Relativity and Cosmology


Cosmic Mechanics Theory (CMT)

Authors: Sener Ozsahin

ABSTRACT CMT postulates that space is the 3D surface of a 4D spherical universe in constant expansion embedded in a euclidian space of n dimensions (n≥4). All 3D material entities survive only in this space, and all bodies of mass are 3 dimensional. Surface of the 4D spherical universe (space) for us is extrinsically curved in the 4th dimension. The extrinsic curvature of the universe and space is caused by a constant and evenly distributed 4D spherical flow of pure energy (non-condensed) away from a cosmic point of origin. It is not shaped by the condensed matter content of space. In consideration of the immense size of the inflating universe, a local region in space for instance of the size of our solar system may be assumed in close proximity to have a zero curvature. The intrinsic curvature of space on the other hand is not needed to be any different(±) than zero. Bending of space by a body of mass in space is also extrinsic and it causes a tiny 4D indentation or dimple (a sag in cosmic surface ) form in space around the body. Time measured in a reference frame in 3D space is relativistic and in dichotomy with the implicit cosmic time defined by the constant motion of cosmic expansion in the 4th dimension. Pace of time-flow in a spatial reference frame is identical to the speed of the cosmic expansion of that reference frame in the 4th dimension. Time-flow is continuous and one-way. The velocity of motion of the cosmic expansion which is always in the direction of the 4th dimension away from the center of the universe is at its maximum speed and coincidental with the direction of the cosmic radius (vR) where space is not bent extrinsically any further by gravitation or any other reason in the form of a 4D indentation. But if and where space is bent extrinsically further by a body of mass, the direction of expansion diverges from the cosmic radial direction by some q and the speed of the velocity is posited to decrease by an amount dependent on q. The continuum of potential velocities postulated to be emergent in space around the mass as vector components of vR in compensation of the loss of vR, manifests an integral function of gravitational force which always points and gets stronger toward the center of gravity of the mass. Mass bends space, but motion of a body of mass bends space even further. Any velocity in the range from zero (rest position) up to c of a body of mass in space is always a vector component of vR, and a net force is required to alter the state or the velocity of the body. The state or velocity of the body is altered by starting or removing or changing the degree of space bending. If a body of mass is at rest in space, then vR of the body has no vector component in space. On the other hand vR which is the speed of the cosmic radial growth is found to be equal to c. The hypothesis of CMT on gravity and inertia is congruent with the principle of conservation of energy posing however significant differences with the relativistic mass and energy conservation.

Comments: 65 Pages.

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Submission history

[v1] 2012-02-14 12:16:20
[v2] 2012-07-02 07:52:00

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