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Recent submissions

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[10031] viXra:1502.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-27 09:40:01

Conundrums Overlooked in Physics for Evermore ...

Authors: Elemer Elad Rosinger
Comments: 7 Pages.

Another ... friendly and creative ... author-editor interaction is presented in which several basic conundrums in physics are mentioned, conundrums no physicist seems to care about ...
Category: Mathematical Physics

[10030] viXra:1502.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-27 11:56:04

Concept of Smallest Length Having a Physical Sense: Theorem

Authors: Emmanuel Kanambaye
Comments: 9 Pages. The document is in french

In this document, after presented that we mean by : smallest length having physical sense,we propose the theorem resulting.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[10029] viXra:1502.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-27 12:17:17

The Effect of Quantum Entanglement of the Vacuum on Wave Function of the Electron.

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 5 Pages.

This article applies a simplified calculation of the effect of quantum entanglement of virtual particles in vacuum on electron motion
Category: Quantum Physics

[10028] viXra:1502.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-27 08:19:31

The Mystery of the Origin of Matter in the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

Most of the laws of nature treat particles and antiparticles equally, but stars and planets are made of particles, or matter, and not antiparticles, or antimatter. That asymmetry, which favors matter to a very small degree, has puzzled scientists for many years. [7] The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[10027] viXra:1502.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-26 21:13:20

How Change Happens: a Theory of Philosophy of History, Social Change and Cultural Evolution

Authors: Rochelle Forrester
Comments: 143 Pages.

How Change Happens puts the study of social and cultural history and social change and cultural evolution on a scientific basis capable of rational analysis and understanding. It shows how social and cultural change happens and explains the sequence of events in social and cultural history. It shows how social and cultural history followed a necessary path that can be analysed and rationally understood and explained. Most books on history describe how one thing followed another. How Change Happens describes why one thing followed another.
Category: Social Science

[10026] viXra:1502.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-26 16:30:53

Impact of Preference and Equivocators on Opinion Dynamics with Evolutionary Game Framework

Authors: Xinyang Deng, Zhen Wang, Qi Liu, Yong Deng, Yu Shyr
Comments: 38 pages, 7 figures

Opinion dynamics, aiming to understand the evolution of collective behavior through various interaction mechanisms of opinions, represents one of the most challenges in natural and social science. To elucidate this issue clearly, binary opinion model becomes a useful framework, where agents can take an independent opinion. Inspired by the realistic observations, here we propose two basic interaction mechanisms of binary opinion model: one is the so-called BSO model in which players benefit from holding the same opinion; the other is called BDO model in which players benefit from taking different opinions. In terms of these two basic models, the synthetical effect of opinion preference and equivocators on the evolution of binary opinion is studied under the framework of evolutionary game theory (EGT), where the replicator equation (RE) is employed to mimick the evolution of opinions. By means of numerous simulations, we show the theoretical equilibrium states of binary opinion dynamics, and mathematically analyze the stability of each equilibrium state as well.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[10025] viXra:1502.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-26 12:34:18

Cosmologic Red Shift as Consequence of Theory of General Relativity

Authors: Juergen Altenbrunn
Comments: 16 Pages. needs Theory of relativity without singularities

The cosmologic red shift is an effect of general relativity. It is possible to calculate cosmologic red shift of light, passing through a transparent continuum with mass. It is necessary to consider the mass variation caused caused from variation of potential energy demonstrated in [3] for this calculation. Result of this calculation is also an intensified increasing of cosmologic red shift at very long distances. Accelerated expansion of our universe or dark energy is not needed for this calculation, only pure theory of general relativity. It is possible to calculate the average density of our universe, if you know Hubble-constant. Calculated average density is 1.76*10^-26kg/m^3 by using a Hubble-constant of 21km/s per million light years.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[10024] viXra:1502.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-26 15:00:00

Explanation of the Allais Effect by Gravitational Waves Emitted from the Center of the Sun

Authors: Friedwardt Winterberg
Comments: 19 Pages.

An attempt is made to explain the Allais effect, the anomalous behavior of pendulums during a total solar eclipse, by Poisson diffraction of gravitational waves into the lunar shadow, with the waves emitted through large mass motion in the center of the sun by a thermonuclear fusion reaction driven magnetohydrodynamic dynamo. Thermomagnetic currents in the tachocline shield the strong magnetic field in the solar core.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[10023] viXra:1502.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-26 12:04:28

Theory of Relativity Without Singularities

Authors: Juergen Altenbrunn
Comments: 28 Pages.

Singularities are avoidable in theory of relativity by consideration of mass variation. Mass varies not only by changing of kinetic energy but also by changing of the potential energy of the mass. This variation of the mass follows the relation E = m * c^2. The mass will be lighter, it decreases in the same way as potential energy of this mass decreases. This will be very clearly by consideration of distances in the same range like Schwarzschild radius. Standstill mass is the potential energy against infinity. The dissemination of the gravitational field varies near the mass also by consideration of mass variation. Also red shift varies near a heavy dense mass by consideration of mass variation. The event horizon disappears. Physics are possible inside of Schwarzschild radius.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[10022] viXra:1502.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-26 08:22:35

Black Hole Whose Entropy is Equal to the Inverse of Fine Structure Constant

Authors: Alberto Coe
Comments: 2 Pages.

The entropy of a black hole analyzed assuming that the surface area of events horizon belongs to a geometric object called torus .
Category: Classical Physics

[10021] viXra:1502.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-26 04:57:01

A Swot Analysis of Instruction Sequence Theory

Authors: Jan A. Bergstra
Comments: 23 Pages.

After 15 years of development of instruction sequence theory (IST) writing a SWOT analysis about that project is long overdue. The paper provides a comprehensive SWOT analysis of IST based on a recent proposal concerning the terminology for the theory and applications of instruction sequences.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[10020] viXra:1502.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-25 15:34:16

On the Dual Nature of Minimal Fractal Manifold and Classical Gravitation

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 5 Pages. Work in progress. References not included.

As natural outcome of dimensional regularization, the minimal fractal manifold (MFM) describes a space-time continuum equipped with arbitrarily small deviations from four-dimensions. This brief note suggests that the inner connection between MFM and local conformal field theory points to a surprising duality between the MFM and classical gravitation.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[10019] viXra:1502.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-25 16:34:34

Seeking Truth Using Different Methods

Authors: Roger Schlafly
Comments: 10 Pages. Submitted to the 2015 FQXi essay contest.

Mathematics and physics are entirely different subjects, both in their methodology and results. The differences are illustrated with how they view randomness, enumeration, and truth. In physics, randomness can be an unknown, an observational error, an unpredictable event, or a quantum mystery. In math it is just part of probability theory. Mathematics has subtle properties of infinities that physics does not directly observe. Logical positivism is a philosophy that explains how mathematics and physics search for truth in different ways, but it has been rejected by modern philosophers, leaving them with deeply flawed views of what math and physics are all about.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[10018] viXra:1502.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-25 17:47:05

A Terminology for Instruction Sequencing

Authors: Jan A. Bergstra
Comments: 19 Pages.

Instruction sequences play a key role in computing and have the potential of becoming more important in the conceptual development of informatics in addition to their existing role in computer technology and machine architectures. After 15 years of development of instruction sequence theory a more robust and outreaching terminology is needed for it which may support further development. Instruction sequencing is the central concept around which a new family of terms and phrases is developed.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[10017] viXra:1502.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-25 20:21:50

Sense Perception and Reality: a Theory of Perceptual Relativity, Quantum Mechanics and the Observer Dependent Universe

Authors: Rochelle Forrester
Comments: 60 Pages.

Sense Perception and Reality will cause a revolution in human understanding of the universe. It examines the remarkable similarities between philosophical idealism and the Copenhagen Interpretation of quantum physics. The book looks at perceptual relativity involving the latest scientific research in animal senses, neurology, and cognitive psychology. It concludes the universe we know is observer dependent and varies with the sensory apparatus used to observe it. The Copenhagen Interpretation is examined and perceptual relativity would appear to apply in the quantum world. The Copenhagen Interpretation suggests the universe is observer dependent, the same conclusion as is found in philosophical idealism in the macro world. The book concludes by examining the consequences of an observer dependent universe and by showing such a universe is quite consistent with a modern objective science.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[10016] viXra:1502.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-25 12:56:18

The Issue of Statistical Power for Overall Model Fit in Evaluating Structural Equation Models: Examples from Industrial-Organizational Psychology Research

Authors: Richard Hermida, Joseph N. Luchman, Vias Nicolaides, Cristina Wilcox
Comments: 52 Pages.

Statistical power is an important concept for psychological research. However, examining the power of a structural equation model (SEM) is rare in practice. This article provides an accessible review of the concept of statistical power for the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) index of overall model fit in structural equation modeling. By way of example, we examine the current state of power in the literature by reviewing studies in top Industrial-Organizational (I/O) Psychology journals using SEMs. Results indicate that in many studies, power is very low, which implies acceptance of invalid models. Additionally, we examined methodological situations which may have an influence on statistical power of SEMs. Results showed that power varies significantly as a function of model type and whether or not the model is the main model for the study. Finally, results indicated that power is significantly related to model fit statistics used in evaluating SEMs. The results from this quantitative review imply that researchers should be more vigilant with respect to power in structural equation modeling. We therefore conclude by offering methodological best practices to increase confidence in the interpretation of structural equation modeling results with respect to statistical power issues.
Category: Social Science

[10015] viXra:1502.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-25 09:35:26

A Mathematical Approach to Physical Realism

Authors: Carsten S.P. Spanheimer
Comments: 9 Pages.

I propose to ask mathematics itself for the possible behaviour of nature, with the focus on starting with a most simple realistic model, employing a philosophy of investigation rather than invention when looking for a unified theory of physics. Doing a 'mathematical experiment' of putting a least set of conditions on a general time-dependent manifold results in mathematics itself inducing a not too complex 4-dimensional object similar to our physical spacetime, with candidates for gravitational and electromagnetic fields emerging on the tangent bundle. This suggests that the same physics might govern spacetime not only on a macroscopic scale, but also on the microscopic scale of elementary particles, with possible junctions to quantum mechanics.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[10014] viXra:1502.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-25 08:54:54

Correction of the Nilometer Measurements

Authors: Dimitris Poulos
Comments: 2 Pages.

As the Nilometer at Rhoda Island is sinking over time, it's measurements have been corrected to depict the true water level of the river Nile.
Category: Climate Research

[10013] viXra:1502.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-25 05:38:39

On value of David Bohm’s Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Templeton Prize winner wrote: „In the second half of the eighteenth century, the deterministic character of Newton’s equations encouraged many people to see the physical world in strictly mechanical terms, as if the universe is a gigantic piece of cosmic clockwork.” Such wrong view comes from the believe, that the energy and momentum are always conserve.
Category: Quantum Physics

[10012] viXra:1502.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-24 23:15:37

Deng Entropy: a Generalized Shannon Entropy to Measure Uncertainty

Authors: Yong Deng
Comments: 20 Pages.

Shannnon entropy is an efficient tool to measure uncertain information. However, it cannot handle the more uncertain situation when the uncertainty is represented by basic probability assignment (BPA), instead of probability distribution, under the framework of Dempster Shafer evidence theory. To address this issue, a new entropy, named as Deng entropy, is proposed. The proposed Deng entropy is the generalization of Shannnon entropy. If uncertain information is represented by probability distribution, the uncertain degree measured by Deng entropy is the same as that of Shannnon’s entropy. Some numerical examples are illustrated to shown the efficiency of Deng entropy.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[10011] viXra:1502.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-25 03:24:33

Theoretical Computations Using PhySix

Authors: N.S. Baaklini
Comments: 15 pages, 2 references, 712 KB

We demonstrate, with simple examples from theoretical physics, the utility of doing numerical and symbolic manipulations with the aid of our computer program PhySix. The latter is a very small single-file executable application under Windows, with a code language very much (though not exactly) similar to Mathematica. A copy of the current version of PhySix is embedded in this article, and can be extracted safely, and used freely by every one.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[10010] viXra:1502.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-24 12:21:26

Is the Proton Unstable?

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 5 Pages.

The problem I shall address in this paper is concerned with the mean lifetimes of the delta minus particle, the neutron and the proton. This research suggests that the proton is unstable with a mean lifetime of about 1.7645×1033 years.
Category: Quantum Physics

[10009] viXra:1502.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-24 12:23:57

The Temperature of a System as a Function of the Multiplicity and its Rate of Change

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper I derive the formula for the temperature of a thermodynamic system as a function of the multiplicity (number of microstates) and its the rate of change with respect to the absorbed or lost energy. Then the formula is used to obtain the temperature-energy relation for a black hole assuming that the number of microstates is proportional to the energy of the emitted photon through either tunnelling effect or Hawking radiation.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[10008] viXra:1502.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-24 07:58:41

Everything, Including Photons, Seem to be Decelerating

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Four-page letter

Astronomical observations of cosmological red-shift are currently interpreted in terms of ‘expansion of universe’ and ‘accelerated-expansion of the universe’. Whereas a straight forward derivation presented here suggests that: it is not the universe, which is expanding, rather it is the photon which is decelerating, at the rate of H0 c; here H0 is Hubble’s constant, and c is the speed of light. (As soon as a new mechanism for the ‘cosmological red-shift’ is proposed, it is argued that: tired-light interpretations of cosmological red-shift’ are not compatible with the observations of ‘time-dilation of super-novae light-curves’. So in a paper titled: “Wave-theoretical insight into the Relativistic ‘length-contraction’ and ‘time-dilation of super-novae light-curves’” [1] it has been already shown that any mechanism which can cause ‘cosmological red-shift’ will also cause ‘time-dilation of super-novae light-curves’. Therefore, we now need not remain confined to the Big Bang Cosmology, to understand the universe.) Since, as per this new interpretation of the ‘cosmological red-shift’, the ‘reduction-in-energy of the photon’ (h Δν) goes on reducing with every subsequent unit distance traveled by the photon; so the Red-shift-Distance-Curve automatically becomes non-linear, which has been creating an impression of ‘accelerated-expansion of the universe’. As a supportive evidence for this proposal, it is shown that even the space-probes Pioneer-10, Pioneer-11, Galileo and Ulysses too did decelerate at the same rate H0 c [2]. And to counter-balance this deceleration, the accelerations at the boundaries of: the nucleus-of-atom, the globular-clusters, the spiral-galaxies and the galactic-clusters too, are of the same order as H0 c. This coincidence was numerically found by Sivaram [3]; and is explained here, in terms of equilibrium between self-gravitational-acceleration of structures and the acceleration of the un-manifest-energy contained in space.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[10007] viXra:1502.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-23 20:24:09

Scale Independent Unified Quark Physics

Authors: U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana
Comments: 15 Pages.

With reference to particle data group, up quark mass is 2.15 MeV/c2 and down quark mass is 4.7 MeV/c2. Up and down quark mass ratio is 0.46(5). In the earlier published paper titled: “Super symmetry in strong and weak interactions”, the authors proposed a simple method for estimating the six quark masses. With reference to the earlier proposed results, up quark mass is 4.4 MeV/c2 and down quark mass is 9.473 MeV/c2. By considering the up and down quark rest masses, in this paper the authors proposed very simple methods for estimating the nuclear stability and nuclear binding energy and successfully extended the quark model to low energy scale nuclear physics. Topics covered are: 1) Hint of final unification and Up and Down quark rest masses, 2) Strong coupling constant, 3) Nucleon rest masses, 4) Nuclear stability, 5) Nuclear binding energy, 6) Strong interaction range, 7) Nuclear charge radius, 8) Rms charge radius of proton, 9) Rms charge radii of atomic nuclei and 10) Magic numbers. At the stable mass number of Z, nuclear binding energy seems to be proportional to the sum of 2Z up quarks rest energy and Z down quarks rest energy. Interesting point to be noted is that, binding energy near to stable mass number seems to be independent of the mass number. Finally an attempt is made to fit the SEMF energy coefficients. With further research and analysis, strong coupling constant and gravitational constant both can successfully be implemented in low energy nuclear binding energy scheme.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[10006] viXra:1502.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-23 23:45:06

A Novel Approach for Unique Address of the Computer in Network Security Environment

Authors: Sanjay Patel, Neha Parmar, Viral Patel
Comments: 4 Pages.

In computer networking, the term IP address spoofing or IP spoofing refers to the creation of Internet Protocol (IP) packets with a forged source IP address, called spoofing. This paper contains an overview of IP address and IP Spoofing and its background. It also shortly discusses various types of IP Spoofing, how they attack on communication system. This paper also describes some methods to detection and prevention methods of IP spoofing and also describes impacts on communication system by IP Spoofing.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[10005] viXra:1502.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-23 15:01:22

A Sound Nebula. the Origin of the Solar System in the Field of a Standing Sound Wave

Authors: V. Beck
Comments: 10 Pages, Russian

This article proposes a new concept for the origin of the planets, making it possible to explain the majority of observed facts for both the Solar System and for exoplanetary systems. The most widespread nebular hypothesis of Kant- Laplace about the formation of the planets from a rotating pre-solar nebula is not capable of answering many questions about the origin of the Solar System. According to this new concept, when thermonuclear fusion started at the centre of the protosun, an explosion occurred and a shock wave passed through the pre- solar nebula which, when it returned to the centre, caused a new explosion and new wave. As a result of the periodic explosions, a spherical standing sound wave formed in the pre-solar nebula, with a concentration of dust occurring in the antinode of the wave. Subsequently, the dust gathered to form rotating rings from which the planets were formed. The distances between the antinodes of the standing wave are determined by the gas pressure and pull of gravity of the protosun and approximately consistent with the Titius-Bode law, which thus obtains the physical explanation. The very small angular momentum of the Sun (0.5%) and tilt of the equatorial plane (7°) occurred due to the asymmetry of the first very powerful explosion. The division of the planets into inner terrestrial and outer gaseous giant planets is explained by the migration of solid matter from the outer regions of the cloud to the inner regions. The existence of Oort cloud is explained by the division of the pre-solar nebula into a ball-shaped inner cloud and a expanding spherical gaseous shell by the path of the shock wave from the first explosion. The expanding shell gradually slowed down due to the rarified outer gaseous masses and stopped at a distance of approximately 1 light year. Trillions of comets formed from the dust and frozen gases it contains. The orbit and the mass of planet Neptune can be explained as result of the interaction between the returning wave from the Oort cloud and the outer edges of the ball- shaped cloud. According to modern theories, many of the recently discovered exoplanetary systems would not be able to exist; the suggested concept makes it possible to explain their origin and evolution, and even help search for new planets.
Category: Astrophysics

[10004] viXra:1502.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-23 15:12:33

A Property of the Zeros of Analytic Functions

Authors: Vincenzo Nardozza
Comments: 2 Pages.

A very specific theorem on the behaviours of the zeros of analytic function is proven.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[10003] viXra:1502.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-23 12:12:17

The General Schwarzschild Solution and New Solution of the Gravity Field Equation.

Authors: sangwha Yi
Comments: 5 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, if we use Einstein’s gravity field equation, we can discover the General Schwarzschild solution. We obtain new solution in the General Schwarzschild solution.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[10002] viXra:1502.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-23 07:58:55

Evaluation of a Statistical Mechanics Useful Integral

Authors: Enrico Masina
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper I will provide the analytical evaluation of the integral from 0 to infinity of t^z e^{-t - at^2) where z is a real positive number and a is also a real positive number. I will provide the solution for a larger class of integral of this form like t^z e^{-bt - at^2).
Category: Functions and Analysis

[10001] viXra:1502.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-22 15:35:54

On the Completeness of Genetic Code: Part Vii

Authors: Miloje M. Rakocevic
Comments: 13 Pages. This is seventh Part of the work

In this seventh part of the work on the completeness of the genetic code, we present further relationships of different variants of Genetic Code Table and modified Rumer Table of nucleotide doublets within genetic code.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[10000] viXra:1502.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-22 15:39:24

Some Amazing Infinite Series for the Multiplication Between Sine, Hyperbolic Sine and Exponential Functions

Authors: Edigles Guedes
Comments: 2 pages.

I prove the expansion in infinite seiries for the multiplication between sine, hyperbolic sine and exponential functions, that do not exist in the mathematical literature.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[9999] viXra:1502.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-22 20:37:09

There Are 4 Particles More Energetic Than the Tetraquark: These Were Partly Responsible for the E8 Symmetry Breaking at the Big Bang

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page.

There are 4 particles Intrinsically (mc^2) more energetic than the copious tetraquark (4.430 GEV): The top quark (173 GEV), the Z particle (91.2 GEV), and the two W particles (80.4 GEV each). These are all much more energetic than the tetraquark and should be considered as a class of particle by themselves and as a group signaled by the copious tetraquark. The group is partly responsible for the E8-symmetry breaking at the time of the Big Bang.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[9998] viXra:1502.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-22 20:24:10

Health Related Experiments in Alternative Medications by Tom Zolotor

Authors: Tom Zolotor
Comments: 1 Page.

Health related experiments in alternative medications including hypnosis, reiki and other methods that seem to have work on my illnesses.
Category: Mind Science

[9997] viXra:1502.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-22 21:01:58

Potential Clean Energy by Condesed Cluster Fusion

Authors: Akito Takahashi
Comments: 42 Pages. Submittal to energy journals 2010, but never published

Clean distributable energy source is expected to develop for the sustainable societies in the 21st century. Recent research development of condensed matter nuclear science (CMNS), which is the descendant new research filed of past controversial “cold fusion” saga, is now revealing the new possibility of potential clean nuclear energy in portable size devices, although the stage of research is still basic and fundamental. This review paper describes; 1) Brief experimental results of anomalous excess heat generation with 4He ash without visible neutron and gamma-ray emission by the two methods of deuterium loading into Pd-nano-metal reactor samples based on D2O electrolysis and the one method of gas-phase deuterium loading. Key issues for further engineering-phase development are discussed. 2) For the physical understanding of this “new phenomena”, as new-type of deuteron-related fusion reactions in the ordering and constraint dynamics of deuterium clustering in condensed matter as PdDx lattice or surface, brief review on the theoretical progress of condensed cluster fusion, typically 4D multi-body fusion by the tetrahedral symmetric condensate (TSC), is given with easier physical explanations. Key issues as reproducibility and increment of power density are summarized.
Category: Condensed Matter

[9996] viXra:1502.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-23 00:37:59

Preliminary Test for Discrete Time Locations

Authors: Binyamin Tsadik Bair Moshe
Comments: 1 Page.

A method for testing the idea from a previous paper on Discrete Time Locations
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[9995] viXra:1502.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-23 04:29:38

Personal Multithreading: Account Snippet Proposals and Missing Account Indications

Authors: Jan A. Bergstra
Comments: 25 Pages.

A modular way of making progress concerning personal multithreading is suggested: collecting account snippet proposals and missing account indications without an immediate need for integration into a coherent account. Six account snippets for personal multithreading are proposed and and four options for further contributions, that is missing account indications, on personal multi-threading are listed.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[9994] viXra:1502.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-22 10:22:52

Unification of the Gravitational and Inertial Interactions

Authors: Richard A Peters
Comments: 30 Pages.

Two models of the gravitational and inertial interactions are considered in this paper, the Newtonian model and the TI field model. We’ll see how each model addresses the equivalence principle and the three properties of mass: passive gravitational mass, active gravitational mass and inertial mass. In the Newtonian model the ratio of passive gravitational mass to inertial mass of an object falling at relativistic speed toward a black hole changes, so the often stated equivalence of these two properties of mass is not upheld. In the Newtonian model, absent extraneous forces, all objects moving at non- relativistic speed in a gravitational field accelerate at the same rate because the ratio Mp / MI of the passive gravitational mass to the inertial mass is the same for all objects regardless of their intrinsic mass or constitution. The ratio Mp / MI of the passive gravitational mass to inertial mass need not be unity for the acceleration of objects in a gravitational field to be the same for all objects regardless of size or constitution. In the common expression for the acceleration profile about a gravitational body the ratio Mp / MI of the passive gravitational mass to the inertial mass is sequestered within the gravitational constant G itself. The TI field model of gravity and inertia unifies the nature of the gravitational and inertial interactions through the acceleration of massive particles relative to the TI field, an acceleration that is common both to the acceleration of an object in response to an external force and the acceleration of the TI field in response to gravity. The TI field model unifies the nature of the gravitational and inertial interactions not by equating the numerical values of passive gravitational mass and inertial mass, but by the relative acceleration of the TI field and matter particles that underlies both
Category: Classical Physics

[9993] viXra:1502.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-22 10:45:18

Acceleration of the Infinite Series for the Hyperbolic Sine, Hyperbolic Cosine, Struve and Bessel Function of the First Kind

Authors: Edigles Guedes
Comments: 3 pages.

I prove some accelerations of the infinite series for the hyperbolic sine, hyperbolic cosine, Struve and Bessel function of the first kind.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[9992] viXra:1502.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-22 11:09:50

Acceleration of the Infinite Series for the Sine and Cosine Functions

Authors: Edigles Guedes
Comments: 3 pages.

I proved some accelerations of the infinite series for the sine and cosine functions.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[9991] viXra:1502.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-22 12:36:35

Estimates for Von Mangoldt, Second Chebyshev and RIEMANN’S J Functions

Authors: Edigles Guedes
Comments: 7 pages.

We prove some estimates for von Mangold function, second Chebyshev function and Riemann’s J function by elementary methods.
Category: Number Theory

[9990] viXra:1502.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-22 13:22:06

Gravitational Condensation of Atmospheric Water Vapor

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 4 Pages.

Devices that collect water from the atmospheric air using condensation are well-known. They operate in a manner very similar to that of a dehumidifier: air is passed through a cooled coil, making water to condense. This is the most common technology in use. Here, we present a device that can collect a large amount of water (more than 1m3/s) from the atmospheric air using gravitational condensation. Another novelty of this device is that it consumes little electricity. In addition, the new technology of this device leads to a new concept of pump, the Gravitational Pump, which can be used to pump water at very low cost from aquifers, rivers, lakes, etc., and also to supply the high pressure (100atm or more) needed to push seawater through the semipermeable membrane, in the desalinization process known as reverse osmosis.
Category: Geophysics

[9989] viXra:1502.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-22 14:58:04

A Note on a New Prime Gap Constant

Authors: Waldemar Puszkarz
Comments: 2 Pages.

We propose a new mathematical constant related to the gaps between consecutive primes obtained by concatenating the digits in the prime gap numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[9988] viXra:1502.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-22 07:53:46

The Conjecture of Erdos-Strauss and Its Application in Demonstrating the Twin Primes Supported by the Bayes´ Theorem.

Authors: Rodolfo A. Nieves Rivas
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this brief paper we present the necessary and sufficient conditions within the solution of the Erdos-Straus conjecture when (n) takes the values of any twin prime. Then we conclude with a table for its visualization and analysis proving by the Bayes' theorem that the twin primes are infinite.
Category: Number Theory

[9987] viXra:1502.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-22 09:15:59

Three Proofs for Legendre's Conjecture

Authors: Edigles Guedes
Comments: 7 pages.

We write three proves for Legendre's conjecture: given an integer, n > 0, there is always one prime number, p, such that n^2 < p < (n + 1)^2, using the prime-counting function, the Bertrand's postulate and the Hardy-Wright's estimate.
Category: Number Theory

[9986] viXra:1502.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-22 06:05:29

The Method of Structurization of a Set of Positive Integers and Its Application to the Primality Testing Algorithm}

Authors: Alexander Fedorov
Comments: 37 Pages.

\ heIn this paper is offered and theoretically is based the algorithm permissive with the lp of small number of arithmetic operations with arbitrary positive integer(N) to answer a question : is N composite or prime? The algorithm has a high operational speed which depends a little on value N ,and is based on The method of structurization of a set of positive integers (Np) developed by the author. In limits of a framework of this method is defined a special set of the structured integers (Ns) in which it becomes possibility for testing of any structured integers (Sn) on a membership of a set of composite structured integers (Nsc). Between by Np and Ns is established one-to-one correspondence : composite structured integers (Snc) are corresponded to composite positive integers . Prime structured integers are corresponded to prime positive integers Thus for testing arbitrary (N) it is necessary to map it into . Then we test obtained on a membership of If Sn is a member of then the output follows that tested N is also composite.If Sn is not a member of Nsc then the output follows that tested $N$ is also prime , since if Sn is not composite then it is prime ,tertiary is not given.
Category: Number Theory

[9985] viXra:1502.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-21 15:30:46

Is the Electron Unstable?

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 6 Pages.

The problem I shall address in this paper is concerned with the mean lifetimes of leptons. After proposing a formula for the lifetime of the tau particle and following two rules, I build a formula for the lifetime of the muon. Based on these two formulas and based on the same rules, I derived the formula for the mean lifetime of the electron. The formula I found through this extrapolation process indicates that the electron is unstable and that its mean lifetime is, approximately, (π /2)×10^90 years, which is about 10^80 times the age of the universe. Thus according to this formulation the lifetime of the electron is extraordinarily long but not infinite as previously thought.
Category: Quantum Physics

[9984] viXra:1502.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-21 18:19:59

Mathematical Geometric Origin of Masses of Particles Proton and Electron

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

Science has many examples of serendipitous discoveries. I think the mathematical equation below is one of those serendipitous accidents accompanied by an observant mind.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9983] viXra:1502.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-22 03:34:25

Physical Dimension of Sciences

Authors: Yuri Ozhigov
Comments: 6 Pages.

I propose a classification of scientific fields by the place that their typical objects occupy in three-dimensional space of physical dimensions: length, mass and time - on a logarithmic scale. Classification includes some areas of physics, chemistry, biology and geology, as well as history. Natural interdisciplinary connections are established , as well as the gaps - the region of space in which there are no objects of modern science.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9982] viXra:1502.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-21 14:37:19

Another Cartoon Portrait of the Mind from the Reductionist Metaphysicians-a Review of Peter Carruthers ‘The Opacity of Mind’ (2011)

Authors: Michael Starks
Comments: 20 Pages.

Materialism, reductionism, behaviorism, functionalism, dynamic systems theory and computationalism are popular views, but they were shown by Wittgenstein to be incoherent. The study of behavior encompasses all of human life but behavior is largely automatic and unconscious and even the conscious part, mostly expressed in language (which Wittgenstein equates with the mind), is not perspicuous, so it is critical to have a framework which Searle calls the Logical Structure of Rationality (LSR) and I call the Descriptive Psychology of Higher Order Thought (DPHOT). After summarizing the framework worked out by Wittgenstein and Searle, as extended by modern reasoning research, I show the inadequacies in Carruther’s views, which pervade most discussions of behavior including contemporary behavioral sciences. I maintain that his book is an amalgam of two books, one a summary of cognitive psychology and the other a summary of the standard philosophical confusions on the mind with some new jargon added. I suggest that the latter should be regarded as incoherent or as a cartoon view of life and that taking Wittgenstein at his word, we can practice successful self therapy by regarding the mind/body issue as a language/body issue.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9981] viXra:1502.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-21 15:07:45

A Master Wittgensteinian Surveys Human Nature--a Review of Peter Hacker 'Human Nature-the Categorial Framework' (2010)

Authors: Michael Starks
Comments: 17 Pages.

Materialism, reductionism, behaviorism, functionalism, dynamic systems theory and computationalism are popular views, but they were shown by Wittgenstein to be incoherent. The study of behavior encompasses all of human life but behavior is largely automatic and unconscious and even the conscious part, mostly expressed in language (which Wittgenstein equates with the mind), is not perspicuous, so it is critical to have a framework which Searle calls the Logical Structure of Rationality (LSR) and I call the Descriptive Psychology of Higher Order Thought (DPHOT). After summarizing the framework worked out by Wittgenstein and Searle, as extended by modern reasoning research, I comment on this first book in a trilogy on Human Nature by the leading authority on Wittgenstein.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9980] viXra:1502.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-21 09:48:50

Cititorind. Balmeş α-Lecturi Instante

Authors: editor Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 79 Pages.

Această carte este un nou jurnal de lecturi instante, intenţional expeditive, marca Florentin Smarandache. Acelaşi mozaic de notiţe la prima mână, fără adnotări, fără intervenţii personale sau personalizate, fără judecăţi de valoare asupra lecturilor, fără trimiteri sau analogii savante sau savantlâceşti, întocmai ca în volumul precedent de cititoriri (Cititorind. Hic et nunc) şi, mai mult ca sigur, ca în următoarele. La foc de mitralieră, Florentin Smarandache conspectează un braţ de cărţi şi o căciulă de website-uri de conţinut variat şi, cum altfel?!, paradoxal/paradoxist. Cărţi de specialitate se aşează lângă website-uri de popularizare, publicaţii academice lângă publicaţii controversate ca valoare ştiinţifică, website-uri vulgarizatoare lângă website-uri ale unor instituţii respectate. La fel, în conţinut: cercetări aplicate, cu metode ştiinţifice consacrate, sunt imprietenite cu teorii conspiraţioniste şi strategii de dezvoltare personală. Acest (talmeş-)Balmeş nu poate fi întâmplător. Ba dimpotrivă, este un portret (pictat pe dedesupt) al lumii în care trăim sau, dacă nu un portret, poate doar un peisaj al acesteia. O lume care îşi refuză tot mai mult discernământul sustenabil, menţinând falii de gândire aparent insurmontabile între părţile-i componente, contorsionând mai profund fiindurile. (Stefan Iancu)
Category: Linguistics

[9979] viXra:1502.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-21 09:53:26

Readup Buildup. Thync Instant α-Readings

Authors: editor Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 59 Pages.

READUP BUILDUP. Thync is the third volume of α-instant readings put up by Florentin Smarandache. Although the style of the reading logs is uniform in the three volumes so far (rough and ready, kernel-extracting, absence of any secondary remarks, and thus masking the author-summarizer), this one address only technical issues from two topics of interest for the author (information fusion / data mining), unlike in previous eclectic books. Notes are taken directly from the source language (one language in this log, more languages before), and there are not abrupt transitions anymore in the selection of information. All works annotated here are from authoritative scientific sources, no more popularizers or debasers. The title of the volume is an aftereffect of juxtaposition of the verb think, and the noun syncronization, resulting in an incentive - unveiled from the first chapter of readings: Think in sync! Far from being just a call to thinking synchronously, the notes speak about communication as activity-together, where the interlocutors share information. Very likely, it resides right here the drive for publication of the instant readings series: to share. Besides, of course, multiple other layers of connotation (demonstrative or paideuma-tic), the reading series resemble an allegorical car, a carriage packed with books and bookmarks, which the author-summarizer shook of ideas. For personal use, but as well for a possible satisfaction of a possible spectator, necessarily perceived as a passer in a hurry, with no aptitude to dawdling around. (Nikos Vasiliou)
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9978] viXra:1502.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-21 07:41:27

Cosmological Constant .a Geometric Look .

Authors: Alberto Coe
Comments: 3 Pages.

Will try to relate two disparate physical constants by means of a particular geometry .
Category: Classical Physics

[9977] viXra:1502.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-21 08:29:20

Foundations of a Mathematical Model of Physical Reality

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 27 Pages.

This paper starts from the idea that physical reality implements a network of a small number of mathematical structures. Only in that way can be explained that observations of physical reality fit so well with mathematical methods. The mathematical structures do not contain mechanisms that ensure coherence. Thus apart from the network of mathematical structures a model of physical reality must contain mechanisms that manage coherence such that dynamical chaos is prevented. Reducing complexity appears to be the general strategy. The structures appear in chains that start with a foundation. The strategy asks that especially in the lower levels, the subsequent members of the chain emerge with inescapable self-evidence from the previous member. The chains are interrelated and in this way they enforce mutual restrictions. As a consequence the lowest levels of a corresponding mathematical model of physical reality are rather simple and can be comprehended by skilled mathematicians. In order to explain the claimed setup of physical reality, the paper selects a special foundation for the major chain. That foundation is a skeleton relational structure and it was already discovered and introduced in 1936. The paper does not touch more than the first development levels. The base model that is reached in this way puts already very strong restrictions to more extensive models. Some of the features of the base model are investigated and compared with results of contemporary physics.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[9976] viXra:1502.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-21 08:45:39

Новые методы оптимизации и их применение v3 (New Methods of Optimzation and Their Applications V3, in Russian)

Authors: Bolonkin A.A.
Comments: 226 Pages. Это более качественная версия сканирования 3. Старые версии 1,2 можно удалить.

Краткий конспект лекций по курсу "Теория оптимальных систем", прочитанных автором для студентов старших курсов, аспирантов, инженеров и преподавателей в 1962-1969гг в Московском авиационном технологическом институте и в 1969-1971гг в МВТУ им. Баумана. Автор излагает принципиально новые методы оптимизации, поиска и оценки глобального минимума и применяет их в технических задачах автоматики, динамики полета, авиации, космонавтике, комбинаторике, в теории игр, задачах с противодействием и т.п. Краткое оглавление: Математические основы методов оптимизации. Методы β- и γ-функционалов. Методы α-функционала. Метод максимина. Численная реализация алгоритмов α-функционала и максимина, другие численные методы. Импульсные режимы. Специальные экстремали в задачах оптимального управления. Специальные экстремали и разрешимость задач оптимального управления. Приложение методов α – , β –функционалов и максимина к техническим задачам. Некоторые задачи автоматики. Некоторые задачи динамики полета. Применение методов α-функционала к экстремальным задачам кобинаторного типа. Задачи с противодействием.
Category: General Mathematics

[9975] viXra:1502.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-21 05:23:36

Einstein's Theory of Relativity Can not Explain ...

Authors: Lubomir Vlcek
Comments: 39 Pages. Through the work of Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Louis de Broglie, Arthur Compton, Niels Bohr, and many others, current scientific theory holds that all particles also have a wave nature (and vice versa).[1] This phenomenon has been verified

Einstein's theory of relativity can not explain ... 1. Movement principles of the fast-spinning pulsars, 2. Nuclear Fusion , 3. Wave - Particle Duality as Kinetic Energy Against and In Direction of Motion 4. the 4th Maxwell's equation, 5. Lorentz equals without the help of Space-Time, 6.Confinement of quarks 7. Great Table of Elementary Particles 8. Spectral line Hα 9. Neutrino Oscillations 10. Form of the interference field must be non-linear. 11.Form of Intensity of the Moving Charge Electric Field must be asymmetrical. 12.Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values: Kinetic energy against direction of motion as wave Tkin ad = mc2[ln |1+v/c|- (v/c)/(1+v/c)] Kinetic energy in direction of motion as particle Tkin id = mc2[ln|1-v/c|+ (v/c)/(1-v/c)] 13. Yukawa potential
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[9974] viXra:1502.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-20 15:48:19

Review Part 1 of New Ideas, Innovation of Non-Rocket Propulsion Systems for Space Launch and Flight

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 35 Pages.

In the past years the author and other scientists have published a series of new methods which promise to revolutionize the space propulsion systems, space launching and flight. These include the cable propulsion system, circle propulsion system and space keeper, kinetic propulsion system, gas-tube propulsion system, sliding rotary method, asteroid employment, electromagnetic accelerator, Sun and magnetic sail, solar wind sail, radioisotope sail, electrostatic space sail, laser beam propulsion system, kinetic anti-gravitator (repulsator), Earth-Moon non-rocket and Earth-Mars non-rocket transport system, multi-reflective beam propulsion system, electrostatic levitation, etc. Some of them have the potential to decrease launch costs thousands of time, other allow to change the speed and direction of space apparatus without the spending of fuel. The author reviews and summarizes some revolutionary propulsion systems for scientists, engineers, inventors, students and the public.
Category: Classical Physics

[9973] viXra:1502.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-20 15:55:38

Review Part 2 of New Ideas, Innovations of Non-Rocket Propulsion Systems for Space Launch and Flight

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 68 Pages.

In the past years, the author and other scientists have published a series of new methods which promise to revolutionize the space propulsion systems, space launching and flight. These include the electrostatic AB-ramjet space propulsion, beam space propulsion, MagSail, high speed AB-solar sail, transfer electricity in outer space, simplest AB-thermonuclear space propulsion, electrostatic linear engine and cable space launcher, AB-levitrons, electrostatic climber, AB-space propulsion, convertor any matter in nuclear energy, femtotechnology, wireless transfer of energy, magnetic space launcher, railgun, superconductivity rail gun, etc. Some of them have the potential to decrease launch costs thousands of time, other allow to change the speed and direction of space apparatus without the spending of fuel. The author reviews and summarizes some revolutionary propulsion systems for scientists, engineers, inventors, students and the public.
Category: Classical Physics

[9972] viXra:1502.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-20 16:04:08

Review Part 3 of New Ideas, Innovations of Non-Rocket Propulsion Systems for Space Launch and Flight

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 67 Pages. 67

In the past years the author and other scientists have published a series of new methods which promise to revolutionize the space technology. These include the Space Elevator, Men without the space suite into space, Artificial gravity, New method of atmospheric re-entry for space ship, Inflatable Dome for Moon, Mars, asteroids, Closed loop water cycle, Climber for Space Elevator, Cheap Protection from Nuclear Warhead, Wireless transfer of electricity throw outer Space, Artificial explosion of Sun, etc. Some of them have the potential to decrease the space research costs in thousands of time, other allow decreasing the cost of the space exploration. The author reviews and summarizes some revolutionary ideas, innovations and patent applications for scientists, engineers, inventors, students and the public. Key words: Space Elevator, Men without the space suite into space, Artificial gravity, New method of atmospheric re-entry, Inflatable Dome for space, Closed loop water cycle, Climber for Space Elevator, Cheap protection from Nuclear Warhead, Wireless transfer of electricity throw outer Space, Artificial explosion of Sun.
Category: Classical Physics

[9971] viXra:1502.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-20 16:25:17

АБ-материя и иглы. Потрясающие свойства.

Authors: Bolonkin A.A.
Comments: 6 Pages. In Russian

В 2008г автором был предложен и исследован новый искусственный вид ядерной материи (АБ-материя), который не встречается в природе. Опираясь на хорошо известные законы ядерной физики, автор показал, что предлагаемый искусственный материал будет обладать потрясающими свойствами: Он будет в миллионы моллионов раз прочнее всех известных материалов (включая знаменитые искусственные нанотрубы), может выдерживать температуру в миллионы градусов, обладает почти нулевой теплопроводностью, сверхпроводимостью, в одной из форм способен быть невидимым и пропускать сквозь себя обычную материю, в другой форме защищать от любого излучения, включая ядерное оружие. Краткие результаты исследования были опубликованы в статье “Femtotechnology: Nuclear AB-Matter with Fantastic Properties” [1] American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2 (2), 2009, p.501-514. (http://www.scribd.com/doc/24045154), (http://www.scipub.org/fulltext/ajeas/ajeas22501-514.pdf) и некоторые его применения развиты в статье “Femtotechnology: Design of the Strongest AB-Matter for Aerospace”,(2009), http://www.archive.org/details/FemtotechnologyDesignOfTheStrongestAb-matterForAerospace . Дальнейшие исследования устойчивости отдельных форм АБ-материи показало, что тончайшие нити из этой материи (АБ-иглы в миллион раз меньше атома водорода) обладают удивительным свойством: они находятся в натянутом состоянии и способны проникать безболезненно не только в человеческое тело, но доставлять микроприботы в любые укрытия из обычной материи на гиганские расстояния, в недра Земли, планет и Солнца. В частности, безракетные космические корабли на планеты солнечной системы. Некоторые результаты этих исследований в популярной форме излагаются ниже.
Category: Classical Physics

[9970] viXra:1502.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-20 12:24:31

Превращение материи в ядерную энергию АБ-генератором (популярное изложение научной статьи)

Authors: Bolonkin A.A., Bolonkin A.A.
Comments: 8 Pages. Converting of Matter to Nuclear Energy by AB-Generator and its Application by Alexander Bolonkin (in Russian)

Еще из школьного учебника физики все хорошо знают закон Эйнштейна Е = Мс2 (где Е -энергия, М- масса, с = 300 тысяч км/сек – скорость), который связывает массу любого тела и энергию. Он показывает, что любое материальное тело (камни, песок, мусор) обладают гигантской энергией в миллионы раз большей чем нефть, газ, уголь и в тысячи раз большей, чем известные термоядерные реакции. Но как ее добыть из любого материального тела (камня, песка, мусора) - не знает никто. Лишь в последние годы появилась первая работа [2] , которая наметила путь, позволяющий в принципе прямо превращать материю согласно формулы Эйнштеина в самый удобный вид энергии – электричество. Реализация этого предложения означает гигантский скачек в развитии человечества, сравнимый с изобретением книгопечатания, электронно-счетной машины или выходом человечества в космос. Как предлагается это делать и показано в данной статье.
Category: Classical Physics

[9969] viXra:1502.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-20 14:02:31

Wireless Transfer of Electricity from Continent to Continent

Authors: Bolonkin A.A.
Comments: 14 Pages.

transferring electric energy in long distance – from one continent to other continent through Earth ionosphere and storage the electric energy into ionosphere. Early he also offered the electronic tubes as the method of transportation of electricity into outer space and the electrostatic space 100 km towers for connection to Earth ionosphere. Early it is offered connection to Earth ionosphere by 100 km solid or inflatable towers. There are difficult for current technology. In given work the research this connection by thin plastic tubes supported in atmosphere by electron gas and electrostatic force. Building this system is cheap and easy for current technology. The computed project allows estimating the possibility of the suggested method.
Category: Classical Physics

[9968] viXra:1502.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-20 14:37:15

Tired Light Theory Revisited

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 5 Pages.

Tired light theory is revisited. The revised theory conforms to the time-dilation effect with the stretching of supernova light curves and the Tolman surface brightness test, and can be verified with astronomical observations.
Category: Astrophysics

[9967] viXra:1502.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-20 14:52:49

Protons in Water as a Fermi Gas

Authors: P. R. Silva
Comments: 08 pages, 13 references

Hydrogen-bond kinetics plays an important role in the establishment of the transport properties of water. In this paper we propose to consider protons in water as a Fermi gas. We use the Fermi statistics to determine the Fermi energy, the averaged time between collisions of the protons, and the speed of sound in liquid water. This time is also used to interpret the response in frequency of the cytoplasm to an applied external electric field.
Category: Condensed Matter

[9966] viXra:1502.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-20 15:15:35

Anthropic Principle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

For nearly half a century, theoretical physicists have made a series of discoveries that certain constants in fundamental physics seem extraordinarily fine-tuned to allow for the emergence of a life-enabling universe. [9] From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[9965] viXra:1502.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-20 09:35:01

The Units of Planck's Constant are J not J x s: Yes or No?

Authors: Lori-Anne Gardi
Comments: 16 Pages.

Yes
Category: Quantum Physics

[9964] viXra:1502.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-20 09:53:44

On Being

Authors: Orange Zhang
Comments: 2 Pages.

On Being
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9963] viXra:1502.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-20 11:35:46

Rocks Surroundings of Neutrino Detectors

Authors: Imrich Krištof
Comments: 18 Pages.

There have been a spontaneous oscillations of elementary particles, called Neutrinos, observed during the last few decades. The results in the many types of research suggest the non-zero masses of the neutrinos. The possibility of neutrino oscillations and transformation-stabilizations number in three or four types of them, according to Italian scientist Bruno Pontecorvo’s (1946) research and theory, has not been eliminated until these days.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[9962] viXra:1502.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-20 12:13:12

From Physicality to Mathematicality, to Informaticality, to Consciousness, and Ontology, Or, What Mathematics Cannot Describe is Ontology

Authors: Janko Kokosar
Comments: 20 Pages. Published also in FQXi Essay Contest 2015

Extraordinary mathematicality of physics is also shown by dimensionlessness of Planck spacetime and mass. At the same time the Planck granularity of spacetime also shows that physics can be simulated by a binary computer. So physics is informational. But mathematics is not everything in physics, consciousness cannot be solely explained by mathematics. The reason that quantum gravity (QG) does not yet exist is the lack of knowledge about spacetime as background. Quantum mechanics is not complete, because foundational principle is not yet known, and because consciousness and QG are not yet explained. The free will and quantum randomness are similar unexplained phenomena. Even philosophy is important in physics, because what mathematics cannot describe in physics is ontology. And, intuition affects what is mainstream physics. Simplicity and clearness of physics and mathematics of physics are important not only for beginners, but also for the development of the fundamental physics. Uncertainty principle is so simple that maybe it could be derived without the use of wave functions. On the simplicity and clearness of fundamental physics it can be done a lot.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9961] viXra:1502.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-19 18:28:48

The Logical Error in the Derivation of the Non-Locality

Authors: Jiri Soucek
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper we shall show that the standard derivation of the non-locality contains the logical error which invalidates the whole derivation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[9960] viXra:1502.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-20 00:49:34

The Teq: Exploring a Link with the QCD and New Territories

Authors: Thierry PERIAT
Comments: 11 Pages.

I don’t ignore the long discussion concerning the representation of nuclei (protons and neutrons); in extenso the story of the birth of the standard model (SM). But I also know the actual difficulties and the arguments for a modest extension of the SM. Physics is actually a house containing diverse coherent theories. Some of them are logically related to the others; some are not. This still remain a modern challenge to bring all members of the family under the same roof. My attempt here is to continue the discussion around a fundamental coherent vision.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[9959] viXra:1502.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-20 02:09:59

On the Interpretation of Delayed Choice Quantum Experiments

Authors: Padmanabhan Murali
Comments: 3 Pages.

Experimental realization of Gedanken experiments on Quantum Mechanics continue to suggest inferences of action at a distance, action into the future or past as reported in Delayed choice Quantum entanglement experiments recently by Ma et al (2012). Is it possible to read through this and investigate through simple logic and experiments whether control of the past or future is possible? A set of experiments are suggested here to do the same whose results may be interesting.
Category: Quantum Physics

[9958] viXra:1502.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-19 14:15:59

Why and How Usl1 Roughly Halves the GDP (Per Capita) Growth Doubling Time? for the Cases of the World, Oecd, and the U.s.a.

Authors: Dongchan Lee
Comments: 4 Pages. first draft

In this paper, as the first part of BOEC series, we compiled several different ways to show how USL1 can roughly halve the GDP (per capita) growth rates of countries, or equivalently speaking, how USL1 roughly double their growth rates. The first and easiest one simply focuses on the world average, which is about 3.5% and the U.S.A. or OECD average GDP growth rate, which is about 2.5% for the past 5 years or so. We compare the results with the projections by Hanushek-Woessmann from the UNESCO paper simulation. The Hanushek-Woessmann simulated projection growth values seem about 25-30% less than those from our simplified estimation values.
Category: Economics and Finance

[9957] viXra:1502.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-19 14:28:05

Why and How Usl1 Can Halve the GDP Growth Doubling Time (Or Double the Growth Rates)? (Version 1)

Authors: Dongchan Lee
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this paper, as the second paper of BOEC series, we show why and how USL1 can induce the (Real) GDP per capita growth rates as well as the (Real) GDP growth rate by halving the GDP (per capita) growth doubling time. An equivalent statement to this is roughly doubling the GDP growth rates. The presentations in each part will become increasingly more detailed or sophisticated in this paper. We present this by first simply estimating by adding 1% (after USL 0.5) or 2% (after USL1) etc. on the baseline growth rates. We first demonstrate that the USL doubling the GDP growth rates for the average world GDP, OECD average, the U.S.A., and Sub-Saharan Africa. They are the rough estimations, but they seem to fit reasonably well. Secondly, we use a bit more sophisticated algorithm adapted from the paper by Hanushek-Woessmann to visually demonstrate that USL1 roughly halving the (Real) GDP growth doubling time. Then we project the various scenarios for the baseline (Real or nominal) GDP (per capita or not) growth rates from 0.5% up to 7%. We didn´t include beyond the 7% because the USL1´s halving the doubling time error bars will be too big after then in most cases.
Category: Economics and Finance

[9956] viXra:1502.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-19 08:18:18

The Next Term Of Any Sequence Generating Algorithm: Domain Of Answer

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi, Roderic S Lakes
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research monograph, a scheme for finding the next term of any sequence is presented.
Category: General Mathematics

[9955] viXra:1502.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-19 04:31:14

Origin of the Optimal Doping in High-Tc Cuprates

Authors: A. Messad
Comments: 1 Page.

Doping an insulator to make it a BCS-type superconductor, is equivalent to creating states in the Debye shell on both sides of the Fermi level. This doping is, therefore, equal to twice the product between the density of states at the Fermi level and the Debye energy. This formula works well for optimally doped cuprates suggesting a major role for phonons behind the superconductivity of these materials.
Category: Condensed Matter

[9954] viXra:1502.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-18 20:01:29

History of Problem, Cooperstock is Wrong.

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 7 Pages.

Dear readers, the picture of Physics lefts you in confusion. The prime example is refutation of black holes in 2014, Phys.Lett.B 738, 61–7 by Laura, a Professor. I have arguments against her paper, but perhaps I am the only one, who is worried. They keep bringing things forward, which are thought to be refuted and over refuted. Another example of mind blowing is the Dr. Cooperstock. First his attempt was to deny the Standards of Metrology (within "Energy Localization hypothesis"). I have arguments against his idea. Then he came up with another mind abuse: absence of long detected Dark Matter. In the following I am defending the Dark Matter from the nihilistic aggression of Dr. Cooperstock. Speaking of nihilism, the most grim picture is in Quantum Mechanics of Niels Bohr. In 2015 they have "proved" in elitist "Nature", that Shr"odinger's Cat is real. Thus, the world does not exist: a thing can not both be and not be. It is very convenient now: if even a grain of sand is crazy hallucination (like the "proven" "reality" of undead cat), then this non-existent grain needs no divine (loved, but more often hated) Creator. The reason of delusion: they have missed an intelligent factors, e.g. evil spirits, which very often act on the measuring device. Recall the wrong alarms in atomic armies.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9953] viXra:1502.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-18 14:01:33

Information Theory Rescue Cosmologists

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 9 Pages.

Stephen Hawking described it as the most spectacular failure of any physical theory in history. Can a new theory of information rescue cosmologists? [9] Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.
Category: Astrophysics

[9952] viXra:1502.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-18 09:57:10

"Earth" Was Once a "Star"

Authors: Charles Nunno
Comments: 5 Pages.

Stellar Metamorphosis is the premier alternative theory of star formation. A hypothesis made for the 21st century dissident thinker who suspects that astronomy's “nebular hypothesis” is grossly unsatisfactory and dated. This is an explication where the theory, discovery narrative and educational, economic and social implications of star/planet formation are presented. The process by which Jeffrey Wolynski came to his revelation that what we mistakenly call “planets” are in fact merely later developments of the stellar formation. This theory should be the main foundation of all modern star science. Star formation is planet formation; they are one process.
Category: Astrophysics

[9951] viXra:1502.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-18 10:28:53

The Truth about the Strange Non-Chaotic Stars

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Within the Scale-Symmetric Physics we showed that the structure of proton leads to the Theory of Chaos. We proved that the structure of the nonchaotic star KIC 5520878 mimics the internal structure of the core of baryons. The more precise observations should show that the ratio of the two principal frequencies for KIC 5520878 is 1.5711 (the today observations lead to 1.57) and has nothing with the golden ratio 1.618…. Moreover, notice that the ratio of the radius of the equator of the torus in the core of proton to the radius of the gluon loops the neutral pions consist of is 1.5 so there should be stars with such ratio of principal frequencies also. The same concerns the quasars.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9950] viXra:1502.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-18 08:24:33

Vis & Rāmin in New Anahuac (Poemotrosophisms)

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Lora Stone
Comments: 80 Pages.

This story is neither Aztec (“Popocatepetl and Iztaccihuatl”) nor Persian ("Vis and Ramin"); it is an intertextual mixture. The Aztec legend is a pretense, and the characters are Persian, moved to an Aztec landscape.
Category: Linguistics

[9949] viXra:1502.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-18 04:28:03

The Theory Purely Affine of the Gravity and Electromagnetism of Schrödinger (Iii)

Authors: Wenceslao Segura González
Comments: 15 Pages. Spanish

In 1943 Erwin Schrödinger began a series of publications on Unitary Field Theory, with which wanted to unify the gravitational, electromagnetic and mesonics fields on a geometric basis. In this article, which is a continuation of [36] and [37], we analyze the third of the purely affine theories Schrödinger (Schrödinger-III), where he used a connection asymmetric capable of accommodating the unification of the three fields.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[9948] viXra:1502.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-18 05:33:23

A Condition For Suspension Of Gravitational Field

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi, Roderic S Lakes, Peter T Timbie, Tao Han
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this research monograph, a condition for suspension of gravitational field is presented.For this analysis, the concept of Permittivity of free space for a Graviton has been advented and utilized.
Category: Classical Physics

[9947] viXra:1502.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-18 02:37:42

A Definition For Fractional Derivative

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi, Roderic S Lakes
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research monograph, a definition for Fractional Derivative is presented.
Category: General Mathematics

[9946] viXra:1502.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-17 23:04:56

Advanced Difference Equation Theory

Authors: Sidharth Ghoshal
Comments: 8 Pages.

This highlights some of my findings and derivation in the theory of arbitrary step size finite differences. Most are fairly simple
Category: Functions and Analysis

[9945] viXra:1502.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-17 12:35:20

E=mc2: a Self-Evident Non-Physical Equation

Authors: Sjaak UItterdijk
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract – This article shows, from several points of view, why the equation E=mc2 must be an untenable equation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

Replacements of recent Submissions

[4494] viXra:1502.0216 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-25 20:50:22

A Novel Approach for Unique Address of the Computer in Network Security Environment

Authors: Sanjay Patel, Neha Parmar, Viral Patel
Comments: 4 Pages.

In computer networking, the term IP address spoofing or IP spoofing refers to the creation of Internet Protocol (IP) packets with a forged source IP address, called spoofing. This paper contains an overview of IP address and IP Spoofing and its background. It also shortly discusses various types of IP Spoofing, MAC spoofing and how they attack on communication system. This paper also describes some methods to detection and prevention methods of IP spoofing and also describes impacts on communication system by IP Spoofing. Propose approach identifies the computer through defined unique identification address of computer.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[4493] viXra:1502.0215 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-24 06:03:12

A Sound Nebula. the Origin of the Solar System in the Field of a Standing Sound Wave

Authors: V. Beck
Comments: 15 Pages, Russian

This article proposes a new concept for the origin of the planets, making it possible to explain the majority of observed facts for both the Solar System and for exoplanetary systems. The most widespread nebular hypothesis of Kant-Laplace about the formation of the planets from a rotating pre-solar nebula is not capable of answering many questions about the origin of the Solar System. According to this new concept, when thermonuclear fusion started at the centre of the protosun, an explosion occurred and a shock wave passed through the pre-solar nebula which, when it returned to the centre, caused a new explosion and new wave. As a result of the periodic explosions, a spherical standing sound wave formed in the pre-solar nebula, with a concentration of dust occurring in the antinode of the wave. Subsequently, the dust gathered to form rotating rings from which the planets were formed. The distances between the antinodes of the standing wave are determined by the gas pressure and pull of gravity of the protosun and approximately consistent with the Titius-Bode law, which thus obtains the physical explanation. The very small angular momentum of the Sun (0.5%) and tilt of the equatorial plane (7°) occurred due to the asymmetry of the first very powerful explosion. The division of the planets into inner terrestrial and outer gaseous giant planets is explained by the migration of solid matter from the outer regions of the cloud to the inner regions. The existence of Oort cloud is explained by the division of the pre-solar nebula into a ball-shaped inner cloud and a expanding spherical gaseous shell by the path of the shock wave from the first explosion. The expanding shell gradually slowed down due to the rarified outer gaseous masses and stopped at a distance of approximately 1 light year. Trillions of comets formed from the dust and frozen gases it contains. The orbit and the mass of planet Neptune can be explained as result of the interaction between the returning wave from the Oort cloud and the outer edges of the ball-shaped cloud. According to modern theories, many of the recently discovered exoplanetary systems would not be able to exist; the suggested concept makes it possible to explain their origin and evolution, and even help search for new planets.
Category: Astrophysics

[4492] viXra:1502.0177 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-21 08:49:57

Tired-light Theory Revisited

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 5 Pages.

Tired-light theory is revisited. The revised theory conforms to the time-dilation effect with the stretching of supernova light curves and the Tolman surface brightness test, and can be verified with astronomical observations.
Category: Astrophysics

[4491] viXra:1502.0172 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-23 07:12:26

Rocks Surroundings of Neutrino Detectors

Authors: Imrich Krištof
Comments: 18 Pages.

There have been a spontaneous oscillations of elementary particles, called Neutrinos, observed during the last few decades. The results in the many types of research suggest the non-zero masses of the neutrinos. The possibility of neutrino oscillations and transformation-stabilizations number in three or four types of them, according to Italian scientist Bruno Pontecorvo’s (1946) research and theory, has not been eliminated until these days.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[4490] viXra:1502.0168 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-24 16:38:03

The TEQ: Exploring a Link with the QCD and New Territories - v2

Authors: Thierry PERIAT
Comments: 16 Pages. First attempt of a GUT in a 4D space

I don’t ignore the long discussion concerning the representation of nuclei (protons and neutrons); in extenso the story of the birth of the standard model (SM). But I also know the actual difficulties and the arguments for a modest extension of the SM. Physics is actually a house containing diverse coherent theories. Some of them are logically related to the others; some are not. This still remain a modern challenge to bring all members of the family under the same roof. My attempt here is to continue the discussion around a fundamental coherent vision. Starting with general considerations concerning the QCD, I reexamine the notion of equation of motion via the Lorentz-Einstein Law, introduce a new paradigm, explain the type I supraconduction and finally make a junction with the old Wong’s work for basic situations. All this is obtained in staying in a four dimensional world. I don’t pretend to have discovered the holy “Grail”.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[4489] viXra:1502.0158 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-20 18:08:56

"Earth" Was Once a "Star"

Authors: Charles Nunno
Comments: 6 Pages.

Correcting mistakes
Category: Astrophysics

[4488] viXra:1502.0158 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-18 16:34:50

"Earth Was Once a "Star"

Authors: Charles Nunno
Comments: 5 Pages. Correcting spelling mistakes

Stellar Metamorphosis is the premier alternative theory of star formation. A hypothesis made for the 21st century dissident thinker who suspects that astronomy's “nebular hypothesis” is grossly unsatisfactory and dated. This is an explication where the theory, discovery narrative and educational, economic and social implications of star/planet formation are presented. The process by which Jeffrey Wolynski came to his revelation that what we mistakenly call “planets” are in fact merely later developments of the stellar formation. This theory should be the main foundation of all modern star science. Star formation is planet formation; they are one process.
Category: Astrophysics

[4487] viXra:1502.0155 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-18 10:16:50

The Theory Purely Affine of the Gravity and Electromagnetism of Schrödinger (Iii)

Authors: Wenceslao Segura González
Comments: 15 Pages. Spanish

In 1943 Erwin Schrödinger began a series of publications on Unitary Field Theory, with which wanted to unify the gravitational, electromagnetic and mesonics fields on a geometric basis. In this article, which is a continuation of [36] and [37], we analyze the third of the purely affine theories Schrödinger (Schrödinger-III), where he used a connection asymmetric capable of accommodating the unification of the three fields
Category: Relativity and Cosmology