[47] **viXra:1611.0406 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-09 06:26:50*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Version 3 in English.

This article presents the vector Lorentz transformations of time, space, velocity and acceleration.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[46] **viXra:1611.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-28 01:23:10*

**Authors:** Dr Gautam Narayan Baruah

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

When a body say a toy car slides down an inclined plane with angle of inclination less than 45 degree the downward and forward motion of the toy car can be restricted by a thread or support perfectly parallel to the horizontal.It can mathematically proved based on the law of conservation of energy that a portion of the weight of the toy car is unsupported even at the position of rest and sinks down in the same relative space causing compression of spacetime below the toy car.This is a mathematical proof of a plane solid surface where an object can rest with part of it's weight not supported even at the position og rest enabling a novel warp drive and time travel mechanism that can work without causing any physical harm to human subjects.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[45] **viXra:1611.0371 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-27 05:34:14*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Scientists behind a theory that the speed of light is variable-and not constant as Einstein suggested-have made a prediction that could be tested. [5] Physicists' greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought " theory of everything. " This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4] The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[44] **viXra:1611.0344 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-05 23:38:02*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Apparent Source Theory ( AST ) is a new interpretation of absolute motion already proposed by this author. AST easily explains many light speed experiments, including the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect and moving source experiments. AST has also been extended to electrostatics, revealing a mysterious nature of electrostatic fields. After I completed developing the major part of AST, I came across an idea that, if two oppositely charged spheres are fixed to the two ends of a rigid rod , and the system is in absolute motion, according to AST, the charge-rod system will be subjected to a net electrostatic force and hence accelerate, implying free energy and reactionless thrust ! Obviously such a possibility would be very exciting, if it really existed. But I was also disappointed because, if free energy doesn’t really exist, this would imply that my theory (AST ) is wrong. I had never heard of such an effect before. Later I found in the internet that such an effect in fact exists and is known as the Biefeld-Brown effect and with unknown origin. Although AST neatly predicts this effect and can be a very compelling explanation, I feel that it still needs to be developed . The purpose of this paper is to invite and inspire theoretical and experimental researchers to work on this exciting technology. Exciting possibilities have been presented for this purpose. For example, according to AST, it is possible to produce by a small free energy device, made by stacking large number of capacitors, a net force that can lift an object as massive as an aircraft carrier. It is shown that the net force on the capacitor is directly proportional to the square of the applied voltage, inversely proportional to the square of plate separation distance, directly proportional to the area of the capacitor plates, directly proportional to the relative permittivity of the dielectric material, and directly proportional to absolute velocity for absolute velocities much less than the speed of light. That the net force is directly proportional to the square of the electric field strength implies that dielectric materials with the highest dielectric strength are vital to the realization of free energy devices. Diamond is the most promising material for this, with dielectric strength of 2000 MV/m.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[43] **viXra:1611.0341 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-25 00:58:51*

**Authors:** Evgeny A. Novikov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

New exact analytical solutions of Einstein and Qmoger (quantum modification of general relativity) equations are obtained in the context an alternative to the Big Bang theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[42] **viXra:1611.0340 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-25 02:09:57*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Assert the dominance of SUPREME using quantum topology at the cosmological scale.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[41] **viXra:1611.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-24 10:12:19*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Through its measurements of Planck's constant, a quantity at the heart of quantum physics, the NIST-4 watt balance is contributing to an effort to define all base measurement units in terms of fundamental constants of nature. [4] The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1611.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-24 03:16:38*

**Authors:** Peter J Carroll.

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract. This paper provides a method of visualising the rotation of a hypersphere (3-sphere or 4 ball) on the inside. As such, it may represent the actual behaviour of the universe and this paper gives figures which may apply to the universe and which await observational confirmation. As a hypersphere will ‘rotate’ in a more complex way than a simple ordinary sphere (2-sphere), we can refer to it as a vorticitation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1611.0310 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-25 14:43:38*

**Authors:** David F. Crawford

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Replacement to correct two references (Crawford 2009a & Crawford 2009b)

It is shown that the light curve widths of type Ia supernovae do not have time dilation and that their magnitudes are consistent with a static universe. The standard analysis for type Ia supernovae uses a set of templates to overcome the intrinsic variation of the supernova light curves with wavelength. The reference light curves derived from this set of templates contain an anomaly in that at short wavelengths the width of the light curve is proportional to the emitted wavelength. Furthermore this anomaly is exactly what would be produced if supernovae at different redshifts did not have time dilation and yet time dilation corrections were applied. It is the specific nature of this anomaly that is evidence for a static universe. The lack of time dilation is confirmed by direct analysis of the original observations. It is also found that the peak flux density of the light curves in the reference templates had a strong dependence on wavelength that could be due to the use of an incorrect distance modulus. This dependence is investigated by computing the peak absolute magnitudes of type Ia supernovae observations from the original observations using a static cosmological model. The results support the hypothesis of a static universe. It is also argued that the photometric redshift relation and spectroscopic ages are consistent with a static universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1611.0308 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-22 12:19:30*

**Authors:** Ru-Jiao Zhang

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper presents a derivation of the theoretical value of the cosmological constant. The approach was based on Einstein’s gravitational field equations, Hubble’s law, and Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model of the universe. The theoretical value of the cosmological constant Λ was found to be: Λ=(2Ho^2)/3 , here Ho is the Hubble constant. The theoretical value is very close to the observational value. Open space (k=-1) and closed space (k=+1) most likely coexist in our universe. The study implies that the expansion of the universe is an inherent property of vacuum space, not by dark matter and dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1611.0303 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-14 02:45:54*

**Authors:** Per Hokstad

**Comments:** 19 pages

The special theory of relativity (STR) describes the time dilation between two reference frames moving relative to each other at a constant speed. The Lorentz transformation provides the magnitude of this time dilation. The present work focuses on the fact that the time observed on the ‘other’ system will depend on the location of the clocks used for time comparisons, and we refer to positional (location specific) time. The paper points to the various ‘observational principles’, i.e. the specification of which clocks to apply, and we present a unified framework for these principles. It is argued that the total picture of the observed time dilations is more informative than the usual approach of focusing on one specific expression for time dilation, apparently based on a specific observational principle and a somewhat arbitrary definition of simultaneity. The motivation of the paper is to challenge the current narrative regarding time dilation occurring under the conditions of the STR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1611.0302 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-21 14:04:13*

**Authors:** Gene H. Barbee

**Comments:** 29 Pages. Please contact genebarbee@msn.com with comments

Most of nature is not hard to understand using the right approach. Understanding involves correlating data in a different way. Information (N) is defined by the negative natural logarithm of probability (N= - ln P) but the key equation is a new relationship between energy and information. The equation is E=e0*exp(N) where e0 is an energy constant and exp(N) stands for the natural number 2.718 to the power N. N values are found from data gathered by high energy labs. This paper describes how nature originates from these values. Nature repeatedly uses an operation involving separation of some information from other information. But there are important properties that are maintained and thought to be initial conditions. One property is probability one and another is zero energy. Separation occurs between N for the mass and N for field energy in a neutron. This causes an individual neutron to very improbable. But probability one is maintained by the creation of a huge number of neutrons. A mass model of the neutron was developed using information values that represent its components. The model is based on information separation between components of the neutron. Zero net energy is maintained. Mass with kinetic energy is positive balanced by negative field energy. It will be shown that the model contains energy values that unify nature’s four fundamental interactions.
An information value associated with the electromagnetic field is of interest to biology. Combined with a quantum mechanical equation for light absorption multiples of this value can be used to model our human color vision system. This links internal observations with information and is a clue regarding signaling and response in our brain’s neural networks. Specifically the author proposes that there may be molecular level storage and interaction involved in perception. There are observations in physics that require explanation beyond physical networks. The dual slit experiment, instantaneous action at a distance (EPR) and collapse of a wave-function can be explained if perception is information gain occurring at the quantum level in a zero based system (zero energy and probability one).
Four types of time are involved. Frequency is associated with fundamental particles and field energy. Time that repeats around a quantum orbit is defined by mass with kinetic energy attracted to field energy. A third kind of time repeats and moves forward. It is related to an information operation that underlies gravitation and cosmological space and time. Nature positions particles in space by giving them kinetic energy to expand. The freedom to move is due to time dilation associated with kinetic energy. Expansion is another separation process. As particles expand, groups of particles form clusters, galaxies, stars and planets under the influence of gravity, then form chemicals under the influence of electromagnetic fields. Overall, separation leads to components that fit together, similar to a picture puzzle and its individual pieces.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1611.0301 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-21 14:21:46*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: In our present E8 broken symmetry epoch we are limited to 248 particles and antiparticles; this limit has been reached seemingly without including any natural SUSY particles. However, 8-fold composite particles indicative of life have been included. This report also contains correction of an error.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1611.0298 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-20 16:50:54*

**Authors:** Kathleen A. Rosser

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A static cosmological metric is derived that accounts for observed cosmic redshift without the requirement for an expanding universe. The metric is interpreted in such a way as to predict a universal potential that accounts the anomalous acceleration of outlying stars of spiral galaxies (the galactic rotation curve), obviating the need for dark matter or modifications to general relativity

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1611.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-20 21:01:02*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 41 Pages. © 2016 Adrian Ferent

“Einstein's equivalence principle is wrong because the gravitational force experienced locally is caused by a negative energy, gravitons energy and the force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial (accelerated) frame of reference is caused by a positive energy” Adrian Ferent
Because Einstein's equivalence principle is wrong, Einstein’s gravitation theory is wrong.
What is the difference between time dilation in Special theory of relativity and Gravitational time dilatation?
Time dilation in Special theory of relativity is caused by positive energy.
“Gravitational time dilatation is caused by negative energy” Adrian Ferent

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1611.0296 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-20 23:20:53*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 42 Pages. This article is the Author's invited contribution (a chapter) to a new book. No copyright limitations.

The mathematical theory of Relativity is riddled with violations of the rules of pure mathematics, logical contradictions, and conflict with a vast array of experiments. These flaws are reviewed herein in some detail. Claims for the discovery of black holes, Einstein's gravitational waves and the afterglow of the Big Bang, are demonstrably false. There are two conditions that any physical theory must satisfy: (a) logical consistency, (b) concordance with reality as determined by experiment and observation. Einstein's General Theory of Relativity fails on both counts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1611.0286 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-21 06:29:30*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Discussing for the origin of fine-structure of the Universe’s space and the Matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1611.0279 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-19 12:30:20*

**Authors:** G. N. N. Martin

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In an earlier paper I showed that Newton's laws generalise to the theory of special relativity. In this paper I show that special relativity in turn implies general relativity.
I have two audiences in mind. I hope it will help those who, like me, left school decades ago but still like to understand today's physics and are dissatisfied with inexact analogies. The second target audience are those academic physicists who do not realise how readily relativity can be derived using only those assumptions that are implicit in Newton's laws.
The paper consists of a fairly short argument, followed by a number of appendices. Some of the appendices make supporting calculations, the rest explain ideas that will be obvious to some readers but not to others.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1611.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-16 05:17:13*

**Authors:** David Berkahn

**Comments:** 2 Pages. I had to add the letter "f" "i"

An approach to deriving tidal accelerations is presented using a modified solution approach based
on velocity dependence of acceleration for a weak feld. Further explorations of this approach are
investigated using general relativity to see how it might fit into its framework and whether any
modifications may need to be suggested.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1611.0230 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-16 02:56:59*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This is a short paper on the maximum possible momentum for subatomic particles, as well as on the relativistic energy-momentum relationship for a Planck mass. This paper builds significantly on the maximum velocity for subatomic particles introduced by [1, 2, 3] and I strongly recommend reading an earlier paper [1] before reading this paper.
It is important that we distinguish between Planck momentum and the momentum of a Planck mass. The Planck momentum can (almost) be reached for any subatomic particles with rest-mass lower than a Planck mass when accelerated to their maximum velocity, given by Haug. Just before the Planck momentum is reached, the mass will turn into a Planck mass. The Planck mass is surprisingly at rest for an instant, and then the mass will then burst into pure energy. This may sound illogical at first, but the Planck mass is the very turning point of the light particle (the indivisible particle) and it is the only mass that is at rest as observed from any reference frame.
That the Planck mass is at rest as observed from any reference frame could be as important as understanding that the speed of light is the same in every reference frame. The Planck mass seems to be as unique and special among masses (particles with mass) as the speed of light is among velocities. It is likely one of the big missing pieces towards a unified theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1611.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-18 23:42:43*

**Authors:** [Alik] Vitali Perakh

**Comments:** 28 Pages. Removed subsection Remote Receding Objects after realized flaw in logic of related argument.

The purpose of this article is to provide an alternative, strictly geometric, interpretation for the observed phenomenon of time. This Geometric Model
of Time (GMT) is consistent with both Theories of Relativity but goes beyond cur-
rent explanations for the nature of and the apparent one-directness of time - the
so-called Arrow of Time.
Key elements of the model are:
1. Our physical space (not space-time) is a 4-dimensional phenomenon.
The notion of a dimension of time that is distinct from space is not necessary
for a complete description of our universe. All dimensions are identical and
symmetrical. No one dimension can be singled out to be universally or uniquely
labeled as "time" or be otherwise unique.
2. All physical objects in our universe are endowed with an axiomatic vectorial
property we call velocity. The scalar value of this property (speed) is invariable
and identical for all objects and is labeled as c (speed of light).
3. The experience of time as we know it, or, more precisely, of sequential causality, results from each observer's motion through space at c. "Time" is the
term given by each observer to their own individual direction of travel in our
physical four-space.
This model is a better fit with observed phenomena than current ones as well as
being simpler and more elegant, elegance being defined as having symmetry (in the
sense that it treats no dimension as being singular).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1611.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-15 18:11:29*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Minor changes in v2

In Riemannian geometry there is a unique combination of the Riemann-Christoffel curvature tensor, Ricci tensor and Ricci scalar that defines a fourth-order Lagrangian for conformal gravity theory. This Lagrangian can be greatly simplified by eliminating the curvature tensor term, leaving a unique combination of just the Ricci tensor and scalar. The resulting formalism and the associated equations of motion provide a tantalizing alternative to Einstein-Hilbert gravity that may have application to the problems of dark matter and dark energy without the imposition of the cosmological constant or extraneous scalar, vector and spinor terms typically employed in attempts to generalize the Einstein-Hilbert formalism.
Gauss-Bonnet gravity specifies that the full Lagrangian hides an ordinary divergence (or surface term) that can be used to eliminate the curvature tensor term. In this paper we show that the overall formalism, outside of surface terms necessary for integration by parts, does not involve any such divergence. Instead, it is the Bianchi identities that are hidden in the formalism, and it is this fact that allows for the simplification of the conformal Lagrangian.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1611.0199 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-13 13:14:41*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Published: Nyambuya G. G., (2016), ‘On Sinusoidal Time Variation of the Newtonian Gravitational Constant’, PSTJ, Mar. 10, Vol. 7(3) Article 18, pp.650− 659. (ISBN: 1530633834 ; EAN13: 9781530633838)

In a recent publication [J. D. Anderson at al. (2015)', Europhys. Lett. 110, 10002] presented a strong correlation between the measured values of the Newtonian gravitational constant G and the 5.9 year oscillation of the length of day. Following this publication of Anderson at al. (2015)'s publication, S. Schlamminger at al. [Phys. Rev. D 91, 121101(R)] compiled a more complete set of published measurements of G made in the last 35 years where they performed a least-squares regression to a sinusoid with period 5.9 years and found this fit to still yields a reasonable fit to these data thus somewhat putting credence to this claim of Anderson at al. (2015). However, it is yet to be established as to whether or not this signal is gravitational in origin. In this brief communication, we point-out that -- in principle -- this sinusoidal signal has a place in the gravitomagnetic model that we currently working on.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1611.0189 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-13 13:10:57*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Published: Nyambuya, G. G. (2016), ‘A Prediction of Quantised Gravitational Deflection of Starlight’, PSTJ, Vol. 7(13), pp.1827 − 1833. (ISSN: 2153-8301)

In an earlier reading, it is argued that the pivotal, all-important, critical, crucial and supposedly watershed factor " 2 " emerging from Einstein's General Theory of Relativity (GTR) and used in Solar eclipse measurements by Sir Arthur S. Eddington as the clearest indicator yet that Einstein's GTR is indeed a superior theory to Newton's theory of gravitation may not be adequate as an arbiter to decide the fate of Newtonian gravitational theory. In the present reading, using ideas from research that we have carried out over the years – research whose endeavour is to obtain a General Spin Dirac Equation in Curved Spacetime (GS-Dirac Equation); we present yet another " surprising " result, namely that – if the ideas leading to the GS-Dirac Equation and as-well those presented in the reading rendering the factor " 2 " as being inadequate as an arbiter to decide the fate of Newtonian gravitational theory, then, the gravitational deflection of a photon may very well depend on its spin in such a manner that if photons of different spins where to be observed undergoing gravitational deflection by a massive object such as the Sun, the resulting deflection may very well be seen exhibiting distinct deflection quantization as a result of the quantized spins.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1611.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-11 06:53:26*

**Authors:** Jixueshi

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Experiments show that Einstein's assumption is wrong

The relativistic derivation is based on Einstein's first and second hypotheses. These two hypotheses have no experimental basis. The two experiments in this paper can prove that these two assumptions do not hold. The coils with constant inertial motion in the magnetic field will generate electric current, and the stationary coil will not generate current. The Michelson-Morley Experiment with the Relative Motion to Earth is not a zero result, proving that Einstein's second hypothesis does not hold. The reliability of the experimental results need not be doubted. For those who have the knowledge of physics, as long as the thought experiment can determine the results of these two experiments is correct.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1611.0136 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-13 12:03:36*

**Authors:** Hyoyoung Choi

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

We can propose two models as an example for Zero Energy Universe Model. In this paper, we research that the total energy of the universe is zero, matters have a positive energy, and only gravitational potential energy is considered as a negative energy to offset this positive energy. In this model, to establish energy conservation law while the universe is expanding, energy needs to be increased, which increases R_gs or R_B of the universe. If a newly appeared energy has antigravity or negative pressure characteristics, it can be used as the model that can account for dark energy. There exists a zone that has a uniform energy density within R_gs due to the presence of gravitational potential energy with negative values. Base on this, I estimated the current size of the universe. And the model that I propose can solve some problems that the model “the universe is a black hole” had.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1611.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-10 09:57:55*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 54 Pages. Spanish

We make a compilation of attempts to derive the law of motion of a particle from the field equation of the theory unified asymmetric of Einstein. The equation of motion to first order must contain the law of gravitation of Newton and Coulomb's law. To derive the law of motion we use the method with which Einstein, Infeld and Hoffmann solved the problem of motion in General Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1611.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-10 03:42:36*

**Authors:** Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Aiden J. Pons

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

PROBLEM: General and special relativity provide the formulations for how an observer in one frame of reference perceives motion in another. These cosmological principles arise from application of continuum mechanics, and are inaccessible to the particle perspective. PURPOSE: This paper derives the relativity formulations from a particle perspective, using a non-local hidden-variable solution (Cordus theory). APPROACH: The theory assumes a flux tube of discrete force emissions, and this property is exploited to derive the Lorentz transformation. Then this is generalised to a formalism for time dilation, and the relativistic Doppler relationship. FINDINGS: We show it is straightforward to derive the Lorentz and relativistic Doppler from a particle perspective. However the equations are found to contain an additional term relating to the difference in fabric density between situations. For a homogenous fabric - which is the assumption of general relativity - the conventional formulations are recovered. ORIGINALITY: Deriving the Lorentz and relativistic Doppler from a particle theory is novel. Also novel is the proposition that fabric density is a covert variable. The implication is that inertial frames of reference are only situationally equivalent if they also have the same fabric density, and this has further implications for interpreting cosmological redshifts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1611.0113 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-04 03:02:24*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Let us study at first the representation of energy of ordinary bodies and of massive elementary particles into the domain space-time (3+1)D, then let us consider energy particles represented by photons and by energy quanta. It is known that kinetic energy presents a factor 1/2 for ordinary force fields, but we will demonstrate that factor is absent in determinate physical conditions through the use of the Dirac impulsive function and this consideration can be useful also for energy particles. Frequency shifts of energy particles can be interpreted in the light of new considerations on energy, that prove cosmological shift is the overall outcome of different physical effects due whether to redshift or to blueshift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1611.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-09 03:52:57*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The Special Relativity Theory (SRT) is based on two, in 1905 by Einstein proposed, presumptions: the first one, labelled by Einstein as the Principle of Relativity, the second one defining the supposed property of the speed of light in vacuum. This article shows how close Einstein, as well as Lorentz, has been to a solid solution of the problems physicists encountered a century ago, observing electro-magnetic phenomena. It also shows that Einstein’s PoR is a fundamentally restricted version of the “now-a-days-PoR”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1611.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-08 16:02:14*

**Authors:** Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Abbreviated version of the talk at the ICGTMP-31, June 2016, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

An analog of the S=1/2 Feynman-Dyson propagator is presented in the framework of the S=1 Weinberg's theory.
The basis for this construction is the concept of the Weinberg field as a system of four field functions differing by parity and by dual transformations.
Next, we analyze the recent controversy in the definitions of the Feynman-Dyson propagator for the field operator containing the S=1/2 self/anti-self charge conjugate states in the papers by D. Ahluwalia et al. and by W. Rodrigues Jr. et al. The solution of this mathematical controversy is obvious. It is related to the necessary doubling of the Fock Space (as in the Barut and Ziino works), thus extending the corresponding Clifford Algebra. However, the logical interrelations of different mathematical foundations with the physical interpretations are not so obvious (Physics should choose only one correct formalism - it is not clear, why two correct mathematical formalisms (which are based on the same postulates) lead to different physical results?)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1611.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-08 02:08:21*

**Authors:** Mahesh Khati

**Comments:** 67 Pages.

This paper proves that special theory of relativity is wrong & give answer to following problems.
1) What is dark matter?
2) Dual nature of particles (Wave & particle)
3) Why antimatter is not present in world abundantly?
4) Total energy of photon is kinetic energy, still it is moving of electromagnetic
vibration & rest mass or energy of photon is zero & also, it has wave nature? How
all this is possible at one time?
5) How can photon disintegrate into electron & positron pair and electron, positron get
combine to form photon?
6) Why does charge less particles like photons & neutron have more velocity?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1611.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-25 06:08:05*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Typos corrected.

The idea of hyperimaginary numbers is suggested as the first step toward the mathematical basis of res potentia (Plato), presented in the right-hand side of the evolution equation |w|2 = |m|2 + |mi|2. The real and imaginary (tachyonic) components in the right-hand side are always balanced, leading to |w|2 = 0 - the physicalized world is made of positive mass-energy only, |m|2, which is always balanced (not "conserved") by equal amount of |mi|2, once-at-a-time, ever since The Beginning (John 1:1). God is interpreted as mathematical (hyperimaginary) object residing "inside" the 4D instant here-and-now (Luke 17:21), and conceptual solutions to fundamental problems in point-set topology, set theory, and number theory are briefly described.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1611.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-06 14:21:58*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: The H - Z boson particle mass difference has increased by 8.3% in the time interval since before the big bang. This finding indicates that these important type bosons (supersymmetric particle candidates) can be "fine-tuned" in mass to satisfy the needs of life.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1611.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-16 09:48:13*

**Authors:** Tsuneaki Takahashi

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Lorentz transformation of special relativity theory has been derived inductively based on the constancy of light velocity for every inertia systems. The equation predicts possible important results. But many people might feel it is hard to understand these intuitively.
The cause of it may be these have not been derived deductively from basic nature laws for over hundred years. This may mean we don’t know any basic nature laws for special relativity theory yet. Here we try to find these.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1611.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-05 12:35:36*

**Authors:** Amine Benachour

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We are examining the possible existence of new relativistic effect that might experimentally be detected in order to provide a rational explanation to thought experiments involving simultaneous events.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1611.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-05 10:22:11*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 7 Pages. http://bolshoyforum.com/forum/index.php?action=felblog;sa=view;uid=17499

In the "General Theory of Relativity" power formula force. The decomposition of this force into components, interaction of the electric and magnetic forces. If a closer look at the possible expansion of this force, we can find the force that gives the accelerated expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1611.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-04 05:43:54*

**Authors:** Alexander G. Kyriakos

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

This article is a summary of the non-geometrical Lorentz-invariant theory of gravitation (LIGT) (references and citations here allow to familiarize oneself with known results from the theory of gravitation in more detail). In the framework of the proposed theory the physical meaning of the metric tensor and square of interval in pseudo-Euclidian space was clarified, all the exact solutions of GR were obtained, the violation on the law of conservation of energy-momentum was eliminated, as well as other difficulties have been overcome. A characteristic feature of the proposed theory is that it is built on the basis of the quantum field theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1611.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-04 07:33:47*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The question of the “finely tuned Universe” will be answered by defining a new
dimensionless constant that is potentially fundamental for the future of physics. The constant will
be named the “de Broglie constant” in honor of Louis de Broglie, and it will be defined with a
symbol (Д). This is the constant that gives rise to the constant (α) known as the “fine structure constant” that defines the electromagnetic interaction but was mistakenly considered to be the constant that defines a “fine-tuned” Universe, it will be elaborated that it is the de Broglie constant that does so and that it arises from the fundamental law of mass-energy equivalence.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1611.0050 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-06 21:02:15*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 1 Page. Submitted to the editors of Nature on 4 Nov. 2016 for the purpose of publication.

Irwin et al recently reported on ultraluminous X-ray bursts in two ultracompact companions to nearby elliptical galaxies NGC 4697 and NGC 5128 (sources 1 and 2 respectively). Although they discuss a number of possibilities, they favour neutron stars and black holes as the likely sources: "the sources appear to be normal accreting neutron-star or black-hole X-ray binaries". However, there is no possibility for black holes to be associated with these X-ray sources because the mathematical theory of black holes contains a latent violation of the rules of pure mathematics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1611.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-06 09:34:52*

**Authors:** G. H. Mickey Thompson

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Upon examining thousands of astrophysics papers and journal articles, one can’t help noticing the many researchers who are expressing a frustration that their well confirmed findings are not consistent with the Inflationary, Lambda Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM) cosmic model. Their plea is for a simpler model that better explains these findings. This paper introduces such a model. It’s based on evidence that back in the 1930s Georges Lemaître erred when he made the unprovable assumption the big bang created the entire universe. Simply negating that assumption supports a new paradigm in which our big bang overlays part of a grander universe; one that’s perpetually consolidating residues of old big bangs and growing singularities that spark new ones. It’s this background litter that generates the anomalous behaviors observed by researchers. The paper shows how a dozen such popular complaints can easily be demystified. In addition to placing this unexamined model in the discussion, the paper also questions popular assumptions about dark matter and gravity, positing more logical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) explanations.
Keywords: black holes, cosmology theory, dark energy, dark matter, galactic super clusters, large-scale structure of the universe, missing antimatter, quasars, singularities, stars

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1611.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-03 02:09:05*

**Authors:** Alexander G. Kyriakos

**Comments:** 64 Pages.

The modern theory of gravity, which is called General Theory of Relativity (GTR or GR), was verified with sufficient accuracy and adopted as the basis for studying gravitational phenomena in modern physics. GR is the geometric theory of gravitation, in which the metric of Riemannian space-time plays the role of relativistic gravitational potential. Therefore it has certain features that make it impossible to connect it with others physics theories in which geometry plays only a supporting role. Another formal feature of general relativity is that the study and the use of its mathematical apparatus require much more time than the study of any of the branches of modern physics. This book is an attempt to build a non-geometrical version of the theory of gravitation, which is in the framework of the modern Lorentz-invariant field theory and would not cause difficulties when teaching students. A characteristic feature of the proposed theory is that it is built on the basis of the quantum field theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1611.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-01 17:11:04*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Everyone knows the further back you look through a telescope into the Universe the more things appear red-shifted. If that same process continues the light would be shifted right off the visible spectrum and into the micro-wave. And that is what happened.

Micro-wave (or CMB) radiation is just light from stars that are very far away.

Remember Olbers' paradox? Why is the sky not bright if there is supposedly a star at the end of every point you look? There actually is -- but the light has been shifted.

This is why the CMB appears to be so smooth -- the Universe is filled (for all intents) evenly with stars so you will see just about the same things no matter were you look. A lot of it might be in a different spectrum though.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1611.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-02 03:23:19*

**Authors:** Alexander G. Kyriakos

**Comments:** 116 Pages.

The modern theory of gravity, which is conditionally called General Theory of Relativity (GTR), was verified with sufficient accuracy and adopted as the basis for studying gravitational phenomena in modern physics. However, it has certain features that make it impossible to connect with other theories, on which almost all the techniques and technology of modern civilization is built. Another formal disadvantage of general relativity is that the study and the use of its mathematical apparatus require much more time than the study of any of the branches of modern physics. This book is an attempt to build a version of the theory of gravitation, which is in the framework of the modern field theory and would not cause difficulties when teaching students. A characteristic feature of the proposed theory is that it is built on the basis of the nonlinear quantum field theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1611.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-01 13:12:42*

**Authors:** DT Froedge

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Image using proper asymetric gravitational index of refraction.

In the previous paper computer programs were developed to illustrate the image comparison between a conservative local energy theory gravitational theory and a black hole. A local conservative theory of gravitation[1] does not generate a Black Hole, but a very heavy neutron star (NDS) having a radius only slightly larger than the gravitational radius [2],[3],[4],. The light propagation formula used in the original paper was the standard symmetric Shapiro propagation formula for flat space, well tested as the proper projection of the GR metric onto a flat space, for star grazing and Shapiro delay. Unfortunately due to the asymmetric nature of the propagation of light related, this expression does not properly represent photon trajectories near the gravitational radius. This paper redoes those projections and creates a star image consistent with the proper index of refraction for photons near a massive neutron star.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1611.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-01 13:32:05*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 1 Page.

If lightning strikes in your backyard you will hear an immediate and very loud clap of thunder. If there is NO rain it is easy to also hear the very low pitched thunder rolling smoothly away off into the distance.

A~~~~~~~~~B~~~~~~~~~C~~~~~~~~~D~~~~~

If you are at "A" and the lightning strikes and claps at "A" it starts an expanding shock wave in the air that expands away spherically.

The shock-wave is so powerful it disrupts the atmosphere and what you think you hear as thunder rolling away is actually the shock wave being reflected back.

The shock-wave traveled from A to B in one second and it keeps going.

But if you were standing at any point along the path for instance "B" you would still hear the initial strike and clap as it passed by you at the speed of sound..

So what you are think you are hearing as thunder is actually the instantaneous strike and clap happening over and over and over.

It is continuous but not being stretched.

You are hearing one instant thing but it is continuous

The sound of course is being Doppler shifted -- it is racing away at the speed of sound.

If you have good ears and think you hear the thunder at "B" it is already at "C".

In the time it took the sound from "B" to travel back to you at "A" the clap has already moved on to "C".

~~~~~~~~~~

Big Bang / CMB

~~~~~~~~~~

When the Big Bang happened it disrupted the fabric of space itself in the same way a one time thunder clap continuously disrupts the atmosphere.

When you detect the CMB you are actually detecting the "thunder" of the Big Bang. But It is happening as electromagnetic radiation of course.

The CMB is actually the Big Bang happening over and over and over but it is red-shifted down to microwave spectrum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1611.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-01 06:14:41*

**Authors:** Alexander G. Kyriakos

**Comments:** 104 Pages.

The most advanced theory of gravitation is so far Einstein's general relativity theory. Some of its drawbacks are the source of attempts to construct a new theory of gravitation. The main drawback of general relativity theory is its incompatibility with the modern quantum theory of elementary particles, which does not allow to create a unified theory of matter. In the general relativity the cause of the gravitational field is the curvature of space-time, which is not a material object. The question of, how non-material space-time can cause a material gravitational field is still here unanswered. Different subdisciplines of classical physics generated different ways of approaching the problem of gravitation. The emergence of special relativity further increased the number of possible approaches and created new requirements that all approaches had to come to terms with. In this book we will survey various alternative approaches to the problem of gravitation pursued around the turn of the last century and try to assess their potential for integrating the contemporary knowledge of gravitation. Here different contributions are made to the discussion about the fundamentals of different approaches to gravitation and their advantages and drawbacks.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology