[19] **viXra:0702.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** C. K. Thornhill

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

The real space-time of Newtonian mechanics and the ether concept
is contrasted with the imaginary space-time of the non-ether concept and relativity.
In real space-time (x, y, z, ct) characteristic theory shows that Maxwell's
equations and sound waves in any uniform fluid at rest have identical wave surfaces.
Moreover, without charge or current, Maxwell's equations reduce to the same
standard wave equation which governs such sound waves. This is not a general
and invariant equation but it becomes so by Galilean transformation to any other
reference-frame. So also do Maxwell's equations which are, likewise, not general
but unique to one reference-frame. The mistake of believing that Maxwell's equations
were invariant led to the Lorentz transformation and to relativity; and to the
misinterpretation of the differential equation for the wave cone through any point
as the quadratic differential form of a Riemannian metric in imaginary space-time
(x, y, z, ict). Mathematics is then required to tolerate the same equation being transformed
in different ways for different applications. Otherwise, relativity is untenable
and recourse must then be made to real space-time, normal Galilean transformation
and an ether with Maxwellian statistics and Planck's energy distribution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:0702.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** C. K. Thornhill

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

The ten equations are derived that govern, to the first order, the propagation of small
general perturbations in the general unsteady flow of a general fluid, in three spacevariables
and time. The condition that any hypersurface is a wave hypersurface of
these equations is obtained, and the envelope of all such wave hypersurfaces that
pass through a given point at a given time, i .e . the wave hyperconoid, is determined.
These results, which are all invariant under Galilean transformation, are progressively
specialized, through homentropic flow and irrotational homentropic flow, to steady
uniform flow, for which both the convected wave-equation and the standard waveequation,
with their wave hypersurfaces, are finally recovered.
A special class of reference-frames is considered, namely those whose origins move
with the fluid. It is then shown that, for observers at the origins of all such reference
frames, the wave hypersurfaces satisfy specially simple equations locally. These
equations are identical with those for waves in a uniform fluid at rest relative to the
reference frame, except that the wave speed is not constant but varies with position
and time in accordance with the variable mean flow. These specially simple equations
appear to be invariant for Galilean transformations between all such observers.
These results are briefly applied, in reverse order, to Maxwell's equations, and to
equations more general than Maxwell's, for the electric and magnetic field-strengths.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:0702.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Gao Shan

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

The unknown constant in the holographic dark energy model is determined in terms of a recent conjecture...

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:0702.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** C. K. Thornhill

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

Maxwell's equations were, and still are, derived for a uniform stationary ether
and are not, therefore, the general equations of electromagnetism. The true
general equations, for an ether in general motion, have been derived and given
in the literature for many years but are continually ignored. Here, a further
attempt is made to bring home irrefutably the mathematics which negates the
concepts of no-ether and non-Newtonian relativity. Alternative derivations of
the general equations of electromagnetism are given in the simplest possible
terms, from basic principles. It is shown that the mathematical techniques
required are exactly the same as those which were used to derive the general
equations of fluid motion, long before the advent of Maxwell's equations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:0702.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Dmitri Rabounski

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

It is possible one thinks that the General Theory of Relativity
is a fossilized science, all achievements of which were reached
decades ago. In particular it is right - the mathematical apparatus
of Riemannian geometry, being a base of the theory, remains
unchanged. At the same time the mathematical technics have many
varieties: general covariant methods, the tetrad method, etc. Developing
the technics we can create new possibilities in theoretical
physics, unknown before.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:0702.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

The usual interpretations of solutions for Einstein's gravitational field satisfying
the static vacuum conditions contain anomalies that are not mathematically
permissible. It is shown herein that the usual solutions must be modified
to account for the intrinsic geometry associated with the relevant line-elements.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:0702.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

In a previous paper the writer treated of particular classes of cosmological solutions
for certain Einstein spaces and claimed that no such solutions exist in relation thereto.
In that paper the assumption that the proper radius is zero when the line-element is
singular was generally applied. This general assumption is unjustified and must be
dropped. Consequently, solutions do exist in relation to the aforementioned types,
and are explored herein. The concept of the Big Bang cosmology is found to be
inconsistent with General Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:0702.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** M. Pitkanen

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

A proposal unifying four approaches to genetic code is discussed.
The first approach is introduced by Pitkanen and is geometric:
genetic code is interpreted as an imbedding of the aminoacid space to
DNA space possessing a fiber bundle like structure with DNAs coding
for a given aminoacid forming a discrete fiber with a varying number
of points. Also Khrennikov has proposed an analogous approach based
on the identification of DNAs coding for a given aminoacid as an orbit
a discrete flow defined by iteration of a map of DNA space to itself.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:0702.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Roger Ellman

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

The Big Bang had to be smoothly spherically symmetrical in its particles, energy, and radiation emitted outward from the origin, and likewise for the emitted particles versus their antiparticles. The result should have been equal amounts of matter and antimatter with the expectation of their complete mutual annihilation.
A total annihilation did not take place as evidenced by the universe's existence. The currently favored explanation is that the universe is now all matter, all original antimatter having been annihilated with an equal amount of original matter, the total amount of the original matter having been greater than that of the original antimatter. That is, that the original symmetry was slightly skewed in favor of matter.
That conflicts with a purely symmetrical Big Bang and posits a condition, the skewed balance of original matter and antimatter, that is difficult to justify. Current investigations seek to detect an innate violation of matter / antimatter symmetry sufficient to justify the original matter being greater in amount than the original antimatter.
An alternative is developed, maintaining the original symmetry yet still resulting in our universe's existence. That involves showing that a total mutual annihilation of equal amounts of original matter and antimatter could not have occurred. The logic and mechanism of mutual annihilation and the conditions for it to take place are analyzed.
Our present universe still must contain large amounts of both forms of matter between some particles of which further mutual annihilations still occur at a modest rate.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:0702.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Roger Ellman

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

Recent distance determinations to Type Ia supernovae [ SNe Ia ] by new means
exceed the Hubble distance by 10 - 15%.1,2 The explanation that has been offered is
an "anti-gravity effect" accelerating the universe' expansion. The effect is attributed to
some unknown substance pervading cosmological space, a modern variant on the
Ancients' fifth essence, "quintessence".
In other research 3, the study of galaxies and the larger cosmic structures of
groups of galaxies as rotating systems, with their concomitant balance of gravitational
attraction [G.M.m/R2] and centripetal force [m.V2/R], has disclosed a component of
the gravitational attraction that cannot be accounted for. It is inferred that a halo of
"dark matter" pervades the galaxies and supplies the unaccounted for gravitation.
Therefore, we are confronted with the contradiction:
[1] the SNe Ia data with its hypothesis that the cosmos is operated on by an
"anti-gravity effect", and
[2] the rotation curves data which indicates that an additional gravitational
effect is operating, not an anti-gravitational one.
The two hypotheses are mutually exclusive. At least one is completely incorrect [the
hypothesis, not the data] and quite possibly both hypotheses are wrong.
That being the case, it is essential that alternative explanations for the SNe Ia
data and the rotation curves data be sought. The status of such alternatives is reviewed
and a new alternative, based on NASA reported observations of long-term satellite
behavior, is suggested.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:0702.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Roger Ellman

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

Before the universe there was nothing, absolute nothing. That is the starting point because it is the only starting point that requires no cause, no explanation nor justification of its existence.
But, that starting point has two impediments to the universe, or anything, coming into existence from it. First is the problem of change from nothing to something without, at least initially, an infinite rate of change, which is impossible. Second is the problem of change from nothing to something without violating conservation, which must be maintained.
Mathematical analysis develops the sole solution to both problems. That is that the beginning had to be of a [1 - Cosine(2π.f.t)] form. That solution indicates the fundamental nature of matter, energy and field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:0702.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Jose Francisco Garcia Julia

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

In this brief and very simple note, we consider that the nature of the light red shift is related with the variation of the gravitational field with the distance and not necessarily with the expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:0702.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Roger Ellman

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

There is general agreement that the universe began with an outward "explosion" of matter
and energy at a "singularity" followed by its on-going expansion -- the "Big Bang". This paper
analyses the mechanics of that beginning and two alternative theories related to it:
- The Hubble - Einstein theory that that beginning created space itself, expanding and
carrying the universe's matter and energy with it such that the velocity, v, of
recession of any distant astral object from us is directly proportional to its distance,
v = H0.d, where H0 is the "Hubble Constant", and
- The Universal Decay theory that the length, [L], dimensional aspect of all quantities
in the universe [e.g. distance [L], speed [L/T], gravitation constant, G, [L3/M.T2]
etc.] is exponentially decaying while the material universe is expanding outward
within passive, static "space".
The Hubble - Einstein theory has been accepted by consensus for many decades.
The Universal Decay theory was first propounded in "The Origin and Its Meaning"1 in
1996 and has since been validated by the Pioneer 10 and 11 "anomalous acceleration" as well as
by the theory's success in accounting for "dark matter" and "dark energy"2. The same centrallydirected,
distance-independent acceleration of (8.74 ± 1.33) x 10-8 cm/s2 that is the
Pioneer "anomalous acceleration" supplies the "additional gravitation" that "dark matter" is
sought to supply and is part of the on-going contraction and decay of all length, [L], dimensions.
The mass of the universe is calculated and the universe's "Schwarzschild Radius"
evaluated. The velocities and distances of cosmic objects in general are calculated and plotted
from the end of the "inflation" to the present. It develops that there is a theoretical limit on how
far back into the past can be observed regardless of the quality of our instrumentation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:0702.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Roger Ellman

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

Three major contemporary unresolved problems of astronomy and cosmology are that of "Dark
Matter", hypothesized to explain otherwise un-accounted for acceleration indicated by galactic rotation
curves; that of "Dark Energy" hypothesized to account for indications resulting from distance
measurements to Type Ia Supernovae that the expansion of the universe is accelerating; and the Pioneer
Anomaly, unaccounted for acceleration exhibited by the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft.
The present paper is a summary analytic presentation, in a brief 3 pages, of the three problems and
the common solution to them. It presents the structure and logic of the situation but with only minimally
sufficient data to illustrate the points. The cited references provide the full analysis, calculations and
explication of theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:0702.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Roger Ellman

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

Suppose that there existed the same, one, simple explanation that comprehensively
resolves the three apparently disparate problems:
[1] The galactic rotation curves' indications of "dark matter", and
[2] The Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft' "anomalous acceleration",
[3] The Type Ia Supernovae distance measurements' indications of acceleration of
cosmic expansion with its implication of "dark energy" or quintessence.
Suppose further that this single explanation is merely another manifestation of one of
the most common and ubiquitous of physical processes -- that of the second order linear
differential equation with constant coefficients -- rather than being based on the inventing of
disparate new and unknown effects, effects that are not directly detectable, let alone directly
measurable: "dark matter" and "dark energy", with no viable explanation at all for the Pioneer
"anomalous acceleration".
Suppose still further that this explanation can readily be tested by direct astrophysical
observations and measurements whereas both "dark matter" and "dark energy" are not directly
observable, let alone directly measurable, and can only be indirectly inferred.
And, suppose even further that this explanation is regularly validated, albeit
unknowingly to the researchers, in everyday astronomical and astrophysical research.
That explanation is presented and developed in the following paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:0702.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Alexander P. Yefremov

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

In the framework of six-dimensional quaternionic theory of relativity (a short review is
given) non-inertial frames are reasonably described: uniformly accelerated observer on
rectilinear trajectory and arbitrary accelerated observer on circular orbit. The results are used
to derive exact Thomas precession formula and calculate change of position of Jupiter's
satellite observed from Earth, an integral cinematic effect for frames with variable relative
velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:0702.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

@@Two different derivations of the observed vacuum energy density are presented.
One is based on a class of proper and novel generalizations of the (Anti) de Sitter
solutions in terms of a family of radial functions R(r) that provides an explicit
formula for the cosmological constant along with a natural explanation of
the ultraviolet/infrared ( UV/IR) entanglement required to solve this problem. ...

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:0702.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

Two different derivations of the observed vacuum energy density are presented.
One is based on a class of proper and novel generalizations of the (Anti) de Sitter
solutions in terms of a family of radial functions R(r) that provides an explicit formula
for the cosmological constant along with a natural explanation of the ultraviolet/
infrared ( UV/IR) entanglement required to solve this problem.....

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:0702.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Feb 2007*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

A novel class of static spherically symmetric (SSS) solutions of Einstein's equations
are explicitly constructed in terms of a family of admissible radial functions...

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology