[22] **viXra:1202.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-29 04:00:51*

**Authors:** Nikiforos A. Sideris

**Comments:** 166 Pages.

In this Paper, the Newtonian Law of Gravitation is derived from first principles, something that was suggested by Richard Feinman.
Also some fallacies of general relativity are discussed and the four tests of this "celebrated" theory are derived more accurately by the present theory of the Author.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1202.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-27 11:42:01*

**Authors:** David Proffitt

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Having defined the mass distribution in black hole interiors in an earlier paper, thought is now given to the contribution of photons to the structure, with a definite conclusion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1202.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-27 12:12:06*

**Authors:** Hu Chang-Wei

**Comments:** 113 Pages.

真空不空，奥妙无穷。称真空态物质为以太，它好比Smarandache教授所说的Unmatter 或Unparticles。说明和探讨了以太的宏观效应，微观表现和宇观作用。绝对时空是最基本的时空，在这里，以太是可压缩的超流体，如果以太均匀分布，就没有实物粒子，因为，实物的质心是以太密度的极大值点。以太密度的变化，会引起现实的时空标准的变化，从而导致了定量效应，这包括相对论性效应和量子效应等等。相对论是以光作为时空衡量标准的一种定量描述理论，在这里，以太的分布永远是处处均匀，各向一致的，这就是所谓的洛伦兹对称性，它只是一种可行的数学模型，对超光速是无效的。引力场是以太密度波包，它的作用不是无限的。在星系、星系团的世界里，以太的宇观作用，将超过并达到引力作用的10倍左右。因此，不能只用引力场方程来描述宇宙。书中运用了Smarandache教授提出的方法论和有关概念，描绘了相对论、宏观物理学、区间场论和无穷阶等级式宇宙学的Smarandache几何模型。
The vacuum is not void, there is infinite mysteries in it. The matter in vacuum state is called the ether, which is like the unmatter or unparticles called by Prof. Smarandache. Its macroscopic effects, microscopic representation and mucroscopic interaction are explained and researched. The absolute space-time theory is a most basic space-time theory, where the ether is a compressible superfluid, it is without a real particle if the distribution of ether is homogeneous because a mass center is the point of maximal value of the ether density. A change in the ether density causes a change in the actual space-time standard, and thus leads up to quantitative effects, which include the effects of relativity and quantum etc.. The relativity is a theory of quantitative description, where the distribution of ether is always homogeneous and isotropic everywhere, which is just so-called Lorentz symmetry, and it is only a practicable mathematical model, it is not applicable to faster than light velocity. The gravitational field is a ether density wave-packet, whose interaction is not infinite. The mucroscopic interaction of ether will surpass gravitational interaction and is about ten time of it, so that describing cosmos can not use only the gravitational field equation. The methodology and related concepts proposed by Prof. Smarandache are applied, and Smarandache geometry models of relativity, macro-physics, interval field theory and infinite order and hierarchical cosmology are described in this book.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1202.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-26 15:12:46*

**Authors:** Ion Maldarescu

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

În anul 1972, profesorul Florentin Smarandache de la Universitatea din New Mexico prezentase o ipoteză prin care susţinea că nu există barieră a vitezei în univers şi că se pot construi viteze arbitrare.
Autorul îl contrazice din nou pe Einstein construind prin calcule matematice simple o
Teorie Absolută a Relativităţii (T.A.R.), fara anomalii precum dilatare de timp, contractare de spatiu, sau paradoxuri relativiste.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1202.0068 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-26 04:50:12*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 18 Pages, 15 Figures, 1 Table

The necessary integration between quantum mechanics and cosmology requires an understanding of such phenomenon as entanglement and why the act of observation affects scientific measurements. With this in mind, the study of psi-lines provides some important clues as to how consciousness in its widest sense, together with the communication of information, fits into the structure of the universe and the laws of physics. This paper is a summary of the author’s own ground-breaking research into psi-lines over the last 20 years.
Psi-lines are a well established phenomenon. They are easily created, and/or destroyed by the mind. (Psi is associated with the Greek word for mind). Not only can they be detected by their creator, but more importantly they can be readily detected by others. This property enables their use for tracking. Evidence exists for this use over 1,000 years’ ago, and there is a strong probability that they were used by Neolithic man. In ancient times they were presumably created as part of daily life, to assist in navigation.
Detailed research shows that psi-lines are not 1-dimensional lines, but complex 3-dimensional cosmic and subtle energy fields comprising coaxial cylindrical lines. A conical helix terminates these lines, which are also associated with nodes, electric and magnetic fields, and audio frequencies. They can also have beneficial or detrimental affects on health, and are perceived slightly differently by males and females. The properties and structure of psi-lines are affected by local and astronomical forces including gravity and the earth’s spin. Experimental data has produced formulae such as W = φ/3 * Ln(L) + √3/2 which is the relationship between the length and width of psi-lines, where φ is the golden ratio 1.61803. As this and similar formulae involve no arbitrary constants and only universal constants, this is good evidence that the mind can interact with the cosmos.
Key Words
Mind; Consciousness; Psi-lines; Golden Ratio; Structure of the Universe; Cosmic and Subtle Energy; Dowsing; Navigation

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1202.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-18 11:39:50*

**Authors:** David Proffitt

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Much that has been written about black holes relies implicitly on a simple assumption that any singularity must have zero volume. We show that for a distant external observer, the singular surface at the event horizon does have defined non-zero volume.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1202.0057 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-21 01:19:00*

**Authors:** Mohammad Shafiq Khan

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

On the one hand the author of the „further comment‟ accepts that he is sceptical about theories of relativity and on the other hand he justifies the validity of „Equation of Trickery‟ on irrational, incorrect and self-contradictory basis. Mr. Jeremy Dunning-Davies does not know as to what he is writing and this I leave to the judgment of readers.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1202.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-16 04:01:45*

**Authors:** Jeremy Dunning-Davies

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The full derivation of another crucial equation in Einstein’s 1905 article, On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, is presented to aid clarification and to further correct a misapprehension that some trickery is employed by Einstein at this particular point in his paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1202.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-14 09:17:10*

**Authors:** Kabir Adinoyi Umar

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Based on a paper presentation titled: "vacuum relativitiy: the origin of the content of our universe" at the 34th annual conference of the Nigerian Institute of Physics on the 14th of October 2011 at Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife.

Using an interpretation of special relativity in the context of a rotating brane universe, it is shown
that an asymptotically vanishing particle antiparticle asymmetry described by a cosmological factor Г
can result such that 0 < Г < 1. We discus a cancellation scenario in which an asymptotically vanishing
effective cosmological constant Λ arise from this asymmetry where virtual particles and antiparticles
contribute attractive and repulsive terms respectively to the quantum vacuum. The asymmetry is fundamentally
in the form of difference in speed limit c and for particles and antiparticles which in this scenario,
exists as excitations of the opposite surfaces of a brane universe rotating along its time dimension. Using
estimates from quantum field theory and the observed value of dark energy density, the cosmological factor is
constrained to be ≈ 10-120 in the present universe. Observational constraint may also come from precision
measurement of spatial curvature. Г ≈ 1 obtainable in the early universe would produce large
effective cosmological constant (Λ ~ 1068 m-2) capable of driving inflation and possibly the baryon
asymmetry of our universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1202.0050 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-07-02 07:52:00*

**Authors:** Sener Ozsahin

**Comments:** 65 Pages.

ABSTRACT
CMT postulates that space is the 3D surface of a 4D spherical universe in constant expansion embedded in a euclidian space of n dimensions (n≥4). All 3D material entities survive only in this space, and all bodies of mass are 3 dimensional. Surface of the 4D spherical universe (space) for us is extrinsically curved in the 4th dimension. The extrinsic curvature of the universe and space is caused by a constant and evenly distributed 4D spherical flow of pure energy (non-condensed) away from a cosmic point of origin. It is not shaped by the condensed matter content of space. In consideration of the immense size of the inflating universe, a local region in space for instance of the size of our solar system may be assumed in close proximity to have a zero curvature. The intrinsic curvature of space on the other hand is not needed to be any different(±) than zero.
Bending of space by a body of mass in space is also extrinsic and it causes a tiny 4D indentation or dimple (a sag in cosmic surface ) form in space around the body.
Time measured in a reference frame in 3D space is relativistic and in dichotomy with the implicit cosmic time defined by the constant motion of cosmic expansion in the 4th dimension. Pace of time-flow in a spatial reference frame is identical to the speed of the cosmic expansion of that reference frame in the 4th dimension. Time-flow is continuous and one-way.
The velocity of motion of the cosmic expansion which is always in the direction of the 4th dimension away from the center of the universe is at its maximum speed and coincidental with the direction of the cosmic radius (vR) where space is not bent extrinsically any further by gravitation or any other reason in the form of a 4D indentation. But if and where space is bent extrinsically further by a body of mass, the direction of expansion diverges from the cosmic radial direction by some q and the speed of the velocity is posited to decrease by an amount dependent on q. The continuum of potential velocities postulated to be emergent in space around the mass as vector components of vR in compensation of the loss of vR, manifests an integral function of gravitational force which always points and gets stronger toward the center of gravity of the mass.
Mass bends space, but motion of a body of mass bends space even further. Any velocity in the range from zero (rest position) up to c of a body of mass in space is always a vector component of vR, and a net force is required to alter the state or the velocity of the body. The state or velocity of the body is altered by starting or removing or changing the degree of space bending. If a body of mass is at rest in space, then vR of the body has no vector component in space. On the other hand vR which is the speed of the cosmic radial growth is found to be equal to c.
The hypothesis of CMT on gravity and inertia is congruent with the principle of conservation of energy posing however significant differences with the relativistic mass and energy conservation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1202.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-13 11:59:12*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Recently, evidence indicating cosmological variations of the fine structure constant, alpha, has been reported. This result led to the conclusion that possibly the physical constants and the laws of physics vary throughout the universe. However, it will be shown here that variations in the value of the elementary electric charge, e, can occur under specific conditions, consequently producing variations in the value of alpha.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1202.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-13 12:24:54*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Recently, the OPERA neutrino experiment at the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory has measured the velocity of neutrinos from the CERN CNGS beam over a baseline of about 730 km. The experiment shows that neutrinos can have superluminal velocities. This result could, in principle, be taken as a clear violation of the Special Relativity. However, it will be show here that neutrinos can actually travel at velocities faster than light speed, without violating Special Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1202.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-13 03:14:25*

**Authors:** B.D.O. Adams

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In the presence of a strong electric or magnetic field, quantum
field theory modifies the speed of light. We see that the same
effect can explain the recent observation of neutrinos travelling faster
than the speed of light in the vacuum from
the CERN collider to the OPERA neutrino detector in Gran Sasso.
We investigate the causality of the situation, and show that a form
of electrical induction between very fast moving bodies will prevent
closed timelike loops from occuring.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1202.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-14 11:44:03*

**Authors:** Jack Sarfatti

**Comments:** 4 Pages. fixes a conceptual error and also adds some mathematical content

There should be a small classical gravity frequency shift between two transceivers one on the axis of rotation and the other clamped to a fixed point on the rim of a rotating rigid disc. Light arriving at the axis of rotation from the edge of the disk will be redshifted. Light moving the opposite way will be blue shifted. However, there will not be any shift for a light signal connecting two points on the rim. In addition the quantum gravity Unruh effect implies a small radial temperature gradient from the increasing radial centripetal acceleration. Furthermore, in general there should be a gravimagnetic inertial force doublet splitting of the vacuum speed of light locally measured at the rim of the rotating disk for a ray of light in the plane of the rotating disk as in the Sagnac effect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1202.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-10 11:30:12*

**Authors:** Roald C. Maximo

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is a known fact that, often, the perfect idiot who watches the game from the outside is the one who discerns the best move! I'm an assumed crank As an engineer I can perhaps be acquitted, however there are numerous examples of renowned physicists that, occasionally, slide to a striking eccentricity. It's not uncommon for them to seek a complex explanation where a simple one is at hand.
The daring intention behind this paper is to throw a fiercer light into three discreetly shadowed
points which, in my opinion, appear hazy or misconceived.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1202.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-09 05:51:01*

**Authors:** Thierry Delort

**Comments:** 180 Pages.

This document, wrtiiten in French contains 2 parts.
Thefirst part is a modern Theory of ether, cncerning all the fields connected to special Relativity, general Relativity and Cosmology. The end of this first part is an interpretation of the Opera's experiment and of thye baryonic Tully-Fisher's law. It contains improved versions of articles published in english in the review Physics Essays and in the conference PIRT 2004.
The second part is a quantum theory avoiding classical paradoxes connected to the classical quantum theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1202.0020 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-10 21:38:44*

**Authors:** Rasjid Chan Kah Chew

**Comments:** 3 Pages. This replaces an earlier version that had a serious flaw.

A perfectly symmetrical twin paradox real scenario could be identified and this repudiates Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1202.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-07 04:30:44*

**Authors:** Jeremy Dunning-Davies

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The full derivation of a crucial equation in Einstein’s 1905 article 'On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies' is presented to aid clarification and to correct a misapprehension that some trickery is employed by Einstein at this particular point in his paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1202.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-05 00:39:35*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 2 Pages. This paper attempts to stimulate thought on an apparently seldom talked about but nevertheless important subject and points out the potential danger from outer space.

A number of points are brought up below for pondering and possible discussion. We should not regard our physics as the one and only reality. What is described below may seem like science fiction, but should not be brushed off as inconsequential.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1202.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-07 10:25:41*

**Authors:** Armando V.D.B. Assis

**Comments:** 2 pages. English.

In my papers \cite{Assis1} and \cite{Assis2}, I obtain a Cold Big Bang Cosmology, fitting the cosmological data, with an absolute zero primordial temperature, a natural cutoff for the cosmological data to a vanishingly small entropy at a singular microstate of a comoving domain of the cosmological fluid. Now, in this brief paper, we show the energy density of the $t$-sliced universe must actually be the critical one, following as consequence of the solution in \cite{Assis1} and \cite{Assis2}. It must be pointed out that the result obtained here in this paper on the flatness problem does not contradict the solution in \cite{Assis1}, viz., does not contradict the open universe, with $k=-1$, obtained in \cite{Assis1}, since the solution in \cite{Assis1} had negative pressure and negative total cosmological energy density, hence lesser that the critical positive density. The critical density we obtain here is due to the positive fluctuations I previously discussed regarding the Heisenberg mechanism in \cite{Assis2}. Hence, the energy density due to fluctuation turns out to be positive, the critical one, this being calculated in \cite{Assis2} from the fluctuations within the $t$-sliced spherical shell at its $t$-sliced hypersurface, being the total energy density that generates the fluctuations, actually, negative in \cite{Assis1} and \cite{Assis2}, hence, again, lesser than the critical one and supporting $k=-1$. These results are complementary and support my previous results.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1202.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-02-02 04:24:00*

**Authors:** Mohammad Shafiq Khan

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The article ‘On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies’ by Albert Einstein (1905) is based on trickeries. The Voigt transformation was simply a mathematical possibility which was changed by Lorentz by introducing the Lorentz factor but the Lorentz factor is not real; has been shown in the article Mohammad Shafiq Khan (2012). Thus nature and forces in nature were trivialized and made subservient to mathematics in the theories of relativity, Big Bang Theory, Space-time concept and in all physical sciences which are directly or indirectly based on the ‘On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies’. It is unfortunate for humanity that exposing these trickeries took more than one hundred years.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1202.0003 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-02 19:54:26*

**Authors:** Jack Sarfatti

**Comments:** 3 Pages. fixes typo error in eq. 1.4 wrong Lp^2 replaced by correct Lp

The cosmic microwave background black body radiation consists of retarded photons from the surface of last scattering remnant of the hot Big Bang. In contrast, the dark energy accelerating our observable universe is back-from-the-future advanced Wheeler-Feynman Hawking-Unruh black body radiation from our observer-dependent future event horizon that may also be the hologram screen.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology