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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[10254] viXra:1503.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-29 12:26:29

Gravitational Repulsion of Matter and Antimatter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 6 Pages.

The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the gravitational force is basically a magnetic force the matter-antimatter gravitational repulsion makes sense.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10253] viXra:1503.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-29 10:39:36

A Property of Repdigit Numbers and the Notion of cm-Integer

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I want to name generically all the numbers which are either c-primes, m-primes, cm-primes, c-composites, m-composites or cm-composites with the name “cm-integers” and to present what seems to be a special quality of repdigit numbers (it’s about the odd ones) namely that are often cm-integers.
Category: Number Theory

[10252] viXra:1503.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-29 10:50:34

Structure of Constant Current \\ Структура постоянного тока

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 12 Pages. in Russian

Consider the structure of the wire with constant current \\ Рассматривается структура постоянного тока в проводе
Category: Classical Physics

[10251] viXra:1503.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-29 04:21:22

Immunization Strategy Based on the Critical Node in Percolation Transition

Authors: Yang Liu, Bo Wei, Zhen Wang, Yong Deng
Comments: 14 Pages.

The problem of finding a better immunization strategy for controlling the spreading of the epidemic with limited resources has attracted much attention since its great theoretical significance and wide application. In this paper, we propose a novel and successful targeted immunization strategy based on percolation transition. Our strategy immunizes the fraction of critical nodes which lead to the emergence of giant connected component. To test the effectiveness of the proposed method, we conduct the experiments on several artificial networks and real-world networks. The results show that the proposed method outperforms the existing well-known methods with 18% to 50% fewer immunized nodes for same degree of immunization.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[10250] viXra:1503.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-29 04:25:04

A Bio-Inspired Immunization Strategy for Complex Networks

Authors: Yang Liu, Yong Deng, Zhen Wang
Comments: 19 Pages.

The problem of finding a better immunization strategy for controlling the spreading of the epidemic with limited resources has attracted much attention since its great theoretical significance and wide application. The traditional strategies either neglect the connection of the neighbors or require global information about the network such as degree centrality strategy, betweenness centrality strategy and closeness centrality strategy. In this paper, we propose an ameba immunization strategy which considers the relationship not only between the focal node and its neighbors but also among the neighbors of the focal node. This relationship, denoting as the ability to restrain the spreading of the focal node, indicates that how much dependence the neighbors have on the focal node. The immunized nodes of the networks are those with higher ability. To test the performance of our method, we conduct the experiments on some artificial and real-world networks, via the Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) simulation. The results show that the proposed method outperforms the existing well-known methods.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[10249] viXra:1503.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-29 04:36:43

The Stability of Linear Classes

Authors: V. Li, A. Robinson, D. Martin, Y. Gupta
Comments: 10 Pages. Submitted to Math. Lett

Let $I$ be a solvable, meager subalgebra. It has long been known that $\phi = i$ \cite{cite:0}. We show that $i \times e = \overline{-1 0}$. Recently, there has been much interest in the derivation of finitely surjective functionals. It is not yet known whether there exists a sub-essentially surjective and positive definite intrinsic category, although \cite{cite:0} does address the issue of ellipticity.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[10248] viXra:1503.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-29 05:00:36

Algebras Over Anti-Unconditionally $n$-Dimensional Monodromies

Authors: K. Bose, A. Gupta
Comments: 15 Pages. Submitted IJMTI

Suppose $O < E \left( e^{9},-\infty^{-4} \right)$. The goal of the present article is to examine co-minimal classes. We show that $| n | \ne \aleph_0$. H. Frobenius's description of trivial hulls was a milestone in discrete knot theory. The groundbreaking work of S. Zhao on pointwise open curves was a major advance.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[10247] viXra:1503.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-28 22:47:59

Sixteen Elements of the Electron in Vedic Particle Physics

Authors: John Frederick Sweeney
Comments: 10 Pages.

The electron is composed of sixteen parts, in Vedic Particle Physics, which is a notion contrary to western physics. The sixteen parts of the electron indicate that the electron pertains to the Sedenions - perhaps the Conic Sedenions or even the Twisted Octonions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[10246] viXra:1503.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-29 00:37:44

A Locally Linear Element-Wise Transformations Based Forecasting Model for Dynamic State Systems (Version2)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi, Hussain Bahia, Jeffrey Russell, Tao Han, John A. Hoopes, Roderic S. Lakes, Paul Terwilliger, Amir Assadi
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this research paper a one step (at any instant) forecasting scheme for Dymanic State Systems with large number of parameters is presented.
Category: General Mathematics

[10245] viXra:1503.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-29 03:33:20

Three Conjectures on Probably Infinite Sequences of Primes Created Through Concatenation of Primes with the Powers of 2

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I present three conjectures, i.e.: (1) For any prime p greater than or equal to 7 there exist n, a power of 2, such that, concatenating to the left p with n the number resulted is a prime (2) For any odd prime p there exist n, a power of 2, such that, subtracting one from the number resulted concatenating to the right p with n, is obtained a prime (3) For any odd prime p there exist n, a power of 2, such that, adding one to the number resulted concatenating to the right p with n, is obtained a prime.
Category: Number Theory

[10244] viXra:1503.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-28 14:41:27

The Intrinsic Magnetic Field of Magnetic Materials and Gravitomagnetization

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 5 Pages.

Magnetic materials are composed of microscopic regions called magnetic domains that act like tiny permanent magnets. Before an external magnetic field to be applied on the material, the domains' magnetic fields are oriented randomly. Most of the domains’ magnetic fields cancel each other out, and so the resultant magnetic field is very small. Here we derive the expression of this intrinsic magnetic filed, which can be used to calculate the magnitude of the Earth’s magnetic field at the center of the Earth’s inner core. In addition, it is also described a magnetization process using gravity. This is gravitational magnetization process (or gravitomagnetization process) since the magnetization is produced starting from gravity. It is absolutely new and unprecedented in the literature.
Category: Condensed Matter

[10243] viXra:1503.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-28 14:40:24

Fractal Geometry a Possible Explanation to the Accelerating Expansion of the Universe and Other Standard ΛCDM Model Anomalies

Authors: Blair D. Macdonald
Comments: 30 Pages. Please be the first to review this paper, I would very much like feedback.

One of the great questions in modern cosmology today is what is causing the accelerating expansion of the universe – the so called dark energy. It has been recently discovered this property is not unique to the universe; trees also do it and trees are fractals. Do fractals offer insight to the accelerating expansion a property of the universe and more? In this investigation a simple experiment was undertaken on the classical (Koch snowflake) fractal. It was inverted to model and record observations from within an iterating fractal set as if at a static (measured) position. New triangles sizes were held constant allowing earlier triangles in the set to expand as the set iterated. Velocities and accelerations were calculated for both the area of the total fractal, and the distance between points within the fractal set using classical kinematic equations. The inverted fractal was also tested for the Hubble's Law. It was discovered that the area(s) expanded exponentially; and as a consequence, the distances between points – from any location within the set – receded away from the observer, at exponentially increasing velocities and accelerations. The model was consistent with the standard ΛCDM model of cosmology and demonstrated: a singularity Big Bang beginning, infinite beginnings; homogeneous isotropic expansion consistent with the CMB; an expansion rate capable of explaining the early inflation epoch; Hubble's Law – with a Hubble diagram and Hubble's constant; and accelerating expansion with a ‘cosmological’ constant. It was concluded that the universe behaves as a general fractal object. Thought the findings have obvious relevance to the study of cosmology, they may also give insight into: the recently discovered accelerating growth rate of trees; the empty quantum like nature of the atom; and possibly our perception value of events with the passage of time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[10242] viXra:1503.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-28 14:50:37

Observed Galaxy Distribution Transition with Increasing Redshift a Property of the Fractal

Authors: Blair D. Macdonald
Comments: 13 Pages.

Is the universe a fractal? This is one of the great – though not often talked about – questions in cosmology. In my earlier publication where I inverted (Koch snowflake) fractal I showed the fractal demonstrated: Hubble’s Law, accelerating expansion, and a singularity beginning. Surveys of the universe – the most recent and largest, the 2012 WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey – show, galaxy distribution on small scales to be fractal, while on large-scales, homogeneity holds. There appears to be new anomaly to explain: a galaxy distribution transition from rough to smooth with cosmic distance. From my model I derived a Fractal-Hubble diagram. On this diagram, measurement points along the curve are clustered near the origin. This clustering was not addressed in discussions or part of the conclusion of my earlier experiment. Can this clustering of points account for the observed galaxy distribution transition? Could this transition be another property of fractals, and therefore could the universe – itself – be fractal? It was found, yes they do. Clustering of measurement points (and of galaxies) is as a result of observation position in the fractal. On small scales – relative to large scales – the cosmic surveys are what one would expect to see if one were viewing from within an iterating – growing – fractal. If trees – natural fractals that have also been found to grow at accelerating rates – are used to demonstrate this fractal: the large-scale smoothness maybe akin to a tree’s trunk; and the rough (fractal) on small-scales, to its branches. This discovery unifies the anomalies associated with the standard cosmological model. Together they are – through the mechanics of the fractal – inextricably linked.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[10241] viXra:1503.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-28 14:56:48

Fractal Geometry a Possible Explanation to the Accelerating Growth Rate of Trees

Authors: Blair D. Macdonald
Comments: 15 Pages.

In a recent publication it was discovered trees growth rate accelerates with age. Trees are described as being clear examples of natural fractals. Do fractals offer insight to the accelerating expansion? In this investigation the classical (Koch snowflake) fractal was inverted to model the growth of a fractals seen from a fixed – new growth – perspective. New triangle area sizes represented new branch volume; these new triangles were held constant allowing earlier triangles in the set to expand as the fractal set iterated (grew) through time. Velocities and accelerations were calculated for both the area of the total fractal, and the distance between points within the fractal set using classical kinematic equations. It was discovered that the area(s) of earlier triangles expanded exponentially, and as a consequence the total snowflake area grew exponentially. Distances between points (nodes) – from any location within the fractal set – receded away at exponentially increasing velocities and accelerations. For trees, if the new growth branch volume size remains constant through time, its supporting branches volumes will grow exponentially to support their mass. This property of fractals may account for the accelerating volumetric growth rates of trees. A trees age can be measured not only by its annual (growth ring) age, but also by its iteration age: the amount of iterations from trunk to new growth branch. Thought the findings have obvious relevance to the study of trees directly, they may also offer insight into the recently discovered observation of the accelerating growth rate of the universe.
Category: Physics of Biology

[10240] viXra:1503.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-28 15:00:22

An Explanation of the Mass Failure in the Market: the Internet – the Creator of Public Goods

Authors: Blair D. Macdonald
Comments: 4 Pages.

Based on the economic model used to classify 'goods' in an economy; private goods such as found in the entertainment/media industries, or any item on the internet subject to file sharing or digital copying in any form including – at the extreme – the human genome, solid object 3D printing, and even money in the form of bit-coins, are being slowly repositioned from what are termed 'private' or 'club'/'congestion' goods, to the extreme opposite, public goods. The ‘free rider problem’ of Public Goods has become the ‘free copy problem’. Public Goods failure in the market, and are therefore provided by Government: is this the destiny of internet goods.
Category: Economics and Finance

[10239] viXra:1503.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-28 15:32:12

The Comprehensive Split Octonions and their Fano Planes

Authors: J Gregory Moxness
Comments: 321 Pages.

For each of the 480 unique octonion Fano plane mnemonic multiplication tables, there are 7 split octonions (one for each of 7 triads in the parent octonion). This PDF is a comprehensive list of all 3840=480+3360 (octonions + split octonions), their Fano planes, and multiplication tables. They are organized in pairs of 240 parent octonions=(8-bit sign mask)*(30 canonical sets of 7 triads). The pairs of parent octonions are created by flipping (reversing) the first triad (center circular line) creating a unique Fano plane mnemonic.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[10238] viXra:1503.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-28 15:35:18

The Notions of C-Reached Prime and M-Reached Prime

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 3 Pages.

In spite the fact that I wrote seven papers on the notions (defined by myself) of c-primes, m-primes, c-composites and m-composites (see in my paper “Conjecture that states that any Carmichael number is a cm-composite” the definitions of all these notions), I haven’t thinking until now to find a connection, beside the one that defines, of course, such an odd composite n, namely that, after few iterative operations on n, is reached a prime p, between the number n and the prime p. This is what I try to do in this paper, and also to give a name to this prime p, namely, say, “reached prime”, and, in order to distinguish, because a number can be same time c-prime and m-prime, respectively c-composite and m-composite, “c-reached prime” or “m-reached prime”.
Category: Number Theory

[10237] viXra:1503.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-28 11:45:41

Simplified ToE Summary (w/124.443…GeV Higgs Mass Prediction)

Authors: J Gregory Moxness
Comments: 6 Pages.

This is a Mathematica notebook saved as PDF which theorizes a relationship between fundamental constants (c, Planck, Gravity, Hubble, FineStructure) and computes within current experimental values the values of a (Higgs) particle mass of 124.443...GeV.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10236] viXra:1503.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-28 12:23:31

A New Perspective in Thermodynamics: The Energy-Entropy Principle

Authors: Rodrigo de Abreu
Comments: 8 Pages. Técnica 2, 33-40 (1991)

In this paper, through the criticism of the paradigmatic view of thermodynamics, we aim at showing a new perspective attained in this matter. The generalization of heat as internal energy (generalization of the kinetic energy concept of heat) permits the generalization of the Kelvin postulate: "It is impossible, without another effect, to convert internal energy into work" (no reference to heat or to a heat reservoir).
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[10235] viXra:1503.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-28 13:05:45

Journée de Pi, 3/14/15 pi Day

Authors: Simon Plouffe
Comments: 30 Pages. The conference is in french

Conférence pour la journée de Pi à Marseille le 3/14/15. Conference on Pi Day of 3/14/15 in Marseille
Category: Number Theory

[10234] viXra:1503.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-28 08:41:06

Consider Uncertain Parameters based on Sensitivity Matrix

Authors: Taishan Lou
Comments: 4 Pages.

Uncertain parameters of state-space models have always been a considerable problem. Consider Kalman filter (CKF) and desensitized Kalman filter (DKF) are two methods to solve this problem. Based on the sensitivity matrix respected to the uncertain parameter vector, a special DKF with an analytical gain is given and a new form of the CKF is derived. The mathematical equivalence between the special DKF and the CKF is demonstrated when the sensitivity-weighting matrix is set to the covariance of the uncertain parameter and the problem how to select and obtain the sensitivity-weighting matrix in the DKF is solved.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[10233] viXra:1503.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-28 06:17:24

Geometry Inspired Algorithms for Linear Programming

Authors: Dhananjay P. Mehendale
Comments: 17 pages.

In this paper we discuss some novel algorithms for linear programming inspired by geometrical considerations and use simple mathematics related to finding intersections of lines and planes. All these algorithms have a common aim: they all try to approach closer and closer to “centroid” or some “centrally located interior point” for speeding up the process of reaching an optimal solution! Imagine the “line” parallel to vector C, where CTx denotes the objective function to be optimized, and further suppose that this “line” is also passing through the “point” representing optimal solution. The new algorithms that we propose in this paper essentially try to reach at some feasible interior point which is in the close vicinity of this “line”, in successive steps. When one will be able to arrive finally at a point belonging to small neighborhood of some point on this “line” then by moving from this point parallel to vector C one can reach to the point belonging to the sufficiently small neighborhood of the “point” representing optimal solution.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[10232] viXra:1503.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-27 19:39:02

Equipotency of E# with FGH_w

Authors: Sbiis Saibian
Comments: 21 Pages.

The goal in this article is to demonstrate that E# is indeed on the order of ω. Formally this means that for every member of FGH_ω there is a function in E# with at least the same growth rate, and that f_w(n) the smallest member of FGH which eventually dominates over all functions within E#. It will be demonstrated that a certain family of functions of order-type "w" in E# dominates over corresponding members in FGH_w, thus showing that for every function in FGH_w there is a function in E# which grows at least as fast. Then it will be shown how f_w(n) diagonalizes over this family of functions and must eventually dominate every member of this family.
Category: Number Theory

[10231] viXra:1503.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-27 19:59:36

Fusion D'images Par la Théorie de Dezert-Smarandache (DSmT) en Vue D'applications en Télédétection (Thèse Doctorale)

Authors: Azeddine Elhassouny
Comments: 120 Pages.

Thèse dirigée par Pr. Driss Mammass, préparée au Laboratoire Image et Reconnaissance de Formes-Systèmes Intelligents et Communicants IRF-SIC, soutenue le 22 juin 2013, Agadir, Maroc. L'objectif de cette thèse est de fournir à la télédétection des outils automatiques de la classification et de la détection des changements d'occupation du sol utiles à plusieurs fins, dans ce cadre, nous avons développé deux méthodes générales de fusion utilisées pour la classification des images et la détection des changements utilisant conjointement l'information spatiale obtenue par la classification supervisée ICM et la théorie de Dezert-Smarandache (DSmT) avec des nouvelles règles de décision pour surmonter les limites inhérentes des règles de décision existantes dans la littérature. L'ensemble des programmes de cette thèse ont été implémentés avec MATLAB et les prétraitements et visualisation des résultats ont été réalisés sous ENVI 4.0, ceci a permis d'effectuer une validation des résultats avec précision et dans des cas concrets. Les deux approches sont évaluées sur des images LANDSAT ETM+ et FORMOSAT-2 et les résultats sont prometteurs. The main objective of this thesis is to provide automatic remote sensing tools of classification and of change detection of land cover for many purposes, in this context, we have developed two general methods used for classification fusion images and change detection using joint spatial information obtained by supervised classification ICM and Dezert-Smarandache theory (DSmT) with new decision rules to overcome the limitations of decision rules existing in the literature. All programs of this thesis have been implemented in MATLAB and C language and preprocessing and visualization of results were achieved in ENVI 4.0, this has allowed for a validation of the results accurately and in concrete cases. Both approaches are evaluated on LANDSAT ETM + and FORMOSAT-2 and the results are promising.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[10230] viXra:1503.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-28 01:40:00

An Intuitive Conceptualization of n! and Its Application to Derive a Well Known Result

Authors: Prashanth R. Rao
Comments: 2 Pages.

n! is defined as the product 1.2.3………n and it popularly represents the number of ways of seating n people on n chairs. We conceptualize another way of describing n! using sequential cuts to an imaginary circle and derive the following well known result
Category: Number Theory

[10229] viXra:1503.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-28 02:39:54

Three Conjectures on Twin Primes Involving the Sum of Their Digits

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

Observing the sum of the digits of a number of twin primes, I make in this paper the following three conjectures: (1) for any m the lesser term from a pair of twin primes having as the sum of its digits an odd number there exist an infinity of lesser terms n from pairs of twin primes having as the sum of its digits an even number such that m + n + 1 is prime, (2) for any m the lesser term from a pair of twin primes having as the sum of its digits an even number there exist an infinity of lesser terms n from pairs of twin primes having as the sum of its digits an odd number such that m + n + 1 is prime and (3) if a, b, c, d are four distinct terms of the sequence of lesser from a pair of twin primes and a + b + 1 = c + d + 1 = x, then x is a semiprime, product of twin primes.
Category: Number Theory

[10228] viXra:1503.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-28 04:22:11

A Locally Linear Element-Wise Transformations Based Forecasting Model for Dynamic State Systems

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi, Hussain Bahia, Jeffrey Russell, Tao Han, John A. Hoopes, Roderic S. Lakes, Paul Terwilliger, Amir Assadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research paper a one step (at any instant) forecasting scheme for Dymanic State Systems with large number of parameters is presented.
Category: General Mathematics

[10227] viXra:1503.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-27 15:12:46

An Interesting Recurrent Sequence Whose First 150 Terms Are Either Primes, Powers of Primes or Products of Two Prime Factors

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

I started this paper in ideea to present the recurrence relation defined as follows: the first term, a(0), is 13, then the n-th term is defined as a(n) = a(n–1) + 6 if n is odd and as a(n) = a(n-1) + 24, if n is even. This recurrence formula produce an amount of primes and odd numbers having very few prime factors: the first 150 terms of the sequence produced by this formula are either primes, power of primes or products of two prime factors. But then I discovered easily formulas even more interesting, for instance a(0) = 13, a(n) = a(n–1) + 10 if n is odd and a(n) = a(n-1) + 80, if n is even (which produces 16 primes in first 20 terms!). Because what seems to matter in order to generate primes for such a recurrent defined formula a(0) = 13, a(n) = a(n–1) + x if n is odd and as a(n) = a(n-1) + y, if n is even, is that x + y to be a multiple of 30 (probably the choice of the first term doesn’t matter either but I like the number 13).
Category: Number Theory

[10226] viXra:1503.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-27 11:14:09

Two Conjectures on Squares of Primes, Involving Twin Primes and Pairs of Primes p, q, Where Q=p+4

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper I make a conjecture which states that there exist an infinity of squares of primes that can be written as p + q + 13, where p and q are twin primes, also a conjecture that there exist an infinity of squares of primes that can be written as 3*q - p - 1, where p and q are primes and q = p + 4.
Category: Number Theory

[10225] viXra:1503.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-27 11:36:38

Lifetimes of Higgs, W and Z Bosons in the Scale-Symmetric Physics

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics, we calculated the rigorous lifetimes of Higgs (H) boson, W and Z bosons expressed in yoctoseconds [ys] (yocto is the inverse of the 24 powers of ten): for H is 0.282 ys, for W is 0.438 ys whereas for Z is 0.386 ys. They are the upper limits for experimental data and it is obvious that the experimental data should be close to such limits. The decay width of H boson (about 3.4 GeV/(cc) gives 0.194 ys, the decay width of W boson (about 2.1 GeV/(cc) gives 0.316 ys whereas the decay width of Z boson (about 2.5 GeV/(cc) gives 0.264 ys. The calculated here theoretical results are consistent with experimental data. The lifetime of Higgs boson predicted within the Standard Model (SM), 0.156 zeptoseconds [zs] (zepto is the inverse of the 21 powers of ten), is inconsistent with experimental data - it suggests that SM is at least incomplete or partially incorrect. The main method to determine the lifetimes of particles follows from measurement of the decay width. But using this widely accepted method, we obtain the lifetime of the Higgs boson a factor of one thousandth of the value predicted by the Standard Model. It causes that some “scientists” try to change the widely accepted method to obtain from the experimental data the SM value. As usually, when a mainstream theory fails, to fit theoretical results to experimental data, “scientists” apply some approximations, mathematical tricks and free parameters. The truth is obvious - the experimental lifetime of the sham Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV is inconsistent with the SM prediction. Photons inside strong fields behave as gluons.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10224] viXra:1503.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-27 13:23:11

Micro-Thermonuclear Plasma Tunneling by Rock Melting

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin, Joseph Friedlander, Shmuel Neumann, Zarek Newman
Comments: 19 Pages.

Standard drilling has limits as at some depth the pressures and temperatures force the drilled opening tight when the drill is lifted.This paper proposes a reliable and rapid method of penetration of rock masses by melting all or part of the rock face and penetrate therein, cool the resulting glassy tube to be a stabilized liner. The methods proposed to heat the tip of the melting element include heat generated by a micro-thermonuclear reaction. High rates of advance are sustainable because only heat and cooling water must be advanced to the tunnel head. The equipment is simple and without need for unduly high pressure lithofracturing, and the equipment may be regularly removed and switched out to avoid time and personnel-intensive breakdowns in place. This method can achieve depths heretofore unreachable to access deep gas, oil, or to create an airtight and waterproof shaft for geothermic energy.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[10223] viXra:1503.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-27 07:24:05

Inverse (Inner) and Outer Electric Field of Electrically Charged Particles as Fourth and Fifth Space Deformation

Authors: Michael Tzoumpas
Comments: 11 Pages.

On site http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0040 it is described the first and second space deformation, while on http://viXra.org/abs/1502.0097 described the third space deformation. The fourth and fifth space deformation is a consequence of the presence of a proton and an electron in the dynamic space, after the inevitable end of the primary neutron (beta decay). So, it is caused an electrostatic induction of positive and negative units of the surrounding space and an inverse electric field of the proton (nucleus) is created, with reduction of the space cohesive pressure. The nuclear force now is interpreted as an electric force, 100 times stronger than the corresponding force of the outer electric field that extends beyond the potential barrier. The Universal and the particulate (see http://viXra.org/abs/1501.0111) antigravity force is complemented by the stronger nuclear antigravity force, since at the lower nuclear field the reduction of the cohesive pressure is rapid and contributes to the architecture of the nuclei structure. Moreover, the reduction of cohesive pressure at the lower nuclear field is the cause of the neutron mass deficit, while protons do not undergo mass deficit, as it will be described below.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10222] viXra:1503.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-27 07:30:52

The Distribution of Prime Number in a Given Interval

Authors: Jian Ye
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Goldbach theorem and the twin prime theorem are homologous.the paper from the prime origin,derived the equations of the twin prime theorem and the Goldbach theorem,and it revealed the equivalence between the Goldbach theorem and the generalized twin prime theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[10221] viXra:1503.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-27 07:37:51

Seven Conjectures on the Triplets of Primes p, q, R Where Q=p+4 and R=p+6

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper I make seven conjectures on the triplets of primes [p, q, r], where q = p + 4 and r = p + 6, conjectures involving primes, squares of primes, c-primes, m-primes, c-composites and m-composites (the last four notions are defined in previous papers, see for instance the paper “Conjecture that states that any Carmichael number is a cm-composite”.
Category: Number Theory

[10220] viXra:1503.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-27 09:13:43

Two Conjectures on Squares of Primes Involving the Sum of Consecutive Primes

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make a conjecture which states that there exist an infinity of squares of primes of the form 6*k - 1 that can be written as a sum of two consecutive primes plus one and also a conjecture that states that the sequence of the partial sums of odd primes contains an infinity of terms which are squares of primes of the form 6*k + 1.
Category: Number Theory

[10219] viXra:1503.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-27 05:31:52

Initially Problems in Observing 0S0

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 5 Pages.

Superconducting gravimeters are overloaded by strong earthquakes and stop the measurement. Here it is shown that, in the first hours after restart, most of the SG deliver erroneous data, which prevents an accurate frequency measure­ment. Avoiding this disturbed region, the frequency can be determined much more accurately than before.
Category: Geophysics

[10218] viXra:1503.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-26 19:18:30

Strong Hypothesis for Dark Matter and the Controlled Nuclear Fusion

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 4 Pages. In portuguese and english

The gravitational absorption appears to be the cause of dark matter. The Nuclear Fusion can be obtained from most highly targeted way. The LHC will not need to use much higher energies than those used to find the Higgs boson to be found "dark matter".
Category: Astrophysics

[10217] viXra:1503.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-26 23:03:36

Purely Mechanical Memristors and the Missing Memristor

Authors: Sascha Vongehr
Comments: 13 Pages. 4 figures

This work is suppressed since 2010 and led to established scientists to be banned on the arXiv. We thank viXra for making critical work like this still available to relatively uncorrupted parts of the scientific community. We define a mechanical analog to the electrical basic circuit element M = dφ/dQ, the ideal mechanical memristance M = dp/dx, p being momentum. A never before described mechanical memory resistor M(x) is independent of velocity v and has a pinched hysteretic loop that collapses at high frequency in the v versus p plot: a perfect memristor. However, its memristance does not crucially involve inert mass, and the mechanical system helps clarifying that memristor devices hypothesized on grounds of physical symmetries require more. The missing mechanical perfect memristor needs to be crucially mass-involving (MI) precisely like the 1971 implied memristor device needs magnetism. Discussing novel MI memristive systems clarifies why such perfect MI memristors and EM memristors have not been discovered and may be impossible.
Category: Classical Physics

[10216] viXra:1503.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-26 23:28:11

Energy and Forces in Economics

Authors: Wan-Jiung HU
Comments: 3 Pages.

Besides gravity model of trade, many other physic force and energy laws can be applied to explain economics phenomenon. There should be Coulomb force, magnetic force, and impelity force to explain the business activity between two nations, industries, or companies. And, energy can also be applied for the above purpose for economic activity.
Category: Economics and Finance

[10215] viXra:1503.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-26 23:31:22

Conservation of Money

Authors: Wan-Jiung Hu
Comments: 2 Pages.

Law of conservation is the key concept in physics world. We can also apply the conservation law in economics phenomenon. Here, I use the conservation of money to explain the stock market behavior. Continuity equation is provided for this model.
Category: Economics and Finance

[10214] viXra:1503.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-27 02:09:55

Lunar Drift Explains Lunar Eccentricity Rate

Authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Comments: 6 Pages. Comments Welcome.

In this short letter, we argue that the observed +38 mm/yr secular Lunar drift from the Earth does – to an admirable degree of agreement between theory and observations ; explain the observed secular increase in the Lunar eccentricity. At present, the recession of the Moon from the Earth is not any more considered as an anomaly as this is believed to be well explained by conventional physics of Lunar-Earth tides. However, the same is not true when it comes to the observed increase in the Lunar eccentricity which is considered to be an anomaly requiring an explanation as to what is the cause behind this phenomenon. We not only demonstrate an intimate connection between these two seemingly unrelated phenomenon, but show that the intimate relationship that we deduce fits so well with observations to a point that – logic dictates that, the Lunar drift must surely be the cause of the secular increase in the Lunar eccentricity.
Category: Astrophysics

[10213] viXra:1503.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-27 03:29:24

Dark Matter is Non-Interactive

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

A new study of colliding galaxy clusters has found that dark matter doesn't even interact with itself. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[10212] viXra:1503.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-27 03:58:41

Implementing an Intelligent Version of the Classical Sliding-Puzzle Game for Unix Terminals Using Golang's Concurrency Primitives

Authors: Pravendra Singh
Comments: 8 Pages.

A smarter version of the sliding-puzzle game is developed using the Go programming language. The game runs in computer system's terminals. Mainly, it was developed for UNIX-type systems but because of cross-platform compatibility of the programming language used, it works very well in nearly all the operating systems. The game uses Go's concurrency primitives to simplify most of the hefty parts of the game. Real time notification functionality is also developed using language's built-in concurrency support.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[10211] viXra:1503.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-26 11:57:31

Entangle 3000 Atoms Using a Single Photon

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[10210] viXra:1503.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-26 07:46:04

Special Relativity Replacement

Authors: Glenn A. Baxter
Comments: Eight pages

This paper details a replacement for Dr. Einstein’s theory of Special Relativity which, along with quantum theory, are pillars of 21st century physics. Special Relativity deals with light and other forms of radiation, such as radio, X, gamma, and delta radiation and the constant nature of the velocity of light as distinguished from the non constant nature of the relative velocity of light.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[10209] viXra:1503.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-26 08:11:52

Munns' Field Equations

Authors: Christina Munns
Comments: 24 Pages. All rights reserved 2013

ABSTRACT ABSTRACT This paper serves to explain how the four tensors within Einstein’s field equations (EFE) of scalar curvature, metric tensor, Ricci curvature tensor and stress-energy tensor can each be exactly correlated to the phenomena of unitary symmetry groups, quantum number, dark phenomena, 5D regular polytopes and universal number. The paper also explains how these four EFE tensors find expression in the Unified Standard Model which is the graphical depiction of Unified Field Theory. The conclusion is that the four tensors of Einstein’s field equations can now be applied to real life phenomena such as space, light, gravity and time.
Category: Quantum Physics

[10208] viXra:1503.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-26 08:24:14

How Light Bends & Curves

Authors: Christina Munns
Comments: 9 Pages. All rights reserved Copyright 2013

ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to explain the mechanism of how light both bends and curves and to discuss these findings in the light of current understanding of the properties of a gravitational field. This paper explains how gravity does not commute with the phenomenon of light since the gravitational force is a conserved vector field and is path independent. Also gravity is irrotational and thus has zero curl and so could not cause light to curve.. The essential argument of this paper is that the bending of light arises as a result of a difference in the refractive index between two identical reference frames travelling at different velocities and that the curvature of light arises as a direct result of the rotational symmetry of time which is intrinsic to the phenomenon of acceleration. Therefore the deviation of light from its path is not due to the presence of the gravitational field as expressed in Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity but is instead due to the CP violating and distorting effect of the phenomenon of time which is intrinsic to all material states.
Category: Classical Physics

[10207] viXra:1503.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-26 08:27:40

Black Holes - The Real Story

Authors: Christina Munns
Comments: 6 Pages. All rights reserved - Copyright 2013

ABSTRACT This paper addresses the properties of black holes as they relate to unitary symmetry groups. The explanation is given that black holes belong to SU(2) and that they are therefore magnetic in nature not gravitational. The nature of the Schwarzschild radius in relation to unitary symmetry is explained along with an explanation of accretion disks and why information is not actually lost in a black hole. The phenomenon of the three different types of black holes of Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordstrӧm and Kerr black holes are discussed in the light of unitary symmetry groups. The proposal that black holes operate via the process of magnetic induction is also examined.
Category: Astrophysics

[10206] viXra:1503.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-26 08:37:02

The Riemann Theory - Proof of the Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: Christina Munns
Comments: 17 Pages. All rights reserved - Copyright 2013

ABSTRACT The Riemann Hypothesis is a proposal given by Bernhard Riemann in 1859 that the non-trivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function all have real part ½ or .5. The conjecture is that all the non-trivial zeros lie along the critical line.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[10205] viXra:1503.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-26 08:44:34

On the Importance of Symmetry on the Photonic Environment

Authors: Christina Munns
Comments: 3 Pages. All rights reserved - Copyright 2014

Abstract: Consideration is given to the relevance of unitary symmetry in relation to the environment in which photonic research takes place. Both a U(1) and a SU(2) environment are considered and the results compared. It is found that there is a direct polarity between these two unitary symmetry groups with regard to both photonic behaviour and research results, such that it leads to the conclusion that environmental symmetry directly affects photonic activity and also research outcomes.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[10204] viXra:1503.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-26 06:24:19

Virtual Proper Time in the Problems of Eliminating the Infrared Catastrophe and of the Field Origin of the Electron Mass and Self-Energy in Classical Electrodynamics

Authors: Nikolai V. Volkov
Comments: 28 Pages. Keywords: Virtual proper time – Virtual scalar-electric field - Elimination of the infrared catastrophe - Field origin of the electron mass - Single-particle wave Dirac equation.

With inclusion of the virtual proper time in the metric of the physical Minkowski space we pass to the four-dimensional bimetric space-time. Now a complete description of the occurring physical processes includes both physical (observable) and virtual (unobservable) objects that enter in the physical expressions. In classical electrodynamics this conversion leads to the appearance of the virtual scalar-electric field that complements the physical electromagnetic field and is a massive in the presence of sources. This allows to eliminate the infrared catastrophe and to proof the field origin of the virtual (bare) electron mass and self-energy. With inclusion of the virtual proper time in the classical quantum theory we obtain the single-particle wave Dirac equation for which the electron wave function retains the simple probabilistic interpretation. In the single-particle Dirac theory the virtual scalar-electric field shifts the physical energy levels for the hydrogen atom in an external field and this leads to two additional amendments.
Category: Quantum Physics

[10203] viXra:1503.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-25 19:06:38

E8_Particle_Assignment_Symmetry

Authors: J Gregory Moxness
Comments: 11 Pages.

Constructing an E8 Based Standard Model (SM): An approach to a Theory of Everything (ToE)
Category: Quantum Physics

[10202] viXra:1503.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-26 02:19:25

Formulation of Porosity Calculation for Three-Dimension Granular Materials in the Case of Spherical Particles

Authors: Sparisoma Viridi, Suprijadi, Reza Rendian Septiawan
Comments: 4 pages, 4 figures, technical report

A derivation of formulation for calculating porosity of three-dimension granular materials is presented in this work, where granular particles are assumed spherical. Overlapping area problem is solved in two-dimension using geometry in two overlapping circles. The three-dimension overlap is formulated through numeric integration from the two dimension overlap.
Category: Condensed Matter

[10201] viXra:1503.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-26 05:52:13

Falsification of Einstein Theories of Relativity Second Revised Edition

Authors: Lutz Kayser
Comments: 60 Pages.

The Einstein Postulates of Special Relativity (SR), namely the invariance of the speed of light c relative to the observer, the symmetry of relative velocities, and the Galilean Principle independent of velocity and gravitational potential are falsified. The replacement Law is: There exists an absolute universal velocity reference (Cosmic Velocity Reference, CVR). The velocity of light c is invariant and isotropic only relative to absolute universal space CVR. In honor of the discoverer, we propose to call it Smoot’s Law. Experimental evidence of the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave radiation background CMB and the one-way measurements of the speed of light are given. From the new Laws it follows (in vector notation) c_(rel )=c- c_cvr . This results in the elimination from physics of the Minkowski four-vector spacetime symmetry, time dilation, length contraction, velocity and acceleration symmetrical Lorentz transformation, Einstein vector addition, covariance, invisible and unphysical net of monolithic worldlines, and other weird mathematical constructs without physical meaning resulting from Special Relativity SR and General Relativity GR. The mass increase of particles with speed by the so-called Lorentz Factor 〖ϒ=(1-v^2 /c^2 )〗^(-1/2) is so often cited by Relativists as empirical proof of SR. ϒ was fraudulently smuggled into SR without mathematical proof applying it to relative velocities which give wrong results. We show that the Lorentz Factor is a simple part of the system of classical dynamic equations and the mass-energy conservation law. But it is only valid with absolute cosmic velocity v_CVR. The increases of mass, momentum, and energy with an object’s velocity are correct but not part of or caused by SR. This is true also for the change of clock rate as a function of velocity and Newtonian gravity potential. PIPS welcomes discussions and proposals for improvement of this work for the sake of the physics community and the wider public. For the general public, we have made an effort to explain important facts in everyday examples. Periodic revisions will be published. (Second Revised Edition 3/15/2015).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[10200] viXra:1503.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-26 05:51:22

Primordial Dark Matter Black Holes Outside Galaxies Responsible for the Creation and Contraction of a Cyclic Universe?

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 21 Pages. 21

For years, Stephen Hawking (and Hartle) has been applying the No Boundary Proposal, or the idea that the universe is “closed“ and can have a beginning, and an end, however still exist forever. I will call this a closed cyclic universe and for symmetry reasons a cyclic entangled raspberry shaped multiverse based on my proposal for the Quantum Function Follows Form (FFF) model. The Form and Microstructure of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of Functional differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a new paradigm splitting, accelerating and pairing massless Dark Matter Black Hole (without Graviton production) is able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease and quark electron positron production at the black hole horizon. Secondly, a Chiral dark energy Higgs vacuum lattice, is able to explain quick Gas and Dust production without large annihilation at the black hole horizon and Galaxy- and Star formation. Even microscopic black holes like Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning seem to produce gas. However only the largest Primordial Galaxy Anchor Black Holes (GABHs) located far outside galaxies, are supposed to stop gas and dust production and by merging with other black holes they should be the ultimate origin of universal contraction into a Big Crunch and a cyclic multiverse. The Hubble redshift, in contrast with the mainstream, is supposed to originate local vacuum lattice dilution created by local dark matter black holes. All black holes eat the Higgs vacuum lattice with a local Planck length extension- as the result and the base for frequency decrease of a passing photon. As a result, GABHs are only observable by their background lensing effect and as quasi-soft x-ray sources, to be found in particular around merger galaxies, due to swirling gas and dust expelled from the galaxies.
Category: Astrophysics

[10199] viXra:1503.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-25 15:34:10

Dark Energy, Dark Matter and the Accelerating Expansion of Space

Authors: Bernard Riley
Comments: 3 Pages.

The dark energy density has been derived from the density of vacuum energy at the scale of the Bohr radius in a ten-dimensional model, and from the radius of the observable universe. The Bohr radius and the radius of the observable universe were found to be related through a 5/2 power law correspondence that applies generally between subatomic length scales and cosmological distances. It follows that dark energy is carried by ultra high frequency gravitational waves. Cosmological phase transitions of the expanding universe took place at times that correspond to specific mass, and energy, scales originating from a ten-dimensional geometry. The onset of inflation is associated with the GUT scale. Recombination has an associated particle: the electron. The accelerating expansion of space that initiated about 5 billion years ago is associated with the conjectured 7.1 keV dark matter particle, with an intriguing implication.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[10198] viXra:1503.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-25 16:21:29

Calculation of the Universe Fundamental Constants

Authors: Patrick Tonin
Comments: 8 Pages.

We show that starting with the speed of light, Phi (the golden ratio) and the ratio 8Pi-1, we can recover the Universe fundamental constants, no fudge factors are used. In some cases, extra equations for the same constant are given to show that the numbers match exactly but also to show the self-similarity of the Universe on different size scales.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10197] viXra:1503.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-25 10:29:57

18 Quark Types in Vedic Particle Physics

Authors: John Frederick Sweeney
Comments: 18 Pages.

As the author has previously written on Vixra, there are 18 types of Quarks in Vedic Particle Physics, not merely six, as described in western physics. This paper provides the sources which describe these 18 Quark types, both Vedic and western, as these 18 types of Quarks have been lingering around western science in the form of Binary Matroids – albeit the 18 irregular or Sporadic Binary Matroids.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[10196] viXra:1503.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-25 12:54:38

Petrie's Egyptian Core #7 - An Advanced Primitive Machining Explanation

Authors: Joel M WIlliams
Comments: 4 Pages.

Based on the chemistry of minerals, Petrie's "Infamous Core #7" is shown to have been produced easily by milling techniques far less advanced than those espoused to exceed modern milling technolog
Category: Archaeology

[10195] viXra:1503.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-25 09:27:27

The Composite Sham Higgs Boson with a Mass of 125 GeV in the Scale-Symmetric Physics

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Physics shows that the detected mainstream Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV is a composite particle. Due to the Mexican-hat mechanism, it consists of the confined luminal Einstein-spacetime components i.e. of the still undetected neutrino-antineutrino pairs (their gravitational mass is in an approximation the inverse of 67 powers of ten kilograms). It is not true that the mainstream sham Higgs boson can consist of more massive condensates - it follows from the fact that due to the Mexican-hat mechanism and very high dynamic pressure, all Type sham-Higgs-boson condensates have practically the same gravitational-mass density so more massive condensates have bigger radius. But the non-gravitating energy frozen in each Einstein-spacetime component is about 119 powers of ten higher than its gravitational mass. The geometric mean of the non-gravitating energy and the gravitational mass of an Einstein-spacetime component is close to the Planck mass - it solves the hierarchy problem. Here we calculated the rigorous radius of the mainstream Higgs boson and the coupling constants which follow from the Mexican-hat mechanism (i.e. from the confinement) and from the quantum entanglement. They are the fifth and sixth forces. The quantum-entanglement coupling constant depends on distance. The coupling constant for the shortest-distance quantum entanglement is about 92 powers of ten and is responsible for the very stable structure of the torus-charge inside the core of baryons - it is the reason that the core of proton is practically indestructible. On the other hand, the coupling constant responsible for the confinement is the inverse of 15 powers of ten so the condensates are the very unstable particles.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10194] viXra:1503.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-25 09:44:29

Artificial Intelligence from First Principles

Authors: Michail Zak
Comments: 21 Pages.

The objective of this paper is to relate the concept of intelligence to the first principles of physics, and, in particular, to answer the following question: can AI system composed only of physical components compete with a human? The answer is proven to be negative if the AI system is based only on simulations, and positive if digital devices are included. It has been demonstrated that in mathematical world, the bridge from matter to intelligence requires extension and modification of quantum physics. Such an extension is implemented by quantum neural nets that perform simulations combined with digital punctuations. The universality of this quantum-classical hybrid is in capability to violate the second law of thermodynamics by moving from disorder to order without external resources. This advanced capability that could be accepted as a definition of human-like intelligence is illustrated by examples.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[10193] viXra:1503.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-24 10:20:08

Is the Expansion of Universe Accelerating, or the Photons Decelerating?

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Four-page letter

Astronomical observations of cosmological red-shift are currently interpreted in terms of ‘expansion of universe’ and ‘accelerated-expansion of the universe’, at the rate of H0 c; here H0 is Hubble’s constant, and c is the speed of light. Whereas a straight forward derivation presented here suggests that: rather it is the photon which is decelerating, at the rate of H0 c. As soon as any alternative interpretation for the ‘cosmological red-shift’ is proposed, it is argued that: tired-light interpretations of cosmological red-shift’ are not compatible with the observations of ‘time-dilation of super-novae light-curves’. So in a paper titled: “Wave-theoretical insight into the relativistic ‘length-contraction’ and ‘time-dilation of super-novae light-curves’” (Tank, Hasmukh K. 2013) it has been already shown that any mechanism which can cause ‘cosmological red-shift’ will also cause ‘time-dilation of super-novae light-curves’. Therefore, we now need not remain confined to the Big Bang model of cosmology. Martin Lopez-Corredoira (2013) applied Alcock- Paczynski cosmological test to six candidate cosmological models; and reached a conclusion that only two of them, namely lambda-CDM and static universe with tired light interpretation of the cosmological red-shift, fit the data. Ling Jun Wang, (2014) “On the Flatness of Space-time” has rigorously proven that curvature and expansion of space-time are mathematical entities, not the physically real curvature or expansion of space. So, the static universe with tired-light explanation has remained the only candidate. In this paper ‘cosmological red-shift’ is explained in terms of deceleration of photons caused by virtual electrons and pi-mesons contained in the extra galactic quantum vacuum. And, as supportive evidence, it is shown here that virtual electrons, and pi-mesons do have gravitational-acceleration of the order H0 c at their “surfaces”. Since, as per the interpretation of the ‘cosmological red-shift’ proposed here, in terms of deceleration of photons, the ‘reduction-in-energy of the photon’ (h Δν) goes on reducing with every subsequent unit distance traveled by the photon; so the red-shift-distance-curve automatically becomes non-linear, which has been creating an impression of ‘accelerated-expansion of the universe’. As a further supportive evidence for this proposal, it is shown that even the space-probes Pioneer-10, Pioneer-11, Galileo and Ulysses too did decelerate at the same rate H0 c (Anderson J.D. et. al.1998).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[10192] viXra:1503.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-24 08:55:29

Fermat's Last Theorem: a Simple Proof

Authors: Mark K Malmros
Comments: 2 Pages.

A binomial substitution and expansion demonstrates generally, Fermat's Last Theorem, stated as: No three positive integers X, Y, and Z can satisfy the equation Zn = Xn + Yn for any integer value of n greater than two.


Category: General Mathematics

[10191] viXra:1503.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-23 23:22:06

Quadratic Finite Difference Theory

Authors: Sidharth Ghoshal
Comments: 10 Pages.

We write a solution for solving all equations of the type a(x)f(x+h) + b(x)f(x) + c(x)f(x)^2 = 0 And use this to create a variety of formula for infinite nested radicals
Category: Functions and Analysis

[10190] viXra:1503.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-23 13:56:16

A Detailed Analysis of the 0S0 Resonance of the Earth

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 10 Pages.

Long-term spectrograms show that after strong earthquakes, the frequency of the 0S0 resonance of the earth varies with no apparent regularity. This also applies to the structure and the location of the side­bands. Measurements with the zero beat method show a frequency modulation of unknown cause, which can hardly be detected by FFT.
Category: Geophysics

[10189] viXra:1503.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-23 13:26:55

A Model to Comprehend the Dynamics of an Observable Phenomenon in the View of Newtonian Mechanics

Authors: Vigneswaran Ramamoorthy
Comments: 11 Pages.

This paper’s purpose is to show the effectiveness of an approach to formulate and understand the dynamics of an observable phenomenon through Newtonian mechanics. The approach starts by taking a simpler analogue of the problem we need to understand, and solving both the simpler and the real case simultaneously. Then, I have split the real case into two independent cases. The major part of the paper will be concentrated on demonstrating that the approach I choose is effective in comprehending the dynamics of the phenomenon. The problem I have considered is, in a circus, a co-worker saves a person who falls down during a rehearsal by dashing him in the horizontal direction, from a few feet above the ground. In the rest of the paper, for ease, I will be calling the person who saved as rescuer and the person who is being saved as casualty. The analysis of the problem is based on the assumptions that the collision between the rescuer and the casualty is an inelastic collision and after the total mass of rescuer and casualty come in the contact with the ground, it remains stationary.
Category: Classical Physics

[10188] viXra:1503.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-23 07:30:13

Origin Of Coronal High Temperature

Authors: Wei-Xiong Huang
Comments: 2 Pages.

In sun center, pressure least direction is ends of sun spin axis. Thus, sun center ultra-high temperature gasification substance jet out along sun's rotation axis, through photosphere, chromosphere, transition, directly reach coronal top. By gravity, thermal diffusion, centrifugal force combined effects, reached corona top high-temperature gasification substance spread into sun equatorial plane, formed temperature up to 1 million K to 20 million K corona.
Category: Astrophysics

[10187] viXra:1503.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-23 07:34:10

Causes Of Fermi Bubbles

Authors: Wei-Xiong Huang
Comments: 4 Pages.

There is a mass very huge star in Milky Way Galactic disk center, known as Milky Way "Nuclear-Star". Nuclear-Star mass exceeds solar mass 9 trillion times. Nuclear-Star center temperature exceed solar center temperature 20.8 thousand times. Nuclear-Star center temperature exceed 275.446 billion K, enough make substances fission into higher frequency gamma photons. Nuclear-Star spin axis ends jet out gamma-ray. Gamma-ray circular arc-shaped trajectory form Fermi bubble.
Category: Astrophysics

[10186] viXra:1503.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-23 09:21:13

A Note on Quantum Entanglement in Dempster-Shafer Evidence Theory

Authors: Xinyang Deng, Yong Deng
Comments: 14 pages, 3 figures.

Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is an efficient mathematical tool to deal with uncertain information. In this theory, basic probability assignment (BPA) is the basic structure for the expression and inference of uncertainty. In this paper, quantum entanglement involved in Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is studied. A criterion is given to determine whether a BPA is in an entangled state or not. Based on that, the information volume involved in a BPA is discussed. The discussion shows that a non-quantum strategy (or observation) can not obtained all information contained in a BPA which is in an entangled state.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[10185] viXra:1503.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-23 09:46:25

The Fragmentation in the Nucleon-Nucleon Collisions Within the Scale-Symmetric Physics

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Here, within the atom-like structure of baryons described in the Scale-Symmetric Physics, is presented the fragmentation of hadrons in the pp and Pb-Pb collisions. Applying the Stefan-Boltzmann law the calculated production of pion/kaon/proton in pp and Pb-Pb collisions is in an excellent agreement with the ALICE data.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10184] viXra:1503.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-23 10:11:52

The Light Speed Paradoxon

Authors: Hartmut Schwab
Comments: 3 pages, German language

The light speed paradoxon which was until now explained by the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) and was not understood according to classic physics, is now freely explained by the laws of classic physics. The explanation is extended on all other kinds of oscillations without or with medium. Complex approaches like Einsteins space time continuum and SRT miss their basis and therefore are unnecessary.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[10183] viXra:1503.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-23 07:03:18

New Way of Developing Information Technology and Imaginary Time for the Purpose of Building the Universe

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 13 Pages.

Stephen Hawking writes, “In real time, the universe has a beginning and an end at singularities that form a boundary to space-time and at which the laws of science break down. But in imaginary time, there are no singularities or boundaries. So maybe what we call imaginary time is really more basic …” (“A Brief History of Time” by Stephen Hawking - Bantam Press, 1988, p.139) When Hawking says there are no singularities in imaginary time, can his statement relate to physics? Or is it purely mathematical, in which case it would reinforce the idea that the universe began with a singularity and a Big Bang? I believe imaginary time has physical meaning since it can be developed from space-time where parallel lines become perpendicular without any motion occurring. Such a feat depends on a particular form of General Relativity’s space-time curvature. It leads to new cosmology and quantum physics that includes deletion of distance on every scale – plus a method for cosmogenesis or creation of the universe. This author has a habit of “text recycling” or “self plagiarism”. I’ve done it in the past to present an idea in different contexts, hoping that would demonstrate the idea’s validity. In this article, sentences are added to my recycling – showing that I still believe in the basic idea I started with, but adding information (sometimes from mathematics) to support that basis.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[10182] viXra:1503.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-23 07:07:00

Optical Bus Ghost

Authors: Mourici Shachter
Comments: 2 Pages.

I paid attention that when I seat in a bus just behind the second door , very near to the window. I see my face image magnified. And I ask for a detailed explanation to this phenomena Atached pictures explain the ghost problem
Category: Classical Physics

[10181] viXra:1503.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-23 07:15:31

Black Holes Do Not Exist

Authors: Wei-Xiong Huang
Comments: 5 Pages.

1. Celestial body center temperature is proportional to cube root of stellar mass. 2. When stellar temperature exceeds boiling point of all elements, stellar density is inversely proportional to cube root of stellar quality. 3. Stellar brightness and light emission frequency is proportional to cube root of stellar quality. Mass super huge stellar is bound to become a tiny density luminous body. Mass super huge, density super huge, no light emission black holes do not exist.
Category: Astrophysics

[10180] viXra:1503.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-23 07:24:47

Reason Of Stellar Rotation

Authors: Wei-Xiong Huang
Comments: 2 Pages.

When stellar center gasification substance thermal expansion force is greater than stellar center minimum pressure, from stellar center, pressure minimal two symmetrical directions, jet out two shares mass same high-temperature gasification substances. In stellar interior, two shares jet out high-temperature gasification substances form two whirlpool. Two swirl size and shape are same. Two swirl tips are outward. Two swirl central shaft are on a straight line. Two swirl drive stellar rotation.
Category: Astrophysics

[10179] viXra:1503.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-22 16:56:32

A Letter to Nasa and Others Space Agencies in the World

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 4 Pages. In portuguese and english.

A brave and humble letter to the space agencies that protect us, talking about the deflection program and the likely nature of gravity. - x - Uma corajosa e humilde carta às agências espaciais que nos protegem, falando sobre o programa de deflexão e da provável natureza da gravidade.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[10178] viXra:1503.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-23 04:48:25

Magnetism as an Electric Angle-Effect and Gravitation as an Electric Effect

Authors: Hochecker, Hans-joerg
Comments: 39 Pages.

At first, I regard magnetism. I can show that the magnetic force is an electric angle-effect by establishing two postulates: the dependence of the electric force on the velocity, and the existence of the anti-field. With the help of a third postulate, this is the quantization of the energy-transfer of the electric field, I then show that gravitation is also an electric effect. So, the three postulates describe three qualities of the electric field by which magnetism and gravitation can be derived. I finally carry out quantum-mechanical considerations at which the three postulates will be excellently confirmed. For the correct classification of this work I must mention that the theory of special relativity is absolutely considered as being correct and that it is an important and necessary component of this work.
Category: Classical Physics

[10177] viXra:1503.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-22 05:12:40

Some Injectivity Results for Super-Perelman Morphisms

Authors: Baruch Seiberg, Claude Witten
Comments: 8 Pages. Submitted to Comm. Math.

Let ${\Phi_{E}} ( b ) \sim \mathbf{{e}}$ be arbitrary. It was Monge who first asked whether commutative morphisms can be studied. We show that $$\overline{\mathbf{{\ell}} \times \infty} \le \begin{cases} \bigoplus_{\tilde{\lambda} \in \tilde{\mathscr{{D}}}} {\mathscr{{S}}_{C,I}} \left( 1^{-2}, \dots, \frac{1}{\aleph_0} \right), & I ( \Gamma ) \ne {\Lambda_{Q}} \\ \bigoplus 1^{-6}, & | \mathcal{{X}} | > U \end{cases}.$$ X. Smith \cite{cite:0} improved upon the results of L. Poncelet by examining quasi-invariant, degenerate morphisms. The groundbreaking work of Eto Katsuhiro on irreducible, standard, injective topoi was a major advance.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[10176] viXra:1503.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-21 17:32:35

Flux Quantization Validates Electromagnetic Induction in the Photoelectric Effect

Authors: Ionel DINU, M.Sc.
Comments: 3 Pages. A Rapid Communication supplementing the article Radio Waves – Part III The Photoelectric Effect

Abstract This short communication is a supplement to the article Radio Waves – Part III The Photoelectric Effect in which I advanced the hypothesis that the photoelectric effect can be explained as an effect of electromagnetic induction occurring at the surface of the illuminated metal. A striking support for the validity of this hypothesis has been discovered recently by the present author in the quantization of the magnetic flux observed experimentally more than 50 years ago.
Category: Classical Physics

[10175] viXra:1503.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-21 18:13:55

A Simple Algorithm to Express Any Odd Composite Number that is a Product of K-Primes not Necessarily Distinct as a Sum of Exactly K Unequal Terms

Authors: Prashanth R. Rao
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract: If N is an odd composite number that can be written as a product of k-primes not necessarily distinct, then we have devised a simple algorithm that would allow us to express N as the sum of exactly k terms all distinct derived using its prime factors.
Category: Number Theory

[10174] viXra:1503.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-21 18:36:42

Reply to Critique by Ghirardi of Entanglement Communication Scheme by Cornwall

Authors: Remi Cornwall
Comments: 4 Pages. Proof and apparatus showing No-communication Theorem is wrong.

This short letter is a response to an analysis by Ghirardi of a supposed flaw in a communication scheme involving entangled state collapse. We find his analysis entirely correct but missing the point, which is subtle, the no communication theorem merely expresses the truth of the locality of quantum state information on measurement but surprisingly says nothing about the particle being present or not by dint of the communication scheme itself. Ghirardi’s analysis using the density matrix approach does not deal correctly with the analysis of superposition in the interferometer and as such, doesn’t even correctly replicate the case for non-entanglement, as did the state vector method used by Cornwall.
Category: Quantum Physics

[10173] viXra:1503.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-21 12:54:48

Simplified Calculation of Component Number in the Curvature Tensor

Authors: William O. Straub
Comments: 2 Pages.

The number of independent components in the Riemann-Christoffel curvature tensor, being composed of the metric tensor and its first and second derivatives, varies considerably with the dimension of space. Since few texts provide an explicit derivation of component number, we present here a simplified method using only the curvature tensor’s antisymmetry property and the cyclicity condition. For generality and comparison, the method for computing component number in both Riemannian and non-Riemannian space is presented.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[10172] viXra:1503.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-21 07:25:27

Atom Interferometry in an Optical Cavity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Atom interferometry, in which atomic waves are coherently split and later recombined, has been called the Swiss Army knife of atomic physics because of its numerous applications. Atom interferometers can be used to study gravity, observe quantum effects, and measure fundamental constants. However, the spitting of atomic beams has always been a challenging task. Several beam splitters for atoms have been developed over the years, many of which rely on complex, high-powered lasers whose photons collide with atoms to steer them along separate beam paths. [10] As our devices get ever smaller, so do the materials we use to make them. And that means you have to get really close to see them. Really close. A new electron microscope unveiled at the UK’s national SuperSTEM facility images objects at an unprecedented resolution, right down to the individual atoms. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[10171] viXra:1503.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-21 00:55:28

The Gravito-Electromagnetic Force

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 11 Pages.

The best place to begin is with Einstein, who revolutionized understanding of gravity and said “time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter” (this must include matter's electric charges and magnetic poles). Following the introductory paragraphs, Einstein's theory that gravitation is a push created by the hills and valleys of curved space is recalled and there’s a paragraph explaining the Krasinsky/Blumberg astronomy paper in terms of gravitational waves being a repelling force, with a brief explanation reconciling this repulsion with gravity’s apparent attraction. Believing everything from the quantum to the cosmic is intricately united, I shift to discussion of gravity, the ocean tides and cosmology. Then the final paragraph says gravitational waves move in two directions. Since gravitation forms matter and its forces, the dualism naturally extends to the electromagnetism of particles, resulting in electric charges that are positive or negative (combination of these two produces neutrality) and magnetic polarities being either north or south.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10170] viXra:1503.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-21 01:23:25

A Rigorous Derivation of the Lorentz Transformations

Authors: Claude Michael Cassano
Comments: 15 Pages.

It is difficult to find a derivation of the Lorentz transformations beyond a single dimension in rectangular Cartesian coordinates. Here, a rigorous general derivation is established.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[10169] viXra:1503.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-20 15:23:01

The Milestones in Particle Physics and Cosmology

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

There are the two long-distance interactions so spacetime is composed of two fields (the superluminal Higgs field and the luminal Einstein spacetime) with very different properties (there are respectively the superluminal pieces of space which lead to gravity and the luminal neutrino-antineutrino pairs which lead to electromagnetism and strong and weak interactions) - it causes that unification of General Relativity and Standard Model is impossible. We do not need new differential equations to solve the many unsolved problems in particle physics and cosmology - we need a fractal structure of Nature which leads from small-scales/high-energies to larger and larger scales i.e. to lower and lower energies. The fractal structure follows from the succeeding phase transitions of the Higgs field described within the Scale-Symmetric Physics - it is the lacking part of ultimate theory which solves the hierarchy problem (the masses of the detected Standard-Model particles are much lower than the Planck mass). Pions are the superpartners of baryons whereas the early Universe (it was the double cosmic loop composed of neutrons) was the superpartner of the cosmic structure which transformed into the dark matter (it consists of the additional Einstein-spacetime components entangled with visible matter) and dark energy (it consists of the additional Einstein-spacetime components not entangled with visible matter). The mainstream supersymmetry and M-theory are, generally, incorrect. The Einstein spacetime is grainy so there can appear vortices with left and right internal helicity. Our vortex had the left internal helicity and such internal helicity have nucleons (antinucleons are right-handed) - it solves the matter-antimatter asymmetry in our Universe. The nucleons consist of three very dense fields composed of entangled and/or confined Einstein-spacetime components which are the carriers of gluons - it solves the spin crisis of proton. The three-valence-quarks model of nucleons is incorrect.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10168] viXra:1503.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-20 15:29:40

Gravitation Theorem vs. Shell Theorem. Conic Proof.

Authors: Wolfgang Westenberger
Comments: 5 Pages.

SUMMARY. The gravitation theorem is based on Newton's Gravitation Law and takes into account that each gravitational object does exert gravitation starting from its very position. The Shell Theorem, on the other hand, sums up all positions of gravitational objects, thus calculations of gravitation are made easier. A spherically symmetric body of equal density can be modelled as an infinite number of cones within a globe, starting from a point A upon the radius of the globe. If one of these cones can be treated as a point mass (i.e. as a single gravitation point), then a system of cones in the shape of a sphere can also be treated as a point mass.
Category: Astrophysics

[10167] viXra:1503.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-19 05:41:16

From Three Body to Many Body Motion,Classical

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 18 Pages.

Three body motion or many body motion in relation to gravitation and other types of interaction has always occupied an enviable position in the history of physics in view of its complexity especially in comparison with the simpler two body motion. The challenge offered by these problems have been a continuous source of inspiration for mathematicians and physicists to work out solutions. This article is a modest endeavor to analyze and solve the problem as far possible .A method for solving the four body and in general the many body problem has been discussed. Certain peculiarities of the two body motion have been pointed out highlighting them in connection with three body motion and with many body motion.
Category: Classical Physics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[4616] viXra:1503.0212 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-29 10:39:35

Lifetimes of Higgs, W and Z Bosons in the Scale-Symmetric Physics

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics, we calculated the rigorous lifetimes of Higgs (H) boson, W and Z bosons expressed in yoctoseconds [ys] (yocto is the inverse of the 24 powers of ten): for H is 0.282 ys, for W is 0.438 ys whereas for Z is 0.386 ys. They are the upper limits for experimental data and it is obvious that the experimental data should be close to such limits. The decay width of H boson (about 3.4 GeV/(cc) gives 0.194 ys, the decay width of W boson (about 2.1 GeV/(cc) gives 0.316 ys whereas the decay width of Z boson (about 2.5 GeV/(cc) gives 0.264 ys. The calculated here theoretical results are consistent with experimental data. The lifetime of Higgs boson predicted within the Standard Model (SM), 0.156 zeptoseconds [zs] (zepto is the inverse of the 21 powers of ten), is inconsistent with experimental data - it suggests that SM is at least incomplete or partially incorrect. The main method to determine the lifetimes of particles follows from measurement of the decay width. But using this widely accepted method, we obtain the lifetime of the Higgs boson a factor of one thousandth of the value predicted by the Standard Model. It causes that some “scientists” try to change the widely accepted method to obtain from the experimental data the SM value. As usually, when a mainstream theory fails, to fit theoretical results to experimental data, “scientists” apply some approximations, mathematical tricks and free parameters. The truth is obvious - the experimental lifetime of the sham Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV is inconsistent with the SM prediction. Photons inside strong fields behave as gluons.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4615] viXra:1503.0212 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-29 07:15:33

Lifetimes of Higgs, W and Z Bosons in the Scale-Symmetric Physics

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics, we calculated the rigorous lifetimes of Higgs (H) boson, W and Z bosons expressed in yoctoseconds [ys] (yocto is the inverse of the 24 powers of ten): for H is 0.282 ys, for W is 0.438 ys whereas for Z is 0.386 ys. They are the upper limits for experimental data and it is obvious that the experimental data should be close to such limits. The decay width of H boson (about 3.4 GeV/(cc) gives 0.194 ys, the decay width of W boson (about 2.1 GeV/(cc) gives 0.316 ys whereas the decay width of Z boson (about 2.5 GeV/(cc) gives 0.264 ys. The calculated here theoretical results are consistent with experimental data. The lifetime of Higgs boson predicted within the Standard Model (SM), 0.156 zeptoseconds [zs] (zepto is the inverse of the 21 powers of ten), is inconsistent with experimental data - it suggests that SM is at least incomplete or partially incorrect. The main method to determine the lifetimes of particles follows from measurement of the decay width. But using this widely accepted method, we obtain the lifetime of the Higgs boson a factor of one thousandth of the value predicted by the Standard Model. It causes that some “scientists” try to change the widely accepted method to obtain from the experimental data the SM value. As usually, when a mainstream theory fails, to fit theoretical results to experimental data, “scientists” apply some approximations, mathematical tricks and free parameters. The truth is obvious - the experimental lifetime of the sham Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV is inconsistent with the SM prediction. Photons inside strong fields behave as gluons.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4614] viXra:1503.0212 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-27 14:57:03

Lifetimes of Higgs, W and Z Bosons in the Scale-Symmetric Physics

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics, we calculated the rigorous lifetimes of Higgs (H) boson, W and Z bosons expressed in yoctoseconds [ys] (yocto is the inverse of the 24 powers of ten): for H is 0.282 ys, for W is 0.438 ys whereas for Z is 0.386 ys. They are the upper limits for experimental data and it is obvious that the experimental data should be close to such limits. The decay width of H boson (about 3.4 GeV/(cc) gives 0.194 ys, the decay width of W boson (about 2.1 GeV/(cc) gives 0.316 ys whereas the decay width of Z boson (about 2.5 GeV/(cc) gives 0.264 ys. The calculated here theoretical results are consistent with experimental data. The lifetime of Higgs boson predicted within the Standard Model (SM), 0.156 zeptoseconds [zs] (zepto is the inverse of the 21 powers of ten), is inconsistent with experimental data - it suggests that SM is at least incomplete or partially incorrect. The main method to determine the lifetimes of particles follows from measurement of the decay width. But using this widely accepted method, we obtain the lifetime of the Higgs boson a factor of one thousandth of the value predicted by the Standard Model. It causes that some “scientists” try to change the widely accepted method to obtain from the experimental data the SM value. As usually, when a mainstream theory fails, to fit theoretical results to experimental data, “scientists” apply some approximations, mathematical tricks and free parameters. The truth is obvious - the experimental lifetime of the sham Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV is inconsistent with the SM prediction. Photons inside strong fields behave as gluons.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4613] viXra:1503.0193 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-27 02:52:50

The Riemann Theory - Proof of the Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: Christina Munns
Comments: 17 Pages. All rights reserved - Copyright 2013

ABSTRACT The Riemann Hypothesis is a proposal given by Bernhard Riemann in 1859 that the non-trivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function all have real part ½ or .5. The conjecture is that all the non-trivial zeros lie along the critical line.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[4612] viXra:1503.0186 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-26 10:21:45

Primordial Dark Matter Black Holes Outside Galaxies Responsible for the Creation and Contraction of a Cyclic Universe?

Authors: lEO vUYK
Comments: 21 Pages. Sorry Philip for this failure.

For years, Stephen Hawking (and Hartle) has been applying the No Boundary Proposal, or the idea that the universe is “closed“ and can have a beginning, and an end, however still exist forever. I will call this a closed cyclic universe and for symmetry reasons a cyclic entangled raspberry shaped multiverse based on my proposal for the Quantum Function Follows Form (FFF) model. The Form and Microstructure of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of Functional differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a new paradigm splitting, accelerating and pairing massless Dark Matter Black Hole (without Graviton production) is able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease and quark electron positron production at the black hole horizon. Secondly, a Chiral dark energy Higgs vacuum lattice, is able to explain quick Gas and Dust production without large annihilation at the black hole horizon and Galaxy- and Star formation. Even microscopic black holes like Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning seem to produce gas. However only the largest Primordial Galaxy Anchor Black Holes (GABHs) located far outside galaxies, are supposed to stop gas and dust production and by merging with other black holes they should be the ultimate origin of universal contraction into a Big Crunch and a cyclic multiverse. The Hubble redshift, in contrast with the mainstream, is supposed to originate local vacuum lattice dilution created by local dark matter black holes. All black holes eat the Higgs vacuum lattice with a local Planck length extension- as the result and the base for frequency decrease of a passing photon. As a result, GABHs are only observable by their background lensing effect and as quasi-soft x-ray sources, to be found in particular around merger galaxies, due to swirling gas and dust expelled from the galaxies.
Category: Astrophysics

[4611] viXra:1503.0185 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-26 15:53:26

Dark Energy, Dark Matter and the Accelerating Expansion of Space

Authors: Bernard Riley
Comments: 3 Pages.

The dark energy density has been derived from the density of vacuum energy at the scale of the Bohr radius in a ten-dimensional model, and from the radius of the observable universe. The Bohr radius and the radius of the observable universe were found to be related through a 5/2 power law correspondence that applies generally between subatomic length scales and cosmological distances. It follows that dark energy is carried by ultra high frequency gravitational waves. Cosmological phase transitions of the expanding universe took place at times that correspond to specific mass, and energy, scales originating from a ten-dimensional geometry. The onset of inflation is associated with the GUT scale. Recombination has an associated particle: the electron. The accelerating expansion of space that initiated about 5 billion years ago is associated with the conjectured 7.1 keV dark matter particle, with an intriguing implication.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[4610] viXra:1503.0184 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-28 09:49:12

Calculation of Universe Fundamental Constants

Authors: Patrick Tonin
Comments: 8 Pages.

We show that starting with the speed of light, Phi (the golden ratio) and the ratio 8Pi-1, we can recover the Universe fundamental constants, no fudge factors are used. In some cases, extra equations for the same constant are given to show that the numbers match exactly but also to show the self-similarity of the Universe on different size scales.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory