:0702.0031 [pdf] submitted on 25 Feb 2007

Anomalous Spacetimes

Authors: Stephen J. Crothers
Comments: recovered from sciprint.org

The usual interpretations of solutions for Einstein's gravitational field satisfying the static vacuum conditions contain anomalies that are not mathematically permissible. It is shown herein that the usual solutions must be modified to account for the intrinsic geometry associated with the relevant line-elements.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[13] viXra:0702.0030 [pdf] submitted on 25 Feb 2007

Relativistic Cosmology Revisited

Authors: Stephen J. Crothers
Comments: recovered from sciprint.org

In a previous paper the writer treated of particular classes of cosmological solutions for certain Einstein spaces and claimed that no such solutions exist in relation thereto. In that paper the assumption that the proper radius is zero when the line-element is singular was generally applied. This general assumption is unjustified and must be dropped. Consequently, solutions do exist in relation to the aforementioned types, and are explored herein. The concept of the Big Bang cosmology is found to be inconsistent with General Relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[12] viXra:0702.0026 [pdf] submitted on 25 Feb 2007

Unification of Four Approaches to the Genetic Code

Authors: M. Pitkanen
Comments: recovered from sciprint.org

A proposal unifying four approaches to genetic code is discussed. The first approach is introduced by Pitkanen and is geometric: genetic code is interpreted as an imbedding of the aminoacid space to DNA space possessing a fiber bundle like structure with DNAs coding for a given aminoacid forming a discrete fiber with a varying number of points. Also Khrennikov has proposed an analogous approach based on the identification of DNAs coding for a given aminoacid as an orbit a discrete flow defined by iteration of a map of DNA space to itself.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[11] viXra:0702.0025 [pdf] submitted on 25 Feb 2007

The Problem of Big Bang Matter vs. AntiMatter Symmetry

Authors: Roger Ellman
Comments: recovered from sciprint.org

The Big Bang had to be smoothly spherically symmetrical in its particles, energy, and radiation emitted outward from the origin, and likewise for the emitted particles versus their antiparticles. The result should have been equal amounts of matter and antimatter with the expectation of their complete mutual annihilation. A total annihilation did not take place as evidenced by the universe's existence. The currently favored explanation is that the universe is now all matter, all original antimatter having been annihilated with an equal amount of original matter, the total amount of the original matter having been greater than that of the original antimatter. That is, that the original symmetry was slightly skewed in favor of matter. That conflicts with a purely symmetrical Big Bang and posits a condition, the skewed balance of original matter and antimatter, that is difficult to justify. Current investigations seek to detect an innate violation of matter / antimatter symmetry sufficient to justify the original matter being greater in amount than the original antimatter. An alternative is developed, maintaining the original symmetry yet still resulting in our universe's existence. That involves showing that a total mutual annihilation of equal amounts of original matter and antimatter could not have occurred. The logic and mechanism of mutual annihilation and the conditions for it to take place are analyzed. Our present universe still must contain large amounts of both forms of matter between some particles of which further mutual annihilations still occur at a modest rate.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[10] viXra:0702.0024 [pdf] submitted on 25 Feb 2007

The Direct Contradiction Between Two Popular Hypotheses -- Cosmic Acceleration / Quintessence and Dark Matter, and Its Implications

Authors: Roger Ellman
Comments: recovered from sciprint.org

Recent distance determinations to Type Ia supernovae [ SNe Ia ] by new means exceed the Hubble distance by 10 - 15%.1,2 The explanation that has been offered is an "anti-gravity effect" accelerating the universe' expansion. The effect is attributed to some unknown substance pervading cosmological space, a modern variant on the Ancients' fifth essence, "quintessence". In other research 3, the study of galaxies and the larger cosmic structures of groups of galaxies as rotating systems, with their concomitant balance of gravitational attraction [G.M.m/R2] and centripetal force [m.V2/R], has disclosed a component of the gravitational attraction that cannot be accounted for. It is inferred that a halo of "dark matter" pervades the galaxies and supplies the unaccounted for gravitation. Therefore, we are confronted with the contradiction: [1] the SNe Ia data with its hypothesis that the cosmos is operated on by an "anti-gravity effect", and [2] the rotation curves data which indicates that an additional gravitational effect is operating, not an anti-gravitational one. The two hypotheses are mutually exclusive. At least one is completely incorrect [the hypothesis, not the data] and quite possibly both hypotheses are wrong. That being the case, it is essential that alternative explanations for the SNe Ia data and the rotation curves data be sought. The status of such alternatives is reviewed and a new alternative, based on NASA reported observations of long-term satellite behavior, is suggested.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[9] viXra:0702.0022 [pdf] submitted on 25 Feb 2007

How and Why the Universe Began

Authors: Roger Ellman
Comments: recovered from sciprint.org

Before the universe there was nothing, absolute nothing. That is the starting point because it is the only starting point that requires no cause, no explanation nor justification of its existence. But, that starting point has two impediments to the universe, or anything, coming into existence from it. First is the problem of change from nothing to something without, at least initially, an infinite rate of change, which is impossible. Second is the problem of change from nothing to something without violating conservation, which must be maintained. Mathematical analysis develops the sole solution to both problems. That is that the beginning had to be of a [1 - Cosine(2π.f.t)] form. That solution indicates the fundamental nature of matter, energy and field.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8] viXra:0702.0017 [pdf] submitted on 25 Feb 2007

A Note About the Light Red Shift

Authors: Jose Francisco Garcia Julia
Comments: recovered from sciprint.org

In this brief and very simple note, we consider that the nature of the light red shift is related with the variation of the gravitational field with the distance and not necessarily with the expansion of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7] viXra:0702.0016 [pdf] submitted on 25 Feb 2007

Analysis of the "Big Bang" Outward Cosmic Expansion: Hubble - Einstein Cosmology vs. The Universal Exponential Decay

Authors: Roger Ellman
Comments: recovered from sciprint.org

There is general agreement that the universe began with an outward "explosion" of matter and energy at a "singularity" followed by its on-going expansion -- the "Big Bang". This paper analyses the mechanics of that beginning and two alternative theories related to it: - The Hubble - Einstein theory that that beginning created space itself, expanding and carrying the universe's matter and energy with it such that the velocity, v, of recession of any distant astral object from us is directly proportional to its distance, v = H0.d, where H0 is the "Hubble Constant", and - The Universal Decay theory that the length, [L], dimensional aspect of all quantities in the universe [e.g. distance [L], speed [L/T], gravitation constant, G, [L3/M.T2] etc.] is exponentially decaying while the material universe is expanding outward within passive, static "space". The Hubble - Einstein theory has been accepted by consensus for many decades. The Universal Decay theory was first propounded in "The Origin and Its Meaning"1 in 1996 and has since been validated by the Pioneer 10 and 11 "anomalous acceleration" as well as by the theory's success in accounting for "dark matter" and "dark energy"2. The same centrallydirected, distance-independent acceleration of (8.74 ± 1.33) x 10-8 cm/s2 that is the Pioneer "anomalous acceleration" supplies the "additional gravitation" that "dark matter" is sought to supply and is part of the on-going contraction and decay of all length, [L], dimensions. The mass of the universe is calculated and the universe's "Schwarzschild Radius" evaluated. The velocities and distances of cosmic objects in general are calculated and plotted from the end of the "inflation" to the present. It develops that there is a theoretical limit on how far back into the past can be observed regardless of the quality of our instrumentation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[6] viXra:0702.0015 [pdf] submitted on 25 Feb 2007

A Common Solution: Dark Matter, Dark Energy and the Pioneer Anomaly

Authors: Roger Ellman
Comments: recovered from sciprint.org

Three major contemporary unresolved problems of astronomy and cosmology are that of "Dark Matter", hypothesized to explain otherwise un-accounted for acceleration indicated by galactic rotation curves; that of "Dark Energy" hypothesized to account for indications resulting from distance measurements to Type Ia Supernovae that the expansion of the universe is accelerating; and the Pioneer Anomaly, unaccounted for acceleration exhibited by the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft. The present paper is a summary analytic presentation, in a brief 3 pages, of the three problems and the common solution to them. It presents the structure and logic of the situation but with only minimally sufficient data to illustrate the points. The cited references provide the full analysis, calculations and explication of theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[5] viXra:0702.0014 [pdf] submitted on 25 Feb 2007

"Dark Matter", the Pioneer 10/11 "Anomalous Acceleration", and "Dark Energy" -- A Common Solution to these three Disparate Problems

Authors: Roger Ellman
Comments: recovered from sciprint.org

Suppose that there existed the same, one, simple explanation that comprehensively resolves the three apparently disparate problems: [1] The galactic rotation curves' indications of "dark matter", and [2] The Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft' "anomalous acceleration", [3] The Type Ia Supernovae distance measurements' indications of acceleration of cosmic expansion with its implication of "dark energy" or quintessence. Suppose further that this single explanation is merely another manifestation of one of the most common and ubiquitous of physical processes -- that of the second order linear differential equation with constant coefficients -- rather than being based on the inventing of disparate new and unknown effects, effects that are not directly detectable, let alone directly measurable: "dark matter" and "dark energy", with no viable explanation at all for the Pioneer "anomalous acceleration". Suppose still further that this explanation can readily be tested by direct astrophysical observations and measurements whereas both "dark matter" and "dark energy" are not directly observable, let alone directly measurable, and can only be indirectly inferred. And, suppose even further that this explanation is regularly validated, albeit unknowingly to the researchers, in everyday astronomical and astrophysical research. That explanation is presented and developed in the following paper.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[4] viXra:0702.0013 [pdf] submitted on 25 Feb 2007

Quaternionic Relativity. II Non-Inertial Motions

Authors: Alexander P. Yefremov
Comments: recovered from sciprint.org

In the framework of six-dimensional quaternionic theory of relativity (a short review is given) non-inertial frames are reasonably described: uniformly accelerated observer on rectilinear trajectory and arbitrary accelerated observer on circular orbit. The results are used to derive exact Thomas precession formula and calculate change of position of Jupiter's satellite observed from Earth, an integral cinematic effect for frames with variable relative velocity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3] viXra:0702.0010 [pdf] submitted on 25 Feb 2007

On Dark Energy, Weyl's Geometry, Different Derivations of the Vacuum Energy Density and the Pioneer Anomaly

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: recovered from sciprint.org

@@Two different derivations of the observed vacuum energy density are presented. One is based on a class of proper and novel generalizations of the (Anti) de Sitter solutions in terms of a family of radial functions R(r) that provides an explicit formula for the cosmological constant along with a natural explanation of the ultraviolet/infrared ( UV/IR) entanglement required to solve this problem. ...
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2] viXra:0702.0009 [pdf] submitted on 25 Feb 2007

On Dark Energy, Weyl's Geometry and Different Derivations of the Vacuum Energy Density

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: recovered from sciprint.org

Two different derivations of the observed vacuum energy density are presented. One is based on a class of proper and novel generalizations of the (Anti) de Sitter solutions in terms of a family of radial functions R(r) that provides an explicit formula for the cosmological constant along with a natural explanation of the ultraviolet/ infrared ( UV/IR) entanglement required to solve this problem.....
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1] viXra:0702.0008 [pdf] submitted on 25 Feb 2007

On Novel Static Spherically Symmetric Solutions of Einstein's Equations and the Cosmological Constant Problem

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: recovered from sciprint.org

A novel class of static spherically symmetric (SSS) solutions of Einstein's equations are explicitly constructed in terms of a family of admissible radial functions...
Category: Relativity and Cosmology