[47] **viXra:1609.0406 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-28 08:59:01*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 5 pages

It is revealed with mathematical justification that the Lorentz transformation is actually limited to events with coordinates satisfying the light speed space-time relation (i.e., x = ct). It is therefore shown that applying the LT on certain events while maintaining the above limitation, leads to mathematical contradictions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[46] **viXra:1609.0404 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-28 05:56:22*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 11 Pages. A first step to an effective Grand Unification Theory

This paper will provide some well based scientific arguments that time is neither a product of space nor an illusion; instead time is in a state of constant motion. That motion inflated space from the very beginning, the Big Bang, and it still does so now. We will name it “temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion inflates space and creates the relationship between space and time known as the space-time continuum; time is dominant in this relationship since its motion started the initial inflation of space, giving birth to the Universe, and continues to inflate space. Evolution will be explained as one of the basic laws of physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[45] **viXra:1609.0395 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-29 03:42:57*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Cite: Bartlett, Rodney (2016): Understanding Today's Science with Help from Special Relativity and General Relativity. figshare. https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.3863556.v2 Retrieved: 08 20, Sep 29, 2016 (GMT)

This article began to take shape in my mind when I read an item in Astronomy magazine. That item mentioned how timing by GPS (the Global Positioning System) requires input from both Special Relativity - where time slows down fractionally because the satellites in orbit are fast-moving – and General Relativity, where the satellites' distance from Earth's gravity causes their time to speed up fractionally. This led to the conclusions that 1) the gravitational waves making up the gravity field are, as Einstein suggested in a paper written four years after publication of the general theory, involved in production of mass, 2) these waves participate with the other long-range force, electromagnetism, to also produce the two nuclear forces associated with the mass (making nuclear forces non-fundamental and the Higgs force another name for gravitational-electromagnetic coupling), 3) black holes are composed of gravitational and electromagnetic waves focused on them from deep space, and this accounts for their extreme gravity as well as extreme mass, 4) there's a link between the macroscopic black holes of astronomy and the subatomic gluons of particle physics, and 5) Einstein's contributions don't end with the two Relativities, or even the paper written 4 years after the general theory, but can be extended to his Unified Field Theory.
His Unified Field might not be generally accepted today because it was incomplete, just as he described quantum mechanics as incomplete. In 1957, Charles Misner and John Wheeler, in the “Annals of Physics”, claimed Albert Einstein’s latest equations demonstrated the unified field theory. However, the necessary completion of the unified field may not exclusively lie with the mathematics Einstein seemed to increasingly rely on as he aged but with concepts in computer science as well as intuitions in the mathematical branch called topology. Computer science's binary digits (bits) result from apparently random Virtual Particles that conceal Chaos theory's "order within disorder". These bits are encoded in programs taking the form of topology's Mobius strips, and these combine into four-dimensional figure-8 Klein bottles that make particles sensible (bottles affect every sense and scientific probe because the pulses forming them also form the complete properties of the Gravitational-ElectroMagnetic Field). The bottles also explain space-time's positive and negative curvatures, as well as the flatness of infinity/eternity. Einstein was a Superman at exploring new ideas in his youth. Had electronic computers been invented 30 or 40 years earlier, it appears likely we’d be living with the fruits of the unified field now.
PS
This article also mentions Hawking radiation, spin, superconductivity, imaginary time, complex number plane, quark-gluon plasma, antigraviton, shape of space, tachyons, dark energy, dark matter, antimatter, etc.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[44] **viXra:1609.0392 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-05 09:27:32*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: put forward a viewpoint regarding to the origin of our universe

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[43] **viXra:1609.0387 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-26 17:14:28*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 74 Pages.

We summarize how the Lorentz Force motion observed in classical electrodynamics may be understood as geodesic motion derived by minimizing the variation of the proper time along the worldlines of test charges in external potentials, while the spacetime metric remains invariant under, and all other fields in spacetime remain independent of, any rescaling, i.e., re-gauging of the charge-to-mass ratio q/m. In order for this to occur, time is dilated or contracted due to repulsive and attractive electromagnetic interactions respectively, in very much the same way that time is dilated due to relative motion in special relativity and due to gravitational fields in general relativity, without contradicting the well-corroborated experimental content of standard electrodynamic theory and both special and general relativity. As such, it becomes possible to lay an entirely geometrodynamic foundation for classical electrodynamics in four spacetime dimensions, in which mechanical motions and objects are merely promoted into canonical motions and objects in accordance with well-established local symmetry principles. Further, when we consider the self-interactions of individual leptons understood to be responsible for the magnetic moment anomalies, and upon identifying a universal relation between time and energy whereby all forms of energy dilate (or contract) time regardless of their kinetic or interaction origin, it is shown how these magnetic moment anomalies which are quintessential hallmarks of quantum field theory, both measure and empirically validate electromagnetic time dilation, and are a direct and immediate consequence of local abelian and non-abelian gauge symmetries.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[42] **viXra:1609.0380 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-26 15:13:52*

**Authors:** Aleksandr Tsybin

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Currently, most research suggests that the physical vacuum is not empty, and the medium
is composed of dark matter and dark energy and this allows hope that the speed of light in
the physical vacuum can be transcended.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[41] **viXra:1609.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-26 11:30:05*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 120 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know:
-The dilatation of time, and
-The contraction of the Lorentz Length.
The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1609.0375 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-26 11:35:38*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 120 Pages.

A Teoria da Relatividade Especial conduz a dois resultados, considerados incompreensíveis por vários renomados físicos, que são a dilatação do tempo e a denominada contração espacial de Lorentz. A solução desses paradoxos me conduziu ao desenvolvimento da Relatividade Ondulatória onde a variação temporal é devida à diferença nos percursos de propagação da luz e o espaço é constante entre os observadores.
Da análise do desenvolvimento da Relatividade Ondulatória podemos sintetizar as seguintes conclusões:
-é uma teoria com princípios totalmente físicos,
-as transformações são lineares,
-matem intactos os princípios Euclidianos,
-considera a transformação de Galileu distinta em cada referencial,
-une a velocidade da luz e o tempo em um único fenômeno,
-desenvolve uma translação real entre os referenciais.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1609.0368 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-12 04:12:24*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment is a strong and compelling evidence for emission theory of light. Emission theory, unlike ether theory, can also explain Bradley stellar aberration. There is also the less known Bryan G Wallace analysis of Venus planet radar range data anomaly, which could be explained only by emission theory. The emission theory was abandoned because : 1) it was not compatible with Maxwell's electrodynamics: it predicted frozen light for a light source moving with velocity of light away from an observer 2) moving source experiments showed that the speed of light is independent of source velocity. Bradley observed no variation of the angle of aberration with different stars, demonstrating that the speed of light is independent of the velocity of the stars. The first of these problems is solved by a new interpretation of Einstein's thought experiment ( 'chasing a beam of light ' ): constant phase velocity and variable group velocity of light. For an observer moving away from a light source at the speed of light, the phases will still move at the speed of light relative to the observer, but the group will be 'frozen'. This interpretation requires that Doppler effect depend only on source observer relative velocity, demanding a new symmetrical law for Doppler effect of light. This is the Exponential Law of Doppler effect of light proposed in this paper, which can easily explain the Ives-Stilwell experiments. The second problem is resolved by a new hypothesis that the effect of absolute motion of a light source is to change the speed of light relative to the source so that the speed of light is independent of source velocity. Ether theory and emission theory are seamlessly united into a new theory. This is also in line with light having both wave and particle properties. The ether doesn't exist, but absolute motion does. The conception of the Michelson-Morley experiment was fundamentally flawed in that they considered light as ordinary material waves . A new interpretation of absolute motion is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1609.0356 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-25 12:58:51*

**Authors:** Peter Hlavačka

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Unified gravito-kinematics theory unifies gravity and kinematics on deeper level as current theories. It is generally compatible with equotations of General relativity, but it extends it and introduces different explanations to selected underlying principles on which is General relativity based. Unified gravito-kinematics theory explains or solves following open problems: primary cause and underlying mechanism of inertia, explanation of speed of light as speed limit, primary cause and underlying mechanism of relativity (Lorentz transformations), explanation of creation of rings of planets explanation of increasing speed of expansion of universe (dark energy), explanation of galaxy rotation problem, solving of some singularities in relativity theory and solution for compatibility of relativity theory with quantum mechanics, which will open door to merge of quantum mechanics and what is now relativity theory. What is most important, Unified gravito-kinematics theory makes very specific predictions, which can be tested by experiments and by astronomic observations. This paper includes one proposed rotation experiment and explanation of creation of rings around planets and smaller objects.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1609.0352 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-25 09:19:29*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters, Clifford Chafin, Domenico De Falco

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The vacuum catastrophe refers to the discrepancy between the predicted and detected values of repulsive vacuum energy. To tackle the issue, we start from a model of inflation in a time-symmetric quantistic vacuum, which, due to the Mandelstamm-Tamm inequality, leads to a trapping of a part of the original vacuum during the formation of our closed Universe. We show how the energy of our cosmos is stored in two different compartments, the microscopic quantistic vacuum and the macroscopic detectable cosmos. If we take into account, at the time of the Big Bang, the occurrence of time symmetry breaking into our Universe, we achieve a macroscopic energetic system governed by the second law of thermodynamics, where time acts like a continuous gauge field able to progressively increase the entropy. Our framework makes it possible to assess, among other issues, the vacuum catastrophe, to calculate the minimum three-dimensional volume of the pre-Big Bang vacuum and to make previsions for the future evolution of the two energetic compartments.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1609.0348 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-03 06:56:43*

**Authors:** Mutasim A. Ahmed

**Comments:** 10 Pages. email address: mutasim62@yahoo.com

To explain flyby effect we argue that, photons of the telemetry signal emitted from the free-falling spacecraft. Being themselves sources of gravitomagnetic field. Will interact with the field generated by the relatively moving Earth. An observer on-board the spacecraft can claim to be at absolute rest, according to the equivalence principle. Therefore an observer and in this case the telemetry photons, can assume being emitted from the spacecraft which is at rest, towards the Earth which is now moving towards photons with the same velocity of the spacecraft. The gravitomagnetic force in this case will be attractive. And due to the highly symmetrical trajectory of the spacecraft, an equivalent repulsive force will be experienced by telemetry photons during the departure of the spacecraft. In this case photons and Earth will be moving in the same direction. The force of attraction will manifest in the form of a blue-shift, and that of repulsion will manifest as a red-shift. So if we measure the effect equally during the inbound and the outbound, the two effects will add to zero. The effect is highly dependent on the way we observe it, as we will show.
As for the gravity probe-b case, we insisted that the equivalence principle must be fully applied. Therefore an observer in a free falling frame, have the right to claim being at rest, while the rest of the Universe will be moving with his same velocity, in the opposite direction. So from the point of view of the rotating gyroscope, Earth will be orbiting the gyroscope. We usually call this an “apparent revolution”. But for the gyroscope this revolution can produce measurable effects. Using this reasoning we obtained a field which is nearly 100 times greater than the expected one.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1609.0347 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-24 20:56:16*

**Authors:** Kapil Chandra

**Comments:** 4 Pages. prepared for Reseach proposal for Doctoral studies

The cosmological problem has been a long standing unsolved problem of physics. In this manuscript, we propose a new hypothesis to solve it and we reported that the theoretically calculated value is in good agreement with its current observed value. We also derived a new mathematical expression of gravity which is inverse of classical Newton gravity, our hypothesis suggests; the inversion of gravity is responsible for cosmic acceleration. It has been also explained, why the gravity is too weak force of nature. We reported here, there is a close link between the weak gravity and cosmological constant problem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1609.0346 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-24 11:38:11*

**Authors:** Amir Ali Tavajoh

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Escape velocity for black holes depends on the region we are at. When we are on the Schwarzschild’s sphere, it’s equal to the velocity of light and when we are inside the Schwarzschild’s sphere, it exceeds the velocity of light. On the other hand, tidal forces act on the object and turn it apart into pieces. Based on angular momentum conservation, as the pieces of object go inside the Schwarzschild’s radius, because their distance with singularity decreases, their velocity increases in order to make a balance and the angular momentum stay constant.
The Schwarzschild’s solution for schwarzschild’s sphere and inside, will show what happens to the space-time; in the Schwarzschild’s sphere, the space would be undefined and the time warps, but inside the sphere, "r" and “t” change their place in equation and because of "θ" and "φ" object’s geodesic will bend and object swirl around the singularity but "r" behaves like time and "t" behaves like space. Needless to say, g_μυ will be different.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1609.0344 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-24 09:36:48*

**Authors:** Amir Ali Tavajoh

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Based on the Mach’s principle, black holes warp the space time in a way that geodesic for every object which is moving toward black hole start to bend and object starts to rotate around the black hole. Even light cannot be able to escape from the strong gravitational field of black hole. Before arriving to the Schwarzschild’s Sphere, object faces with length extension because of the difference between amount of tidal forces on the nearest and furthest points of object that take the object apart and after passing the Schwarzschild’s sphere, based on the Special relativity of Einstein, the parts of object face with length contraction.
At the Ergo sphere Region of black hole, a particle that gets into it will divide into 2 pieces, one of them falls into the black hole and another gets out of the Schwarzschild sphere very fast and it’s called the black hole radiation.
According to the Diagram drawn by R. Rafini and J. Weeler, an object gets out of white hole in past space-time, it can be able to send signals to us and we can receive it but black hole which is located in future space-time, after object enters to the Schwarzschild’s Sphere, the signals it sends won’t be received.
In order to reach the third space-time which is like a mirror to our universe, our speed needs to exceed the speed of light to pass the Einstein-Rosen Bridge.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1609.0335 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-23 07:07:24*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 5 pages

In this paper the Lorentz Transformation (LT) is shown to be merely a set of equations applicable under the conditions reflecting the theorized principle of the speed of light invariance implemented in the direction of relative motion. It is revealed the LT is limited to events with coordinates satisfying the light speed space-time relation (i.e., x = ct). Einstein’s prediction of time dilation and length contraction is based on applying the LT equations to restricted coordinates. It is shown that such LT applications lead to mathematical contradictions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1609.0333 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-23 09:08:57*

**Authors:** Royan Rosche

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

All matter and energy make use of the four forces in modern sciences as they are made up of the four forces which mean that ancient elemental unification is the exact same thing as unification of the four forces. This paper points out that human beings are “calculating” in order to actually see what reality is instead of “observing” it. The author is reveals the uncertainty principle can be bypassed when we know what we are looking at by connecting the above celestial bodies to the below quantum world. All reality is mental based, i.e. on imagination. The meaning of the four elements is explained for modern comprehension.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1609.0309 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-21 04:43:32*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Saadeh et al recently reported in Phys. Rev. Lett.
that ''anisotropic expansion of the Universe is strongly disfavoured, with odds of 121,000:1 agains'', using CMB temperature and polarisation data from the WMAP and Planck satellites. However, it is impossible to determine anything about expansion of the Universe from the WMAP and Planck
datasets for a number of reasons.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1609.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-20 08:04:15*

**Authors:** Tibor Endre Nagy

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In the theory of general relativity, it is possible to calculate the size and age of the cosmos using a new Einsteinian gravitational field equation. The equation describing the radius of the universe contains the mass of the Earth, of which the mass under certain conditions is equivalent to the mass of the cosmos. Looking back in time at the point when the universe was the same size as the Earth as a black hole, the mass of the Earth would increase in parallel with the universe’s decreasing size, in the end resulting in the total mass of the cosmos (5.4976•1053kg). Under these conditions, the average main mass density of the present cosmos would be 5.9814•10-26kg∙m-3. Using the masses calculated on the basis of the equatorial and polar radius of the Earth, it is possible to determine the ‘inside mass of the horizon of the cosmos’ in a figure of 2.9075•1051kg, when the mass density of the universe is 3.1634•10-28kg∙m-3. Solving the newfound equation for g, given that the size of the universe equals to that of the Earth as black hole, it is also possible to determine the total gravity of the primordial universe, which is 9.0273•1029m∙s-2. Replacing these results with the original equation, it is possible to determine both the initial radius and mass of the cosmos in figures of 1.5334•10-32m and 6.4877•10-5 kg (both ≈948.8 times the Planck length and Planck mass), while the primordial density is 4.29•1090 kg∙m-3. Under the premise of the above information, the time when the universe may have been formed can be calculated (5.1151•10-41s).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1609.0295 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-20 05:59:02*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

This paper has the aim to study the relativistic behaviour of motions that happen in a gravitational field with respect to two reference frames that are in relative motion in the field. Let us consider the two main gravitational motions: the free fall of a body in a gravitational field of first type and the orbital motion in a gravitational field of second type. We will study different physical situations and we will distinguish situations in which the complete physical process happens inside a laboratory (Galilean reference frames) from situations in which physical process happens in open systems (Einsteinian reference frames).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1609.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-19 22:44:15*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

As No.1 of comparative physics series papers, this paper discusses the same points of law of gravity (including improved law of gravity) and general relativity: they are all the effective theories of gravitational interaction, and can be used to solve the problems of advance of planetary perihelion and deflection of photon around the Sun; and the different points of them: general relativity can conform to general relativity principle while law of gravity cannot conform to this principle, and law of gravity can solve the constraint problems in gravitational field (such as a small ball rolls along the inclined plane) while general relativity cannot solve these problems. These two theories can also overcome their own weak points by learning from each other's strong points, and jointly present the new explanation that the advance of planetary perihelion is the combined result of two motions: the first elliptical motion decided by law of gravity creates the perihelion, and the second vortex motion creates the advance of perihelion in which the advance parameters can be decided by general relativity. The common defect of these two theories is that they cannot take into account the principle of conservation of energy, comparing with the result that applying the principle of conservation of energy to derive Newton's second law and law of gravity, the further topic is applying the principle of conservation of energy to derive the related formulae and equations of general relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1609.0276 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-26 06:47:10*

**Authors:** Pavel Voráček

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A trivially easy argument, which – in fact – follows from the General relativity theory, is used in order to point out an evident flaw in the commonly accepted interpretation of the Principle of equivalence in Einstein’s box. It is shown that the flaw by itself has no destructive impact on the Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1609.0275 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-20 18:04:40*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A simple and clear explanation to the seemingly strange observed phenomenon of the ecliptic alignment of CMB anisotropy is presented. The proposed explanation is based on the wrongly excluded cosmological model of spherical space and radial time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1609.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-18 22:43:52*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 1 Page. This Comment was submitted to the editors of 'Astronomy and Astrophysics' on 18 September 2016, for publication in accordance with its Comment criteria.

It has recently been reported in the journal 'Astronomy and Astrophysics' that the active galactic nucleus of Markarian 1018 has likely changed optical type due to the effects of a supermassive black hole or a binary system consisting of two such black holes. It is however impossible for any type or form of black hole to be involved with Mrk 1018 because the mathematical theory of black holes violates the rules of pure mathematics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1609.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-16 19:33:43*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 11 Pages. This is an updated version of the paper.

This paper will provide some well based scientific arguments that time is neither a product of space nor an illusion; instead time is in a state of constant motion. That motion inflated space from the very beginning, the Big Bang, and it still does so now. We will name it “temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion inflates space and creates the relationship between space and time known as the space-time continuum; time is dominant in this relationship since its motion started the initial inflation of space, giving birth to the Universe, and continues to inflate space. Evolution will be explained as one of the basic laws of physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1609.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-16 10:36:16*

**Authors:** C. A. Laforet

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is demonstrated in the present work that the standard integration of the proper time along a freefalling geodesic in Schwarzschild spacetime does not properly account for the coordinate curvature in the vicinity of the event horizon. It is shown that that the condition given by the metric, namely that the change in proper time of the freefalling observer per change of coordinate time goes to zero at the horizon can be maintained while still allowing for an infinite proper time to the horizon. With the aid of a transformation of the radial Schwarzschild coordinate and analysis of light signals, we find that observers at rest will see the freefalling observer slow exponentially as she approaches the horizon, while the freefaller will see rest observers slow asymptotically as she approaches the horizon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1609.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-16 00:26:53*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper will provide some well based scientific arguments that time is neither a product of space nor an illusion; instead time is in a state of constant motion. That motion inflated space from the very beginning, the Big Bang, and it still does so now. We will name it “temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion inflates space and creates the relationship between space and time known as the space-time continuum; time is dominant in this relationship since its motion started the initial inflation of space, giving birth to the Universe, and continues to inflate space. Evolution will be explained as one of the basic laws of physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1609.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-15 03:40:42*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 6 pages

In his 1905 paper on special relativity, Einstein derived the relativistic Doppler shift formula from the Lorentz transformation. The wave time-period equation deduced from the relativistic Doppler shift is shown to result, with the help of the Lorentz transformation, in another time equation in contradiction with the formerly mentioned one. The end result: the Lorentz contraction factor γ is reduced to unity; the whole theory of relativity is thus undermined. Furthermore, for the case of relative circular motion, a critical contradiction of the relativistic Doppler principle with the special relativity time dilation prediction is revealed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1609.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-13 07:17:41*

**Authors:** Masamichi Sato

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Topological data analysis (TDA) is a current hot field in mathematical study of data science and this is based on topology.
On the other hand, information space can be described with differential geometry.
We investigate the critical phenomena of gravitational collapse with these tools, because the gravitational phenomena is described by Einstein's general relativity which is formulated on differential geometry.
After investigations, we give some comments on observation scales obtained from the results.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1609.0161 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-20 18:52:45*

**Authors:** Amine Benachour

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We confirm the self-consistency of the Lorentz transformation by solving the mathematical problem encountered when one deal with some thought experiments involving simultaneous events.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1609.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-12 15:01:57*

**Authors:** Emiro Díez Saldarriaga

**Comments:** 52 Pages. Español

Se trata de mostrar algunos aspectos en el desarrollo histórico de las relatividades
que traten de quebrar la ilusoria imagen de teorías
completas e infalibles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1609.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-12 12:01:47*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The expansion of the space. and The density of dark energy.
The space continues expanding.
The density of dark energy should become light.
The fixed number of the gravity equation shows a value of the dark energy.
The fixed number of the gravity equation is a constant value. I do not change.
By hypotheses of the elementary particle pulsation principle, I always set fixed number Λ with zero.
I set a density of dark energy level with a vacuum of energy zero.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1609.0151 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-16 20:24:58*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 8 Pages. In this version I have added a section on rapidity as well as relativity of simultaneity for sub-atomic particles

Haug [1, 2] has recently shown there is a speed limit for fundamental particles just below the speed of light. This speed limit means that the mass of a fundamental particle not will go towards infinity as v approaches c in the Einstein relativistic mass equation. The relativistic mass limit for a fundamental particle is the Planck mass. In this paper we use the same velocity limit in the Lorentz transformation. This leads to what we think could be significant results with some interesting interpretations. In addition we look at rapidity as well as relativity of simultaneity for subatomic particles at this maximum velocity for masses.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1609.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-10 14:26:23*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 6 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

In the "General Theory of Relativity" power formula force. The decomposition of this force into components, interaction of the electric and magnetic forces. If a closer look at the possible expansion of this force, we can find the force that gives the accelerated expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1609.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-10 07:02:09*

**Authors:** IElkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 6 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

In the "General Theory of Relativity" power formula force. The decomposition of this force into components, interaction of the electric and magnetic forces. If a closer look at the possible expansion of this force, we can find the force that gives the accelerated expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1609.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-08 09:54:41*

**Authors:** Royan Rosche

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Nature is one single thing made out of one single element and one single force. Elements are not moved by themselves but by energy. All life is made out of the combined elements forming a single elemental system matching the primordial one substance of the Universe. Our Universe is made out of the elements as well, meaning it is also a living being. There is only one thing in existence, that one thing is life, this opens up wisdom to us of the past, present, and future. The living Universe is both chaos and order at the same time. DNA is revealed to have the exact same properties as observation reality from earth formed as a standing wave composed of one part heat and one part sound.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1609.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-08 10:02:37*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is shown that the large-scale application of the Newtonian approximation and general relativity leads to certain value for the cosmological constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1609.0089 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-20 09:00:36*

**Authors:** Alexander P.Sobolev

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The article presents some results of a nonsingular theory of gravity (hereinafter - NTG) based on the axiomatics which differs somewhat from the axioms of the general theory of relativity (GR) and free from the internal problems inherent to GR. Nonsingular space kinematics is constructed on this basis. It is proved that from the condition of energy positivity follows: global isotropy of homogeneous space, existence of a change of the acceleration - deceleration eras and negative value of the scalar curvature of space. Nonsingular basic phenomenological model of evolution of the Universe is constructed, described by the smooth one-parametrical dependence from the moment of the beginning of evolution to an arbitrary point of time, coordinated with the observational astronomical data but without an involvement of the hypotheses of the existence of a dark energy, dark matter and inflatons. The particle-like solution of the NTG equations for the static isotropy metric is found. The behavior of the solution in the region of weak fields is specified on the basis of correspondence principle with GR. It is shown that in the certain region of space the distributions of fields can exist, for which the equality of inertial (defined according to Mach’s principle) and gravitational mass is satisfied. The horizon characteristic for the solutions of GR equations in the isotropic case is absent in NTG.
Keywords: Gravitational Physics, Space Kinematics, Cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1609.0083 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-06 10:50:17*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages. The updated version also gives a limit on the maximum relativistic Doppler shift

In 1905, Einstein presented his famous relativistic mass energy equation mc^2/Sqrt(1-{v^2/c^2). When v approaches c, the expression containing the moving mass approaches infinity. Einstein interpreted this in the following way: since one needs an infinite amount of energy to accelerate even a small mass to the speed of light, it would appear that no mass can ever reach the speed of light. In this paper, we present a new solution to the infinite mass challenge based on combining special relativity with insights from Max Planck and maximum frequency. By doing this we show that there is an exact limit on the speed v in Einstein's formula. This limit is only dependent on the Planck length and the reduced Compton wavelength of the mass in question. This also gives us a limit on the maximum relativistic Doppler shift that is derived and discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1609.0081 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-23 11:12:45*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 16 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether (in Polish)

W artykule wykazaliśmy, że istnieje cała klasa teorii z eterem, które prawidłowo wyjaśniają eksperymenty, w których mierzono prędkość światła.
Przedstawiliśmy założenia Szczególnej Teorii Eteru z dowolnym skróceniem poprzecznym oraz wyprowadziliśmy ogólną postać transformacji eter-układ inercjalny. Następnie wyznaczyliśmy prędkość światła w próżni dla ruchomego obserwatora oraz pokazaliśmy trzy konkretne przykłady transformacji eter-układ inercjalny.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1609.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-06 15:29:04*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The validity of the logical relations between the basic propositions of modern cosmology is examined and the source of the cosmological constant problem is determined and a proposed solution is given.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1609.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-06 07:47:18*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Кому понравилось, могут пожертвовать некоторую сумму денег на WM: R335877695266 или Z300715849159

Einstein's general relativity gives excellent results of calculations, which are based on the principle of least action. But the principle is not in a position to make the move in a certain path, it can only make the interaction, the disclosure of which is derived from this principle. In other words, there are some well-known interaction. It is, according to formulas derived from the principle of least action, acts on a material object. Therefore, a material object and makes movement, according to the principle of least action. About this and made to explain the inertia of bodies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1609.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-06 05:09:34*

**Authors:** Kumar Deepayan Turja

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Special Relativity leads us to draw conclusion on mass-energy conversion but does not tell about the governing limits occupied with the process. This paper has developed a probabilistic approach to show the proper limit of mass-energy conversion in an inertial frame of reference. Here we will see that mass or energy can never be converted fully into each other by itself. An indirect proof & restatement of the 2nd law of thermodynamics has been given from the view-point of special relativity and the conclusion derived from the method. At the end an alternative explanation of radioactive decay & fate of the universe has been discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1609.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-05 09:16:55*

**Authors:** Aleksandr Tsybin

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The presence of dark matter and dark energy, which is also called physical vacuum
substantially change our views on gravity. This is due to the fact that the vacuum has
physical properties possessed by the liquid. These properties should be attributed
primarily flow rate, density and impermeable screen for this substance

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1609.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-05 10:02:11*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 7 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

Einstein's general relativity gives excellent results of calculations, which are based on the principle of least action. But the principle is not in a position to make the move in a certain path, it can only make the interaction, the disclosure of which is derived from this principle. In other words, there are some well-known interaction. It is, according to formulas derived from the principle of least action, acts on a material object. Therefore, a material object and makes movement, according to the principle of least action. About this and made to explain the inertia of bodies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1609.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-05 07:10:28*

**Authors:** Yoav Weinstein, Gabriel Sinbar, Eran Sinbar

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Based on Einstein’s equation matter and anti-matter annihilate into photonic radiation energy. Photons have unique characteristics since they are massless and they travel at the speed of light in all the inertial reference frames. No other particle shares these unique characteristics. We claim that this unique behavior is due to the fact that photons do not apply gravitational effects on space-time, meaning,although photons will be forced to move in a curved line if space-time is curved they
will not curve space time by themselves or apply gravity forces and time dilation on
one another.
In order to prove our claims we suggest a thought experiment that leads to a paradox.
The only way to explain this paradox is to conclude that anti-matter impose anti–gravity and therefore matter and anti-matter together impose zero gravity.
Furthermore, this proves that the photonic energy from the annihilation phase has also zero gravity effect on space-time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1609.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-01 07:52:21*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This paper was erroneously attached as 1608.0427v1

Borrowing concepts from the Electric/Plasma Universe theories [1], I examine a possible explanation of at least part of the observed behavior for the galactic rotation anomaly for spiral galaxies by considering an idealized case where the combined magnetic fields from the galactic core (assumed to be a rotating charged sphere) and spiral arms (assumed to be a rotating charged disk exhibit a trend toward the ‘flatness’ in these rotation curves as one proceeds outward radially from the galactic core to its edge. This hopefully is a plausible addition to the various alternate explanations for this anomaly that do not invoke the likely fiction of ‘dark matter,’ alleged to comprise roughly 85% of the total matter in the universe (and, with the other likely fiction ‘dark energy,’ alleged to comprise roughly 95% of the total mass-energy of the universe). In the process, I provide at least an introduction to some of these other alternative explanations for the galactic rotation anomaly.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology