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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[15021] viXra:1607.0447 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 01:13:03

Note on the Free Fall Experiment of the Bremen Tower

Authors: Paris S. Miles-Brenden
Comments: 5 Pages. philosophy of physics, free fall, freefall, superconductivity, inertia, gravitation, gravity

A seemingly empty relation of physical law implicates a testable hypothesis of physics by contradiction in relation to the test of WEP.
Category: Classical Physics

[15020] viXra:1607.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 03:13:10

The Current Status of the Physicalist Program [PHPR]

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 4 Pages.

Status of PHPR.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15019] viXra:1607.0445 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 16:43:02

Axiomatics For Modern Science

Authors: Daniel Cordero Grau
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this document I lay down the Axiomatics of Modern Science
Category: Functions and Analysis

[15018] viXra:1607.0444 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 18:40:48

Energy Budget and Conservation Laws in a Static Universe

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 6 Pages.

Energy fluxes and exchanges play a crucial role in the universe. The universe is characterized by large concentrations of energy contained in small, dense areas such as galaxies, which radiate energy towards the vacuum surrounding them. However, as of today, no theory can balance the energy deficit of galaxies, which would be required for a conservative universe. This study is an investigation of the physics nature could use to maintain the energy segregation between its dense parts and the vacuum. Based on considerations of the gravitational redshift and mass-energy equivalence, we propose time contraction as a principle to maintain this segregation, in which photons lose energy and masses gain potential energy. We find that the surplus of potential energy from this principle at the level of the Milky Way balances with the energy radiated. Lunar recession is a confirmation of this principle.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15017] viXra:1607.0443 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 18:52:40

Continuous Atoms and The Propagation of Light

Authors: Roger Munday
Comments: 10 Pages.

Currently accepted theories of the structure of macroscopic matter fail to explain the transmission of gravity and of electro-magnetic radiation. These theories are therefore, in some fundamental aspects, false. Technologies available today demonstrate that the structure of solid matter is not one of discontinuous atoms. This paper suggests that they are not, as postulated, composed of almost entirely a "perfect vacuum" and are not separated by large volumes of 'empty space'.
Category: Classical Physics

[15016] viXra:1607.0442 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 13:21:22

Titius-Bode Law as a Direct Manifestation of Gravitational Waves

Authors: J.R. Croca, P. Castro, M. Gatta, A. Cardoso, R. Moreira
Comments: 10 pages, 4 figures

Since its initial proposal in 1766, Titius-Bode empirical law remains a puzzling source of discomfort as it predicts the average distances from the planets to the Sun for no apparent reason. Using a framework analogous to de Broglie’s pilot wave theory and the self-organizing Principle of Eurhythmy, we claim that several main physical quantities describing the Solar System are quantified. Hence Titius-Bode Law is a direct manifestation of gravitational waves in the Solar System.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15015] viXra:1607.0441 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 11:22:58

The Gravichemical Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A fundamental principle of nature is as follows concerning stars ability to provide activation energy requirements for chemical reactions to take place during stellar evolution according to the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[15014] viXra:1607.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 11:25:11

The Principle of Star Water Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A fundamental principle of nature is as follows concerning water formation on evolving stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[15013] viXra:1607.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 11:37:32

Nuclear Forces, Gravity, Electromagnetic Force of Unity.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 8 Pages.

Chapter 8: Nuclear forces, gravity,electromagnetic force of unity. [1]... to the goal of modern physics and the Super grand unified theory hypothesis. [2]. elementary pulsation principle announced in 1980, with the physical society of Japan. [3]... article published in 1980, has been kept on the cinii National Institute of Informatics, Japan physical society. [4]... on the Internet Encyclopaedia Wikipedia articles. [5]... Nuclear forces, gravity, electromagnetic force of unity. [6]... unity based on elementary pulsation principle forces, gravity, electromagnetic force. [7]. structure of pulsating principle model for finite nuclei. [8]. it front and back of the same photon-photon and quantum gravity.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[15012] viXra:1607.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 12:03:37

Exact Diagonalization of the D-Dimensional Spatially Confined Quantum Harmonic Oscillator

Authors: Kunle Adegoke, Adenike Olatinwo, Henry Otobrise, Funmi Akintujoye, Afees Tiamiyu
Comments: 18 Pages.

In the existing literature various numerical techniques have been developed to quantize the confined harmonic oscillator in higher dimensions. In obtaining the energy eigenvalues, such methods often involve indirect approaches such as searching for the roots of hypergeometric functions or numerically solving a differential equation. In this paper, however, we derive an explicit matrix representation for the Hamiltonian of a confined quantum harmonic oscillator in higher dimensions, thus facilitating direct diagonalization.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15011] viXra:1607.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 12:06:52

Infinite Arctangent Sums Involving Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers

Authors: Kunle Adegoke
Comments: 15 Pages.

Using a straightforward elementary approach, we derive numerous infinite arctangent summation formulas involving Fibonacci and Lucas numbers. While most of the results obtained are new, a couple of celebrated results appear as particular cases of the more general formulas derived here.
Category: Number Theory

[15010] viXra:1607.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 12:10:47

Gravitational Collapse Versus Plate Tectonics to Explain Earthquakes

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is presented sound reasoning that earthquakes are caused by buildup and release of huge amounts of pressure in rocks due to gravitational collapse of the Earth, and not moving plates.
Category: Geophysics

[15009] viXra:1607.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 12:21:26

On Approximating the Free Harmonic Oscillator by a Particle in a Box

Authors: Kunle Adegoke, Adenike Olatinwo, Henry Otobrise, Funmi Akintujoye, Afees Tiamiyu
Comments: 11 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate and illustrate, once again, the potency of the variational technique as an approximation procedure for the quantization of quantum mechanical systems. By choosing particle-in-a-box wavefunctions as trial wavefunctions, with the size of the box as the variation parameter, approximate eigenenergies and the corresponding eigenfunctions are obtained for the one dimensional free harmonic oscillator.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15008] viXra:1607.0434 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 12:24:01

Challenge "Proof of the Lehman Expectation".

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 7 Pages.

Chapter12. Challenge "proof of the Lehman expectation". A mathematics difficult problem biggest in history. [1] With the mathematics difficult problem "proof of the Lehman expectation" biggest in history. [2] I challenge the difficult problem Lehman expectation that rejected the geniuses challenge for 150 years. [3] It is challenged the mystery of the prime number, a mathematics difficult problem biggest in history, proof of the Lehman expectation. [4] Neology of the Lehman expectation. A point of intersection that all 0 points are straight. [5] An elementary particle pulsation principle founds a door of the Lehman expected proof.
Category: Number Theory

[15007] viXra:1607.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 08:41:31

Macroscopic Quantum Phenomena

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Scientists have discovered an anomaly in the properties of ice at very cold temperatures near 20 K, which they believe can be explained by the quantum tunneling of multiple protons simultaneously. The finding is a rare instance of quantum phenomena emerging on the macroscopic scale, and is even more unusual because it is only the second time—the first being superconductivity— that macroscopic quantum phenomena have been observed in a system that is based on fermions, which include protons, electrons, and all other matter particles. Other systems exhibiting macroscopic quantum phenomena have been based on photons, a type of boson, which mediate the forces between matter. [11] Neutron scattering and computational modeling have revealed unique and unexpected behavior of water molecules under extreme confinement that is unmatched by any known gas, liquid or solid states. [10] An international team of scientists studying ultrafast physics have solved a mystery of quantum mechanics, and found that quantum tunneling is an instantaneous process. The new theory could lead to faster and smaller electronic components, for which quantum tunneling is a significant factor. It will also lead to a better understanding of diverse areas such as electron microscopy, nuclear fusion and DNA mutations. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15006] viXra:1607.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 09:09:27

P vs NP ... Are They Same ?

Authors: Hemant Pandey
Comments: 13 Pages. With drawl paper due to technical reasons.

P vs NP is possibly one of the most crucial problems’s of our era owing to the fact that it directly affects one of the most 8 basic things of our modern day survival, the Internet security. The proof will be surely a big blow to the RSA ciphering– 9 deciphering technology but it the way it is! Genuine apologies for P = NP. As for as mathematical gain is concern it is a 10 result that opens a search for solution of those 300 plus NP complete problems and much more. The present proof resolves 11 P = NP by the solution of NP complete Hamiltonians path problem in polynomial time. The proof is using topology and 12 simple geometry. Hence P = NP; solved for the Hamiltonians path problem or Traveling salesman problem as it is called 13 so. NP complete Hamiltonian’s path problem has a polynomial time solution, i.e. P =CN 4 for HPP. 14 2006 Published by Elsevier Inc.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[15005] viXra:1607.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 06:46:26

A Hypothesis Reforms a Super String Theory.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 7 Pages.

A hypothesis reforms a super string theory. Chapter6. No. 3: revolution in superstring theory. [1]. Advanced "superstring theory" [2]... most likely candidate for the ultimate theory and superstring theory. [3]... continued looking for Einstein 4-dimensional space. [4]. elementary pulsation principle is the new geometric model of superstring theory. [5] Waveform pulse Ultra is a string.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15004] viXra:1607.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 02:52:14

A 34 me Neutral Boson, Predicted by a Particles Cold Genesis Theory and Experimentally Evidenced, as Argument for a Preonic Quark Model

Authors: Marius Arghirescu
Comments: 8 Pages. Accepted to IJHEP

The new neutral boson of 34 me , experimentally evidenced and supposed to be an X-boson of a fifth basic force, was predicted as being a basic z0 preon of cold formed quarks by a pre-quantum model of elementary particle resulted from an etherono-quantonic theory of the author, and can be a strong argument for a Bose-Einstein condensate model of particle, resulted by magnetically confined gammons formed as pairs of quasielectrons. An argument in the favour of the preonic structure of quarks and for the Cold Genesis of the elementary particles is proposed a new, pre-quantum model of quark resulted in theory with quasi-crystallin as structure of quasi-electrons of the basic preon z0 . The brought arguments sustain also the conclusion that the z0 boson can be a „dark matter” constituent.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[15003] viXra:1607.0429 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 03:36:35

Gravity Waves and Mercury Revise Geodynamo

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 8 Pages.

Most people have a rough idea of the cause of Earth's magnetic field, don't they? It's the geodynamo, also called the magnetic dynamo theory. The heat from the solid inner core puts the liquid outer core in motion, and the movements of the outer core's electrically conducting fluids (such as molten iron) generate the planet's magnetic field. Electrically conducting fluids occur in the Sun, other stars and most planets – and are the scientifically accepted mechanism for magnetic fields. However, the planet Mercury suggests this process is wrong. Is it possible to propose a plausible alternative? The proposal here has both Earthly and Space components - it is still linked to the nature of, and motions in, the core plus it refers to the phenomenon of zero electrical resistance known as superconductivity as well as the recent discovery of gravitational waves. It also refers to the Moon's attraction on Earth's oceans, binary stars, the Sun's coronal heating and mass ejections, sunspots and mini ice ages, and black holes. A proposal that has support from only one or two sources may indeed prove to be correct. But surely support from several additional sources must greatly improve that proposal's chances of success. It's the goal of this article to be comprehensive in presenting its approach to the geodynamo. It's important to properly understand our planet's magnetic field because it protects us from the charged particles of the solar wind and cosmic rays. Without this protection from the magnetosphere, Earth would be stripped of its ozone layer that keeps excess ultraviolet radiation from harming life. And no magnetic field also means no atmospheric light displays called auroras, as well as no direction-finding compasses.
Category: Geophysics

[15002] viXra:1607.0428 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 04:23:12

Simultaneous Photon Absorption

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Theorists show that two atoms in an optical cavity can absorb the same photon. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15001] viXra:1607.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 17:00:55

A New Dark Matter Density Profile as Power of Gravitational Field for Coma Cluster

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 17 Pages.

For last two years I have published eight papers about DM on galaxies. Data have been taken from recent papers written by prestigious researches. The main target of papers have been to calculate DM density through an original profile called Bernoulli profile and check its results with other standard DM profiles such as NFW, Burket or Pseudo-Isothemal. Results on every galaxy checked have been successful. The importance these works is that Bernoulli profile is supported by an original hypothesis about Dark matter nature. This hypothesis stated that dark matter is generated locally by gravitational field according an unknown quantum mechanism. Now , in this paper Dark matter density in Coma cluster will be studied with the same method. Briefly is going to be explained the structure of this paper. Firstly are presented data Coma Cluster, which come from recent papers published in 2016. They are two couples of radius and mass enclosed by its sphere. Radius considered are R = 1.314 Mpc and Virial radius = 3.1 Mpc With only two couple of data is fitted NFW profile for Dark matter density in Coma cluster within an interval radius 1.314 Mpc to 3.1 Mpc. As DM through NFW profile gives an excessive amount of DM within halo up to 14 Mpc it has been introduced Bernoulli profile which is an original DM density profile developed by author, used successfully in several galaxies to study DM. According Chernin,A. 2013. Firstly are introduced concepts of gravitating mass, dark energy or anti gravitating mass and matter mass apart from its formula MG (R) = MM (R) + MDE (R) .Because at cluster halo scale dark energy are not negligible, so it has been considered Dark energy effect to calculate gravitating mass within Coma cluster halo up to 14 Mpc. Result got of gravitating mass within cluster halo up to 14 Mpc through DM calculated with Bernoulli profile differ only 8% regarding gravitating mass got by Diferio A. & Geller M.J. 1997 whereas gravitating mass got with NFW differ more than 600%.
Category: Astrophysics

[15000] viXra:1607.0426 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 23:25:10

Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated P-Anisidine

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

The p-anisidine is widely used as chemical intermediate in the production of various dyes, pigments, and pharmaceuticals. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of p-anisidine. The study was performed after dividing the sample in two groups; one was remained as untreated and another was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Afterward, both the control and treated samples of p-anisidine were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyzer, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis-derivative thermogravimetry (TGA-DTG), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The XRD analysis showed the increase in unit cell volume from 683.81 → 690.18 × 10-24 cm3 and crystallite size from 83.84→84.62 nm in the treated sample with respect to the control. The surface area analysis exhibited the significant increase (25.44%) in the surface area of treated sample as compared to control. The DSC thermogram of control p-anisidine showed the latent heat of fusion and melting temperature and 146.78 J/g and 59.41°C, respectively, which were slightly increased to 148.89 J/g and 59.49°C, respectively after biofield treatment. The TGA analysis showed the onset temperature of thermal degradation at 134.68°C in the control sample that was increased to 150.02°C after biofield treatment. The result showed about 11.39% increase in onset temperature of thermal degradation of treated p-anisidine as compared to the control. Moreover, the Tmax (temperature at which maximum thermal degradation occurs) was also increased slightly from 165.99°C (control) to 168.10°C (treated). This indicated the high thermal stability of treated p-anisidine as compared to the control. However, the FT-IR and UV spectroscopic studies did not show any significant changes in the spectral properties of treated p-anisidine with respect to the control. All together, the XRD, surface area and thermal analysis suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has the impact on physical and thermal properties of the treated p-anisidine.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[14999] viXra:1607.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 23:30:02

Antimicrobial Susceptibility, Biochemical Characterization and Molecular Typing of Biofield Treated Klebsiella Pneumoniae

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Pathogenic isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae), particularly the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing strains, are mostly associated with the failure of antibiotic therapy in nosocomial infections. The present work was designed to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of K. pneumoniae. The strain of K. pneumoniae bearing ATCC 15380 (American Type Culture Collection) was procured from the Bangalore Genei, in sealed pack and divided into control and treated groups. Treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and analyzed for the antimicrobial susceptibility, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical reactions, and biotyping using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. Further, the effect of biofield treatment was also evaluated using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) in order to determine their epidemiological relatedness and genetic characteristics of biofield treated K. pneumoniae samples. The antimicrobial susceptibility results showed an improve sensitivity (i.e. from intermediate to susceptible) of ampicillin/sulbactam and chloramphenicol, while altered sensitivity of cephalothin (i.e. from susceptible to intermediate) was also reported as compared to the control sample. The MIC value showed two-fold decrease in MIC value of ampicillin/sulbactam (i.e. 16/8 to ≤8/4 µg/mL) and chloramphenicol (i.e. 16 to ≤ 8 µg/mL) as compared to the control. The cephalothin showed two-folds change (i.e. ≤ 8 to 16 µg/mL) in the MIC value as compared with the control. Biofield treatment showed 9.09% alterations in biochemical reactions followed by a change in biotype number (7774 4272) in the treated group with respect to the control (7774 4274). Genetic fingerprinting was performed on control and treated samples using RAPD-PCR biomarkers, which showed an average range of 11 to 15% of polymorphism among the treated samples with respect to the control. These results suggested that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has a significant impact on K. pneumoniae.
Category: Chemistry

[14998] viXra:1607.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 15:26:31

A Comment on the Dimensionless Gravitational Coupling Constant

Authors: Randy Sorokowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

The Gravitational Coupling Constant maybe a universal scaling factor.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14997] viXra:1607.0423 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 13:07:00

Inconsistency Solution of Maxwell's Equations

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 146 Pages.

A new solution of Maxwell equations for a vacuum, for wire with constant and alternating current, for the capacitor, for the sphere, etc. is presented. First it must be noted that the proof of the solution's uniqueness is based on the Law of energy conservation which is not observed (for instantaneous values) in the known solution. The solution offered: •Describes wave in vacuum and wave in wire; •Complies with the energy conservation law in each moment of time, i.e. sets constant density of electromagnetic energy flux; •Reveals phase shifting between electrical and magnetic intensities; •Explains existence of energy flux along the wire that is equal to the power consumed. The work offers some technical applications of the solution obtained. A detailed proof is given for interested readers.
Category: Classical Physics

[14996] viXra:1607.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 13:12:18

The Elementary Particle Pulsation Principle. the Complete Table of Contents.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 7 Pages.

Chapter1.Elementary particle pulsation principle.[1] Basic concept of the elementary particle pulsation principle. [2] The concepts of elementary particle pulsation principle. and the existing facts. [3] The grounds that came up with the idea of the hypothesis of the pulsation principle.Its history. [4] The first step to elementary particle pulsation principle birth. [5] I built the geometric model of the elementary particle pulsation principle. [6] Summary of the elementary particle pulsation principle. [7] The hypothesis of the elementary particle pulsation principle. (The original of the 1980 announcement) [8] An elementary particle is a lump of the energy. It is super-high-speed and pulsates. The reason. [9] The application of the elementary particle pulsation principle. The grounds of the idea. [10] The characteristic list of the elementary particle pulsation principle. (Timing distinction). [11] Figure of the quantum-mechanical uncertainty principle. [12] The idea of elementary pulsation principle apply the concepts. [13] Elementary pulsation principle concepts of theoretical physics puzzler. (1-33)
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[14995] viXra:1607.0421 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 08:40:32

The Theory of Ultralogics, the Modified Robinson Approach, and GID

Authors: Robert A. Herrmann
Comments: 8 Pages.

The basic mathematical aspects of the GGU and GID models are discussed. As an illustration, the modified Robinson approach is used to give a more direct prediction as to the composition of ultra-propertons. Relative to logic-systems, the refined developmental paradigm is applied to the General Intelligence Design (GID) model and the basic GID statement are given.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[14994] viXra:1607.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 10:03:40

Quantum Error Correction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14993] viXra:1607.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:45:37

Aggregation of Triangular Fuzzy Neutrosophic Set Information and Its Application to Multi-Attribute Decision Making

Authors: Pranab Biswas, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 21 Pages.

This paper is devoted to propose triangular fuzzy number neutrosophic sets by combining triangular fuzzy numbers with single valued neutrosophic set and define some of its operational rules. Then, triangular fuzzy number neutrosophic weighted arithmetic averaging operator and triangular fuzzy number neutrosophic weighted geometric averaging operator are defined to aggregate triangular fuzzy number neutrosophic sets.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[14992] viXra:1607.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:47:22

A Projection Model of Neutrosophic Numbers for Multiple Attribute Decision Making of Clay-Brick Selection

Authors: Jiqian Chen, Jun Ye
Comments: 4 Pages.

Brick plays a significant role in building construction.So we should use the effective mathematical decision making tool to select quality clay-bricks for building construction. The purpose of this paper is to present a projection model of neutrosophic numbers and its decision-making method for the selecting problems of clay-bricks with neutrosophic number information.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[14991] viXra:1607.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:49:28

Assessing it Projects Success with Extended Fuzzy Cognitive Maps & Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps in Comparison to Fuzzy Cognitive Maps

Authors: Kanika Bhutani, Megha Kumar, Gaurav Garg, Swati Aggarwal
Comments: 11 Pages.

IT projects hold a huge importance to economic growth. Today, half of the capital investments are in IT technology. IT systems and projects are extensive and time consuming; thus implying that its failure is not affordable, so proper feasibility study of assessing project success factors is required. A current methodology like Fuzzy Cognitive Maps has been experimented for identifying and evaluating the success factors in IT projects, but this technique has certain limitations.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[14990] viXra:1607.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:52:13

Critical Review, Vol. Xii, 2016

Authors: Paul P. Wang, John N. Mordeson, Mark J. Wierman
Comments: 114 Pages.

We have proposed two multi-criteria decision making methods, Extended α-D MCDM and α-D MCDM-TOPSIS models that allow to work for consistent and inconsistent MCDM problems. In addition, three examples have demonstrated that the α-D MCDM-TOPSIS model is efficient and robust.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[14989] viXra:1607.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:56:11

Nω –CLOSED Sets in Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

Authors: Santhi R., Udhayarani N.
Comments: 4 Pages.

Neutrosophic set and Neutrosophic Topological spaces has been introduced by Salama. Neutrosophic Closed set and Neutrosophic Continuous Functions were introduced by Salama et. al.. In this paper, we introduce the concept of Nω- closed sets and their properties in Neutrosophic topological spaces.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[14988] viXra:1607.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:57:38

Neutrosophic Crisp α-Topological Spaces

Authors: A.A.Salama, I.M.Hanafy, Hewayda Elghawalby, M.S.Dabash
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper, a generalization of the neutrosophic topological space is presented. The basic definitions of the neutrosophic crisp α-topological space and the neutrosophic crisp α-compact space with some of their characterizations are deduced. Furthermore, we aim to construct a netrosophic crisp α-continuous function, with a study of a number its properties.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[14987] viXra:1607.0412 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:59:12

Neutrosophic Goal Programming Applied to Bank: Three Investment Problem

Authors: Rittik Roy, Pintu Das
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper represents a new multiobjective Neutrosophic goal programming and Lexicographic goal programming to solve a multiobjective linear programming problem. Here we describe some basic properties of Neutrosophic sets. We have considered a multi-objective Bank Three Investment model to get optimal solution for different weights.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[14986] viXra:1607.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 06:00:21

Neutrosophic Hyperideals of Semihyperrings

Authors: Debabrata Mandal
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper, we have introduced neutrosophic hyperideals of a semihyperring and considered some operations on them to study its basic notions and properties.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[14985] viXra:1607.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 06:03:25

Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 12, 2016

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Said Broumi, A.A.Salama
Comments: 144 Pages.

“Neutrosophic Sets and Systems” has been created for publications on advanced studies in neutrosophy, neutrosophic set, neutrosophic logic, neutrosophic probability, neutrosophic statistics that started in 1995 and their applications in any field, such as the neutrosophic structures developed in algebra, geometry, topology, etc.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[14984] viXra:1607.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 06:05:15

Restricted Interval Valued Neutrosophic Sets and Restricted Interval Valued Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

Authors: Anjan Mukherjee, Mithun Datta, Sadhan Sarkar
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper we introduce the concept of restricted interval valued neutrosophic sets (RIVNS in short). Some basic operations and properties of RIVNS are discussed. The concept of restricted interval valued neutrosophic topology is also introduced together with restricted interval valued neutrosophic finer and restricted interval valued neutrosophic coarser topology. We also define restricted interval valued neutrosophic interior and closer of a restricted interval valued neutrosophic set. Some theorems and examples are cites. Restricted interval valued neutrosophic subspace topology is also studied.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[14983] viXra:1607.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 06:06:30

Smooth Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

Authors: M. K. EL Gayyar
Comments: 8 Pages.

As a new branch of philosophy, the neutrosophy was presented by Smarandache in 1980. It was presented as the study of origin, nature, and scope of neutralities; as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra. The aim in this paper is to introduce the concepts of smooth neutrosophic topological space, smooth neutrosophic cotopological space, smooth neutrosophic closure, and smooth neutrosophic interior. Furthermore, some properties of these concepts will be investigated.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[14982] viXra:1607.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 06:07:36

Some Studies in Neutrosophic Graphs

Authors: Nasir Shah
Comments: 11 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to discuss the notion of neutrosophic graphs, weak isomorphisms, co-weak isomorphisms and isomorphisms between two neutrosophic graphs. It is proved that the isomorphism between the two neutrosophic graphs is an equivalence relation. Some other properties of morphisms are also discussed in this paper.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[14981] viXra:1607.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 06:09:08

Value and Ambiguity Index Based Ranking Method of Single-Valued Trapezoidal Neutrosophic Numbers and Its Application to Multi-Attribute Decision Making

Authors: Pranab Biswas, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 12 Pages.

The objective of the paper ARE to introduce single-valued trapezoidal neutrosophic numbers(SVTrNNs), which is a special case of single-valued neutrosophic numbers and to develop a ranking method for ranking SVTrNNs. Some operational rules as well as cut sets of SVTrNNs have been introduced.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[14980] viXra:1607.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 07:10:20

Quantum Tomography

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

A breakthrough into the full characterisation of quantum states has been published today as a prestigious Editors' Suggestion in the journal Physical Review Letters. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14979] viXra:1607.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 01:15:16

Eternal Living Conceived by Saint Ramalingar

Authors: Thaa Swamiji
Comments: 13 Pages. na

The human being is unique and is highly evolved species from all animate entities. Its greatness is not only its creative thinking as well as its constant inclination towards the original source from which it has emanated. The other animals act and react by its inbuilt genetically programmed instinct; they just exist by survival of the fittest. Their operations are limited to eating, mating, sleeping and self defending. Since the capabilities of the brain are under developed. They were not able to withstand the vagaries of nature and so they enslaved by nature. .....
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[14978] viXra:1607.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 01:18:42

Om Sri Gurubyo Namaha

Authors: Thaa Swamiji
Comments: 164 Pages. na

The author His Holiness Seshadri Sivanar is an erudite and well informed of the treatises in Sanskrit and Tamil which are akin to the vast expansed ocean. He was very much delighted and interested to present to the world, his self knowledge of the “identity of the Soul and the Reality” attained by his self experience. ....
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[14977] viXra:1607.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 01:20:56

The Spiritual Wisdom of Sasi Vannan

Authors: Thaa Swamiji
Comments: 22 Pages. na

As moon, sun, fire, water, air, ether, earth and Individual self, in an octal form (Attamoortham); As substratum (Athipathi) for all and in existence and in non- existence is That Pure Consciousness in my heart; meditate it I *By the utterance of the learned and by the acumen of the intellect The humans distinguish as the path I follow is good The path the other follows is bad; Yet, for all the Reality reveals as they thinketh; So shall I be as the Absoluteness and abide in it ...
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[14976] viXra:1607.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 01:22:47

On the Creation of Our Universe

Authors: Thaa Swamiji
Comments: 37 Pages. NA

The ancient Indian seers are not much concerned about creation theory. Though they have formulated a more reasonable theory in Thaitriya Upanishad. The A agamas (meaning journey to the Divinity/Aa divinity, Gama). In India, there is a famous cupid festival which is based on the puranic mythological episode of Lord Siva burning to ashes the Cupid, the deity of sex and vitality. So, an image of the deity cupid has to be created to burn him in the celebration of the festival. The purpose is transcendence from the haunting thought of desire to divinity as well as a inner transformation from sex to super consciousness. So, the celebrities are not concerned in making and beautifying the image of the cupid and a just ordinary simple image is created .So also, the purpose of the seers is to regain the paradise lost. So to say, to establish an identity for the individual self with the divinity. So, a creation basis from divinity to the element earth is needed to retreat the path that is from projection to dissolution. However, the well informed say that there are more than 62 theories of creation each speaking differently. The main texts are mythology, Upanishads, Saiva and sakta agamas and the scientific theories like big bang and so on extending to quantum theory. Abi initio, there are two basic theories about creation. The first negates the creation and says that everything is one only , whatever you see is the Absolute alone; there is none a second what it is said ass second is unreal including Maya. This is known as non creation doctrine.(Ajada Vaatham) The other is doctrine of creation in which are seen including Maya are real and so doer. However, if there is an effect, the cause must be included in the effect and the effect cannot be without a cause (sad Kariya Vaatham) The eternal existence as cause produces different effects and for each one there is a cause. If at all any other thing is to be introduced certain special significance are to be attached to the non real. In this work the author attempts to make a brief review of various creation theories and tries to give a theory acceptable to the prudence logic, good conscience and equity of the common man.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[14975] viXra:1607.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-21 22:44:27

Is Dirichlet's Proof of Fermat's Last Theorem for N = 5 Flawed

Authors: Quang Nguyen Van
Comments: 3 Pages.

We give an illogical point in Dirichlet's proof, therefore the used infininite descent is not powered in his proof
Category: Number Theory

[14974] viXra:1607.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-21 23:29:51

Evaluation of Physical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Properties of Biofield Treated P-Hydroxyacetophenone

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

P-Hydroxyacetophenone (pHAP) is an aromatic ketone derivative that is mainly used in the manufacturing of various pharmaceuticals, flavours, fragrances, etc. In the present study, the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment was analysed on various properties of pHAP viz. crystallite size, surface area, melting temperature, thermal decomposition, and spectral properties. The pHAP sample was divided into two parts; one was kept as control sample while another part was named as treated sample. The treated sample was given the biofield energy treatment and various parameters were analysed as compared to the control sample by X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyser, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), ultravioletvisible (UV-VIS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XRD studies showed the decrease in crystallite size of the treated sample (61.25 nm) as compared to the control (84.18 nm); however the intensity of peaks in diffractogram was increased in treated sample. Besides, the surface area of treated sample was decreased by 41.17% as compared to the control. The TGA analysis revealed that onset temperature as well as Tmax (maximum thermal decomposition temperature) was increased in the treated sample. However, the latent heat of fusion (ΔH) was decreased from 124.56 J/g (control) to 103.24 J/g in the treated sample. The treated and control samples were also evaluated by UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy and did not show any significant alteration in spectra of treated sample as compared to the respective control. Hence, the overall results suggest that there was an impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical and thermal properties of pHAP sample.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[14973] viXra:1607.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-21 23:32:54

Isotopic Abundance Analysis of Biofield Treated Benzene, Toluene and P-Xylene Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Benzene, toluene and p-xylene are derivatives of benzene, generally produced from crude petroleum and have numerous applications in industry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on isotopic abundance of these benzene derivatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Benzene, toluene and p-xylene samples were divided into two parts: control and treatment. Control part was remained as untreated and treatment part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated samples were characterized using GC-MS. GC-MS data revealed that isotopic abundance ratio of 13C/12C or 2 H/1 H (PM+1/PM) of treated samples were significantly increased from un-substituted to substituted benzene rings (where, PM- primary molecule, PM+1- isotopic molecule either for 13C/12C and/or 2 H/1 H). The isotopic abundance ratio of 13C/12C or 2 H/1 H (PM+1/PM) in benzene was decreased significantly by 42.14% as compared to control. However, the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1/PM) in treated toluene and p-xylene was significantly increased up to 531.61% and 134.34% respectively as compared to their respective control. Thus, overall data suggest that biofield treatment has significantly altered the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1/PM) in a different way for un-substituted and substituted benzenes.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[14972] viXra:1607.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 00:51:49

Misconception of Kundalini

Authors: Thaa Samiji
Comments: 17 Pages. NA

A worldwide awareness is being created for more than five decades beginning from the visit of Swami Vivekananda to the United States of America and a historical famous lecture made by him in the world religious conference at Chicago in the year ----------. Thenceforth several spiritual dignitaries propagated both by introducing yogic practice based on the eight limbed aphorisms of mystic union. (Patanjali Astaanga yoga sutras) Ghernda Samhita, Siva Samhita and Hatha yoga Deepika and from the texts of Thantra spiritual science. ...
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[14971] viXra:1607.0395 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 00:58:37

A Surprising Phenomenon in Vedic Philosophy

Authors: Thaa Swamiji
Comments: 53 Pages. na

Maslow has classified the human needs in to five parts. They are physiological, sex, safety, esteem and higher self actualization. Many persons live in this world un aware of the purposes of life. The aim of the life shall be un tainted absolute bliss. Bliss which is the result of the fulfillment of the self actualizing. Swami Vivekananda famous statement is “every soul is potentially Divine”. So, the purpose of life is to re-discover the Divinity in every entity not only in us and make it known to the intellect. A process of self enquiry is essential to know our real Nature as to” who am I”
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[14970] viXra:1607.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-21 13:35:03

Arbitrary Dimensional User Interfaces

Authors: Frank Edughom Ekpar
Comments: 91 Pages. International Application Number: PCT/US2012/066159; International Publication Number: WO 2014/081420 A1

The present invention discloses an arbitrary dimensional graphical user interface permitting the display or presentation of one or more instances of the user interface on one or more arbitrarily-sized and arbitrarily-shaped surfaces with each instance comprising one or more arbitrary dimensional background elements each of which is divided into one or more arbitrarily-sized and arbitrarily-shaped arbitrary dimensional partitions, wherein each partition may contain one or more user interface elements and is associated with one or more sets of rules that define rendering, positioning, element placement and other relevant attributes and behaviors, wherein said rules can be specified in such a way as to enable said arbitrary dimensional background to assume any desired arbitrary shape and to facilitate expansion to any desired arbitrary size without distortion or loss in quality. In this context, an instance of a graphical user interface is any display or presentation of any representation of any aspect of the user interface. Furthermore, the present invention discloses automatic, semi-automatic or manual processing systems for arbitrary dimensional graphical user interfaces based on the principles of the present invention.
Category: Classical Physics

[14969] viXra:1607.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-21 14:54:41

Analysis of Sunflower Data from a Multi-Attribute Genotype ×environment Trial in Brazil

Authors: Marisol García-Peña, Sergio Arciniegas-Alarcón, Kaye Basford, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos Dias
Comments: 13 Pages.

In multi-environment trials it is common to measure several response variables or attributes to determine the genotypes with the best characteristics. Thus it is important to have techniques to analyse multivariate multi-environment trial data. The main objective is to complement the literature on two multivariate techniques, the mixture maximum likelihood method of clustering and three-mode principal component analysis, used to analyse genotypes, environments and attributes simultaneously. In this way, both global and detailed statements about the performance of the genotypes can be made, highlighting the benefit of using three-way data in a direct way and providing an alternative analysis for researchers. We illustrate using sunflower data with twenty genotypes, eight environments and three attributes. The procedures provide an analytical procedure which is relatively easy to apply and interpret in order to describe the patterns of performance and associations in multivariate multi-environment trials.
Category: Statistics

[14968] viXra:1607.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-21 07:21:58

LUX Dark Matter Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

The LUX Dark Matter Experiment operates a mile underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. It's location helps shield the detector from background radiation that could confound a dark matter signal. [18] To address this problem, physicists are working on developing ever more sensitive dark matter detectors. In a new paper, researchers have proposed a new type of dark matter detector made of superconductors—materials that conduct electricity with zero resistance at ultracold temperatures—that may offer the highest sensitivity yet for detecting "superlight" dark matter. Superlight dark matter has a mass at the low end of the range of 1 keV (1000 electron volts) to 10 GeV, or in other words, up to a million times lighter than the proton. [17] Physicists believe that such dark matter is composed of (as yet undefined) elementary particles that stick together thanks to gravitational force. In a study recently published in EPJ C, scientists from the CRESST-II research project use the so-called phonon-light technique to detect dark matter. [16] A team of researchers at MIT has succeeded in creating a double film coating that is able to convert infrared light at modest intensities into visible light. In their paper published in the journal Nature Photonics, the team describes their film, how well it works and the possible uses for it. [15] Before the Hawaii-bound storm Julio strengthened into a hurricane, a NASA satellite spotted a high-energy flash of "dark lightning" coming from the swirling clouds. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[14967] viXra:1607.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-21 10:02:22

The Evolution of the System of Gravitating Bodies

Authors: Kiryan D.G., Kiryan G.V.
Comments: 20 Pages. Russian

A natural physical approach to the analysis of the structure of closed gravitating systems has been formulated in the scope of classical mechanics. The approach is based on the interrelation between the densities of a sequence of nested spheres inscribed in the circular orbits of the system bodies. An empirical law has been defined for the evolution of closed gravitating systems differing in mass, size and distance from the Observer. Each gravitating system undergoes modifications and evolves from its initial state, namely, a kind of a gas-dust formation almost constant in density over the entire volume, to a certain nearly terminating phase of the process when the system structure becomes similar to that of a planetary one (like the Solar system) where almost all the gravitating mass is concentrated in the vicinity of the center of gravity. Using the proposed method of nested spheres, it is possible to reveal in the gravitating system rotation plane the character of the matter density radial distribution, quantitatively evaluate the density of medium where the gravitating system under consideration is located, and assess the current phase of the system evolution. The research results have led us to a conclusion that introduction into the scientific practice of such an entity as "dark matter" has no physical background since it is based on a wrong interpretation of an unordinary distribution of star orbital velocities in galaxies.
Category: Classical Physics

[14966] viXra:1607.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-21 04:30:38

Quantized Spin Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

In a new study, University of Iowa theoretical physicist Michael Flatté proposes that a magnetic current flowing through a magnetic iron sheet will cause a current in a second, nearby magnetic iron sheet, even though the sheets aren't connected. The movement is created, Flatté and his team say, when electrons whose magnetic spin is disturbed by the current on the first sheet exert a force, through electromagnetic radiation, to create magnetic spin in the second sheet. [13] In the pursuit of material platforms for the next generation of electronics, scientists are studying new compounds such as topological insulators (TIs), which support protected electron states on the surfaces of crystals that silicon-based technologies cannot. Dramatic new physical phenomena are being realized by combining this field of TIs with the subfield of spin-based electronics known as spintronics. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14965] viXra:1607.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 20:06:27

Why do We Live in a Quantum World?

Authors: Craig Alan Feinstein
Comments: 2 Pages.

Anybody who has ever studied quantum mechanics knows that it is a very counter-intuitive theory, even though it has been an incredibly successful theory. This paper aims to remove this counter-intuitiveness by showing that the laws of quantum mechanics are a natural consequence of Konrad Zuse's and Edward Fredkin's digital universe hypothesis combined with classical Newtonian mechanics. We also present a possible way to test the digital universe hypothesis.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14964] viXra:1607.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 23:18:00

Bio-field Treatment: An Effective Strategy to Improve the Quality of Beef Extract and Meat Infusion Powder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 8 Pages.

The present research work investigated the influence of bio-field treatment on two common flavoring agents used in food industries namely beef extract powder (BEP) and meat infusion powder (MIP). The treated powders were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analysis, surface area analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The FT-IR results showed disappearance of triglycerides peaks in both the treated powders as compared to control. XRD results corroborated the amorphous nature of both control and treated samples. The BEP showed enhanced average particle size (d50) and d99 (size exhibited by 99% of powder particles) by 5.7% and 16.1%, respectively as compared to control. Contrarily, the MIP showed a decreased particle size (d50; 0.4% and d99; 18.1%) as compared to control. It was assumed that enormous energy was stored in MIP after bio-field treatment that led to fracture into smaller particles. The surface area was increased in both the treated powders. DSC result showed significant increase in melting temperature, in BEP and MIP, which indicated the higher thermal stability of the samples. However, the specific heat capacity (∆H) was decreased in both samples, which was probably due to high energy state of the powders.
Category: Chemistry

[14963] viXra:1607.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 23:20:06

Evaluation of the Impact of Biofield Treatment on Physical and Thermal Properties of Casein Enzyme Hydrolysate and Casein Yeast Peptone

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 7 Pages.

In the present study, the influence of biofield treatment on physical and thermal properties of Casein Enzyme Hydrolysate (CEH) and Casein Yeast Peptone (CYP) were investigated. The control and treated samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), particle size and surface area analysis. The FTIR results revealed that biofield treatment has caused reduction of amide group (amide-I and amide-II) stretching vibration peak that is associated with strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding in treated CEH as compared to control. However, no significant changes were observed in FTIR spectrum of treated CYP. The TGA analysis of treated CEH showed a substantial improvement in thermal stability which was confirmed by increase in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (217° C) as compared to control (209° C). Similarly, the treated CYP also showed enhanced thermal stability as compared to control. DSC showed increase in melting temperature of treated CYP as compared to control. However the melting peak was absent in DSC of treated CEH which was probably due to rigid chain of the protein. The surface area of treated CEH was increased by 83% as compared to control. However, a decrease (7.3%) in surface area was observed in treated CYP. The particle size analysis of treated CEH showed a significant increase in average particle size (d50) and d99 value (maximum particle size below which 99% of particles are present) as compared to control sample. Similarly, the treated CYP also showed a substantial increase in d50 and d99 values which was probably due to the agglomeration of the particles which led to formation of bigger microparticles. The result showed that the biofield treated CEH and CYP could be used as a matrix for pharmaceutical applications.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[14962] viXra:1607.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-21 01:08:44

Using a Multiverse Version of Penrose Cyclic Conformal Cosmology to Obtain Ergodic Mixing Averaging of Cosmological Information Transfer to Fix H Bar (PLANCK’S Constant) in Each New Universe Created During Recycling of Universes Due to CCC , Multivers

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 6 Pages.

What we are doing is to use a generalization of the Penrose Cyclic conformal cosmology in order to argue for ergodic mixing of cosmological “information”, from cycle to cycle. While there would be a causal discontinuity, as is by example explained, in terms of breaking down of individual “particles” from cycle to cycle, there would be (analogous to a seed setting of pseudo-randomization of Fortran) informational ‘bits’ transferred, as far as mixing of ‘information’ collected from cycle to cycle, from N number of contributing universes via modified CCC, so as to create a uniform value of H bar (Planck’s constant) from cycle to cycle. Moreover this would do away with the “baby universes” Darwinian hypothesis, set up by String theorists whom postulate that up to 10^1000 or so universes would be created, with only say 10^10 or so surviving(most dying off because of “improperly” set variance in the values of H bar ( Planck’s constant). I.e. the laws of physics would not be different from universe to universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14961] viXra:1607.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 15:09:39

Coordinate Systems Larger Than Four Dimensions

Authors: Jerry L. Decker
Comments: 5 Pages. Eliminating transformations space like and time like at high speed

A method was found for constructing coordinate systems larger than four dimensions. Velocity vectors and base units were used to define a reference frame by attaching a clock to each of the velocity components. Additional meters were also attached to velocity components. All of the resulting systems can be physically constructed and tested.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[14960] viXra:1607.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 11:05:30

Molecule Quantum Simulation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

First completely scalable quantum simulation of a molecule. [15] Quantum photonic researchers start new company, Sparrow Quantum. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14959] viXra:1607.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 11:30:27

Magnetized Target Fusion Using High Speed Pellets

Authors: Colin Bruce Jack
Comments: 12 Pages.

There is a way to perform inertial confinement fusion which avoids the usual need for either a sacrificial assembly of significant cost, or control of complex plasma behaviour.

Ultraspeed charged pellets have been fired at 100 km/s from modified particle accelerators for decades, and Winterberg suggested their use for inertial confinement fusion, also decades ago. The show-stopper has been the impossibility of bringing charged pellets to a true focus using predetermined electric or magnetic fields, a consequence of Earnshaw’s theorem. I have invented a technique for achieving such focusing, by measuring and adjusting the trajectories of individual pellets. Precise focus can then be achieved at any range. A series of pellets fired at successively increasing speeds from a linear accelerator some distance from a target can catch up en route to arrive together. Thus an accelerator of relatively modest power can deliver an intense input to a compact volume.

Slutz et al. have shown that high gain magneto-inertial fusion can be performed using implosion speed as low as 130 km/s. They propose Z-pinch with a magnetized liner, plus a laser pulse to preheat a central portion of the fuel. However disadvantages of this method include:

•Peak input power ~1 PW: high capital cost

•Sacrificial capsule with low impedance wires for ~60 MA input current pulse is difficult and costly to recycle: high ‘kopeck’ cost

Identical fusion conditions can be created using instead pellets fired in at high speed. This method has the advantages:

•Peak input power ~20 GW at a few MHz, provided by commercially available RF MOSFETs

•No central sacrificial capsule or wires needed; the pellets are cheap to make

This paper describes an appropriate design. The detonation can take place completely surrounded by lithium. Most of the energy produced can be directly converted to electricity by MHD.


Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[14958] viXra:1607.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 11:59:45

Interesting Facts Concerning Prime Products and Their Relationship to Lorentz-Like Transformations

Authors: Peter Bissonnet
Comments: 10 Pages.

Prime products are analyzed from various points of view, with an emphasis on graphical representation and analysis. A prime product N is determined to have two integer coordinates D and m. These coordinates are related to the solutions of a parabola, as well as to right triangles, in what the author calls a ‘backbone - rib’ representation. A prime number or a prime product fall on three dimensional helices, which can be represented in two dimensions as sets of parallel lines. If a prime or a prime product can be represented by 6s - 1, then helix 1 or H1 is designated; if a prime or a prime product can be represented by 6s + 1, then helix 2 or H2 is designated. The integer s is really a composite number, which can be represented as s = r + n, where r is the row number and n is the grouping number called the complex number, both determined from the two dimensional representation of the double helices. It is also discovered that, due to the mathematical form relating N to D and m, that there must be Lorentz - like transformations between N, D, and m and a new set Nʹ, Dʹ and mʹ; however, the concept of velocity and the speed of light seem out of place in this instance. Nevertheless, the question is asked as to whether or not prime products can be considered to be away to unite relativity and quantum mechanics, which also depends upon integers in a large measure.
Category: Number Theory

[14957] viXra:1607.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 07:14:25

Plant-Microbial Fuel cell

Authors: Taha Abdelsallm Ashraf, Ayman Sayed Abdulrahman
Comments: 19 Pages.

Once an exporter of oil and gas, Egypt is now struggling to meet its own needs. The growth in energy consumption is a response to the country’s economic expansion, industrialization, and change in people’s lifestyle. Although all energy forms have been subjected to high growth, electricity consumption has increased substantially causing serious concerns over the power sector’s fuel mix, heavier reliance on fuel oil, and an unaffordable burden on the government budget. As a result, the government is determined to diversify the energy mix and to improve the efficiency of electricity consumption. It has also recognized that energy diversification and efficiency can impart other benefits such as cleaner environment, transfer of advanced technologies, and possible new areas of manufacturing and services. So the solution for this problem must be efficient, economic, sustainable and eco-friendly to overcome most of the troubles facing Egypt in this field. “Plant microbial fuel cell” is believed to be the ideal solution for the energy issue that can fit the previously mentioned requirements so we develop the anode and the cathode in the MFC and we found new material for making the proton exchange membrane which is “Nylon” so we made prototype for this idea and to make test plan on it to know its efficiency and its cost. And we get better results than we expected.
Category: Biochemistry

[14956] viXra:1607.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 07:59:33

The Dual Nature of Bekenstein-Hawking Entropy

Authors: Bernard Riley
Comments: 8 Pages.

If the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of a black hole is expressed as Bekenstein’s area quantum 8pi multiplied by a power of 2, then exponents of 2 that are multiples of precisely 50 are found for particular black holes of well-defined mass, and for the Hubble sphere. Motivated by T-duality, the analysis is extended to particles. Exponents calculated for the particles of the Standard Model lie in symmetric arrangement about the number 125, which is the exponent found for the lightest tensor mesons. Exponents that are multiples or simple binary (improper) fractions of 25 are favoured.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14955] viXra:1607.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 09:32:40

Topology and Spin

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

In the pursuit of material platforms for the next generation of electronics, scientists are studying new compounds such as topological insulators (TIs), which support protected electron states on the surfaces of crystals that silicon-based technologies cannot. Dramatic new physical phenomena are being realized by combining this field of TIs with the subfield of spin-based electronics known as spintronics. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[14954] viXra:1607.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 09:49:33

Gravitational Wave Miracles?

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 2 Pages. Comments welcome

The idea of ‘gravitational wave’ (GW), suggested by Albert Einstein in 1916, still poses a number of unsolved questions, which have to be resolved by the theoretical physics community as soon as possible.
Category: Astrophysics

[14953] viXra:1607.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 06:33:28

Axion-Higgs 3-Dimensional Rigid Transformable Strings and the Compound 650 Gev Z-Z Decay Into Quarks/leptoquarks According to the Quantum FFF Model.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 24 Pages. 24

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the FORM and structure of elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles. The model which is the result is called “Quantum Function Follows Form” model. As a consequence, the standard model should be extended with changes for an alternative black hole , quantum gravity, the mass related local lightspeed, a topological superconductive vacuum etc. In this paper I present possible 3D particle solutions based on only one complex 3-D ring shaped Axion-Higgs particle, which is equipped with three point like hinges and one splitting point, all four points divided equally over the ring surface. The 3-D ring itself is postulated to represent the “Virgin Mother” of all other particles and is coined Axion-Higgs particle, the ring is equipped with 3-hinges coded (OOO), which gives the particle the opportunity to transform after some sort of mechanical collision with other particles into a different shape, with a different function and interlocking abilities with other particles. Thus in this Quantum Function Follows Form theory, the Axion-Higgs vacuum particle is interpreted as a massless transformer string particle able to create the universe by transforming its shape after real mechanical collision and merging with other shaped particles into complex and compound knots like quarks, W Z particles and even ball lightning black hole nuclei..
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14952] viXra:1607.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 03:04:23

Quantum Neutrino Oscillation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn’t be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we’re starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[14951] viXra:1607.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-19 18:32:01

Explanatory Theory of Physics: The Grand Unification Scheme

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

Why did unification work better with the Super-Yang Mills Gauge Analog than any other unification attempts?
Category: Mathematical Physics

[14950] viXra:1607.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-19 23:11:49

Dark Matter, the Correction to Newton's Law in a Disk

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 8 Pages.

The dark matter problem refers to the discrepancy between the galactic mass estimated from luminosity measurements of galaxies with a given mass-to-luminosity ratio and the galactic mass measured from the rotational speed of stars using the Newton’s law. Newton’s law fails when applied to a star in a spiral galaxy. The problem stems from the fact that Newton’s law is applicable to masses represented as points by their barycenter. As galactic spirals have shapes similar to a disk, we shall correct Newton’s law accordingly. We found that the Newton’s force exerted by the interior mass of a disk on an adjacent mass shall be multiplied by the coefficient η_disk estimated to be 7.44±0.83 at a 99% confidence level. The corrective coefficient for the gravitational force exerted by a homogeneous sphere at it’s surface is 1.00±0.01 at a 99% confidence level, meaning that Newton’s law is not modified for a spherical geometry. This result was proved long time ago by Newton in the shell theorem.
Category: Astrophysics

[14949] viXra:1607.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-19 23:09:36

Spectroscopic Characterization of Disulfiram and Nicotinic Acid After Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Disulfiram is being used clinically as an aid in chronic alcoholism, while nicotinic acid is one of a B-complex vitamin that has cholesterol lowering activity. The aim of present study was to investigate the impact of biofield treatment on spectral properties of disulfiram and nicotinic acid. The study was performed in two groups i.e., control and treatment of each drug. The treatment groups were received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, spectral properties of control and treated groups of both drugs were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopic techniques. FT-IR spectrum of biofield treated disulfiram showed the shifting in wavenumber of C-H stretching from 1496 to 1506 cm-1 and C-N stretching from 1062 to 1056 cm-1. The intensity of S-S dihedral bending peaks (665 and 553 cm-1) was also increased in biofield treated disulfiram sample, as compared to control. FT-IR spectra of biofield treated nicotinic acid showed the shifting in wavenumber of C-H stretching from 3071 to 3081 cm-1 and 2808 to 2818 cm-1. Likewise, C=C stretching peak was shifted to higher frequency region from 1696 cm-1 to 1703 cm-1 and C-O (COO- ) stretching peak was shifted to lower frequency region from 1186 to 1180 cm-1 in treated nicotinic acid. UV spectrum of control and biofield treated disulfiram showed similar pattern of UV spectra. Whereas, the UV spectrum of biofield treated nicotinic acid exhibited the shifting of absorption maxima (λmax) with respect of control i.e., from 268.4 to 262.0 nm, 262.5 to 256.4, 257.5 to 245.6, and 212.0 to 222.4 nm. Over all, the FT-IR and UV spectroscopy results suggest an impact of biofield treatment on the force constant, bond strength, and dipole moments of treated drugs such as disulfiram and nicotinic acid that could led to change in their chemical stability as compared to control.
Category: Chemistry

[14948] viXra:1607.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-19 23:11:05

Characterization of Physical and Thermal Properties of Biofield Treated Neopentyl Glycol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Neopentyl glycol (NPG) has been extensively used as solid-solid phase change materials (PCMs) for thermal energy storage applications. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, spectral and thermal properties of NPG. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and treatment group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. The control and treated NPG were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. XRD study revealed the decrease in crystallite size of treated NPG by 21.97% as compared to control sample. DSC studies showed slight change in melting temperature of treated NPG as compared to control sample. TGA analysis showed 55.66% weight loss in control NPG however, the treated sample showed reduction in weight loss (44.81%). Additionally, the maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of treated NPG (160.40°C) was minimally increased with respect to control sample (159.72°C). This can be inferred as good thermal stability of biofield treated NPG with respect to control. FT-IR spectroscopy showed no structural changes in treated NPG with respect to control sample. The overall results showed that biofield treatment has affected the physical and thermal properties of treated NPG. Moreover, good thermal stability of treated NPG showed that it could be used as phase change materials for thermal energy storage applications.
Category: Chemistry

[14947] viXra:1607.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-19 13:33:34

Quantum Holography

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19] A combined team of researchers from Columbia University in the U.S. and the University of Warsaw in Poland has found that there appear to be flaws in traditional theory that describe how photodissociation works. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14946] viXra:1607.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-19 15:02:18

Using Geometry to Make Stellar Discovery

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 3 illustrations

It is shown that simple geometry could have been used to make the discovery that planet formation is stellar evolution.
Category: Geometry

[14945] viXra:1607.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-19 10:40:13

The Rydberg Formula and Rydberg Series

Authors: Norman Graves
Comments: 7 Pages.

Consideration of the Rydberg Series leads to a model for the hydrogen atom in which the variable of quantisation is the Lorentz factor, Gamma, and not angular momentum as postulated by Niels Bohr and integral to current theories. This is consistent with an atom in which the electron is seen as an objectively real particle having deterministic position and velocity. The electron is seen to orbit at a constant radius irrespective of the energy state of the atom and so there is no change in potential energy between energy states. All of the energy changes are therefore kinetic in nature. The model also provides a simple physical explanation of the hitherto mysterious Fine Structure Constant.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14944] viXra:1607.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-19 09:13:05

The Number Phi and the Numbers Pi, ln 2 , G , Zeta(k),k=1,2,3,...

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this note we show series for the numbers: pi,ln 2,G,zeta(k),k=1,2,3,..., In this series appears the number phi.
Category: General Mathematics

[14943] viXra:1607.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-19 09:16:00

Some Results on pi Formulas

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 21 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas for the number pi
Category: General Mathematics

[14942] viXra:1607.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-19 04:22:35

Visualizing the Event Horizon of a Black Hole

Authors: Stefano Sello
Comments: 5 Pages. Research Note nr.RIC-MPM-160708

The “Event Horizon Telescope”, EHT, is a radio-telescope planetary network, and its goal is to reach a sufficiently high spatial resolution to obtain real images of Sgr A*, a supermassive black hole located at the core of our galaxy. Waiting for real observational data, now we can analyze predicted EHT data obtained from a simulations to "see" the event horizon and the neighborhood of Sgr A*. In this brief research note we suggest a method to improve the capabilities of our current image analyses, using a proper isometric pesudo-3D projection analysis. In fact, the details obtained are impressive and this first result suggests that the pseudo-3D isometric projection analysis could be a useful tool to better study the main properties of the surroundings of the event horizon of a black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[14941] viXra:1607.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 16:48:12

Deducing Special Relativity from Newtonian Physics

Authors: GNNMartin
Comments: 6 Pages.

Explanations of the special theory of relativity usually start from an assumption that the speed of light is a constant for all observers, and use that to work out the Lorentz transform. I show that it is not necessary to make any assumption about the speed of light. This is useful because that assumption sometimes misleads people. If they have difficulty accepting the predictions of the special theory, they are tempted to doubt that the speed of light is always constant, and to conclude that we just haven’t tried hard enough to find the exceptions. And if we assume that the theory of relativity depends on the constancy of the speed of light, then it invites speculation about what would happen if the speed of light changed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14940] viXra:1607.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 19:09:24

A Unified Phenomenological Description for the Origin of Mass for Leptons and for the Complete Baryon Octet, Including the Reported Inverse Dependence Upon the Alpha Constant

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: 8 Pages.

Several authors have reported the dependence of the rest masses of particles upon the inverse of the alpha constant. Barut was able to associate such behavior with magnetic selfenergy effects in the case of leptons. The present author has taken account of such magnetic energy effects phenomenologically, in a way similar to Post´s , many years ago. This paper presents the extension of the approach to the full baryon octet, and the inverse dependence with alpha is obtained. The masses of all these particles are shown to be described in terms of magnetodynamic energies considering as a fundamental feature the quantization of magnetic flux inside a zitterbewegung motion “ orbit” performed by each particle in consequence of its interaction with the vacuum background.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[14939] viXra:1607.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 23:20:09

Evaluation of Phenotyping and Genotyping Characteristic of Shigella Sonnei After Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Shigella sonnei (S. sonnei) is a non-motile, rod shape, clinically significant, Gram-negative bacterium. It is commonly associated with dysentery (shigellosis). Recently, resistance to third and fourth generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones has been reported in S. sonnei. In the present study, we assessed the effect of biofield treatment on phenotyping and genotyping characteristic of S. sonnei (ATCC 9290). The lyophilized samples of S. sonnei were divided in three groups (G): G-I (control, revived), G-II (treatment, revived), and G-III (treatment, lyophilized). All these groups (control and biofield treated) were analyzed against antimicrobial susceptibility, biochemical reactions, and biotype number. The 16S rDNA sequencing was carried out to establish the phylogenetic relationship of S. sonnei with different bacterial species. The treated cells of S. sonnei exhibited an alteration of 3.33%, 10%, and 23.33% of total 30 tested antimicrobials in susceptibility assay for G-II on day 5 and 10 and G-III on day 10, respectively as compared to control. The treated cells of S. sonnei showed a significant change of about 12.12%, 12.12%, and 57.58% biochemical reactions out of 33 tests in treated groups of G-II on day 5 and 10 and G-III on day 10, respectively. The biotype number was also changed in treated samples of S. sonnei. Based on nucleotide homology sequences and phylogenetic analysis, the nearest homolog species of S. sonnei (GenBank Accession Number: EU009190) was identified as Shigella flexneri (EF643608). These results revealed that biofield treatment can prevent the absolute resistance in microbe against the existing antimicrobials.
Category: Mind Science

[14938] viXra:1607.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 23:22:15

Bio-field Treatment: A Potential Strategy for Modification of Physical and Thermal Properties of Gluten Hydrolysate and Ipomoea Macroelements

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

The objective of present study was to study the effect of biofield treatment on physical and thermal properties of gluten hydrolysate (GH) and ipomoea macroelements (IM). The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treated group. The control and treated GH and IM were characterized by particle size analysis, surface area analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Particle size results of treated GH showed that d50 (average particle size) was decreased by 3.15% and d99 (size exhibited by 99% of powder particles) by 18.40% as compared to control GH sample. The treated IM also showed substantial reduction in average particle size d50 by 4.70% and d99 by 44.40% as compared to control sample. BET analysis showed significant increase in surface area of treated GH by 374.40 % as compared to control sample. However, the treated IM showed reduction in surface area by 14.30% as compared to control sample. XRD data suggested that both control and treated GH samples were amorphous in nature. Contrarily, the treated IM sample showed intense crystalline nature; though minimal decrease was observed in crystallinity as compared to control. DSC data showed increase in melting temperature of the treated GH as compared to control which can be correlated to alteration in kinetic energy of sample. Additionally, the DSC of treated IM also showed increase in melting temperature as compared to control IM. A significant increase in latent heat of fusion (∆H) was observed in treated GH by 302.55% with respect to control. Similarly, the treated IM showed 24.87% increase in latent heat of fusion as compared to control. TGA data showed higher thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of treated GH as compared to control. However, treated IM showed that Tmax was decreased as compared to control sample. These results suggested that biofield treatment has substantially changed the physical and thermal properties of the treated organic products (GH and IM).
Category: Mind Science

[14937] viXra:1607.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 13:58:50

Proof Bill Hypothesis a Consequence of the Properties of Invariant Identity of a Certain Type (Elementary Aspect)

Authors: Reuven Tint
Comments: 13 Pages. Original written in Russian

A variant of the solution with the help of Bill hypothesis direct evidence "Great" Fermat's theorem elementary methods rows. New are "invariant identity" (keyword) and obtained by us in the text, the identity of the work, which allowed directly to solve the FLT, and several others.
Category: Number Theory

[14936] viXra:1607.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 15:28:12

On Finding All Solutions to the Goldbach Probem for 2N

Authors: Matilda Walter
Comments: 2 Pages.

We present a simple sieve algorithm for finding all existing solutions to the binary Goldbach problem for a given even number 2N > 4.
Category: Number Theory

[14935] viXra:1607.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 11:25:48

Black Holes as Gates of Upper Universe for our Soul after the Death

Authors: Ali Soheilbeigi Bazgir
Comments: 10 Pages.

This is the main issue of the present theory to relate the death of a human body to the so-called black holes. In this theory it is assumed that black holes are the gates to the upper universe, having tunnel-like path in singularity region,R_sc і, of imaginary or extra dimension. As a consequence of equation of motion for the Soul (the quantum end state of human’s body) in non-physical dimension of space-time, each individual’s Soul must cross through its specific black hole with imaginary singularity-radius of 2GMі/(c^2⁄α^(2D-8) ) when it leaves the physical body. Overall, the main objective of this article is to derive new equation for Black Hole’s singularity in which an individual Soul crosses through so tiny white tunnel, which is hidden into black hole’s singularity, to enter into other world.
Category: Astrophysics

[14934] viXra:1607.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 11:32:20

Theoretical Concepts for the Certainty of the Determinism in the Abnormal Phenomenon and Certainty of the Arbitrament

Authors: Ali Soheilbeigi Bazgir
Comments: 11 Pages.

In quantum mechanics an uncertainty principle asserts that one cannot make certain of the position and velocity of an electron (or any particle) at the same time. That is, increasing the knowledge of particle decreases the knowledge of the velocity or momentum of an electron [1]. Furthermore, a particle can never be at rest, but it is subject to constant fluctuations even when no measurement is taken place, these fluctuations are assumed to have cause. According to new theory, God (independent of space-time) is assumed to be the cause of constant fluctuations in the end quantum state. The main objective of this paper is to derive an equation for abnormal phenomena (miracle) and arbitrament of human’s destiny called Certainty Theory. It has been assumed that not measuring of a particle’s position and momentum simultaneously with equal precision is due to the fact that the end quantum state of particle is imaginary and non-physical so the standard deviation , ħі/(2α^(D-4) ) , must be smaller than the certain value of product of position and momentum.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14933] viXra:1607.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:10:10

Lucas’s Inner Circles

Authors: Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this article, we define the Lucas’s inner circles and we highlight some of their properties.
Category: Geometry

[14932] viXra:1607.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 07:11:14

Magic Squares

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

We present here the magic square of order n.
Category: Geometry

Replacements of recent Submissions

[6747] viXra:1607.0377 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-22 08:32:13

Gravitational Wave Miracles?

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 2 Pages. One reference added and text expanded.

The idea of gravitational wave (GW), suggested by Albert Einstein in 1916, still poses outstanding challenges, which have to be resolved by the theoretical physics community as soon as possible.
Category: Astrophysics

[6746] viXra:1607.0377 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-21 10:39:34

Gravitational Wave Miracles?

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 2 Pages. Two references added and typos corrected.

The idea of ‘gravitational wave’ (GW), suggested by Albert Einstein in 1916, still poses a number of unsolved questions, which have to be resolved by the theoretical physics community as soon as possible.
Category: Astrophysics

[6745] viXra:1607.0376 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-21 02:31:35

Axion-Higgs 3-Dimensional Rigid Transformable Strings and the Compound 650 GeV Z-Z Decay into Quarks/Leptoquarks.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 28 Pages. 28

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the FORM and structure of elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles. The model which is the result is called “Quantum Function Follows Form” model. As a consequence, the standard model should be extended with changes for an alternative black hole , quantum gravity, the mass related local lightspeed, a topological superconductive vacuum etc. In this paper I present possible 3D particle solutions based on only one complex 3-D ring shaped Axion-Higgs particle, which is equipped with three point like hinges and one splitting point, all four points divided equally over the ring surface. The 3-D ring itself is postulated to represent the “Virgin Mother” of all other particles and is coined Axion-Higgs particle, the ring is equipped with 3-hinges coded (OOO), which gives the particle the opportunity to transform after some sort of mechanical collision with other particles into a different shape, with a different function and interlocking abilities with other particles. Thus in this Quantum Function Follows Form theory, the Axion-Higgs vacuum particle is interpreted as a massless transformer string particle able to create the universe by transforming its shape after real mechanical collision and merging with other shaped particles into complex and compound knots like quarks, W Z particles and even ball lightning black hole nuclei.. Introduction,
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6744] viXra:1607.0373 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-23 11:08:11

Dark Matter, the Correction to Newton's Law in a Disk

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 8 Pages.

The dark matter problem in the context of spiral galaxies refers to the discrepancy between the galactic mass estimated from luminosity measurements of galaxies with a given mass-to-luminosity ratio and the galactic mass measured from the rotational speed of stars using the Newton’s law. Newton’s law fails when applied to a star in a spiral galaxy. The problem stems from the fact that Newton’s law is applicable to masses represented as points by their barycenter. As galactic spirals have shapes similar to a disk, we shall correct Newton’s law accordingly. We found that the Newton’s force exerted by the interior mass of a disk on an adjacent mass shall be multiplied by the coefficient η_disk estimated to be 7.44±0.83 at a 99% confidence level. The corrective coefficient for the gravitational force exerted by a homogeneous sphere at it’s surface is 1.00±0.01 at a 99% confidence level, meaning that Newton’s law is not modified for a spherical geometry. This result was proven a long time ago by Newton in the shell theorem.
Category: Astrophysics

[6743] viXra:1607.0365 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-21 04:20:06

Visualizing the Event Horizon of a Black Hole

Authors: Stefano Sello
Comments: 5 Pages.

The “Event Horizon Telescope”, EHT, is a radio-telescope planetary network, and its goal is to reach a sufficiently high spatial resolution to obtain real images of Sgr A*, a supermassive black hole located at the core of our galaxy. Waiting for real observational data, now we can analyze predicted EHT data obtained from a simulations to "see" the event horizon and the neighborhood of Sgr A*. In this brief research note we suggest a method to improve the capabilities of our current image analyses, using a proper isometric pesudo-3D projection analysis. In fact, the details obtained are impressive and this first result suggests that the pseudo-3D isometric projection analysis could be a useful tool to better study the main properties of the surroundings of the event horizon of a black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[6742] viXra:1607.0365 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-19 09:11:02

Visualizing the Event Horizon of a Black Hole

Authors: Stefano Sello
Comments: 5 Pages.

The “Event Horizon Telescope”, EHT, is a radio-telescope planetary network, and its goal is to reach a sufficiently high spatial resolution to obtain real images of Sgr A*, a supermassive black hole located at the core of our galaxy. Waiting for real observational data, now we can analyze predicted EHT data obtained from a simulations to "see" the event horizon and the neighborhood of Sgr A*. In this brief research note we suggest a method to improve the capabilities of our current image analyses, using a proper isometric pesudo-3D projection analysis. In fact, the details obtained are impressive and this first result suggests that the pseudo-3D isometric projection analysis could be a useful tool to better study the main properties of the surroundings of the event horizon of a black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[6741] viXra:1607.0363 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-22 08:38:16

A Unified Phenomenological Description for the Origin of Mass for Leptons and for the Complete Baryon Octet and Decuplet, Including the Reported Inverse Dependence Upon the Alpha Constant.

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: 8 pages, one figure and one table.

Several authors have reported the dependence of the rest masses of particles upon the inverse of the alpha constant. Barut was able to associate such behavior with magnetic self-energy effects in the case of leptons. The present author has taken account of magnetic energy effects phenomenologically, in a way similar to the adopted by E. Post many years ago. This paper presents the extension of the approach to the full baryon octet and decuplet, and the inverse dependence with alpha is obtained. The masses of all these particles are shown to be described in terms of magnetodynamic energies considering as a fundamental feature the quantization of magnetic flux inside a zitterbewegung motion “ orbit” performed by each particle in consequence of its interaction with the vacuum background.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[6740] viXra:1607.0359 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-20 07:41:06

On Finding All Solutions to the Goldbach Problem for 2N

Authors: Matilda Walter
Comments: 2 Pages.

We present a simple sieve algorithm for finding all existing solutions to the binary Goldbach problem for a given even number 2N > 4.
Category: Number Theory