[13] **viXra:0911.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 26 Jan 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** pages, 1 figure. Replaced due to marked re dos of contents of document
to adhere to minimum formatting protocol, and information contents expected of a 12
marcel Grossman conference entry. In particular, the conclusion has been almost
totally re done.

The issue of whether or not a correlation exists between neutrino physics and gravitational wave data
sets/gravitons is raised anew. Particular emphasis is placed on analysis of the Fuller and Kishimoto
scenario, suggesting that the wave function of a relic neutrino may span up to billions of light years
across galaxies because of its low energy and particles traveling at different speeds. There is an
initial close relationship between gravitational waves/gravitons and relic neutrinos in early-universe
nucleation, so is there is a corresponding "stretch-out" of gravitons? If so, what would this imply for
improved graviton/gravity wave detectors?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:0911.0065 [pdf]**
*replaced on 1 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 5 pages.

In this paper the author asks if DM and gravitons could also impact the cosmic acceleration of
the universe, leading to an increase of acceleration one billion years ago, in a manner usually attributed to
DE. Following Alves, et al. (2009) the author will high light what KK style gravitons, with a slightly
different mass profile could mean in terms of DM The consequences are from assuming that axions are
CDM, and KK gravitons are for WDM, then up to a point, ρ_{Warm-Dark-Matter} would dominate not only
structure formation in early universe formation, Further efforts in obtaining data for such suppositions
would lie in electro magnetic-graviton interactions contributing toward h_{0}^{2} Ω_{gw} (f) being appropriately measured.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:0911.0060 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-11 08:47:05*

**Authors:** H. Ron Harrison

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Final version includes a small variation to the basic equation.

Galileo studied bodies falling under gravity and Tycho Brahe made extensive astronomical observations which led Kepler to formulate his three famous laws of planetary motion. All these observations were of relative motion. This led Newton to propose his theory of gravity which could just as well have been expressed in a form that does not involve the concept of force. The approach in this paper extends the Newtonian theory and the Special Theory of Relativity by including relative velocity by comparison with electromagnetic effects and also from the form of measured data. This enables the non-Newtonian effects of gravity to be calculated in a simpler manner than by use of the General Theory of Relativity (GR). Application to the precession of the perihelion of Mercury and the gravitational deflection of light gives results which agree with observations and are identical to those of GR. It also gives the accepted expression for the Schwarzschild Radius. This approach could be used to determine non-Newtonian variations in the trajectories of satellites.
An extra term is then added to the initial basic equation which acts in the direction of the relative velocity. The amended basic equation now predicts a change in the speed of light and derives the accepted measured result for the Shapiro time delay. It also gives the accepted value for the Last Stable Orbit.
Because the extra term is a function of (v/c)4 the previously mentioned predictions are not significantly changed

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:0911.0050 [pdf]**
*replaced on 5 Jan 2010*

**Authors:** Steven Sesselmann

**Comments:** 12 pages.

A relativistic theory of cosmology proposing that the size of an observers Universe
depends on it's own rest mass, and that the observers total potential energy domain is
2mc^{2} , spanning the range from -mc^{2} to +mc^{2} . The space dimension of the observers
Universe is shown to be limited by the Schwarzschild Radius near the observers center of
gravity and by the observers Mass Horizon Radius (MHR) which is the maximum distance
from the origin, that an observer of mass m is able to interact.
By a leap of faith, this theory draws the conclusion that the size of the Universe is a mass
dependent variable. Calculations show that the current astronomical measurements of the
Universe, agrees closely with the MHR for a human weighing around 80 kg.
More importantly, the MHR gives us a mass to space ratio, which allows us to accurately
calculate the mass-energy of empty space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:0911.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Madonna-Megara Holloway

**Comments:** 15 pages, This paper is being published by the American Institue of Physics in the conference
proceedings for Space, Propulsion & Energy Sciences International Forum, February 23-26, 2010, at
John Hopkins University.

This paper is an abstract of a greater volume of work more than 30 years in formation. It is a thought
experiment. In order to present certain concepts, statements are made without supporting scientific
observations which would require a substantial manuscript to present. This paper defines a new fabric
for space and hypothesizes that matter is formed from this fabric through the agency of Black Holes.
Dark sound is theorized. As a consequence of this hypothesis a new model for the origin of the universe
is given including new definitions for Black Holes, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy. Neutral electricity,
cosmic planes and sub planes are defined. New processes for the coalescing of atoms, the rotation of
planets and the observed phenomena of Cosmic Fire are given. Gravity is defined as the result of
magnetism and chemical bonds between structures.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:0911.0029 [pdf]**
*replaced on 1 Apr 2010*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 4 pages, Published in Prespacetime Journal March 2010 Vol.1 Issue 2 Page 190-192

Giovanni Amelino-Camelia (2002) has proposed a theory whose hope (should
it be confirmed by experiments) is to supersede Einstein's 1905 Special Theory of
Relativity (STR). This theory is known as the Doubly Special Relativity (DSR)
and it proposes a new observer-independent scale-length. At this scale, it is agreed
that a particle that has reached this scale-length, has entered the Quantum Gravity
regime. According to the STR, observers will - in principle; not agree on whether
or not a particle has reached this length hence they will not agree as to when does
a particle enter the Quantum Gravity regime. This presents the STR with a "paradox".
Amongst others, the DSR is fashioned to solve this "puzzle/paradox". We
argue/show here, that the STR already implies such a scale-length - it is the complete
embodiment of the STR, thus we are left to excogitate; "Is the Doubly Special
Relativity theory necessary?".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:0911.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 14 May 2010*

**Authors:** Noel Eberz

**Comments:** 8 pages

While the assertions here are very different, they only add equivalent but
generalizing views on time, energy, mass & space, with a minimal set of operational
parameters. Foremost, justifying time as only Now and a 'dependant' variable of the Space
fabric and its contained Substance can yield a concise view of how the immediate universe
works. This includes defining all Mass as the confinement of energy and Energy, a
ubiquitous particle, always in motion with self-induced refractive optics behavior and
enhanced by decoding some relevance in the partial charge of Quarks.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:0911.0023 [pdf]**
*replaced on 17 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Bruce Rout

**Comments:** 11 pages

To date, methods of direct measurement of the distance to galaxies
have been limited in their range[1]. This paper makes direct
measurements of distant galaxies by comparing spiral arm structures to the
expected locus of gravitational influence along the geodesic in a
centripetally accelerating reference frame. Such measurements provide a
method of independent validation of the extragalactic distance ladder
without presupposition of the uniformly expanding universe theory. The
methodology of this paper avoids the use of Hubble's constant in the
measurement of the distance to galaxies beyond the range of
contemporary direct measurement methods. The measurements are validated by
meaningful trends between distance and other variables such as mass,
rotational velocity, size and angular momentum to validate the
measurements made. A Hubble diagram calculated using this method is
presented from data obtained from 111 spiral galaxies in the
southern hemisphere to about 200 MPc distance. The galactic red shift from
these galaxies appears independent to distance. Galactic structure, size,
masses and angular momentum are seen to have a distinct relationship
to the spin velocity, or tangential velocity, associated with each galaxy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:0911.0022 [pdf]**
*replaced on 28 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 6 pages, This paper has also been published as a Google "Knol".

In 1997 the Argentinean physicist Juan Maldacena produced a mathematically rigorous
model of a hypothetical 5-dimensional Universe which conforms to certain principles of
the holographic metaphor. In Maldacena's model a 4-D Universe (3 space, 1 time) is the
boundary membrane of the 5-D "bulk" Universe (4 space, 1 time). The physics in the two
Universes are virtually indistinguishable, except that the 4-D Universe lacks gravity while
the 5-D Universe is gravitational. Maldacena's model seems to fit my own "Spacetime
Map of the Universe", which I have consequently come to interpret as a map of a 5-dimensional
Cosmos, incorporating 4 large spatial dimensions and 1 time dimension.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:0911.0021 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-08-14 17:52:06*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Moving clocks measure spacetime, not just "pure" time. Insofar as the intrinsic motion of light and the intrinsic motion of time are the entropy drives of free and bound energy, clocks also measure the march of temporal entropy. A moving clock incorporates space into its time measurements, thus "spacing out" its ticks or temporal intervals in relativistic proportion to its velocity, hence "running slow" (and hence measuring spacetime, not just time). The stationary clock of course does not incorporate any space into its temporal measurement, and so records "pure" time. A clock's running rate can be changed by mechanical accelerations/decelerations or a gravitational field. This was Einstein's great discovery regarding the relative or local nature of time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:0911.0019 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-08-15 21:59:50*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Whereas massless forms of energy (such as light) have intrinsic motion within their entropic conservation domain (space), massive forms of energy (such as ourselves) have no intrinsic motion within our entropic conservation domain (history). Rather, we experience an eternal "now", which is only tangentially connected to history. In our case, it is the time dimension itself which moves, carrying us with it, like passengers on a train. This arrangement allows the "passengers" to achieve an intrinsic motion in history which is the metric equivalent of light's intrinsic motion in space, a velocity which would otherwise be impossible for them (excepting only in the black hole, where a moving spatial dimension carries massive objects at "velocity c").

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:0911.0016 [pdf]**
*replaced on 18 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Bruce Rout

**Comments:** 4 pages

The accurate measurement of extragalactic distances is a central
challenge of modern astronomy, being required for any realistic
description of the age, geometry and fate of the Universe. The measurement
of relative extragalactic distances has become fairly routine, but
estimates of absolute distances are rare.[1] In the vicinity of the Sun, direct
geometric techniques for obtaining absolute distances, such as orbital
parallax, are feasible, but heretofore such techniques have been difficult
to apply to other galaxies. As a result, uncertainties in the expansion
rate and age of the Universe are dominated by uncertainties in the
absolute calibration of the extragalactic distance ladder[2]. Here we compare
previous distance measurements to the galaxy NGC 4258 from both an
estimate of Hubble's constant and a direct measurement of orbital
motions in a disk of gas surrounding the nucleus of this galaxy to a direct
measurement using a model of constant rotational velocity and galactic
spiral morphology. The results of the comparison help validate methods
of direct measurement of spiral galaxies to much greater distances.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:0911.0006 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-09 09:54:36*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 17 Pages. replacing "spacemap" figure

I present a 4-dimensional spacetime map of the cosmos showing our position in it and how we view the universe. We exist on the spacetime edge of the cosmos looking backward in time toward its beginning and "center" as we look outward in every direction in space. As we look deeper into spacetime we look into successively smaller and younger historical eras of our universe, all of which nevertheless surround us completely. Implications for cosmology (including the theory of "inflation") resulting from this (generally unappreciated) perspective are discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology