[26] **viXra:1003.0247 [pdf]**
*replaced on 30 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 5 pages, 1 figure. Re done to make equivalence of Beckwith DM/DE and brane world
conditions shown as the same as Yurov.s 2002 conditions. Actual conference submission for the
Beyond the Standard Model 2010, by Dr. Andrew Beckwith. Heavily referenced by Dr. Beckwith in
PIERS 2010, XIAN, on March 22, at 11 a.m. in room D with two other presenters, Dr. Cruise of
Birmingham University, and Dr. Li of Chongquing University, as given by
http://piers.mit.edu/piers2010xian/files/FinalProgram.pdf. Note that Dr. Grishkuk, of Cardiff
University did not attend. Conference entry for proceedings as edited by
Dr. H. V. Klaptor-Kleingross, as given for http://www.phy.uct.ac.za/beyond2010/

The case for a four-dimensional graviton mass (non zero) influencing reacceleration of
the universe in both four and five dimensions is stated, with particular emphasis on the
question whether 4D and 5D geometries as given here yield new physical insight as to
cosmological evolution. Both cases give equivalent reacceleration one billion years ago,
which leads to the question whether other criteria can determine the relative benefits of
adding additional dimensions to cosmology models.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1003.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** John Hunter

**Comments:** 6 pages

It is proposed that there has been a longstanding misunderstanding of the relationship
between scale factor of the universe and redshift. It is shown how value of
omega(matter) of one quarter of the true value, (hence the apparent dark energy
phenomenon) can result from such a misconception. Predictions for the magnitudes
of supernovae against redshift are made and found to be in good agreement with
supernovae data, without dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1003.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Zhang Wenpeng

**Comments:** 1 page

Fermat's and Euler's theorem on congruencies are generalized to the case when the integers a
and m are not necessarily co-prime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1003.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 12 pages, 2 figures, submitted to MNRAS-MJ.

In this reading, a new theoreticalmodel of star and cluster formation is posited. Thismodel seeks
to set a mathematical framework to understand the origins of the stellar Initial Mass Function
and within this framework, explain star and cluster formation from a unified perspective by tieing
together into a single garment three important observational facts: (1) that the most massive
stars of most observed clusters of stars are preferentially found in their centers; (2) Larson's
1982 empirical observation that the maximum stellar mass is related to the total mass of the
parent cloud; (3) that clump masses in giant molecular clouds exhibit a power mass spectrum
law akin to that found in star clusters and this behavior is also true for molecular clouds as well.
Key to this model is the way the cloud fragments to form cores from which the new stars are
born. We show that the recently proposed azimuthally symmetric theory of gravitation has two
scale of fragmentation where one is the scale that leads to cloud collapse and the other is the
scale on which the cloud fragments. The collapse and fragmentation takes place simultaneously.
If the proposed model is anything to go by, then, one can safely posit that the slope of the IMF
can be explained from two things: the star formation rate of the cores from which these stars
form and the density index describing the density profile. Additionally and more importantly,
if the present is anything to by, then, fragmentation of molecular clouds is posited as being a
result of them possessing some spin angular momentum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1003.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Roald C. Maximo

**Comments:** 3 pages

In this short essay, I am starting from very basic concepts to try, step by step, to establish a valid
physical relation between speed, energy and time. My intention, just from the start, is to by pass the Theory of
Relativity and also avoid the application of the Lorentz transformation as canned good. If it has to be part of
the solution it shall also arise spontaneously during the formulations as it ended up being the case.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1003.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** A. Yurov; arXiv : hep-th/028129 v1, 19 Aug, 2002
material added to the analysis presented in S.A. at Beyond the Standard Model. 50 pages

presentation of 7 new pages with respect to linkage between 1st and 2nd inflation, 1st 10^{-35} seconds
after big bang, and 2nd one billion years ago

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1003.0193 [pdf]**
*replaced on 29 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 16 pages, four figures. Re statement of prior submission, with specific
commentary as given in Appendix B, and also the radius of the Universe question , as
can be ascertained via modeling included. This material added, to make presentation
conform more closely to the Xian, PRC PIERS presentation given in 2010, March 22, at
11 a.m. which did emphasize, at the end the importance of material in Appendix B, as
well as the given conclusion, and the radius of the Universe question, as of Eq. (38),
as very important to applications of GW/ graviton based astronomy/ astro physics.
Appendix B in particular delves into how massless graviton Field equations, and their
small mass graviton versions do not connect, in the limit of mass of a graviton
approaching zero.

The case for a four dimensional graviton mass (non zero) influencing reacceleration of the universe
in five dimensions is stated; with emphasis upon if five dimensional geometries as given below give
us new physical insight as to cosmological evolution. A calculated inflaton φ(t) may partly reemerge
after fading out in the aftermath of inflation. The inflaton may be the source of re
acceleration of the universe, especially if the effects of a re emergent inflaton are in tandem with the
appearance of macro effects of a small graviton mass, leading to a speed up of the rate of expansion
of the universe at red shit value of Z ~ .423. A final statement as to how and why the radius of the
universe question may be affected by these deliberations is presented , in terms of if the graviton is
either purely a field theoretic , or semi classical object, as via t'Hoofts deterministic QM is presented
in the end, as an open question.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1003.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Leonid I. Filippov

**Comments:** In Russian, 33 pages, 12 figures

Determination to make the Einstein's treatment of simultaneity and relativistic notions of
length and time interval measurement more intuitive and illustrative led to creation of a
model in which light impulses are substituted with sound signals. The model uncovers the
substance of Einstein's mathematical constructs and the mechanisms that give rise to relativistic
effects. Consistent application of the model resulted in new constructions.
The paper examines known mechanical and electromagnetic phenomena that can be clarified by
this model. The use of such an approach leads to the notion of a distinguished frame of
reference. In particular, the theory calls for the existence of electromagnetic interaction
that contradicts the principle of relativity. The paper contains a description of an
experimental apparatus built to test this prediction, as well as the results of the experiments.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1003.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 15 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Willi Penker

**Comments:** 3 pages

The theory of black holes states that without the energy set
free by nuclear fusion, the gravity of a big star will always be
stronger than all other forces, causing it to collapse and
ending in a singularity. During such a collapse, however,
gravity itself should free enough binding energy to ultimately
prevent the star from collapsing to a state where its escape
velocity reaches the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1003.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Ioannis Iraklis Haranas

**Comments:** 3 pages, Published Journal of Theoretics

The idea of a possible variable light cosmology was recently investigated by certain authors.
In our brief note an estimate for a possible
variation in the speed of light can be calculated if fundamental relations of cosmology are
used along with a plausible definition of the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1003.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Alex Ceapa

**Comments:** 4 pages, Published:Journal of Theoretics Oct/Nov 2002 Vol.4, No.5

Inertial observers can not only measure their absolute velocities but that of light as well, thereby
being able to shed insight into the principle of the constancy of light velocity. The light
speeds c±v, though considered to conflict with this principle, are shown herein to not be true
physical entities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1003.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** N. Mebarki

**Comments:** 10 pages, Presented at Invisible Universe International Conference, 29 June-10 July 2009, Paris, France

Anisotropic cosmological models with a generalized Chaplygin gas in a Finsler space-time geometry are considered
and a class of exact solutions as well as cosmological parameters behaviors are studied. Moreover, the viability and stability
criteria for a general solution are also discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1003.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** N. Mebarki, M. Y. Boudjada

**Comments:** 3 pages, Presented in the 12th Marcel Grossmann Meeting 12-18 July 2009, Paris, France

In Finslerian space-time, a higher order curvature cosmological model of gravity is proposed and a
class of cosmological solutions is obtained. Moreover, the viability and stability near critical points are
also discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1003.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Alex Ceapa

**Comments:** 2 pages, Published in Journal of Theoretics, vol.6-3, June/July 2004

Der Waerden obtained the spinorial transcription of the Dirac equation from the relativistic
energy-momentum relationship. The recent validation of the principle of the physical determination
of equations in the special relativity theory enables us to deduce the meaning of mass from his
results.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1003.0104 [pdf]**
*replaced on 12 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** John R. McWhinnie

**Comments:** 13 pages

This article is an attempt to expose the role played by messenger
particles in physics. The concept of the "messenger particle" has long been
considered in physics. The latest research shows evidence that the four fundamental
forces of nature ,Gravitation, Electromagnetic and the Weak and
Strong Nuclear forces are all created by messenger particles. This hypotheses
is leading to a new way of thinking about the fundamental sub-atomic
wave/particles that are the building blocks of our universe. Some of the latest
evidence actually shows that in order to understand what is happening with
these messenger particles it is necessary to perceive them as information carriers.
The four messenger particles that are thought to exist are the Graviton
(not yet discovered) , Photon, Weak Guage Boson and the Gluon. This paper
shall be concerned with the Photon as an information carrier.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1003.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Dmitri Rabounski, Florentin Smarandache, Larissa Borissova

**Comments:** 107 pages, In Russian language

METHODS IN THE GENERAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1003.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Homer B. Tilton, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 109 pages, PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONFERENCE OF 18 FEB 2005

Einstein originally declared that the distortions of special relativity
reflect real changes to the objects being remotely observed, then
reconsidered. The first non sequitur is quoted here from Sachs

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1003.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Homer B. Tilton, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 147 pages

Because of the almost universal failure to recognize the distinction
between physical (reality-based, dynamical) and visual (appearance-based,
kinematical) variables, a tremendous volume of mythology arose over the
past 100 years centered around Einstein's reality view of the distortions of
special relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1003.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Dmitri Rabounski, Florentin Smarandache, Larissa Borissova

**Comments:** 80 pages

In this work the authors apply concepts of Neutrosophic Logic to the
General Theory of Relativity to obtain a generalisation of Einstein's fourdimensional
pseudo-Riemannian differentiable manifold in terms of Smarandache
Geometry (Smarandache manifolds), by which new classes of
relativistic particles and non-quantum teleportation are developed.
Fundamental features of Neutrosophic Logic are its denial of the Law
of Excluded Middle, and open (or estimated) levels of truth, falsity and
indeterminancy.
Both Neutrosophic Logic and Smarandache Geometry were invented
some years ago by one of the authors (F. Smarandache). The application of
these purely mathematical theories to General Relativity reveals hitherto
unknown possibilities for Einstein's theory.
The issue of how closely the new theoretical possibilities account for
physical phenomena, and indeed the viability of the concept of a fourdimensional
space-time continuum itself as a fundamental model of Nature,
must of course be explored by experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1003.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Dmitri Rabounski, Florentin Smarandache, Larissa Borissova

**Comments:** 7 pages

We apply the S-denying procedure to signature conditions in a four-dimensional
pseudo-Riemannian space - i. e. we change one (or even all) of the conditions to
be partially true and partially false. We obtain five kinds of expanded space-time for
General Relativity. Kind I permits the space-time to be in collapse. Kind II permits
the space-time to change its own signature. Kind III has peculiarities, linked to the
third signature condition. Kind IV permits regions where the metric fully degenerates:
there may be non-quantum teleportation, and a home for virtual photons. Kind V is
common for kinds I, II, III, and IV.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1003.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Larissa Borissova, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 pages

As shown, any four-dimensional proper vector has two observable projections onto
time line, attributed to our world and the mirror world (for a mass-bearing particle, the
projections posses are attributed to positive and negative mass-charges). As predicted,
there should be a class of neutrally mass-charged particles that inhabit neither our
world nor the mirror world. Inside the space-time area (membrane) the space rotates
at the light speed, and all particles move at as well the light speed. So, the predicted
particles of the neutrally mass-charged class should seem as light-like vortices.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1003.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** V. Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 pages

It is well-known, that when it comes to discussions among physicists concerning the
meaning and nature of gravitation, the room temperature can be so hot. Therefore,
for the sake of clarity, it seems worth that all choices were put on a table, and we
consider each choice's features and problems. The present article describes a nonexhaustive
list of such gravitation theories for the purpose of inviting further and more
clear discussions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1003.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** V. Christianto, Matti Pitkänen, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 pages

An interesting hypothesis concerning the varying length of day has been formulated in
this edition, proposed by A.I. Arbab, based on a proposition of varying gravitational
constant, G. The main ideas are pointed out, and alternative frameworks are also discussed
in particular with respect to the present common beliefs in astrophysics. Further
observation is of course recommended in order to refute or verify this proposition.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1003.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** Essay written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2010 Awards for Essays on Gravitation,
Submitted March 4th, 2010

The case for a four dimensional graviton mass (non zero) influencing reacceleration of the universe
in five dimensions is stated, with particular emphasis upon if five dimensional geometries as given
below give us new physical insight as to cosmological evolution. A calculated inflaton φ(t) may
partly re-emerge after fading out in the aftermath of inflation. The inflaton may contribute to, with
non zero graviton mass, in re acceleration of the universe a billion years ago. The inflaton also may
be the source of re acceleration of the universe, especially if the effects of a re emergent inflaton are
in tandem with the appearance of macro effects of a small graviton mass, leading to a speed up of the
rate of expansion of the universe at red shit value of Z ~ .423

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1003.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Ioannis Iraklis Haranas, Michael Harney

**Comments:** 6 pages, Submitted to the Journal of Gravitational Physics, p.6

We study the effects of a non-singular gravitational potential on satellite orbits by calculating the
corresponding changes of its orbital elements, using Gauss' planetary equations. We derive two
non-zero expressions for the changes of the argument of the perigee and the mean anomaly, and
we compare them to those of the general relativity. Using the GRACE satellite system, we obtain
numerical results from which we conclude that the effect of such a potential, on the perigee
cannot be separated from that of general relativity. Furthermore, we conclude that the effect on
the mean anomaly can probably be observed by today's technology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1003.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 pages, two figures. Source document for presentation to be made in Xian, PRC, March 23,
at PIERS http://piers.mit.edu/piers2010xian/. Main
contribution is reconciliation of re appearance of
inllaton as generator of entropy with graviton count, a la. Y. Ng's 2008 result, with increase in q(z)
increase in rate of acceleration of the universe one billion years ago.

The case for a four dimensional graviton mass (non zero) influencing reacceleration of the universe
in five dimensions is stated, with particular emphasis upon if five dimensional geometries as given
below give us new physical insight as to cosmological evolution. One noticeable datum, that a
calculated inflaton φ(t) may partly re-emerge after fading out in the aftermath of inflation. The
inflaton may be a contributing factor to, with non zero graviton mass, in re acceleration of the
universe a billion years ago. Many theorists assume that the inflaton is the source of entropy. The
inflaton also may be the source of re acceleration of the universe, especially if the effects of a re
emergent inflaton are in tandem with the appearance of macro effects of a small graviton mass,
leading to a speed up of the rate of expansion of the universe one billion years ago, at red shift value
of Z ~ .423

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology