[28] **viXra:1911.0501 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-05 00:35:43*

**Authors:** Matthew Taylor

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Original work. All rights reserved.

The problematic assumption associated with the observed precession of the perihelion of Mercury is Mercury formed as it appears today. If Mercury’s origins were different from its assumed origins, then the calculated estimate of its density would be inaccurate and this minor discrepancy would account for the precession of Mercury’s perihelion. A minor increase in density wouldn't affect Mercury's mass or volume either. (See paper for details.) If Mercury's estimated density is in error, then the calculated precession of Mercury’s perihelion would also be erroneous. Asserting a Relativistic solution would require all values to be accurate and the methodology to be sufficient. And, such a solution would also require ignoring the actual formation of the planet Mercury.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1911.0499 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2020-01-17 06:30:09*

**Authors:** Donghui Wang

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In this study, a method of bending a fan ring-shaped copper sheet into a “3D arc” or a “ring” is introduced, and the physical mechanism and mathematical connections during bending process are analyzed. Then, the shape and formation principle of the “ring” and a water wave are analyzed and compared. It is concluded that a “ring” and a water wave have many similarities. The measure of how much the water body is bent is deduced by referring to the measure of how much the quadrant is bent. Then, the relationship between the shape evolution and physical quantity variation in the water wave is studied. A series of equivalent relations are obtained, and these relations are applied to the energy calculations of a water wave or a gravitational wave. Finally, it is concluded that in the future, people will be able to determine the distance from the interception point to the gravitational wave center, the energy of the gravitational wave, and the momentum as well as and the surface gravitational acceleration of the moving body by analyzing various data of the gravitational waves from other planets.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1911.0498 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-29 03:07:56*

**Authors:** Jeremy Dunning-Davies, Richard Lawrence Norman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Following recent announcements concerning the detection of gravitational waves and the accompanying claims that this offers further proof of the validity of the theory of general relativity, here some long forgotten work showing that the existence of such waves was predicted in the very early years of the last century and had been hinted at even before that is brought to light. Yet again the question of whether or not a piece of experimental work establishes the place of general relativity in modern physics is raised.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1911.0458 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-27 02:48:38*

**Authors:** Matthew Taylor

**Comments:** 1 Page. Original work. All rights reserved.

This is the third paper in a series intended to breakdown the original paper, Natural Mechanics (http://vixra.org/abs/1911.0294).
This paper will build upon the previously discussed photonic discharge from the variations in the spatial field’s densities by adding in the next emergent layer, photonic entanglement. This discussion will lead in to the integration and evolution of particles in the microscopic world.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1911.0449 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-11-30 18:30:52*

**Authors:** F.M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 35 Pages. In French. A resume is submited to Astrophysics and Space Science

The Diophantine interpretation of the third Kepler law directly implies the single
electron cosmology and puts forward links between gravitation, quantum physics,
cosmology, particle physics and the cristallographic spaces with the superstring 10
and 11-dimensions. The critical condition is interpreted as an holographic
conservation that puts back the Planck wall by a factor 10^61, resolving the vacuum
energy dilema. Matter is a very rapid (10^103 Hz) oscillation matter-antimatter,
while dark matter is a quadrature oscillation. The Nambu mass and the DNA codon
mass play a central cosmic role, while the asymetry proton-electron explains the
baryon relative density 0.047. The observed matter density is compatible with the
trivial value 3/10, itself confirmed by the Eddington's large number. The holographic
two-step interaction defines the photon and graviton masses, and confirms the
Grandcosmos, which is, contrary to the non-scientific Multiverse, observable by its
trace, the Cosmic Microwave Background. The central role of the Atiyah constant is
confirmed in the Topological Axis which rehabilitates the bosonic string theory. The
forgotten Eddington's Proton-Tau symmetry is confirmed by the diophantine
prolongation of the Kepler law (Holic Principle). Connections reaching the ppb
precision are obtained with a prediction for G compatible with the BIPM value. The
mysterious numerical factors are interpretated as optimal computation bases in a
Cosmos-computer, the first step to understand Biology. The overwhelming
connections between physical constants, cosmical parameters and biologic ones
imply an uinersality of intelligent life,with an holographic coputing ADN. The errors
of the present scientific system are analyzed, resulting principally from the forgetting
of the Cosmos concept, meaning beauty and simplicity. It would be the reason why
extra-terrestrial civilisations dare not communicate with us.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1911.0448 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-05 01:09:20*

**Authors:** Matthew Taylor

**Comments:** 1 Page. Original work. All rights reserved.

This is the first paper in what will be an extensive breakdown of my original paper "Natural Mechanics". When we are considering the vastness of space, the evidence-based arguments in this paper draw the reasonable conclusion the default position should be space is infinite.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1911.0442 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-26 06:16:26*

**Authors:** Matthew Taylor

**Comments:** 1 Page. Original work. All rights reserved.

This is the second paper in a series intended to breakdown the original paper, Natural Mechanics (http://vixra.org/abs/1911.0294). In this paper we build upon infinite space by discussing empty space, the spatial field, variations in densities (charges) within the spatial field, charge-charge interactions and, finally, the discharge of Nature’s essential building blocks, photons.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1911.0440 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-26 07:17:01*

**Authors:** John Hodge

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) suggests gravity emerges from magnetic effects of hods in matter structures. An experiment is performed to demonstrate the net magnetic field from hods in a body only attracts the hods from other masses to evolve into the gravity affect for distances greater than molecular sizes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1911.0439 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-26 07:23:59*

**Authors:** Midhun P Radhakrishnan

**Comments:** Pages.

It explains why light speed is independent of frame of references and describes gravitation and time in a different perspective.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1911.0402 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-23 10:20:08*

**Authors:** Ritesh Singh

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We refer to distance variation as the change in Lorentz contracted apparent distance of a body in motion relative to an observer, due to a change in the velocity of the observer. We show that distance variation can have a large contribution in the apparent velocities of distant bodies. We propose that this needs to be included in cosmological models. We also show that it can potentially explain some observed cosmological peculiarities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1911.0400 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-23 18:40:56*

**Authors:** Raymond H Gallucci

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This work was inspired by Hughes’ book The Binary Universe, which proposes a unique theory about the nature of time and its dominance over phenomena since as gravity and electromagnetic radiation. While Hughes treats time as variable and time dilation as a real phenomenon, I divert while retaining much of Hughes’ proposals to speculate that time is immutable and equivalent to change, albeit progressing at a fixed rate analogous to the fastest proposed by Hughes – the Planck time interval.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1911.0367 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-21 11:20:19*

**Authors:** Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis

**Comments:** 6 pages, 3 figures

Now the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) is the cornerstone of contemporary physics. The comprehension of SRT is based on the presumption that all what one sees, hears, measures or in some other way perceives is reality. It leads to inexplicable paradoxes such as twin, Ehrenfest, spaceship and other paradoxes of relativity. The article discloses a different view, i.e., the measured values of physical items are apparent and the SRT allows to calculate real actual values. There are no paradoxes in this case.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1911.0362 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-21 13:34:44*

**Authors:** R. Wayte.

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

This paper comprises extracts from previous articles showing how Einstein’s general relativity equations can describe different forces by substituting the associated constants. The articles depended upon a new solution of Einstein’s equations which is compatible with electromagnetic theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1911.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-19 18:26:19*

**Authors:** Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 25 Pages. The new physical theory called the Special Theory of Ether.

The paper explains the time dilation phenomenon and the Lorentz-FitzGeralda contraction phenomenon on the basis of Special Theory of Ether. Presented explanations are based on the construction of innovative technical models of these phenomena, and not only on their classical description. Time dilation is a natural property of time measured by the light clock.
The paper shows that time dilation phenomenon is a proof of the existence of universal frame of reference, in which the electromagnetic interaction propagates.
It has been shown that there are no theoretical grounds to argue that the velocity of light in a vacuum is the maximum velocity. The adoption of such a doctrine in modern physics results from an overinterpretation of the mathematics on which Special Theory of Relativity is based.
The model presented here shows how the atomic clocks can be used to determine the motion relative to the universal frame of reference in which electromagnetic signals propagate. The presented model also shows how Michelson-Morley’s experiment can be modified to be able to detect movement with respect to ether.
The paper explains what time is in kinematics theories.
The entire article includes only original research conducted by its author.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1911.0304 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-17 10:20:29*

**Authors:** Walter Orlov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Closer to the sun the relativistic dependence is violated. The gravitational field becomes stronger than calculated by the general relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1911.0257 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-15 06:56:30*

**Authors:** Randolf Rolff

**Comments:** 7 pages; German language Deutsch: Neues Paradoxon in der SRT– Masse-Feder-Masse-Schwinger

When calculating the resonance frequency of a fast moving mass-spring-mass oscillator, this contradicts the relativistic time dilation. The calculated frequency depends on the inertial system used for the calculation. There are indications that the elastic potential energy of a spring decreases with increasing speed and does not increase as predicted by the theory of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1911.0239 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-11-16 07:38:49*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Albert Einstein said against Quantum Physics: "God does not play dice''. Einstein has never accepted the Quantum Physics. So, there can be contradiction between the Theory of Relativity and Quantum Physics. That mean, that one or more of these two theories are incomplete. Just like the Gödel incompleteness theorem says, that formal arithmetic is incomplete.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1911.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-12 12:19:36*

**Authors:** Giacomo Roccaforte

**Comments:** 16 Pages. This version is in Italian

In this chapter we highlight a situation in which the fact that the speed of light is constant in all reference systems would imply that even the flow of the time should be the same in all reference systems , a conclusion that is exactly and paradoxically opposed to the Theory Of Relativity
At this point it would be a matter of choosing between two undisputed points: or the speed of light is constant for all the reference systems but in this case also the flow of time would be, and this is against the Theory Of Relativity.
Or the flow of time is different in different reference systems, but the speed of the light would no longer be constant, and we know that this is against of the experimental data.
At the end of the whole theory, we would arrive at a third possibility, in agreement with all the experimental data, and without a series of doubtful points of the Theory Of Relativity, such as the present and this one http://vixra.org/abs/1801.0229, listed and explained in the complete research already published at http://vixra.org/abs/1707.0297 .
This chapter for the moment does not want to suggest a solution to a problem, but only highlights its existence.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1911.0223 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-11-16 19:53:33*

**Authors:** Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 36 Pages. This article presents formal proof that STR is a wrong theory (in Russian).

В статье представлено формальное доказательство того, что математика, на которойосновывается Специальная Теория Относительности (СТО), в настоящее время неверно истолкована. Доказательство опирается на анализ значения параметра e(v).Понимание значения этого параметра возможно благодаря анализу общей формы преобразования, для которого преобразование Лоренца является лишь частным случаем. Если e(v) ≠ 0, тогда часы в инерциальных системах отсчета рассинхронизированы. Величины, например, однонаправленной скорости при использовании таких часов не дают реальных значений.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1911.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-10 12:29:39*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages. I have held back this work because i didn't understand its significance until now

Abstract: Important dates are found from the dimensionless constant 273.55488 used to find the accurate mass of the neutron as well as a signal of the use of holography in the universe

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1911.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-09 13:58:34*

**Authors:** Dino Bruniera

**Comments:** The file contains two versions of the paper: English, pages 1-3 and Italian, pages 4-6

The observations show that the apparent brightness of type Ia supernovae with high redshift, is about 25% lower than that expected. Which, according to the present paper, shows that the cosmological redshift cannot indicate the expansion of space.
So since Special Relativity is compatible with the cosmological redshift only if it indicates the expansion of space, the demonstration that does not indicate it, proves that Special Relativity is not compatible with it.
For the theories of the aether, on the other hand, the cosmological redshift may not indicate the expansion of space, therefore they are compatible with it.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1911.0176 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-12-29 09:03:19*

**Authors:** Moshe Segal

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

This article summarizes a research based on a thinking exercise relating to electric charges, electromagnetic traveling waves and energy, which results in surprising, new and important insights into the nature of electric charges, electromagnetic traveling waves, photons, and energy.
This thinking exercise started with the attempt to provide an answer to the following question: is it possible to detect a Null electromagnetic traveling wave, which is a wave that does not contain any electric or magnetic fields?
Analysis of the above question shows that any answer to that question provides surprising and important new insights.
The article provides a description of how to implement such a Null electromagnetic wave, and it also provides a description of how to carry on a lab experiment which might provide answers to the above question.
As already mentioned above, any answer to the above question results in providing surprising and new insights to issues such as:
Energies embedded in electric charges, electric or magnetic fields and photon, can, in certain circumstances, seem as annihilating each other, but actually exist together as latent potential Energy Pairs that only disable each other from operation, which only seemingly, or apparently, looks as annihilating each other.
In addition to their detectable energy, photons might contain latent potential energy pairs that are undetectable.
The Dark Energy might be embedded in consolidating electromagnetic waves which consolidate and continue to travel in the same direction.
The Energy Pairs theory mentioned above provides an explanation to the charge disappearance mystery in electron positron collisions.
The charges of the electron positron pair created when a photon passes near a heavy atom might be created from a latent energy pair embedded in the photon.
Electric Charges are a form of energy as Mass is recognized being a form of energy.
Complete Emptiness might contain Energy Pairs that disable each other, which only seem to be a state that does not contain any energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1911.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-07 13:26:36*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages. I am not sure who evaluated my work but I have a strong idea who it must have been

Abstract: 50 of my short publications as of september 4, 2019 were found to be of 4 levels of importance : ( I note that 50 is a magic number of physics)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1911.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-06 04:24:25*

**Authors:** Zlatan Stojanovic

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this letter I address the model which stems from the de Sitter space-time. We can consider empty de Sitter space-time as the Universe where space metrics i.e. expansion of space is a consequence of decrease of time elongation during evolution of Universe i.e. curved time. In de Sitter metric this is represented by the relation distance-time elongation and by the acceleration of expansion of space. New model explains that de Sitter cosmological time is proper time of the Universe. The cosmological time curvature interacts with photon's energy from distant galaxies like in classical gravitational redshift. Empty de Sitter represents inertial state of Universe. What this proposal contributes to de Sitter universe is variable cosmological constant i.e. parameter. Cosmological parameter is represented in the change of time curvature which we can correlate to the change of photons' energy of distant galaxies and CMBR in time.
Keywords: de Sitter space-time, curved time, dark energy, de Sitter effect

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1911.0090 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-11-07 01:28:45*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

If the velocity of gravitational waves is less than the speed of light, the velocity of mass motion may exceed the velocity of gravitational waves. This will cause Cherenkov-like radiation similar to electromagnetic interaction. The Cherenkov-like radiation of gravitational waves will produce a relatively specific observable effect. Due to the concentrated release of energy, the easiest to observe is that a large number of photons are radiated from the Cherenkov-like radiation source to form optical effects of high intensity and relatively special shapes. The speed of gravitational waves is less than the speed of light, because the compression of space and time by very large masses causes the gravitational waves to travel less in the masses than the speed of light. The mass of the material itself is not affected by this space-time compression. Thus, under certain conditions, the velocity of the mass of matter exceeds the velocity of the gravitational wave, forming a Cherenkov-like effect. A typical example is the aura of special structures formed by the supernova explosion. Among them, the supernova 1987A has been in existence for more than 30 years. After several years of the explosion, through the observation of the high-resolution Hubble telescope, it was found that the supernova 1987A showed two distinct auras in its explosion direction. There are many explanations for how these halos are formed. This paper points out that the formation of the two halos of the supernova 1987A is related to the propagation of gravitational waves in the mass of matter. Due to the very high mass density of the supernova explosion area, the space-time compression effect is very obvious, which will cause the gravitational wave to have a wave speed less than the speed of light. The material ejected by the supernova after exploding is close to the speed of light, and it is easy to exceed the velocity of gravitational waves propagating in the cosmic fluid around the supernova explosion, which will form the shock wave effect of gravitational waves. The Cherenkov effect of gravitational waves can also be used to explain the origin of high-intensity photon radiation in some galaxy centers. When the black hole in the center of the galaxy attracts the outer mass, the closer it is to the central black hole, the faster it moves. In the right position, the mass moves faster than the gravitational wave. The Cherenkov-like radiation of gravitational waves will be product. In addition, if there is a white hole, the energy is continuously released from the source of the white hole, which will also cause the mass ejection speed to exceed the speed of the gravitational wave, and thus produces the Cherenkov-like effect. Since the dynamic mechanism of the black hole and the white hole are different, by observing the Cherenkov-like effect of the center of the galaxy, it can effectively distinguish whether the center of the galaxy is a white hole or a black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1911.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-04 20:03:05*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Following on from the previous series of papers regarding the golden ratio algorithm for time [1-12], more specifically papers 11 [11] and 12 [12] in continuing with the explanation of the redshift effect, the idea of cosmology is measured with a new understanding of the redshift effect according to the golden ratio time-algorithm, namely the general description of the universe of stars according to the new appreciation of the redshift effect. To address this, first the idea of cosmology is introduced and what cosmology in contemporary terms seeks to deliver, and how such theories of cosmology have been arrived at. Secondly, the current problems in cosmology are discussed, namely any absences of theory that are required to explain observed data, and any absences of data that are unable to account for current theoretical models. Thirdly, a key flaw in modern cosmology central to the redshift effect is highlighted that appears to lead to all known cosmological and astronomical discrepancies faced by cosmology and astrophysics. Fourthly, a solution to this issue is proposed in line with the previous series of papers [1-12], namely the golden ratio time-algorithm as a new understanding of the redshift effect. Then, a new cosmological model is forwarded, after which anthropological evidence for this new cosmological model is presented. The standard for the cosmological model being presented in this paper is a standard that uses “all” astrophysical data with a cosmological theory that is complete, entertaining “no” assumption or “fixes” that have no astrophysical data.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1911.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-11-01 21:59:42*

**Authors:** Brian Craig

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

To account for the very low mass density associated with Dark Energy and the Cosmological Constant, a new approach to the ground state of empty space is presented. The resulting model for the vacuum state associated with empty space proposes a crystalline-like texture for the chromatic structure of empty space. This vacuum state has the appropriate mass density and predicts acceleration for the Universe expansion. Furthermore, the model predicts that this texture is anisotropic and may lead to measurable changes in the production of electron and positron pairs by gamma rays incident on a solid crystal of low mass density such as graphite.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1911.0013 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2020-01-12 06:51:11*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity demands, by Einstein’s two postulates (i) the Principle of Relativity and (ii) the constancy of the speed of light in vacuum, that a spherical wave of light in one inertial system transforms, via the Lorentz Transformation, into a spherical wave of light (the Lorentz sphere) in another inertial system when the systems are in constant relative rectilinear motion. However, the Lorentz Transformation in fact transforms a spherical wave of light into a translated ellipsoidal wave of light even though the speed of light in vacuum is invariant. The Special Theory of Relativity is logically inconsistent and therefore invalid.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology