[24] **viXra:1503.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-31 08:05:03*

**Authors:** John R Wilson

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This paper theorizes that the Big Bang was the result of a collision between two singularities and that dark energy is the result of gravitational forces of singularities outside of the visible universe.
Because of the conditions immediately following the Big Bang, it can be theorized that the Big Bang was caused by the collision of two supermassive singularities. Evidence for this collision event is found in cosmic inflation and how dark energy is accelerating the expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1503.0263 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-31 06:25:28*

**Authors:** James Arnold

**Comments:** 15 Pages. European Scientific Journal vol 11 no 9 (2015)

The Minkowski diagram, by which the concept of spacetime has been graphically represented and interpreted, is shown to have a pre-relativistic flaw: It depicts the relative motion of a body moving in time as-if it is moving along with the observer’s clock, not as it is actually observed, according to its own proper time. An alternative diagram provides an accurate representation of relativistic relationships and enables heuristic insights into the nature of relativistic effects, and of time, light, gravitation, and wave/particle duality.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1503.0254 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-30 08:41:30*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Four pages

The second postulate in Dr. Einstein’s 1905 paper is “…light (c) is always propagated in empty space with a definite velocity v which is independent of the state of motion of the source…” The current brief paper identifies the difference between actual light speed and two different kinds of RELATIVE light speed, a critical distinction that Dr. Einstein and most current scientists did (do) not seem to understand.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1503.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-30 00:34:25*

**Authors:** Timo Huovinen

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

According gravitational wave theory, gravity is caused by gravitational waves that occur between two same substances rotating around each other. This generates gravitational waves, which pulls same substance towards itself (because it matches the same wavelength as the gravitational waves). So every element has its own gravity. Bigger the atom of given substance is, the bigger the wavelength. Gravitational waves frequency is determined by how much (and how fast) there is substance in question spinning around each other. Force of gravity depends on the distance between source of gravitational waves and the substance that is affecting.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1503.0232 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-04 05:06:55*

**Authors:** Blair D. Macdonald

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

One of the great questions in modern cosmology today is what is causing the accelerating expansion of the universe – the so called dark energy. It has been recently discovered this property of accelerated expansion is not unique to the universe, but is also evident with tree (plant) growth. As trees are fractals: do fractals offer an explanation and insight to the accelerating expansion property of the universe?
An experiment was undertaken on the classical Koch snowflake fractal. The snowflake was inverted to model observations from within an iterating fractal set – as if at a static ‘measured’ position. Unlike with the fractal snowflake formation, new triangles sizes were held constant allowing earlier triangles in the set to expand as the set iterated.
Using classical kinematic equations velocities and accelerations were calculated for both the area of the total fractal, and the distance between points within the fractal set. The inverted fractal was also tested for the Hubble's Law.
It was discovered that the area(s) expanded exponentially; and as a consequence, the distances between points – from any location within the set – receded away from the ‘observer’ at increasing velocities and accelerations. The model was consistent with the standard ΛCDM model of cosmology and demonstrated: a singularity ‘Big Bang’ beginning; homogeneous isotropic expansion consistent with the CMB; Hubble's Law – with a Hubble diagram and Hubble's constant; and accelerating expansion with a ‘cosmological’ constant an expansion rate consistent with, and capable of explaining the early inflation epoch of the universe. It was concluded that the universe behaves as a general fractal object. Thought the findings have obvious relevance to the study of cosmology, they may also offer insight to all things fractal: the recently discovered accelerating growth rate of trees.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1503.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-28 14:50:37*

**Authors:** Blair D. Macdonald

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Is the universe a fractal? This is one of the great – though not often talked about – questions in cosmology. In my earlier publication where I inverted (Koch snowflake) fractal I showed the fractal demonstrated: Hubble’s Law, accelerating expansion, and a singularity beginning. Surveys of the universe – the most recent and largest, the 2012 WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey – show, galaxy distribution on small scales to be fractal, while on large-scales, homogeneity holds. There appears to be new anomaly to explain: a galaxy distribution transition from rough to smooth with cosmic distance. From my model I derived a Fractal-Hubble diagram. On this diagram, measurement points along the curve are clustered near the origin. This clustering was not addressed in discussions or part of the conclusion of my earlier experiment. Can this clustering of points account for the observed galaxy distribution transition? Could this transition be another property of fractals, and therefore could the universe – itself – be fractal? It was found, yes they do. Clustering of measurement points (and of galaxies) is as a result of observation position in the fractal. On small scales – relative to large scales – the cosmic surveys are what one would expect to see if one were viewing from within an iterating – growing – fractal. If trees – natural fractals that have also been found to grow at accelerating rates – are used to demonstrate this fractal: the large-scale smoothness maybe akin to a tree’s trunk; and the rough (fractal) on small-scales, to its branches. This discovery unifies the anomalies associated with the standard cosmological model. Together they are – through the mechanics of the fractal – inextricably linked.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1503.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-26 07:46:04*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Eight pages

This paper details a replacement for Dr. Einstein’s theory of Special Relativity which, along with quantum theory, are pillars of 21st century physics. Special Relativity deals with light and other forms of radiation, such as radio, X, gamma, and delta radiation and the constant nature of the velocity of light as distinguished from the non constant nature of the relative velocity of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1503.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-26 05:52:13*

**Authors:** Lutz Kayser

**Comments:** 60 Pages.

The Einstein Postulates of Special Relativity (SR), namely the invariance of the speed of light c relative to the observer, the symmetry of relative velocities, and the Galilean Principle independent of velocity and gravitational potential are falsified. The replacement Law is: There exists an absolute universal velocity reference (Cosmic Velocity Reference, CVR). The velocity of light c is invariant and isotropic only relative to absolute universal space CVR. In honor of the discoverer, we propose to call it Smoot’s Law. Experimental evidence of the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave radiation background CMB and the one-way measurements of the speed of light are given. From the new Laws it follows (in vector notation) c_(rel )=c- c_cvr . This results in the elimination from physics of the Minkowski four-vector spacetime symmetry, time dilation, length contraction, velocity and acceleration symmetrical Lorentz transformation, Einstein vector addition, covariance, invisible and unphysical net of monolithic worldlines, and other weird mathematical constructs without physical meaning resulting from Special Relativity SR and General Relativity GR. The mass increase of particles with speed by the so-called Lorentz Factor 〖ϒ=(1-v^2 /c^2 )〗^(-1/2) is so often cited by Relativists as empirical proof of SR. ϒ was fraudulently smuggled into SR without mathematical proof applying it to relative velocities which give wrong results. We show that the Lorentz Factor is a simple part of the system of classical dynamic equations and the mass-energy conservation law. But it is only valid with absolute cosmic velocity v_CVR. The increases of mass, momentum, and energy with an object’s velocity are correct but not part of or caused by SR. This is true also for the change of clock rate as a function of velocity and Newtonian gravity potential. PIPS welcomes discussions and proposals for improvement of this work for the sake of the physics community and the wider public. For the general public, we have made an effort to explain important facts in everyday examples. Periodic revisions will be published. (Second Revised Edition 3/15/2015).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1503.0179 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-02 10:03:44*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Three-page Letter

Astronomical observations of cosmological red-shift are currently interpreted in terms of ‘expansion of universe’ and ‘accelerated-expansion of the universe’, at the rate of H0 c; here H0 is Hubble’s constant, and c is the speed of light. Whereas a straight forward derivation presented here suggests that: rather it is the photon which is decelerating, at the rate of H0 c. Such a deceleration of photons can be caused by virtual electrons, positrons and pi-mesons, contained in the extra galactic quantum vacuum, because: they do have gravitational-acceleration of the same order as H0 c at their “surfaces”; or by decay of photon into a lighter photon and a particle of mass h H0 / c^2.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1503.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-23 10:11:52*

**Authors:** Hartmut Schwab

**Comments:** 3 pages, German language

The light speed paradoxon which was until now explained by the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) and was not understood according to classic physics, is now freely explained by the laws of classic physics. The explanation is extended on all other kinds of oscillations without or with medium. Complex approaches like Einsteins space time continuum and SRT miss their basis and therefore are unnecessary.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1503.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-21 01:23:25*

**Authors:** Claude Michael Cassano

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

It is difficult to find a derivation of the Lorentz transformations beyond a single dimension in rectangular Cartesian coordinates. Here, a rigorous general derivation is established.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1503.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-16 19:59:04*

**Authors:** Richard Benish

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Galileo proposed a simple gravity experiment that has yet to be performed. Suppose we drop a test mass into a hole through the center of a larger source mass. What happens? Using a modified Cavendish balance or an orbiting satellite, modern technology could have revealed the answer decades ago. General Relativity is widely regarded as being supported by empirical evidence throughout its accessible range. Not commonly realized is that, with regard to gravity-induced motion, this evidence excludes the interior regions of material bodies over this whole range. If only to fill this huge gap in our empirical knowledge of gravity, Galileo’s experiment ought to be performed without further delay.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1503.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-16 20:05:25*

**Authors:** Richard Benish

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

This is an updated and augmented version of the previously published paper, Space Generation Model of Gravitation and the Large Numbers Coincidences. The basis of the gravity model is that motion sensing devices—most notably accelerometers and clocks—consistently tell the truth about their state of motion. When the devices are attached to a uniformly rotating body this is undoubtedly true. Uniform rotation is sometimes referred to as an example of stationary motion. It is proposed here, by analogy, that gravitation is also an example of stationary motion. Einstein used the rotation analogy to deduce spacetime curvature. Similar logic suggests that in both cases the effects of curvature are caused by motion. A key distinction is that, unlike rotation, gravitational motion is not motion through space, but rather motion of space. Extending the analogy further, gravitation is conceived as a process involving movement into a fourth space dimension. Space and matter are dynamic, continuous extensions of each other, which implies that the average cosmic density is a universal constant. Assuming this to be the case leads to a cosmological model according to which ratios such as the gravitational to electrostatic force, electron mass to proton mass, Bohr radius to cosmic radius, and constants such as the fine structure constant, Hubble constant, the saturation density of nuclear matter and the energy density of the cosmic background radiation are all very simply related to one another. Measured values of these numbers are discussed in suffcient detail to facilitate judging whether or not the found and predicted relationships are due to chance. The notorious "cosmological constant" (dark energy) problem is also addressed in light of the new gravity model. Finally, it is emphasized that the model lends itself to a relatively easy laboratory test.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1503.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-16 06:29:44*

**Authors:** Jacky Jerome, Frederic Jerome

**Comments:** Main article 6 pages + Appendices 34 pages (total 40 pages)

Recent enigmas of astrophysics such as dark energy or accelerating universe need to update General Relativity. A thorough examination of the original Einstein Field Equations (EFE) hghlights three inconsistencies concerning the nature of spacetime. Here we solve these inconsistencies. As a consequence, this article proposes a Higgs compatible 4D expression of mass, m=f(x,y,z,t), and a new explanation of gravity based on Le Sage Push Gravity. This paper is interesting and important because it touches the weakest nerve of General Relativity by asking “how mass curves spacetime”? Moreover, this article is supported
by several mathematics demonstrations such as a new version of the Newton Law, a new version of the Schwarzschild Metric, and a 4D rewriting of the Energy-Momentum Tensor and Einstein Constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1503.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-15 18:17:35*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Submitted to EJP

The double deflection of a light ray near an attracting center, which was predicted by Einstein, is explained by the space curvature.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1503.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-20 16:18:31*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

**Comments:** This text contains two version of the paper: English version (pages 1-40) and Russian version (pages 1-86)

In our previous arXiv papers (“The Information and the Matter”, v1, v5; more systematically the informational conception is presented in the paper “The Information as Absolute”, 2014) it was rigorously shown that Matter in our Universe – and Universe as a whole - are some informational systems (structures), which exist as uninterruptedly transforming [practically] infinitesimal sub-sets of the absolutely infinite and fundamental “Information” Set. Such a conception allows not only to clear essentially a number of metaphysical and epistemological problems in philosophy but, besides, allows to suggest a reasonable physical model. Since Matter in Universe is an informational system where every interaction between Matter’s sub-structures, i.e. – particles and systems of the particles – happens always as an exchange by exclusively true information between these structures, the model is based on the conjecture that Matter is some analogue of computer. This conjecture, in turn, allows to introduce in the model the basic logical elements that constitute the material structures and support the informational exchange - i.e. the forces - between the structures. The model is experimentally testable and yet now makes be more clear a number of basic problems in special relativity, quantum mechanics, and, rather probably, in [now – in Newtonian] gravity.
This paper is a next upgrade of earlier version http://arxiv.org/abs/0707.4657, 2012
This text contains two version of the paper: English version (pages 1-40) and Russian version (pages 1-86)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1503.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-10 15:02:04*

**Authors:** György Szondy

**Comments:** 1 Page. Poster - original size: A0

Minkowski 4-force is known to be perpendicular to the 4-velocity and the 4-momentum vector. In the ‘50s Károly Novobátzky worked out the generalization of this 4-force in Special Relativity. We will shortly explain how this formalism can be used to describe conservative fields and how it helps us to overcome fundamental problems in General Relativity like nonlinearity. We will introduce our results connecting such generalized 4-force with metric in a way that leads towards geometry based quantum gravity.
This poster was presented in the 5th Central Europian Relativity Seminar (26-28th February 2015, Budapest, at Hungarian Academy of Sciences) http://www.univie.ac.at/cers5/

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1503.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-11 05:43:40*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Four-page letter

Cosmology is primarily based on the measured value of Hubble’s constant. Though its value is still being refined, the currently available value shows interesting relations with the other physical constants, as derived here. These relations can be helpful for: (i) arriving at theoretical value of Hubble’s constant, and (ii) for understanding correct mechanism behind the cosmological red-shift. The relationship of Hubble’s constant H0 with the other constants derived here are: (h H0 / me c^2) = [ ( G me mp ) / h c ] = [ λC / R0 ] = [ (G mp / c^2) / λC ] = [ mp / M0 ]^1/2 ; here: h is Planck’s constant, c the speed of light, and λC is Compton-wavelength of the electron, and me and mp are masses of the electron and proton respectively. These relations suggest that either the cosmological red-shift is based on gravity, or gravity is due to the cosmological red-shift-effect on the photons exchanged between the particles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1503.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-07 19:59:10*

**Authors:** James Arnold

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Gravitation is described as a uniquely geometric phenomenon, incompatible with the concept of force, and only analogically comparable with force by means of mathematical formalisms. Two thought experiments are employed to demonstrate that the association of gravitation with force is irreconcilable with the geometric interpretation and without theoretical foundation or empirical support. Motion in time is identified as the dynamic source of what has been attributed as the energetic component of gravitational phenomena.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1503.0053 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-24 16:16:51*

**Authors:** Carl S. Reiff

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This paper posits that ‘Gravitational Flow’ permeates the Universe, and all observed time dilation is a result of movement relative to this flow. The speed of the flow at any given location is simply the corresponding escape velocity. So time dilation can be calculated from escape velocities. The procedure is illustrated using three distinct examples: 1) The time dilation setting required by the atomic clocks aboard the GPS satellites orbiting Earth; 2) The Shapiro delay experienced by a ray of light as it passes very near the Sun; 3) The portion of the perihelion precession of Mercury’s orbit that is due to time dilation, often called ‘anomalous precession’. Also included are proposals for four distinct experiments, each of which will demonstrate the effects of the flow.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1503.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-17 15:18:40*

**Authors:** Robert M. Hartranft Scott W. Hartranft

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Suppose the laws of physics are truly invariant: they were, are, and always will be as they are here and now. And further suppose that there were no physical things before the Big Bang – no mass, no energy, just endless void. But at some point, the laws of physics came into being, including conservation of mass-energy. The three most fundamental equations for mass ( F = ma ; F = Gm1m2/r2 ; E = mc2 ) are all symmetric for positive and negative values of m. This suggests a family of negative mass particles ("unmatter"), with zero net mass-energy for the universe overall. The Big Bang would therefore have required zero net mass-energy, and would have produced two precisely concentric, inter-meshed, expanding spheres, one of positive m matter, the other of negative m unmatter. As the spheres expanded to their current, roughly 28 billion light-year diameters, they became progressively more segregated, leading to apparently huge voids if only one sphere is considered. As segregation further increased, the unbalanced local forces increased, leading to the observed and heretofore exceedingly puzzling accelerating expansion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1503.0040 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-06 04:09:43*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Spanish

In 1943 Erwin Schrödinger began a series of publications on Unitary Field Theory, with which wanted to unify the gravitational, electromagnetic and mesonics fields on a geometric basis. In this article, which is a continuation of [34], [35] and [36], we analyze the fourth of the purely affine theories of Schrödinger (Schrödinger-IV), where he used a connection asymmetric and a metric tensor also asymmetric and the simplest Lagrangian density that is proportional to the square root of the determinant of the Ricci tensor.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1503.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-04 09:36:08*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 5 journal pages

In this paper, it is shown that the classical addition of velocities is unavoidable, and follows naturally from an intrinsic physics concept. It is revealed that the relativistic addition of velocities and the Lorentz contraction simply lead to time transformations contradicting the Special Relativity predictions. Ironically, the Special Relativity time dilation prediction could be obtained from the classical addition of velocities and the Lorentz contraction, when the travel time of a two-way light trip is considered. A one-way (forward or backward) travel time leads to contradictions with the Special Relativity predictions. The special relativity time dilation factor could be obtained from the classical addition of velocities for a light trip in the transverse direction, but in contradiction with the speed of light postulate. Analyzed light travel time between relatively moving frame origins offers outcomes inconsistent with the Special Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1503.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-03 08:24:42*

**Authors:** Allen Graycek

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Results of laboratory studies of hydrogen-induced redshift indicate light is shifted spectrally as found in space.[1] Due to improvement in telescopic equipment, vast regions of hydrogen in and around galaxies are now being found, the necessary ingredient for redshift. If this is the cause of the cosmological redshift, then a universe exists that is not expanding, and there was no big bang. This is an effort to compare the big bang model (BBM) to a great age model (GAM). Approximate distances and ages can still be determined based on amounts of red shift currently seen. Size of the universe might be much larger than currently thought. With a GAM, inflation and dark energy are not needed. GAM allows sufficient time for stars to have full life cycles. This process involves their birth, consumption of all their fuel, then cooling to the point of non-visibility naturally resulting in many times more cool or invisible stars than bright ones. (The PIR acronym in the following refers to Plasma-Induced Redshift, also known as New Tired Light, NTL. It is referred to above as hydrogen-induced redshift)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology