[39] **viXra:1603.0428 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-08 15:33:29*

**Authors:** Jerry L. Decker

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Mass conversion locally to kinetic energy at high speed

A first attempt to extend Polarizable Vacuum theory of Harold Puthoff and others to high speed in deep space quickly failed the test of special relativity for all velocities other than zero. The mass function of PV theory was found to be the main cause of failure, while Puthoff’s choice of invariant Planck constant was a second limitation.
Calculations at high velocity suggested the Puthoff mass function is not in agreement with his choice invariant Planck constant. A new mass function was derived in the Puthoff system holding Planck constant invariant with high speed.
Further modification to PV theory is proposed for consistency with Heisenberg Uncertainty principle in exchange of kinetic energy with the vacuum. Planck constant was allowed to vary slowly with stress energy, based on work by Niels Bohr in 1949. Relativistic factors were calculated for extending the theory to high speed in deep space transport vehicles.
Both modifications are used to predict a polarization in the vacuum can arise from high speed of prolonged acceleration, resulting in localized stress energy curvature of space. A weakness of PV theory is removed by offering high speed as a source of vacuum polarization to supplement the previous suggestions for field effect generators of the future.
A third modification to PV theory was attempted to adjust energy and variation of Planck constant for agreement with the Puthoff mass function. Results were not in compliance with established principles of energy and momentum derived from accelerator experiments. The Puthoff mass function was not retained in any conclusion of velocity greater than zero, or expressed in the graphical presentation of results.
In reasonable agreement with LIGO published data on merging black holes, mass energy conversion to kinetic energy is predicted to occur at high speed in the frame of action, although long standing theories require the opposite to appear in the frame of a distant observer.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1603.0421 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-31 11:05:06*

**Authors:** Carles R Paul, Albert Serra, Ricard Bosch

**Comments:** 7 pages

It is a mistake to believe that the primitive experiments, known as the origin of the physical sciences, have been sufficiently studied and therefore it is impossible to extract from them some new and important knowledge. This view has contributed to the perpetuation of some misconceptions. The study of such experiments from other points of view, and applying new techniques, makes it possible to expand their meaning and understanding. Einstein must have thought this way since in 1905 decided to study the Faraday disk and, by doing so, discovered the theory of relativity, according to which the magnetic field is a consequence of the relative motion of different signs electric charges. The verifications of the theory of general relativity by cosmological experiments have led to the belief that the special relativity theory is irrelevant in terrestrial dimensions and speed. Therefore, it is important to correct this error by simple laboratory experiments, whose explanation is only possible by using special relativity theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1603.0412 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-31 00:19:34*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In 2010 Jason J. Sharples, an Associate Professor at the University of New South Wales, wrote an article titled ‘Watching the World Cup’. Despite the title, the article addresses a number of papers and articles refuting the theories of black holes and Big Bang cosmology written by Stephen J. Crothers. In his article, Sharples has committed several major errors, and resorted to language unbefitting a publicly funded professorship when addressing the person of Crothers. After some rolling preamble, Sharples disputes two matters addressed by Crothers: (a) Einstein’s Principle of Equivalence, (b) Einstein’s pseudotensor. In the first case Sharples incorrectly argues that multiple arbitrarily large finite masses are not involved in its definition. In the second case he failed to understand the problem and thereby expounded upon an entirely different matter that was never contested by Crothers in the first place - Sharples confounded the Einstein tensor for Einstein’s pseudotensor and consequently did not even address the issue.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1603.0411 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-31 00:58:26*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Recently we have provided a physically consistent and a mathematically justified ontological model
of Heisenberg's suggested "potentia" in quantum mechanics. What arises is that parallel to the real three dimensional
$SO(3)_l$ space there is a coexisting dual space called potentia space $SO(3)_p$,
wherein velocity $c \rightarrow \infty$. How does this affect gravity?
We show here that gravity actually sits in the space of potentia.
The space of potentia does not allow gauging. Thus gravity is not quantized.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1603.0400 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-30 02:55:36*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** would be 2 page contribution to Rencontres De Moriond, Cosmology, as a poster contribution

This summary of results poses the question of a minimum cosmological constant, i.e. vacuum energy at the start of the cosmological evolution from a near singularity. We pose this comparing formalism as given by Berry (1976) as to a minimum time length, and compare that with a minimum time length at the start of cosmological space-time evolution. This we use a minimum time length a way of specifying a magnetic field dependence of the cosmological constant. The presented results are a summary of results in JHEPGC, and is referencing the JHEPGC article. The cited results use the idea of a magnetic monopole charge to start with

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1603.0390 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-05 05:12:11*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this paper we introduce an exact escape velocity that also holds under very strong gravitational fields, even below the Schwarzschild radius. The standard escape velocity known from modern physics is only valid under weak gravitational fields. This paper strongly indicates that an extensive series of interpretations around the Schwarzschild radius are wrong and were developed as a result of using an approximate escape velocity that not is accurate when we approach strong gravitational fields. Einstein's general relativity escape velocity as well as the gravitational time dilation and gravitational redshift that are derived from the Schwarzschild metric need to be modified; in reality, they are simply approximations that only give good predictions in low gravitational fields. This paper could have major implications for gravitational physics as well as a long series of interpretations in cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1603.0389 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-13 20:56:06*

**Authors:** Reginald T. Cahill

**Comments:** 22 Pages. References updated

This report provides a brief outline and literature listing dealing with the discovery of the existence of Dynamical Space, and the subsequent generalisation to Maxwell Electromagnetic Theory, Schrodinger and Dirac Quantum Theory, and the emergence of Gravity as a quantum effect. This amounts to the unified theory of gravity and quantum phenomena. All theory developments have been experimentally and observationally checked.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1603.0384 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-28 12:27:12*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper is an extension of an earlier paper titled QUANTUM PARTICLES, CONSCIOUSNESS, UNIFIED FIELD THEORY AND RELATIVITY. It addresses the conundrum relating to nature and consciousness.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1603.0383 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-28 08:38:57*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Eight pages

Beta decay and beta radiation of electrons (the weak force) is a part of nearly all radioactivity,[2][3][4] and are still not well understood. Fission reactions seem to lose mass while fusion shows a gain of mass. We examine these enigmas in this paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1603.0374 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-28 04:36:50*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We know the Hooke’s Law: F=kx. It tells us a force can cause an extension or a contraction of a spring and it depends on the elastic constant k.
We also know that the dimension of k is that of a force divided by a lenght. Our purpose is that of determining the macroscopic universe by all microscopic forces. Moreover, we know that the size of atoms depends on the electrons which are the shells of the atoms themselves; so, the size does not eather depend on the protons or the nuclei.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1603.0373 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-30 08:57:13*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Version 3 in English.

This article presents a new formulation of special relativity whose kinematic and dynamic quantities are invariant under generalized Lorentz transformations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1603.0368 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-27 01:37:24*

**Authors:** Dayanand Potaraj

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Science- the study to understand the universe's physical laws/Nature's laws. And physicists till now has revealed most of the important so called theories. Those will explain the nature's law, The Big Bang theory, for example will explain about the creation of the universe itself. However we have been in search of the very basic fundamental building block of the universe, we found Higgs Boson. We had a wish to discover the very giant nature of the universe. But yet we aren't sure about the micro and macro universe. After all the expeditions we call the fundamental particle as "GOD" particle. What do we know about our own existence till now after all the expeditions?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1603.0366 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-26 06:13:09*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Galactic rotation curves explained here as a result of interaction between fast rotating central black hole and stars, which are non-keplerian
characters. Black holes are „black” not due to trapping of light- rather due to changes in spectral peak flux

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1603.0350 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-24 13:42:11*

**Authors:** D.Mastoridis, K.Kalogirou

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The current paper examines the nature of the Big Bang together with the possibility
of travelling using an alternative way, which would exceed the problem with the speed
of light limitation. This paper is the extension of the "About the Geometry of Cosmos"
and "About the Geometry of Cosmos(2)"

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1603.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-24 05:48:26*

**Authors:** Idhayan Pandian

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

IDHAYAN’S SPIN THOERY OF GRAVITY PARTICLE
GRAVITY PARTICLE
Our universe is entirely made up of gravity particle, which is spherical, Indestructible ,identical ,negligible frictional surface.
ELEMENTARY PARTICLE
Gravity particle are closely packed and it cannot move, However it can spin, they use frictional surface to spin their surrounding particle, They spin geometrically to create an illusion of elementary particle or even the particle that made up of elementary particle, Their efficiency is 100 percent

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1603.0318 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-08 07:38:43*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Corrected according to relativity of simultaneity

This paper proposes a very compelling alternative model of the speed of light, which we call Apparent Source Theory ( AST ). AST can be stated in a few words: the speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source. AST starts with a simple question: what is the effect of slightly changing the position of the light source in the Michelson-Morley interferometer ? From optics, a very small fringe shift will occur. AST states that the effect of absolute motion of the MM interferometer is to create an apparent change in the position of the light source relative to the detector. Therefore, only a small fringe shift will occur in the MM interferometer due to apparent change of source position ( caused by absolute motion) for the same reason that only a small fringe shift will occur due to real/physical change of source position. This is the subtle trick of nature that eluded physicists for one hundred years. AST can easily explain many co-moving source and observer experiments, moving source experiments and moving observer experiments. AST also hints on the fundamental nature of light: light is not only a local phenomenon. Light is a dual phenomenon: local and non-local. The blunder in the conception of Michelson-Morley experiment was that they considered light as ordinary, material waves. The ether doesn't exist, but absolute motion does. This paper makes the distinction between the two. This paper reveals the fallacy in conventional and modern Michelson-Morley experiments.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1603.0317 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-22 04:02:16*

**Authors:** Mourici Shachter

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Velocity transformation is used to change system coordinates in order to simplify the solution of problems that involve relativistic collisions of particles. In this paper I check how the energy of a particle A that moves with some velocity VA toward an observer S* is seen by an observer S , under the condition that both observers sees the same energy. I found that although observer in S* sees particle A with a real rest mass momentum and energy. Observer S sees two particles. If they move in opposite direction, One of those particles have an imaginary rest mass momentum and energy.
I could not decide if the case is only a numerical problem or it is also physical. I expect that those who will read this paper are more experienced then me and will find if the imaginary rest mass is physically true or false. And will suggest how to use it in practical situations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1603.0305 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-22 13:21:01*

**Authors:** Cameron rebigsol

**Comments:** 7 Pages. A few corrections on grammar on the previous submission

A signature conclusion from Albert Einstein’s relativity is that nothing in the universe can travel at speed exceeding the speed of light. This conclusion, however, must be destroyed by its own signature equation—the length contraction equation, in a few lines of algebraic operation. Following this lead, people will find that the entire derivative work of relativity is done within the forbidden zone of mathematics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1603.0274 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-12 19:32:21*

**Authors:** Jody Anthony Geiger

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Informativity is a field theory that applies the principles of quantum mechanics to the macroscopic universe. Its structure is fundamentally relativistic. Informativity arises from a central tenant, that not only are Planck’s derivations the smallest units of measure, but that all relative measure must be in whole Planck units. This limitation provides the basis for quantum uncertainty. With this, a mathematical framework is presented from which the physical laws and constants of nature may be derived, not as descriptions but as formulations of logic. Several discrepancies in observed measurements are resolved while invalidating non-quantum models that use Einstein’s, Planck’s and Heisenberg’s equations. New formulations of each are derived to include quantum uncertainty in a single field theory that accurately describes phenomenon from the quantum to the macroscopic. And in the process a new static state relativistic effect is found. Conflicts in General Relativity are presented that invalidate some of its tenants, such as curved space. Einstein’s equations, among others, are reduced entirely to counts of Planck units, having no cosmological constants, thus supporting the hypothesis that the observable universe is a product of quantized counts. Mass and time are shown to be manifestations of length. Derivations also demonstrate interactions are permitted only in 3D+t. Black holes have a maximum density of two Planck masses per length and gravity is derived as a product of quantum uncertainty. Finally, a hypothesis proposes a solution to both the dark matter and dark energy debate.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1603.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-18 09:02:42*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In 2011 a paper by C. Corda was published in the Electronic Journal of Theoretical Physics (A Clarification on the Debate on “the Original Schwarzschild Solution'', EJTP 8, No. 25 (2011) 65-82). On the 18th February 2016 my paper titled ‘On Corda’s ‘Clarification’ of Schwarzschild’s Solution’ was received by all editors of EJTP. C. Corda has written a rebuttal, titled ‘Confusion and crackpottery by Mr. Stephen J. Crothers’. In his rebuttal Corda attempts to justify his reproduction in his paper, without reference, of the bulk of the original paper by K. Schwarzschild (1916), by his mere relabelling, renumbering and rearrangement of Schwarzschild’s equations, and contends that I have only emphasised his reproduction of Schwarzschild’s derivation. That Corda reproduced twenty-five of the equations in Schwarzschild’s paper is evident by comparison, as revealed in my paper. Moreover, I did not address only this in my paper, but also Corda’s ‘deformation of circumferences’ and his alleged ‘Schwarzschild sphere’, along with the issues of general covariance and coordinate transformations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1603.0259 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-17 17:26:26*

**Authors:** Valentin Danci

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

This article shows that it is mathematically impossible for Einstein’s Special Relativity Theory (SRT) to use its own Lorentz transformation (LT), and it also reveals: the origin of this error in the pre-relativistic Electrodynamics, and the main causes of misunderstandings between the advocates of SRT and the critics of SRT, regarding the relativistic paradoxes of LT.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1603.0258 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-21 21:00:25*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 26 Pages. the paper is also relevant to quantum physics

The present article proposes an epistemic approach to relativity, termed information relativity theory. For this purpose we consider a physical system in which an observer receives information on measurements taken in another reference-frame moving with constant velocity v relative to observer's frame. Unlike existing ontic relativity theories, we avoided questions pertaining to the true state of Nature (i.e., as it is for itself). We only ask how physical measurements taken in the "moving" frame are transformed when they are received in the observer's "rest" frame. We specify that information is communicated using an information carrier with known velocity v_c (v_c > v). We make no other assumptions, thus our approach is completely epistemic. For systems of the above described type we derive the epistemic relativistic time, distance, mass, and energy transformations, relating measurements transmitted by the information sender, to the corresponding information obtained by the receiver. The resulting terms are simple and beautiful with several Golden Ratio symmetries. For β = v/v_c << 1, all the derived transformations reduce to Galileo-Newton terms. Provided that v_c > v the theory applies to all systems which could be described by the preparation described above, regardless of the modality and velocity of the information carrier, and the rest mass of the moving body.
An essential feature of the theory is that the direction of relative motion is of crucial importance. The derived time transformation concurs with the original Doppler formula, renders the theory useful for relativistic cosmology. No less important the theory predicts that distancing objects will suffer length extension. At sufficiently high velocities the theory predicts that two bodies distancing from each other can maintain s spatial locality, a property which enables the theory to bypass Bell's theorem. We demonstrate the validity of the above conclusion by successfully explaining and reproducing quantum theoretic results for two key quantum phenomena: quantum phase-transition, and matter-wave duality.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1603.0235 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-21 05:36:39*

**Authors:** Christian Corda

**Comments:** 4 Pages. I inserted this short rebuttal to avoid further unscientific confusion by Mr. Stephen J. Crothers.

This is a short rebuttal to the "paper" of Mr. Stephen J. Crothers in viXra:1602.0221.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1603.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-15 19:11:30*

**Authors:** Reginald T Cahill

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The LIGO team, operating two vacuum-mode Michelson interferometers reported the detection, on September 14, 2015, of a gravitational wave event of some 0.2sec duration, which was claimed to have been generated by two black holes merging a billion years ago. However experimentally it has been shown that such vacuum mode interferometers have zero sensitivity to gravitational waves, which have indeed been detected using other techniques over the last 100+ years. One such recently discovered technique uses quantum barrier electron tunnelling current fluctuations in reverse biased diodes, generated by dynamical 3-space fluctuations: gravitational waves. These are Quantum Gravity Detectors (QGD). There happens to be an international network of such detectors, and the data from this network shows a significant event at the same time as the LIGO event, but extending over some 4sec duration. Previously in 2014 such Quantum Gravity Detectors detected gravitational waves generated by the resonant Earth vibrations, whose frequencies were known from seismology. It is suggested that the LIGO event may have been an Earth generated gravitational wave event that was detected by the electronics of the LIGO measuring and recording system, an effect previously discovered in 2014 using
time-delayed correlated fluctuations in data recorded by oscilloscopes located in Australia and London.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1603.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-15 20:44:51*

**Authors:** Andrzej Lechowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The article presents the author's view on space

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1603.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-14 09:45:53*

**Authors:** Mourici Shachter

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper, I develop a simple analog electrical circuit. And I use this circuit to solve some classical problems in special relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1603.0208 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-27 07:29:25*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper show how we can “manipulate” physical fundamental constants like the Planck constants in Euclidean space-time. For example, what is the velocity we need to travel at for the π to disappear from the Planck length as observed from another reference frame? Or what is the velocity we need to travel at to replace π in the Planck energy with the Golden ratio Phi? Or what is the velocity we need to travel at to turn Planck’s mass into “Gold”? This paper provides the answer to this and similar questions all quite natural to think about on Pi-day.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1603.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-13 07:06:24*

**Authors:** Alexander F. Jonkeren

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper describes the perceived spin (rotational) rate deduced from spectral redshift differences obtained with long-slit spectroscopy of a hypothetical spiral galaxy with a normal spin rate and a high (relativistic) peculiar velocity as seen from the Milky Way rest frame. With a sufficiently high relativistic peculiar velocity the perceived galaxy spin rate or galaxy rotation curve will correspond with the observed galaxy spin rates and flat rotation curves that led to the ‘Galaxy Rotation Problem’; the discrepancy between observed galaxy rotation curves and the theoretical prediction from the law of gravity, which led to the inference of Dark Matter. This difference between actual and perceived spin rate / rotational curve can then be explained by the fact that at relativistic velocities a small difference in velocity between two objects or areas lead to an exaggerated difference in spectral redshift across the major axis of a galaxy.
Assuming a relativistic peculiar velocity thus provides a (partial) solution to the galaxy rotation problem, observed flat rotation curves and the missing mass problem which all have lead to the hypothesized existence of Dark Matter, among other proposed solutions. The perceived high spin rate is then caused by a normal spin rate measured as large redshift differences due to the relativistic velocity of the whole galaxy.
Assuming a relativistic peculiar velocity also provides a (partial) solution for the perceived accelerating expansion of the universe as measured by the lower than expected luminosity of supernovae which lead to the hypothesized existence of Dark Energy. The actual lower luminosity of supernovae is then caused by a significant additional distance covered due to a high peculiar motion over billions of years, adding to the distance increase by space-time expansion.
Key words: cosmology , galaxy rotation problem , flat rotation curve , missing mass problem , peculiar velocity , spectral redshift , long-slit spectroscopy , dark matter , dark energy , accelerating expansion of the universe , Hubble constant

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1603.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-11 19:51:05*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Disruption-annihilation of 2 varieties of spin 1/spin 0 fermibosonic entity (process) is sufficient to match within 6% the observed recent abundance ratio of dark energy/fermions in the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1603.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-11 14:38:18*

**Authors:** Glenn Floyd

**Comments:** 5 Pages. The 'truth' facts is a subjective version of the facts

There Exists A Powerful Propensity For Human Scientific Inquiry To Be 'Force-Fitted'
To Pre-Determined Perceptions Of Reality.
Stephen Hawking CH CBE FRS FRSA, British theoretical physicist and cosmologist states:
“The eventual goal of science is to provide a single theory that describes the whole universe”.
This statement of fundamentally flawed defective logic is a profoundly erroneous premise for legitimate scientific inquiry.
The premise is flawed because the falsehood of ‘the whole universe’ cannot exist. Nor can the fictional notion of ‘time’, or the fabricated concept of ‘the beginning’; or the ‘concocted’ state of ‘nothing’ be existing.
Both intergalactic and quantum mechanics physics reality demonstrate this by observation and testing now, showing understanding of gravity density forces, matter, energy and distance impacts are utterly erroneous.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1603.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-10 06:02:34*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, a simple intuitive explanation of the phenomenon of star light bending near the Sun is proposed based on some insight into Huygens-Fresnel principle. Light ( and other waves ) does not necessarily go in a straight line. If there is intensity gradient of a ( light) wave at a point in space, the wave will bend towards the lower intensity regions, and away from higher intensity regions of space. Only waves from ideal isotropic sources propagate in a straight line, in a space where there are no obstructions between light source and point of light detection. Intensity gradient may arise due to non-isotropic emitter/radiator or due to an obstruction shadowing a region of space. If diffraction pattern arises from a wave passing through a slit, then diffraction should also arise from intensity gradient of a wave.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1603.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-09 10:14:27*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 3 Pages. possible amendments at http://bolshoyforum.com/forum/index.php?action=felblog;sa=view;cont=5148;uid=17499

Installation Method hours Einstein always gives the result as the mean speed of
light in any experiment. Installation Method hours does not affect the speed at this
point. We introduce such a setting the clock, which will allow to estimate the speed
of light in one direction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1603.0127 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-21 10:09:12*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 32 Pages. Hadronic Journal Vol. 39, 2016

The LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration have announced that on 14 September 2015, LIGO detected an Einstein gravitational wave directly for the first time, with the first observation of a binary black hole merger. The announcement was made with much media attention. Not so long ago similar media excitement surrounded the announcement by the BICEP2 Team of detection of primordial gravitational waves imprinted in B-mode polarisations of a Cosmic Microwave Background, which proved to be naught. According to the LIGO and Virgo Collaborations, the gravitational wave LIGO allegedly detected was generated by two merging black holes, one of ~29 solar masses, the other of ~36 solar masses, at a distance of some 1.3 billion light years. The insurmountable problem for the credibility of LIGO's claims is the questionable character of the theoretical assumptions upon which they are based. In this paper various arguments are presented according to which the basic theoretical assumptions, and the consequential claims of detecting gravitational waves, are proven false. The apparent detection by the LIGO-Virgo Collaborations is not related to gravitational waves or to the collision and merger of black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1603.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-06 20:58:34*

**Authors:** Alan M. Kadin

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Submitted to Gravity Research Foundation, March 2016

The elusive unity of microscopic and macroscopic physics may reflect a profound
misunderstanding of the microscopic world. We start with a real, deterministic de Broglie wave, and show how this leads to the equations of both special and general relativity, providing a unified picture for physics at all scales. In this picture, transformations of ω and k are more fundamental than spacetime transformations of t and r. Local metrics compatible with general relativity may be derived, but are not necessary for calculations. Furthermore, coupling constants and h are invariant, while c, G, e, and particle rest masses are not. Such variations cannot be observed using local measurements, due to the principle of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1603.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-06 21:52:01*

**Authors:** Bernardo Sotomayor Valdivia

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

More than a hundred years ago, a series of discoveries, especially in physics, began to subtly (or maybe not) reveal some mysterious properties of matter, properties that in some fashion or other were not acceptable to our established way of perceiving Reality. Strangely enough, these properties were not taken seriously by science because they pointed to a reality that seemed too fantastical to be true, a reality that seemed to have no substance or permanence.
These so called mysterious properties matter, for lack of a better word, turn out to be fundamentally related to the following discoveries:
The ambiguous wave-particle duality. As in de Broglie matter-waves and the Compton properties of particles.
The ubiquitous appearance of the cycle constant (τ=2π=C⁄r) in physical mathematical relations.
The general applicability of the Fourier Transform to represent/model physical motion and other natural processes.
The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle and its mysterious constraint between conjugate variables, momentum and position for example.
Quantum Mechanics and its collapse of the wavefunction.
The surprising mass-energy equivalence. As in Einstein’s E=mc^2.
The perplexing isotropy of the speed of light.
The mind boggling time dilation and length contraction of Einstein’s Special Relativity (SR).
The contradictory fabric of SR/GR’s spacetime and its assignment of properties to the void.
The surprisingly discrete nature of atomic properties. As in Quantum Mechanics (QM).
Needless to say, no matter what science has tried in order to fit the above discoveries into our physical world, their implications continue to elude an intuitively acceptable explanation in material terms.
This monograph, although not necessarily in chronological order, is a recapitulation of previous monographs written by the author in an attempt at a single-source theoretical explanation/clarification for the above mentioned list of “mysterious” properties of matter, in terms of one fundamental set of properties, the motional geometry of matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1603.0097 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-11 04:23:17*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Experimental and logical evidences against relativity theory have accumulated over many decades. However, relativity theory still persists and this is mainly due to lack of a competing alternative theory of the speed of light that can successfully explain the apparently contradicting experimental facts of the speed of light. In fact, the lack of an alternative explanation of existing experimental facts is considered as an assurance that relativity is a correct theory. The failure of ether and emission theories is cited as one of the evidences for relativity. In this paper a compelling alternative model of the speed of light: Apparent Source Theory ( AST ), is proposed. The blunder in the Michelson-Morley experiment was that of considering light as ordinary, material waves. Light is not only a local phenomenon. Light is a dual phenomenon: local and non-local. There is no medium (ether) for light transmission. The flaw in the conception of Michelson-Morley experiment was this: absolute motion was/is presumed to be motion relative to the ether. The new model of the speed of light can be stated in a few words: the speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source. The effect of absolute motion is to create an apparent change in the position of the light source relative to the observer. Therefore, no fringe shift would occur in the Michelson- Morley experiment due to apparent change of source position relative to the detector, for the same reason that a physical/actual change of source position doesn't create any ( significant) fringe shift. The speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source, but variable relative to the real source.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1603.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-03 10:44:37*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: Annihilation of spin 0/spin 1 negative-energy mc^2 H and Z bosons generates dark "energy" of 1/2-spin character which produces simple expansion of space but requires 72.8% of our universe's energy production. The expansion of space reduces CM radiation loss beyond the universe. The 72.8% is entirely consistent with just 2 entities being disrupted, the ttH and ttZ fermibosons (processes) of an assumed broken E8 symmetry cyclic universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1603.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-02 07:33:24*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Using articles http://bolshoyforum.com/forum/index.php?action=felblog;sa=view;cont=5065;uid=17499

Installation Method hours Einstein always gives the result as the mean speed of
light in any experiment. But in the real physical world not measured speed of light.
Therefore, there may arise the forces due to the different speeds of light in one
direction. Change the way to set the clock to the speed of light in one direction. We
estimate the results in different directions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1603.0003 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-02 09:26:03*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we discover New Einstein’s gravity field equation. We solve the dark matter problem of the cosmology by the New gravity field equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology