[39] **viXra:1805.0525 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-29 13:42:50*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

From four Maxwell-Hertz equations for the vacuum and two modified material equations, two equations describing the propagation of the electromagnetic wave with the slower speed, the stronger the gravitational field, were obtained.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1805.0524 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-29 14:07:02*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** Pages.

Z czterech wektorowych równań Maxwella-Hertza dla próżni i dwóch zmodyfikowanych wektorowych równań materiałowych, otrzymano dwa równania wektorowe opisujące propagację fali elektromagnetycznej z prędkością o wartości tym mniejszej, im silniejsze jest pole grawitacyjne.
###
From four Maxwell-Hertz equations for the vacuum and two modified material equations, two equations describing the propagation of the electromagnetic wave with the slower speed, the stronger the gravitational field, were obtained.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1805.0512 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-28 08:29:23*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 41 Pages.

Now a group of actual physicists from Australia and Switzerland have proposed a device which uses the quantum tunneling of magnetic flux around a capacitor, breaking time-reversal symmetry. [26]
The arrow of time and the accelerated expansion are two fundamental empirical facts of the universe. [25]
The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24]
“We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit.” [23]
Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22]
They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21]
Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1805.0508 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-28 11:17:35*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** Pages.

Ze zmodyfikowanych równań Maxwella-Hertza w postaci trójwymiarowej wynika, że fale grawitacyjne mają wpływ na zjawiska elektromagnetyczne. Możliwa jest zatem bardzo prosta metoda detekcji pól grawitacyjnych o zmieniającej się w czasie wartości wyznacznika tensora metrycznego.
###
From the modified Maxwell-Hertz equations in three-dimensional form, it appears that gravitational waves have an effect on electromagnetic phenomena. Therefore, a very simple method of detection of gravitational fields with a time-varying value of the determinant of the metric tensor is possible.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1805.0507 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-30 04:09:44*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

From the modified Maxwell-Hertz equations in three-dimensional form, it appears that gravitational waves have an effect on electromagnetic phenomena. Therefore, a very simple method of detection of gravitational fields with a time-varying value of the determinant of the metric tensor is possible.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1805.0481 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-27 23:05:47*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 4 pages, 10 equations, 4 references.

Our realistic non-singular approach to cosmology predicts an upper bound to measurable cosmic redshifts. This corresponds to the lowest possible scale where the density of electromagnetic radiation equates the density of matter. We examine the highest possible
redshifts that correspond to a cold cyclic cosmology where galaxies survive to remain the main protagonists forever. A tight range for
highest redshift like 11<z<20 is predicted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1805.0480 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-28 03:50:32*

**Authors:** Alexander I.Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.

**Comments:** 1 Page. dubinyansky@mail.ru

http://universe100.narod.ru/E350-Einstein.html .
A simple experiment is proposed, without any measurement of the speed of light, to determine the absolute reference frame in space. It can be held by every scientist who has a Foucault pendulum. That is a compact load of great weight, on a very long and thin string. This experiment will put an end to the dispute, there is an ether or does not exist.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1805.0475 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-26 08:49:42*

**Authors:** Ozan Yarman, Ricardo Gobato, Tolga Yarman, Metin Arik.

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This study presents a unique set of solutions, using empirically determined physical quantities, in achieving a novel dimensionless constant α(1/Roo )/PL from the ratio of the inverse of the Rydberg constant to the Planck length. It is henceforth shown that the Lorentz Scalar coming into play, which we dub the Parana constant, necessitates us to interpret the Gravitational constant G as being neither universal nor Lorentz Invariant. Just the same, the elementary charge in the MKS system should not by itself be considered as Lorentz Invariant, but the term e^2 / εo , including its powers, ought to be. That being the case, the “Rydberg constant” must not, according to the present undertaking, be deemed a ubiquitous magnitude either, but the ratio of its reciprocal to Planck length would, in effect, be. The Parana constant is furthermore shown to exhibit meaningfulness as the proportion of the Planck mass to the electron rest mass. Throughout our derivations, we take the oppurtunity to reveal interesting features and deliberate over them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1805.0449 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-17 21:44:58*

**Authors:** Gene H Barbee

**Comments:** 45 Pages. Please contact me at genebarbee@msn.com

Flat galaxy rotation curves were observed in the 1930’s by Dutch Astronomer Jan Oort. Most cosmologists today attribute the difference between observed flat and calculated declining Keplerian velocity curves to dark matter despite decades of failed efforts to identify it. Recent WMAP [4] and PLANCK mission scientists believe it is 23% of critical density (the total mass or energy in the universe). There are other difficulties:
Why are baryons only 4.6% of critical density?
What is dark energy and why is it 72% of critical density?
What caused the temperature anisotropy measured by WMAP and PLANCK?
Astrophysics literature says “the universe is flat”; what does that mean?
But even more basic:
What is space-time?
Quantum mechanics applies at the small scale but the general theory of relativity is large scale gravitational theory. Are they incompatible?
These are not easy problems to solve. Any claim regarding different percentages of critical density must address baryon/photon ratios that determine observed fractions of Deuterium, Helium3 and Lithium7. Different claims must also address conditions at equality of photon and mass density and the temperature anisotropy observed at decoupling (where the plasma clears and electrons can orbit protons). Understanding space and gravity more thoroughly than Einstein’s general theory of relativity requires bridging small and large scale physics.
A neutronproton mass model and cellular cosmology, both previously reported by the author, were combined into what the author believes is a first principles cosmology model that resolves these questions. In addition, the model exactly predicts temperature anisotropy at decoupling and star formation rates.
And even more basic? Where do the laws of physics reside? If they are built into nature, is there any they can be detected besides observing nature and making observations? Actually, the cosmology model provides a huge clue. The core of the cosmology model is inside the proton and it “produces” the universe. The proton describes the cell, including the space around it. But components of each proton are improbable (1/exp(180)) and there are exp(180) protons. In three dimensions, cell radius*exp(60) represents the universe!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1805.0445 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-25 03:32:39*

**Authors:** Sandro Antonelli

**Comments:** 9 Pages. CC BY 4.0 Licence by Oalib.com

I outline a new hypothetical approach issuing a second gravitational equation in the scope of a promising model tackling the gravitational wave problem. This wave equation for graviton is framed in the endeavour to bridge the puzzling missing link to allow for quantum scale physics in a unifying gravity theory, through a new coupling constant S: thus wave is regarded as a symmetry breaking of general covariance of field equations through contraction of Riemann tensor by a constant tensor. That also allows an inertial mass to be assigned to the graviton (OE-25 eV/c^2). This extension of General Relativity stems from self-evident considerations on the differential conditions of compatibility involving the two fundamental tensors on the curvature of the Space-Time continuum. Some considerations about last detected events are broached on the gauging of S constant, bringing forth a value that differs of two orders of magnitude with respect to the fitting of known binary star systems, unless source parameters be revised.
Keywords: Gravitational waves; 2nd fundamental tensor; tensorial curl; local and global invariance

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1805.0426 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-23 23:21:45*

**Authors:** John Raymond

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Abstract: The 1887 Michelson and Morley experiment continues to be widely seen by mainstream physicists as producing a null result. This is not correct. It produced a less than expected result that at that time could not be explained by science. It seems likely that mainstream physicists will continue to see the results of the Michelson and Morley experiment as being a null result. The reasons for this seem unfathomable. Numerous experiments conducted be respected physicists since 1887 have demonstrated a positive result by replicable experiments. This includes Sagnac in 1913. The Sagnac experiment has never been seriously challenged by the physics community. As a concept scientist I talk about these matters. I have employed Einstein’s lightning, train and observers analogy as a means of demonstrating that the Sagnac effect seems to be a demonstrably reliable theory. This includes other similar theories as well. This is in regards to the splitting of light and the subsequent projection of the resulting two new light sources onto the same surface. conceptscience@bigpond.com

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1805.0416 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-24 09:13:41*

**Authors:** Yevgeny B. Karasik

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is shown that in addition to the two well known postulates of special relativity, namely the constancy of the speed of light in any inertial frame of reference and the principle of relativity, there is a third postulate special relativity is based upon. This postulate is the assumption that it is possible to synchronize clocks located at different points of the same inertial frame of reference. This assumption implies that common time exists for all points of the same inertial frame of reference, which can be considered as another formulation of the same postulate.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1805.0411 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-15 15:41:44*

**Authors:** Lars Frølund Jensen

**Comments:** 11 Pages. An additional argument against SR, plus minor changes in the paper

In this paper I argue for the following assertions: 1. Special Relativity (SR) leads to predictions, which are in conflict with its own foundation. 2. There exist a scientific "approved" alternative theory which – probably – are in completely accordance with all the experimental results, which seems to have confirmed SR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1805.0406 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-21 11:37:47*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: In the development of HCE8S theory it has become clear that the microwave background radiation is of lesser importance than the much more energetic dark energy components of metric space expansion and faster space communication. Accordingly, the"bigbangaton" gauge boson needs to be replaced with two new gauge bosons for which I propose the names "Cosmophoton" and "Metricon".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1805.0357 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-19 17:47:00*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 9 Pages. If endorsed as acceptable by Corda, this will be submitted as a would be talk to Marcel Grossman 15, before May 30

We find that having the scale factor close to zero due to a given magnetic field value in, an early universe magnetic field affects how we would interpret Mukhanov’s chapter on ‘self reproduction of the universe’ in in his reference “Physical foundations of cosmology” terms of production of inhomogeneity during inflation and its aftermath. The stronger an early universe magnetic field is, the greater the likelihood of production of about 20 new domains of size 1/ H, with H early universe Hubble’s constant, per Planck time interval in evolution. One final caveat to consider. What may happen is that the Camara (2004) density and Quintessential density (Corda et al.) are both simultaneously satisfied, which would put additional restrictions on the magnetic field which in turn affects structure formation. In time, once Eq.(16) of this paper is refined further, the author hopes that some of the issues raised by Kobayashi and Seto as to allowed inflation models may be addressed, once further refinement of these preliminary results commences . We close as to how fluctuations in the Hubble expansion parameter, H, as given below may affect structure as given in reference [10] below. We close with statements as to the value of in a gravitational potential proportional to and how this adjustment affects the 3 body problem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1805.0345 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-18 04:51:36*

**Authors:** Christian M. Wackler

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The question whether light moves with constant or variable velocity is indubitably of the utmost importance. Preliminary reflections concerning the nature of that movement contrast the hypotheses of propagation and emission. As a brief historical examination reveals, alleged evidences in favour of the invariance postulate turn out to be erroneous or inconclusive and supposedly decisive tests methodologically invalid. An emission theory based on Michael Faraday's idea of ray vibrations is shown to be in accordance with observation. The question whether the speed of light depends on the velocity of its source has thus not been settled experimentally since only a kinematic test, to date never conducted, can give an unambiguous answer. Juxtaposed to seemingly similar but defective designs Wilhelm Wien put forward in 1904, such an experiment, amending a set-up suggested by Herbert Dingle, is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1805.0305 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-15 14:51:04*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: In studying the accuracy of HCE8S theory in predicting mc^2 values for the particles, I have made several minor changes which have improved predictions considerably yet in strange ways

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1805.0304 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-15 16:37:07*

**Authors:** Frederik Vantomme

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Is Stephen Hawking’s End of Pi-day a coincidence?

I propose to rewrite the volume equation for the non-euclidian spherical

Universe in terms of *tau* instead of π. Written this new way, a truly elegant

equation and deeper structure becomes visible. Further, I postulate

that the Universe *is* the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, i.e. that the 3

dimensional Universe we live in is the derivative-surface of its 4 dimensional

hypersphere volume.

[21] **viXra:1805.0298 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-12 21:30:21*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

We present a simple model of cosmology inspired by a cycle of statistical physics involving the age, the size and the entropy of the system. The model is formalized in statistical physics by the introduction of a micro-state q defined only with a time quantity t(q) and a position quantity x(q). In this representation, many of the laws of classical physics (inertia, special relativity, general relativity, and dark energy) are emergent as entropic laws and are associated to the thermodynamic trade-offs between the age and size of the system. The representation also produces an emergent arrow of time which, when acting on these laws, enforces the cosmological horizons that bound the observable universe by abruptly limiting the occupancy rate of the micro-states beyond them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1805.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-15 03:34:29*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** Pages.

Wykazałem, że wartość prędkości światła w Czarnodziurowym Wszechświecie jest tym mniejsza, im silniejsze jest pole grawitacyjne. Podałem wzór na czas przelotu światła z Ziemi do danego punktu Czarnodziurowego Wszechświata.
###
I showed that the speed of light in the Black Hole Universe is the smaller the stronger the gravitational field. I gave the formula for time of travel of light from the Earth to a given point of the Black Hole Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1805.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-15 03:38:00*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

I showed that the speed of light in the Black Hole Universe is the smaller the stronger the gravitational field. I gave the formula for time of travel of light from the Earth to a given point of the Black Hole Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1805.0280 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-13 08:14:03*

**Authors:** Ayman Kassem

**Comments:** 134 Pages.

This is a model characterised by its simplicity , it explains the events
running from the big bang to the present day and scales from the
planck scale to the size of the universe , all these in terms of one
sub particle and a set of four fundamental forces along with their
subsequent interactions
This is a bottom up approach instead of the usual top down one
the interaction at the planck scale level holds a determinant role
in the play of forces at a cosmological level

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1805.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-13 11:26:04*

**Authors:** Laszlo G Meszaros

**Comments:** 3 Pages. None

By using Einstein's procedure to determine whether or not two spatially separated events occur at the same time, it is shown that simultaneity does not depend on the observer's reference frame, but the assessment of simultaneity does. Thus Einstein's claim of relative simultaneity is unsubstantiated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1805.0251 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-10 15:42:13*

**Authors:** Edward G. Lake

**Comments:** 28 Pages. Corrected errors and added new Experiment #11

Einstein’s “Gedanken” experiments (thought experiments) - particularly his train-embankment thought experiments - were apparently intended to explain Special Relativity logically and in layman’s terms, but they were written in an incredibly convoluted way, which seems to have resulted in them being misinterpreted by many physicists. This is the simplified logic of Einstein’s key thought experiments.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1805.0247 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-15 23:03:47*

**Authors:** Julian Williams

**Comments:** 127 Pages. A much better explanation of why the ideas proposed in this paper don't require initial inflation.

The fundamental particles can be formed from infinite superpositions with mass borrowed from a Higgs type scalar field, but energy also borrowed from the spatial component of zero point fields. At high energies this is from local invariant fields, but at cosmic wavelengths from the receding horizon. We explore relating this with gravity and find that it only works in an exponentially expanding (in the matter era only)flat on average universe.This may relate with the present discrepancy in the different ways of measuring the Hubble parameter. Expansion in the radiation era is constant. Whether different regions of the early Universe were in causal contact or not, they expand uniformly, except for initial quantum fluctuations. There is no need for inflation for this to be so.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1805.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-11 14:32:18*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It is felt by many that faster-than-light particles (tachyons) exist though none has been detected so far; this lack of evidence raises some doubt as to whether such particles exist. However, it may not be possible to detect these faster-than-light particles even if they exist. Is there any possibility at all in detecting these particles, if they exist? This paper ponders the existence of tachyons and introduces some possibilities for their detection.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1805.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-09 04:30:48*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** Pages.

W ramach czarnodziurowego modelu Wszechświata podałem zależność poczerwienienia światła docierającego do Ziemi od odległości galaktyki będącej źródłem tego światła. Liniowy fragment wykresu tej zależności koresponduje z obserwacjami Hubble’a. Nieliniowa część przedstawia gwałtowny wzrost poczerwienienia.
###
Within the framework of the black-hole model of the Universe, I gave the dependence of the redshift of light reaching the Earth versus the distance of the galaxy that is the source of this light. The linear fragment of the graph of this relationship corresponds with Hubble’s observations. The non-linear part represents a sharp increase of the redshift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1805.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-09 04:38:52*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** Pages.

Within the framework of the black-hole model of the Universe, I gave the dependence of the redshift of light reaching the Earth versus the distance of the galaxy that is the source of this light. The linear fragment of the graph of this relationship corresponds with Hubble’s observations. The non-linear part represents a sharp increase of the redshift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1805.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-08 08:01:50*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Inertia of a body is due to electromagnetic interaction of the body with all matter in the universe. If there is coil B nearby a current carrying coil A whose current is varying with time, voltage and current will be induced in coil B, whose magnetic field will in turn act on coil A, creating a back EMF in coil A, resisting changes in current in coil A. Inertia is fundamentally the same phenomenon. Inertial mass of a body varies with the distance of the body from celestial objects. Inertial mass also varies with absolute velocity. This theory may resolve some long standing mysteries in physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1805.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-08 11:56:17*

**Authors:** G. N. N. Martin

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

There is a fundamental incompatibility between the logic of causality and that of measurement: causality is defined at a point, whereas measurement is defined over a volume. This problem is illustrated by Schrödinger's wave equation for an electron, where the wave equation describes the evolution of the electron by describing the evolution of the wave at each point, but measurement is made on the electron as a whole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1805.0163 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-31 09:14:31*

**Authors:** Branko Zivlak

**Comments:** 7 Pages. 18 formulas

Escape velocity from the E.G. Haug has been checked. It is compared with orbital velocity formula for an ideal circular path. The formulas are simplified so that we have only one variable that contains the Planck values and the mass of the central body. In the case of an arbitrary star, the values of these velocities are determined during its compression to the black hole. Unlike the standard and relativistic formulas that are approximations for a weak gravitational field, Haug's formula is exact for a weak and strong gravitational field. The relationships between formulas showed the importance of the golden ratio below the Schwarzschild radius.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1805.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-07 08:10:19*

**Authors:** Hartmut Traunmüller

**Comments:** Pages.

This is a summary of the cosmological model that emerged in the paper "Towards a more well-founded cosmology". The theory on which the model is based explains the velocity c, the cosmic redshift and the phenomenon of inertia; it predicts the observable relation between the redshift factor (1+z) and the magnitude of distant standard candles (SNe Ia etc.) as well as the observable angular sizes of distant objects (galaxies etc.). It predicts inertia to be reduced at small accelerations - as observable in galactic dynamics and phenomenologically described in Modified Newtonian Mechanics. It honors conservation of energy and the perfect cosmological principle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1805.0144 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-08 06:01:25*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Thank you for reading

In IJTP-D-18-00281 or preprint “General relativity and the representation of
solutions”(Sangwha Yi write) in researchgate ,we found new general relativity theory (we
call it Data General Relativity Theory;DGRT). We treats the data of Hawking radiation
by Data general relativity theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1805.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-06 07:20:02*

**Authors:** Yury Rabyshko

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

The article gives a brief exposition of the solution of cosmological problems. The problem of stability and shortage of mass in galaxies, huge velocities of galactic clusters is solved. The law of formation of fundamental constants, the law of nonlinear expansion of the Universe, the law of gravitational interaction is found. Proof of the hypothesis of large Dirac numbers. This is the English version.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1805.0129 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-06 21:50:34*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Fixed minor typo in Eq. (5.6)

An overview of the fundamentals of gravity waves intended for undergraduate physics students, curious high schoolers, and brilliant 4th graders, utilizing the traditional linearized form of Einstein’s field equations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1805.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-06 09:29:50*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This note proposes a topic to the upcoming 7th Conference on Applied Geometric Algebras.
It conjectures that exact impedance quantization of the fractional quantum Hall effect,
claims of gravitational wave echoes recovered from LIGO/VIRGO data, and mixmaster tidal
oscillations of Professor Thorne’s wife share causal origins in quantized impedance networks
of Geometric Wavefunction Interactions of the particle physicist’s Clifford algebra.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1805.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-05 17:41:51*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu, Vasco Guerra

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

The twin paradox is considered in a one-way trip. Usually it is considered in a two-way trip. In the usual formulation, the problem, the relative ageing of the twins during the one-way trip, is hidden by the total ageing of the twins in the round trip. It is shown that if we know the relative ageing of the twins during the one-way trip there is no paradox and therefore the allegedly necessity to consider acceleration or the change of the frame argumentations does not emerge. It is also shown that the problem of simultaneity is irrelevant since in a one-way trip the twin can age slower or faster than the stay at home twin and therefore the asymmetry must have an explanation different of the standard explanation based on the time dilation effect. It is shown that Special Relativity is enough to solve the twin paradox. The twin paradox is a classical case of a not well formulated problem (an ill-formulated problem)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1805.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-04 13:07:04*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 157 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

“Because Einstein’s STR is wrong, the scientists at CERN get wrong measurements”
Adrian Ferent
“If you add more energy than the energy at rest, you do not have a proton anymore, you have only energy”
Adrian Ferent
“If the kinetic energy Ek calculated at CERN is 7452 times the rest energy of a proton, they do not collide anymore protons at CERN”
Adrian Ferent
“At CERN they collide protons with 7 TeV and they measure particles with 900 MeV. Where are those 7 TeV?
Adrian Ferent
My Special Theory of Relativity (STR) explains that the proton can not have a kinetic energy higher than the rest energy, 938 MeV.
“Because Einstein’s STR is wrong, the scientists at CERN get wrong measurements”
Adrian Ferent
Infinite!
You learned from Einstein, from your professors, from your books that at the speed of light the energy is infinite!
“The energy at the speed of light is not infinite, the energy is E = m0c^2”
Adrian Ferent
Here is the trouble and all physicists followed him:
“Einstein did not understand Special Theory of Relativity and General Theory of Relativity”
Adrian Ferent
At CERN the scientists say that the protons have the energy 7TeV with a speed v = 99.9999991%•c; they calculated using Einstein’s wrong STR.
Lorentz factor = 7453
The rest energy of a proton is 938 MeV.
The kinetic energy of the proton Ek = 6.99 TeV. My STR explains that the proton can not have a kinetic energy higher than the rest energy, 938 MeV.
“The total energy, must be smaller than E = m0c^2 “
Adrian Ferent
But the kinetic energy Ek calculated at CERN is 7452 times the rest energy of a proton.
“If you add more energy than the energy at rest, you do not have a proton anymore, you have only energy”
Adrian Ferent
“If the kinetic energy Ek calculated at CERN is 7452 times the rest energy of a proton, they do not collide anymore protons at CERN”
Adrian Ferent
From these results Einstein’s equation for the kinetic energy is wrong, and the Lorentz factor is wrong.
The Lorentz factor is right only if the speed is smaller than v = 0.786•c; at CERN the speed is much higher.
“The speed in the Lorentz factor must be smaller than v = 0.786•c, than
v = 2.358×10^8 m/s”
Adrian Ferent
“Because the speed in the Lorentz factor must be smaller than v = 0.786•c, it means the Lorentz transformations are wrong”
Adrian Ferent
If I consider 1 proton has the rest energy of 1 GeV, scientists say at CERN 1 proton has the energy of 7000 protons (7TeV). This means when they collide 2 protons they obtain 14000 protons (14TeV).
That is why at CERN the measurements are wrong, because of Einstein’s wrong STR.
This is the proof that Einstein’s STR is wrong and my STR is right.
Measurement accuracy at CERN: when you want to measure very accurate 1 gram of gold, you do not use 7000 grams to measure 1 gram of gold.
Did they measure 1 TeV the proton energy at Fermilab (Tevatron), 7 TeV the proton energy at CERN (LHC) or only they calculated these energies with Einstein’s STR?
Because my solution for STR: for v = 0.999999991•c at CERN the Lorentz factor is wrong! Einstein’s STR is wrong.
Lorentz transformations are wrong.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1805.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-05-02 10:03:13*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Presented on the 17th of April 2018 at the Ohio Meeting of the American Physical Society, Columbus, Ohio. http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/APR18/Session/Y13.6

When Einstein formulated his Special Theory of Relativity he tacitly assumed that it is possible to construct systems of clock-synchronised stationary observers consistent with the Lorentz Transformation. Such systems of observers are essential to the Special Theory. By mathematically constructing an infinite system of stationary observers and forcing it to comply with the Lorentz Transformation, it follows that the observers cannot be clocksynchronised. Conversely, by mathematically constructing an infinite system of clocksynchronised observers and forcing it to comply with the Lorentz Transformation, it follows that the observers cannot be stationary. Only one element of each of the said sets of observers has the deceptive appearance of satisfying Einstein's assumption. It is this element which Einstein incorrectly allowed to speak for all observers by virtue of his assumption; but clearly not all observers are equivalent. Furthermore, a system consisting of a single observer cannot be clock-synchronised or stationary with respect to anything. Einstein defined time by means of clocks. In so doing he detached time from physical reality because time is perceived and understood by the motion of celestial bodies, which is independent of the hands of a clock.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology