**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(59) - 0703(51) - 0704(5) - 0705(1) - 0706(8) - 0707(2) - 0708(3) - 0709(3) - 0710(2) - 0711(6) - 0712(3)

2008 - 0801(4) - 0802(4) - 0803(2) - 0804(9) - 0805(4) - 0806(1) - 0807(12) - 0808(6) - 0809(3) - 0810(16) - 0811(5) - 0812(9)

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2014 - 1401(193) - 1402(154) - 1403(852) - 1404(267) - 1405(337) - 1406(182) - 1407(207) - 1408(223) - 1409(230) - 1410(128)

Any replacements are listed further down

[8877] **viXra:1410.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 15:21:34*

**Authors:** Mirela Teodorescu, Vladimir Modrak, Daniela Gifu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Mental process or cognition process is a term often used for all the acts that people can do with their minds. These acts include perception, introspection, reasoning, creativity, imagination, memory, idea, belief, volition, and emotion. A mental event represents an instance involved in cognitive process. The perceiving of the event is different from each event depending of perceiving capacity of that instance. Along human existence, philosophers such as Aristotle, Plato, Descartes, Leibniz, Spinoza, Kant, Heidegger, Wittgenstein, Daniel Dennett and et alli. The structure of the mental process is part of psychology and psychologists such as Sigmund Freud and William James who developed essential theories about the nature of the human mind. In the last decades of the 20th and early 21st centuries the domain of cognitive science emerged and developed many varied approaches related to the description of mind and its related phenomena. The field of artificial intelligence is the possibility of non-human minds also explored, and works closely in relation with cybernetics and information theory to understand the ways in which human mental phenomena can be replicated by non-biological machines. The mental process domain is by far vast, this study is suggesting only to highlight some of aspects, subjects of thought for human being.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[8876] **viXra:1410.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 17:29:34*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Mohamed Abdelfattah, Mohamed Eisa

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Since the world is full of indeterminacy, the neutrosophics found their place into contemporary research. İn this paper we, introduce the distances between neutrosophic sets: the Hamming distance, The normalized Hamming distance, the Euclidean distance an

Since the world is full of indeterminacy, the neutrosophics found their place into contemporary research. İn this paper we, introduce the distances between neutrosophic sets: the Hamming distance, The normalized Hamming distance, the Euclidean distance and normalized Euclidean distance. We will extend the concepts of distances to the case of neutrosophic hesitancy degree. Added to, this paper suggest how to enrich intuitionistic fuzzy querying by the use of neutrosophic values..

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[8875] **viXra:1410.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 17:52:57*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Will be translated into English (Version 2)

We calculate in this article an exact theoretical value obtained classically for the secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury, followed by the theory of Stockwell, based on planetary theory of Laplace, your Mécanique Céleste: found 5600’’,84 of arc per century for the angular velocity of the longitude of the perihelion of Mercury, dw/dt, adding to the precession of the equinoxes of the Earth relative to the beginning of the year 1850, as calculated by Stockwell.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8874] **viXra:1410.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 17:33:09*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The focus of this paper is to propose a new
notion of neutrosophic crisp sets via neutrosophic crisp
ideals and to study some basic operations and results in
neutrosophic crisp topological spaces. Also,
neutrosophic crisp L-openness and neutrosophic crisp Lcontinuity
are considered as a generalizations for a crisp
and fuzzy concepts. Relationships between the above
new neutrosophic crisp notions and the other relevant
classes are investigated. Finally, we define and study
two different types of neutrosophic crisp functions.
Index Terms—Neutrosophic Crisp Set; Neutrosophic
Crisp Ideals; Neutrosophic Crisp L-open Sets;
Neutrosophic Crisp L- Continuity; Neutrosophic Sets.
I. INTRODUCTION
The fuzzy set was introduced by Zadeh [20] in 1965,
where each element had a degree of membership. In
1983 the intuitionstic fuzzy set was introduced by K.
Atanassov [1, 2, 3] as a generalization of fuzzy set,
where besides the degree of membership and the degree
of non- membership of each element. Salama et al [11]
defined intuitionistic fuzzy ideal and neutrosophic ideal
for a set and generalized the concept of fuzzy ideal
concepts, first initiated by Sarker [19]. Smarandache [16,
17, 18] defined the notion of neutrosophic sets, which is
a generalization of Zadeh's fuzzy set and Atanassov's
intuitionistic fuzzy set. Neutrosophic sets have been
investigated by Salama et al. [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,
13, 14, 15]. In this paper is to introduce and study some
new neutrosophic crisp notions via neutrosophic crisp
ideals. Also, neutrosophic crisp L-openness and
neutrosophic crisp L- continuity are considered.
Relationships between the above new neutrosophic crisp
notions and the other relevant classes are investigated.
Recently, we define and study two different types of
neutrosophic crisp functions.
The paper unfolds as follows. The next section briefly
introduces some definitions related to neutrosophic set
theory and some terminologies of neutrosophic crisp set
and neutrosophic crisp ideal. Section 3 presents
neutrosophic crisp L- open and neutrosophic crisp Lclosed
sets. Section 4 presents neutrosophic crisp L–
continuous functions. Conclusions appear in the last section.

**Category:** Topology

[8873] **viXra:1410.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 17:37:47*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Said Broumi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Since the world is full of indeterminacy, the neutrosophics found their place into
contemporary research. In this paper we define rough neutrosophic sets and study their
properties. Some propositions in this notion are proved. Possible application to computer
sciences is touched upon.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[8872] **viXra:1410.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 12:27:38*

**Authors:** M.E. Hassani

**Comments:** 6 Page; 2 Tables; 10 References.

In the present paper, the so-called Einstein’s causality is scrutinized and proven to be an illusion, a sort of mathematical fiction, and the causality as a well-established universal principle would be absolutely valid for
subluminal, luminal and superluminal signals under any natural and/or artificial circumstances. It is also shown that any attempt to apply special relativity theory to superluminality of physical phenomena would be a complete waste of time since this theory has the light speed in vacuum as an upper limiting speed in its proper validity domain of applications.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[8871] **viXra:1410.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 15:05:49*

**Authors:** Mirela Teodorescu, Dan Ionescu

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Neutrosophic emergences and incidences in communication and information, published in Germany/Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing in 2013, is a book that constitutes a new trend, a new approach in the science of logic, philosophy, communication theory, information, an approached and exemplification that it was wanted, it was intuited, it was expected but it has no mathematical foundation, that is neutrosophy. It is a book that presents avant-garde information. It is written by two appreciated researchers and inexhaustible perpetual idea machines: professors Florentin Smarandache and Ştefan Vlăduţescu. First of them is professor of mathematics at University of New Mexico/ USA, the second is professor of communication theory at University of Craiova/ Romania. Both of them have published a lot of books and papers in domain of philosophy, communication, sociology, psychology, mathematics and literature. Logic started in Ancient with Classical Logic of Aristotle, developed and covered by Three Valued Logic of Lukasiewicz, next ring being Fuzzy Logic of Zadech, finally the comprehensive Neutrosophic Logic of Smarandache.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[8870] **viXra:1410.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 15:14:18*

**Authors:** Mirela Teodorescu, Oprea Valentin Busu, Daniela Gifu

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This study examines the propaganda from point of view of positive effects in actual social life dominated by democracy. People have to deal with propaganda in ordinary life: it happens through advertising, propaganda occurs in political speeches, in TV shows, even in the news… With the development of means of communication and especially of mass media, propaganda has become inseparable from the contemporary mass culture. Some sociologists state that the tendencies of propagating particular lifestyles and models of behavior have a negative impact on the society; on the other hand, propaganda can be used for positive purposes: for example, for spreading healthy lifestyle, anti-smoking and anti-drugs campaigns, anti-discrimination ideas etc.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[8869] **viXra:1410.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 11:25:22*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, we review the derivation of the equation of thrust of Shawyer’s thruster, by obtaining a new expression, which includes the indexes of refraction of the two parallel plates in the tapered waveguide. This new expression shows that, by strongly increasing the index of refraction of the plate with the largest area, the value of the thrust can be strongly increased.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[8868] **viXra:1410.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 11:28:59*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here we show how polluted smoke can be compacted and transformed into a glass similar to amorphous silica glass, by means of gravitational compression produced in a compression chamber, where gravity is strongly increased by using gravity control technology based on the discovery of correlation between gravitational mass and inertial mass [1]. Possibly this process can be a way of storing of CO2, a major contributor to global warming.

**Category:** Climate Research

[8867] **viXra:1410.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 12:01:43*

**Authors:** Vladimir Komarov

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In nuclear physics and elementary particle theory concept of unitary symmetry and the related idea of the hierarchy of interactions play a fundamental role [1, 2]. So the relative smallness of the electromagnetic and weak interactions as compared to the strong interaction of the nucleons in the nucleus can be considered a model of the nucleus in the limit of exact symmetry of the strong interactions. In this model, protons and neutrons are physically indistinguishable states of the nucleon, and the properties of the nucleus are invariant under isotopic transformations.
In the case of molecules, we can also talk about the hierarchy of interactions involved in their formation.
As an example of a "strong" interaction here we can point to energy of chemical bonds, which is 1-2 orders of magnitude more energy non-bonded interactions. Another example - when the energy of valence interactions is much greater than the energy of intermolecular bonds in the condensed medium.
Usually accounting of weak interactions in 'chemistry is performed by introducing a physical model of various perturbations. These perturbations typically are unmeasured parameters that; are essentially the fitting values.
However, in the preferred class of molecules can try to find such values of the parameter in the ratio in which the contributions of the "weak" interactions are compensated or negligible.
Symmetry approach is important in estimation of reliability of experimental data and to predict new values of a parameter.
The same, from the standpoint of finding a unitary symmetry, the approach would be interesting to extend to more complex molecules and molecular systems. Up until genetic.
The application of the previously developed concepts of symmetry to the codon is the purpose of this work.
Keywords: Codons, Combinatory, Homology, Homologous series, Unitary Symmetry.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[8866] **viXra:1410.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 08:21:52*

**Authors:** Stefan Mehedinteanu

**Comments:** 22 Pages. a new discovery related to the origin of Universe

A spectrum for blackbody radiation of temperature when photon creation takes place has been proposed at the end of Inflation, when opacity (equilibrium photons- ) begins to be very thick, that means no photons radiation (escape) as before, and when remain available only two photons pairs to collide in order to obtaining the first (quark) pair which generates an electrical field , for a time period corresponding to Hubble’s lengths of . This field of string type being supercritical , it captures the vacuum monopoles pairs, thus, generating the first primordial electromagnetic magnetic ( ) vortex called as . By using a simple QCD analytical model are calculated its components. Thus, in the model the Inflaton potential viewed as , by Schwinger effect at the end of the reheating period , it generates all kinds of particles of precise number as: bosons, fermions (quarks), gluons with structure of monopoles (abelian in extra-core and nonabelian in core), magnetic monopoles themselves. Immediately, at confinement, the quarks pairs forms Coulomb flux tubes , thesis capturing gluons organized in monopole type structures (hedgehog), in order to form nucleons.
The primordial magnetic field is expected to scale with Robertson-Walker scale factor, as resulting at value of , which is near identically with that of the literature. By using this value, we can obtain the imprints as B-curl type due of Faraday rotation at time of .

**Category:** Astrophysics

[8865] **viXra:1410.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-21 13:34:44*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Work in progress.

According to the seesaw mechanism, neutrino masses arise from the existence of heavy Majorana neutrinos postulated to emerge near the grand unification scale (GUT) of about 10^16 GeV. Despite its theoretical appeal, this scenario involves either physics at inaccessible scales or tuning the Yukawa couplings to un-naturally low values. Our work sidesteps the seesaw mechanism and shows that neutrino masses follow from placing the Standard Model on a spacetime support equipped with arbitrarily small deviations from four dimensions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8864] **viXra:1410.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-21 10:02:06*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Zoltan Gingl, Robert Mingesz, Gergely Vadai, Janusz Smulko, Claes-Goran Granqvist

**Comments:** 7 Pages. first draft

After briefly summarizing our general theoretical arguments, we show that, the experienced strong information leak at the Gunn-Allison-Abbott attack [Scientific Reports 4 (2014) 6461] against the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchange scheme, resulted from a serious design flaw of the system. The attenuator broke the single Kirchhoff-loop into two coupled loops. This is an illegal operation because the single loop is essential for the security, thus the observed leak is obvious. We demonstrate this by cracking the system with an elementary current comparison attack yielding close to 1 success probability for Eve even without averaging within a sub-correlation-time measurement window. A fully defended KLJN system would not be able to function, at all, due to its built-in current-comparison defense against active (invasive) attacks.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[8863] **viXra:1410.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-21 11:16:26*

**Authors:** Sergio Arciniegas-Alarcón, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos Dias, Marisol García-Peña

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Paper in portuguese with abstract in english.

Abstract – The objective of this work was to propose a new distribution‑free multiple imputation algorithm, through modifications of the simple imputation method recently developed by Yan in order to circumvent the problem of unbalanced experiments. The method uses the singular value decomposition of a matrix and was tested using simulations based on two complete matrices of real data, obtained from eucalyptus and sugarcane trials, with values deleted randomly at different percentages. The quality of the imputations was evaluated by a measure of overall accuracy that combines the variance between imputations and their mean square deviations in relation to the deleted values. The best alternative for multiple imputation is a multiplicative model that includes weights near to 1 for the eigenvalues calculated with the decomposition. The proposed methodology does not depend on distributional or structural assumptions and does not have any restriction regarding the pattern or the mechanism of the missing data.

**Category:** Statistics

[8862] **viXra:1410.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-21 08:20:36*

**Authors:** O.Emilio.C.Sánchez

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

These two conjectures are perhaps the two most famous unsolved
problems in number theory but, in fact, they are closely linked. In this concise article we will prove that Goldbach´s conjecture implies twin prime´s. Whether twin prime´s conjecture implies Goldbach´s conjecture (and then both conjectures would became equivalent) or not, will be matter of further and hard working.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8861] **viXra:1410.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-20 09:24:53*

**Authors:** Valentin Ibañez Fernandez, Ibanees - Fernandes Valenitin Arnaledovich

**Comments:** 11page

We present the interpretation of the effect of G. Sagnac and provides a historical overview of the development of treatments of this experiment wich affected all subsequent development of the special theory of relativity and other areas.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8860] **viXra:1410.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-20 09:30:44*

**Authors:** Valentin Ibañez Fernandez, Ibanees - Fernandes Valenitin Arnaledovich

**Comments:** 9 page

In this paper, we propose a new theory of special relativity and its fundamental principles such as the principle of covariance and symmetry and transformation systems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8859] **viXra:1410.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-20 09:37:06*

**Authors:** Valentin Ibañez Fernandez, Ibanees - Fernandes Valenitin Arnaledovich

**Comments:** 8 page

The manuscript presents a new ELECTRODYNAMICS of special theory of relativity. In the present paper we find the physical principles of moving systems. This theory shows that the physical quantity τ does not exist in moving system. The time of the system don’t depend of the speed of the system. The process of propagation of the electromagnetic field in a vacuum, we describe how the classical electromagnetic process.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8858] **viXra:1410.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-20 07:29:16*

**Authors:** Piyush Mohan Singhal

**Comments:** 13 Pages. A peer review is requested.

The formation of a trefoil knot in a measurement space with entropy is described. It is shown that for a given prime knot, invariants with the characteristics of Laurent polynomials can be developed in 2+1 dimensional measurement space. These polynomials distinguish chiral property and uniquely address charge, parity and time symmetries.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8857] **viXra:1410.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-19 17:08:37*

**Authors:** A. Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This proof uses a congruence, which is implicit in the condition, mandatory, demonstrated by Euler. More precisely, a congruence that must be fulfilled in the equation that equals the odd number N, with Euler condition, and the formula for the sum of the divisors of the number N. Following a rigorous and meticulous way, this mandatory congruence; a final equation is obtained after several polynomials simplifications on both sides of the original equation that equals the number 2N with the sum of the divisors of the number N. With this final equation, the impossibility of the existence of odd perfect numbers is demonstrated by the impossibility of the equation \;2N=\sigma(N)\;
is fulfilled.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8856] **viXra:1410.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-19 18:52:13*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Superluminal communication without entangled particles based on well known principles

Entanglement studies dwell on multi-particle systems by definition – one particle, via a global symmetry/conservation law is correlated to another. It has often been wondered via EPR/Bell/Aspect/Dopfer-Zeilinger/Zbinden whether: first, a communication scheme is possible by entangled quantum state collapse and secondly, whether such a scheme would work over spacelike separations. This study follows on from the author’s earlier scheme of sending classical data over a Bell Channel, to now, using an unentangled source. The rationale for this is that beams from a three-way or n-way splitter (even with single photons) are in a sense “entangled” with themselves via the principle of conservation of probability: measurement of a photon in one beam causes a collapse of the wavefunction in all the others. The new communication scheme represents an improvement over using expensive and complicated entangled sources of poor purity, for common-or-garden coherent sources.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8855] **viXra:1410.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-19 23:08:56*

**Authors:** Prashanth R. Rao

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: Twin prime conjecture states that there are infinite number of twin primes of the form p and p+2. Remarkable progress has recently been achieved by Y. Zhang to show that infinite primes that differ by large gap (~ 70 million) exist and this gap has been further narrowed to ~600 by others. We use an elementary approach to explore any obvious constraint that could limit the infinite nature of twin primes. Using Fermat’s little theorem as a surrogate for primality we derive an equation that suggests but not prove that twin primes can be infinite.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8854] **viXra:1410.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-19 14:09:04*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

It is demonstrated that any statistics can be represented by an attractor of the solution to a corresponding system of ODE coupled with its Liouville equation. Such a non-Newtonian representation allows one to reduce foundations of statistics to better established foundations of ODE. In addition to that, evolution to the attractor reveals possible micro-mechanisms driving random events to the final distribution of the corresponding statistical law. Special attention is concentrated upon the power law and its dynamical interpretation: it is demonstrated that the underlying dynamics supports a “violent reputation” of the power-law statistics.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[8853] **viXra:1410.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-19 10:34:29*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 35 Pages. develops the Puthoff analysis published in the Journal of British Interplanetary Society.Vol.63.pgs 82-89.2010,arXiv:1204.2184 for the Natario warp drive arXiv gr-qc/0110086

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$. However the major drawback
concerning warp drives is the huge amount of negative energy
density able to sustain the warp bubble.In order to perform an
interstellar space travel to a "nearby" star at $20$ light-years
away in a reasonable amount of time a ship must attain a speed of
about $200$ times faster than light.However the negative energy
density at such a speed is directly proportional to the factor
$10^{48}$ which is $1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000$ times
bigger in magnitude than the mass of the planet Earth!!. With the
correct form of the shape function the Natario warp drive can
overcome this obstacle at least in theory.Other drawbacks that
affects the warp drive geometry are the collisions with hazardous
interstellar matter(asteroids,comets,interstellar dust etc)that
will unavoidably occurs when a ship travels at superluminal speeds
and the problem of the Horizons(causally disconnected portions of
spacetime).The geometrical features of the Natario warp drive are
the required ones to overcome these obstacles also at least in
theory.
\newline
Some years ago the American physicist Harold Puthoff published a
very interesting work in the Journal of the British Interplanetary
Society.He theorized about the possibility of the modification of
the spacetime geometry by arbitrary advanced civilizations able to
generate the so-called metric engineering and such a modification
would be supposed to "allow" the propulsion of spaceships at
superluminal velocities.However Puthoff used only diagonalized
metrics for his analysis and he even quotes the Schwarzschild
metric.In this work we reproduce the Puthoff analysis for the
Natario warp drive spacetime and due to the fact that the Natario
warp drive is a non-diagonalized metric due to the presence of
both the shift and Natario vectors our results are different than
the ones obtained by Puthoff.However his idea of a spacetime
metric engineering able to distort the spacetime geometry
"allowing" superluminal interstellar spaceflight is perfectly
possible.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8852] **viXra:1410.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-19 11:39:09*

**Authors:** Antonio Boccuto, Xenofon Dimitriou

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We investigate some properties of
lattice group-valued positive k-subadditive set functions, and in particular we give some
comparisons between regularity and continuity from above. Moreover we prove different kinds of limit theorems in the non-additive case with respect to filter convergence, in which it is supposed that the involved filter is diagonal.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[8851] **viXra:1410.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-19 11:45:01*

**Authors:** Zeraoulia Elhadj

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this note, we introduce a simple criterion to prove that a given Mersenne number is really a Mersenne prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8850] **viXra:1410.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-19 06:16:32*

**Authors:** Zhang Tianshu

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

We first get rid of three kinds from A+B=C according to their respective odevity and gcf (A, B, C) =1. Next expound relations between C and paf (ABC) by the symmetric law of odd numbers. Finally we have proven C ≤ Cε [paf (ABC)] 1+ ε such being the case A+B=C, and gcf (A, B, C) =1.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8849] **viXra:1410.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-18 21:44:39*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Physicists have long suggested that the four observed fundamental forces of nature are separate manifestations of what was once a single force at times close to the Big Bang. If so, magnitude of the unified force can be assumed to be equal to . Strength of any interaction can be defined as the ratio of the operating force magnitude and the magnitude of . Let the gravitational interaction at black holes be called as ‘Schwarzschild interaction’. If strength of Schwarzschild interaction is unity, then weak interaction strength seems to be times less than the Schwarzschild interaction and strong interaction strength seems to be times less than the Schwarzschild interaction. Based on these concepts and considering the Avogadro number as an absolute and discrete number, basics of final unification can be understood.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8848] **viXra:1410.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-18 15:32:30*

**Authors:** Alexander Kritov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

There are few mathematical expressions for calculation proton to electron mass ratio presented. Some of them are new and some are not. They have been analyzed in terms of their simplicity, numerical significance and precision. Expressions are listed in the structured manner with comments. The close attention should be paid to a comparison of the formula similarity via their precision. A brief review of the different attempts in similar search is given.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[8847] **viXra:1410.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-18 15:42:36*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

I can calculate the motion of heavenly bodies, but not the madness of people.
Isaac Newton
In mathematical world, the bridge from matter to intelligence requires extension and modification of quantum physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8846] **viXra:1410.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-18 07:17:43*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun’s core.
Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[8845] **viXra:1410.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-17 20:45:18*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The true age of the Earth has remained a centuries old controversy contrasted between modern scientific empirical methods and interpretation of ancient theological scripture. Fundamentalist Christians prefer to take Old Testament passages that the Earth’s age since creation is 7,000 years literally. This so-called ‘Young Earthers’ point of view remains difficult for educated or scientifically minded individuals (even those of faith) to unquestioningly accept. In this short article we attempt to shed significant light on this controversy.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[8844] **viXra:1410.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-18 02:47:28*

**Authors:** Valentin Ibañez Fernandez

**Comments:** 29 Pages. 29P.

The abstract
The new special theory of relativity is given in work. It gives the new ideas of the processes occurring in systems of movement . In it is developed the new universal transformation for classical mechanics and electrodynamics. All experimental practice of the wide range of moving systems shows the integrity of the findings in this work.
The postulate which the potential energy of the moving system depends on its velocity with the conservation law of energy of the moving system are sufficient enough to achieve a consistent theory of special relativity with only absolute time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8843] **viXra:1410.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-17 14:56:59*

**Authors:** Jaidev B. Parmar

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

CPT theorem is reinterpreted in the context of commonly observed phenomenon and
extrapolated to explain the Baryogenesis in the early Universe that has led to the observed
Baryon Asymmetry in the present Universe. Anti-neutron matter is proposed as a suitable
candidate for Dark Matter WIMP and Super Massive Black Holes (SMBH) at the Galactic
centers.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8842] **viXra:1410.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-17 09:18:16*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe.
The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate.
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8841] **viXra:1410.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-17 09:20:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[8840] **viXra:1410.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-17 09:23:03*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Named Ds3*(2860), the particle, a new type of meson, was discovered by analyzing data collected with the LHCb detector at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The new particle is bound together in a similar way to protons. Due to this similarity, the Warwick researchers argue that scientists will now be able to study the particle to further understand strong interactions.
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8839] **viXra:1410.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-17 12:00:12*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

We present in this first part of the article a summary of the theories of Le Verrier, Stockwell and Laplace on the secular precession of the perihelion of the planets, especially Mercury, leaving part 2 a review of the theory of Mercury from Le Verrier, comments Newcomb on anomalies of Mercury and a description of how the observed values were obtained by Clemence, important reference cited by Weinberg. Also shown is one more hypothesis for the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, a decrease in the mass of the Sun, rather than an increase in the mass of the planets, similar to what has been done with the assumption of the solar wind. This new assumption, however, appears to be unnecessary before most important fact here presented. An exact theoretical value was classically obtained following the theory of Stockwell, based on planetary theory of Laplace, your Mécanique Céleste: we find 5600'',84 of arc per century for the angular velocity of the longitude of the perihelion of Mercury, dw/dt, adding to the precession of the equinoxes of the Earth to the beginning of the year 1850, as calculated by Stockwell.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8838] **viXra:1410.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-17 09:10:40*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8837] **viXra:1410.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-17 09:13:13*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The finding that electrons and muons aren’t produced equally in certain particle decays may hint at a crack in the standard model.
The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate.
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8836] **viXra:1410.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-17 09:16:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Princeton University scientists have observed an exotic particle that behaves simultaneously like matter and antimatter, a feat of math and engineering that could yield powerful computers based on quantum mechanics.
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8835] **viXra:1410.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-17 03:34:32*

**Authors:** Peter H. Michalicka

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The curvature of the space is the Gravitation Constant G.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8834] **viXra:1410.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-16 15:19:26*

**Authors:** O.Emilio.C.Sánchez

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

These two conjectures are perhaps the two most famous unsolved problems in number theory but, in fact, they are closely linked. In this concise article we will prove that both conjectures are equivalent . First we prove Twin prime conjecture implies Goldbach´s conjecture; second, we prove Goldbach´s conjecture implies twin prime´s.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8833] **viXra:1410.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-16 10:21:37*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper describes how experimentally detected Majorana-particles fit a new cosmological theory. This theory is called the rotating Double Torus Theory (DTT). It is extensively described by a cascade of articles, which are published in the vixra-archive by the author. However, although Majorana-particles will contribute very likely to the development of stable quantum-computers in the near future, they also can be implemented in this new cosmological theory. This introduces a completely new aspect of cosmology, and despite how hard it is to get acknowledgement for the DTT, it also might contribute to the understanding of evidence that is already available for the rotation of the new universe. This paper also explains why the match of the Majorana matter-force and the DTT, leads to a principle of an anti-gravitational machine based on the control of the combination Majorana-DTT-dynamics.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[8832] **viXra:1410.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-16 11:34:12*

**Authors:** Alexander N. Balatsky

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The radius of a void particle is proposed as a basic invariant scale of the universe; analytically defined, this invariant allows us to reveal: (i) an analytical relation describing the interaction of fundamental forces of nature on both quantum and cosmological scales; (ii) the analytical form and cosmological meaning of the fine structure constant; (iii) the origin of time, and the role of gravity as regards entropy dissipation. On the basis of the latter claim, it is argued that inevitable entropy growth does not necessarily result in ultimate chaos.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8831] **viXra:1410.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-16 11:56:40*

**Authors:** Branko Zivlak

**Comments:** 6 Pages. 9 Formulas, 1 Table

I have calculated a relation significant for planets from a logical starting point that a whole and its parts are immanently depandant on each other.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[8830] **viXra:1410.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-16 12:17:13*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 1 Page. do review; I am author in Physical Review

Perhaps is found mistake in most reputable journal (after the "Nature"), therefore the Doomsday can be more far away. Objection "there is Dark Matter, so General Relativity is wrong" is rejected in "Dmitri Martila, "Simplest Explanation of Dark Matter and Dark Energy", LAP LAMBERT, 2013.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8829] **viXra:1410.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-16 08:45:54*

**Authors:** Vladimir Komarov

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

Periodic system of elements in the form in which it exists today is just a convenient form of presentation of the late XIX early XX centuries. It does not fit into the Unified System of combinatorial evolution, adaptation and selection. It is in no way affiliated with the fundamental concept of nature - symmetry. It does not allow clear and easy to determine the accuracy of the experimental data for the nuclei of atoms and ions and their electron shells in general. In this work, an attempt was made to consider a set of atomic nuclei as a combination of a proton and a neutron with repetitions. Constructed a new form of chemical elements. On the example of the first twenty elements analyzed ionization energy of atoms. On the basis of previously made representations on unitary symmetry derived equation - conservation laws. It is shown that a significant number of data for the ionization energies of atoms were measured not accurately enough.
Keywords: Periodic table, Combinatorics, Homologous series, Unitary Symmetry, Ionization energy of the atoms.

**Category:** Chemistry

[8828] **viXra:1410.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-15 21:38:27*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Previous theoretical and empirical studies of the effects of religion on adherents' prosociality have focused, almost entirely on the intragroup and intergroup aspects of religion, as facilitators of prosocial attitudes and behaviors. The moral values preached by various religions were treated inseparably, as part of a whole of religious practices, which contribute to the evolution of cohesive, more adapted, large groups. The present research takes another direction by addresses the question pertaining to the intrinsic effects of religious moral principle on its adherents' economic behavior. For symmetric and asymmetric economic interactions between two rational individuals who nonetheless follow the moral maxim "treat others as you treat yourself", we solved for the divisions of profit which guarantee equal levels of satisfaction of the interacting parties
As expected, for the symmetric case, modeled as a symmetric two-person resource dilemma (CPR) game, we find that adherence to the discussed moral principle prescribes an equal division of the shared resource. For the asymmetric game, modelled as a dictator game, the solution depends on the assumption made about how outcome satisfaction is measured. Under the conventional definition of level of satisfaction as the difference between actual and aspired outcomes, the model prescribes a division of (2/3 , 1/3), for the allocator and recipient, respectively. Strikingly, under a new definition which compares the actual and aspired outcomes on a ratio scale, rather than a difference scale, the model prescribes a division (Φ, 1- Φ), or ≈ (0.62, 0.38), for the allocator and recipient, respectively, where Φ is the famous Golden Ratio. We discuss the obtained solutions, suggest experimental tests of their predictions and comment about possible connection between human's perception of fairness and their aesthetic tastes.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[8827] **viXra:1410.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-15 04:59:52*

**Authors:** M.Grinshtein

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The present article reviews modern hypotheses for cancer cells division and provides author’s empirical data on cancer etiology detection and the mechanism of cancer cells division from the viewpoint of the information-wave medicine.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[8826] **viXra:1410.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-14 15:51:34*

**Authors:** Oliver R Jovanovic

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Proton rest mass near massive neutron star is identical to electrons rest mass at the Earth surface.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[8825] **viXra:1410.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-14 16:22:37*

**Authors:** Paris S. Miles-Brenden

**Comments:** 27 Pages. Rough finalized draft of paper.

There exist scales in the descriptions of both quantum mechanics and general relativity. For instance there is the quantity hbar in quantum mechanics and the quantity c in special and general relativity. The general invariance of these quantities is important to the given theories, as it sets a scale for physics.
It is hypothesized that general relativity and quantum mechanics possess mutually independent, covariant representations with these quantities setting scales of evolution. In spaces of constant curvature, particles in inertial freefall either separate or come together as an aspect of these scales and the given energy momentum in quantum mechanics and general relativity. This topic is discussed in the context
of inertial eigenstates for a system with a background spin field. This results in a generally covariant like behavior of the electromagnetic interaction, which has properties analogous to a gravitational system. The implication of this is the appearance of a gap to excitations and other features strongly related to
superconductivity, as well as features appropriate to the treatment of separation of two hydrogen atoms in space and time. It is shown that a flat apparently expanding space is a consequence of these contributions, and that an energy momentum gap is predicted from this theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8824] **viXra:1410.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-14 21:51:40*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The paper extends the mathematical formalism of quantum physics to include economics. The novelty of the approach is based upon a human-factor-based behavioral model of an intelligent agent. The model is quantum inspired: it is represented by a modified Madelung equation in which the gradient of quantum potential is replaced by a specially chosen information force. It consists of motor dynamics simulating actual behavior of the agent, and mental dynamics representing evolution of the corresponding knowledge base and incorporating this knowledge in the form of information flows into the motor dynamics. Due to feedback from mental dynamics, the motor dynamics attains quantum-like properties: its trajectory splits into a family of different trajectories, and each of those trajectories can be chosen with the probability prescribed by the mental dynamics. All of these departures actually extend and complement the classical methods making them especially successful in analysis of communications of agents represented by new mathematical formalism.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[8823] **viXra:1410.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-14 13:14:47*

**Authors:** T. Prabhakar Reddy, S. Sambasiva Rao, P. Ramu

**Comments:** 13 Pages. This paper has been published in Journal of Physical Education and Sports Science, pp.226-234,Vol 2, 2014. ISSN 2229-7049.

Unpredictable game of the limited-over cricket brings with it excitement for the audience, expecting mayhem on the field. The huge expectation of audience to watch a good match may be ruined with an interruption due to bad weather or circumstances. Therefore, it is very much necessary to adjust the target score at the time of resumption of an interrupted match in a reasonable manner. Several mathematical models for resetting the target in interrupted one-day international (ODI) cricket matches are available in the literature; none of them is optimal for Twenty20 (T20) format to apply. The purpose of this note is to review the existing Rain Rules to reset the targets in an interrupted ODI cricket matches and to propose a method for resetting the targets in an interrupted T20 cricket match with suitable illustrative examples.

**Category:** Statistics

[8822] **viXra:1410.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-14 14:32:23*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Work in progress

The experimental discovery of the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has effectively disqualified all Higgs-less models developed prior to July 2012. Today, despite its conclusive validation, the Higgs sector of the Standard Model (SM) remains a largely uncharted territory. This raises the following question: Are there any hidden insights brought up by Higgs-less models that can still be beneficial for the on-going research in particle physics? Pursuing this thought, we re-examine here Moffat’s scenario based on a finite electroweak Lagrangian built outside the Higgs paradigm. Unlike the original proposal, we place the model on a spacetime support equipped with minimal fractality. In doing so, we find that the theory is perturbatively well-behaved at large scattering cross-sections and that it gracefully connects with the conventional formulation of the SM in the limit of vanishing fractality.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8821] **viXra:1410.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-14 04:47:25*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The scale-symmetric physics (S-SET) leads to the atom-like structure of baryons containing the core, composed of entangled or/and confined Einstein-spacetime components, which is the black hole in respect of strong interactions. The structure of the core leads to conclusion that at high energy proton-proton collisions we should detect 25% more electrons than muons. On the other hand, at the LHC Physics conference in New York City (June 2014) the LHCb collaboration announced that probably there appear 25% more electrons than muons. In the Standard Model the electrons and muons (in the S-SET as well) are the particles of the same type so number of electrons and muons should be the same. This 25 percent excess of electrons follows from the internal structure of the core of baryons described within S-SET whereas within the Standard Model such excess is incomprehensible i.e. suggests existence of new physics. Just S-SET is the lacking part of ultimate theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8820] **viXra:1410.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-13 23:20:45*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This article is the transcript of the audio-visual presentation titled ‘Wormholes: Science Fiction or Pure Fantasy?’ [7] prior to Hollywood’s release of the movie ‘Interstellar’, the plot of which involves astronauts travelling through a wormhole to save the Human Race. It is explained in simply terms why the wormhole has no relation to reality, just as the black hole has no relation to reality.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8819] **viXra:1410.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-14 02:35:59*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

This article is a summary, and partial revision, of ideas in my previous articles on the vixra.org ePrint archive (hopefully, all previous errors have been detected and corrected). It provides answers to the questions of what dark energy and dark matter are. It also links dark energy to gravitation, and gravity to mass (as the producer, not the product, of mass); as well as linking gravity to creation of black holes, and of electromagnetism and the nuclear forces. The end result is an original picture of everything cosmological, from the overall universe of space-time to the quantum world of string theory. The picture is developed from experiments as well as theory; and is of a universe that is fundamentally mathematical and electronic. The paper explains time travel to the past, giving it practical use and providing an alternative to the 3 concepts of a “primordial soup” creating life (evolution explains adaptations, not origins), a supernatural God and the multiverse. It culminates in sections entitled “Speculations Concerning Future Humanity” and “Quantum Gravity Personalized”.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8818] **viXra:1410.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-13 09:47:33*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Steinhauer black hole is an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate containing an analogue black-hole horizon and an inner horizon as in a charged black hole (online it was published on 12 October 2014). Jeff Steinhauer observed the exponential growth of a standing wave between the horizons. On the other hand, the scale-symmetric physics (S-SET) leads to the charged core of baryons which is the charged black hole in respect of strong interactions producing two horizons, i.e., the luminal-spin-speed horizon in distance A = 0.69744 fm and the luminal-radial-speed horizon in distance 2A. On both horizons are produced the virtual bosons with an energy of 282.9 MeV for which the characteristic length is equal to A. Such virtual bosons appear in the liquid-like-plasma theory, in the cosmic-neutrino-background theory and in the theory of the spin-1 and spin-3 charmed, strange D resonances with a mass of 2860 MeV. The Steinhauer black hole with two horizons is an analog to the charged core of baryons and an analog to the neutron black holes. The structures of the charged core of baryons and of the neutron black holes, producing two horizons, were described already in 1997 (online it was published on 6 March 2012). This leads to conclusion that the Steinhauer discovery is the indirect evidence for existence of the charged core of baryons described within S-SET.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8817] **viXra:1410.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-13 10:09:31*

**Authors:** Huang Jianwen, Yang Hongyan

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Let
$\{X_n,~n\geq1\}$ be independent and identically distributed random
variables with each $X_n$ following skew normal distribution. Let
$M_n=\max\{X_k,~1\leq k\leq n\}$ denote the partial maximum of
$\{X_n,~n\geq1\}$. Liao et al. (2014) considered the convergence
rate of the distribution of the maxima for random variables obeying
the skew normal distribution under linear normalization. In this
paper, we
obtain the asymptotic distribution of the maximum under power
normalization and normalizing constants as well as the associated pointwise convergence rate under power
normalization.

**Category:** Statistics

[8816] **viXra:1410.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-13 11:27:36*

**Authors:** Manfred Buth

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The task to be carried out should be clear from the title. The
reason for choosing wave mechanics as a starting point was the
estimation that the present state of quantum field theory is not
acceptable. There are two essential points in the construction
presented here: First of all the role of interaction is
adequately respected in it. Secondly a new attack is made to
solve the old problem of describing elementary particles by
stable wave packets, but this time with all means nowadays being
available. Perturbation theory can be applied to solve the field
equation. But the Feynman rules and the prescription for the
exchange terms cannot be deduced in quantum field theory,
whatever version of it is chosen. The result of the present
construction shall be called quantum wave theory. It reveals to
be both, a field theory and a quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8815] **viXra:1410.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-13 07:58:09*

**Authors:** Maik Becker-Sievert

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Every Integer stands in the center of two Integer-Primes

**Category:** Number Theory

[8814] **viXra:1410.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-13 08:51:55*

**Authors:** John Malcolm Newell

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Successful repeats of Roger Shawyer’s emdrive experiment, originally conducted at SPR Ltd. in the UK, present General Relativity with a paradox of action without equal and opposite reaction. The results from this experiment will find their simplest explanation in Mach’s Principal if we can resolve the interaction between electrical conduction in its reflectors and acceleration of remote charges. Special Relativity establishes that the emission and absorption of a photon occurs when those events are synchronous in complex time. Photons exist as independent entities from a point perspective in real time but from the covariant perspective they are not separate from the matter emitting and absorbing their energy. This allows the possibility that Shawyer’s emdrive may be gaining traction from the remote universe by induction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8813] **viXra:1410.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-13 04:16:43*

**Authors:** S. Roy

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper a slightly stronger version of the Second Hardy-Littlewood
Conjecture, namely the inequality $\pi(x) + \pi(y) > \pi(x + y)$ is examined,
where $\pi(x)$ denotes the number of primes not exceeding $x$. It is shown
that there the inequalty holds for all suciently large $x$ and $y$.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8812] **viXra:1410.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-12 19:41:45*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Reference: http://www.sifferkoll.se/sifferkoll/wpcontent/uploads/2014/10/LuganoReportSubmit.pdf (Oct 2014) http://www.e-catworld.com/2014/10/08/e-cat-report-released/ 8th October 2014

During E-CAT test run some hidden and unknown energy is being coming out in the form of heat energy in large quantity. Based on the principle of conservation of energy and from the well known nuclear fusion and fission reactions it is possible to guess that, the E-CAT hidden energy may be in the form of binding of protons and neutrons of the Nickel and Lithium atomic nuclei. By considering the nuclear binding energies of , and an attempt is made to understand the energy liberation mechanism in E-CAT. With reference to the net energy production of (5825 ± 10%) Mega Joules liberated from one gram Ni of the E-CAT’s 32 days third party test run, it can be suggested that, for every transformation of 28Ni56 to 28Ni62 via 3Li7, liberated heat energy is 3.64 MeV and for one gram of liberated energy is 5984 Mega Joules. For each transformation of 28Ni56 to 28Ni62 via 3Li7 , 3 hydrogen atoms can be expected to be emitted. Note that, energy liberated for one gram of Nickel 58 in cold fusion is 1.66 MWh and energy liberated for one gram of uranium 235 in nuclear fission is 22.6 MWh. Clearly speaking, energy released in E-CAT is just 13.6 times less than the energy released in Uranium 235 fission.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[8811] **viXra:1410.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-12 20:37:52*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is shown that the assumption that the rate at which our clocks are running is decreasing with the cosmological time in a universe with steady expansion rate is preferable to the assumption of the accelerating expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8810] **viXra:1410.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-13 00:58:57*

**Authors:** Christian Corda

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A historical experiment by Kündig on the transverse Doppler shift in a rotating system measured with the Mössbauer effect (Mössbauer rotor experiment) has been recently first re-analyzed and then replied by an experimental research group. The results of re-analyzing the experiment have shown that a correct re-processing of Kündig's experimental data gives an interesting deviation of a relative redshift between emission and absorption resonant lines from the standard prediction based on the relativistic dilatation of time. That prediction gives a redshift \frac{\nabla E}{E}\simeq-\frac{1}{2}\frac{v^{2}}{c^{2}}
where v
is the tangential velocity of the absorber of resonant radiation, c
is the velocity of light in vacuum and the result is given to the accuracy of first-order in \frac{v^{2}}{c^{2}}
. Data re-processing gave \frac{\nabla E}{E}\simeq-k\frac{v^{2}}{c^{2}}
with k=0.596\pm0.006
. Subsequent new experimental results by the reply of Kündig experiment have shown a redshift with k=0.68\pm0.03
instead.
Abstract By using Einstein Equivalence Principle, which states the equivalence between the gravitational "force" and the pseudo-force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial frame of reference (included a rotating frame of reference) here we re-analyze the theoretical framework of Mössbauer rotor experiments directly in the rotating frame of reference by using a general relativistic treatment. It will be shown that previous analyses missed an important effect of clock synchronization and that the correct general relativistic prevision in the rotating frame gives k\simeq\frac{2}{3}
in perfect agreement with the new experimental results. Such an effect of clock synchronization has been missed in various papers in the literature with some subsequent claim of invalidity of relativity theory and/or some attempts to explain the experimental results through “exotic” effects. Our general relativistic interpretation shows, instead, that the new experimental results of the Mössbauer rotor experiment are a new, strong and independent, proof of Einstein general relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8809] **viXra:1410.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-12 14:59:27*

**Authors:** James Russel

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We derive the minimum strength score require for a character to throw an object off the Earth in
the d20 roleplaying system. By examining a "worst case" scenario involving air resistance, we show
that the presence of the atmosphere induces a negligible correction to the minimum strength score,
which is 114 for a Medium creature throwing another Medium creature off the Earth.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[8808] **viXra:1410.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-12 09:18:30*

**Authors:** Chenglian LIU, Jian YE

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The Goldbach's conjecture has plagued mathematicians for over two hundred and seventy years. Whether a professional or an amateur enthusiast, all
have been fascinated by this question. Why do mathematicians have no way to solve this problem? Up until now, Chen has been recognized for the most concise
proof his “1 + 2” theorem in 1973. In this article, the author will use elementary concepts to describe and indirectly prove the Goldbach conjecture.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8807] **viXra:1410.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-12 10:19:18*

**Authors:** Felix M. Lev

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

It is shown that in a quantum theory over a Galois field, the famous Dirac's result about antiparticles is generalized such that a particle and its antiparticle are already combined at the level of irreducible representations of the symmetry algebra without assuming the existence of a local covariant
equation. We argue that the very existence of antiparticles is a strong indication that nature is described by a finite field rather than by complex numbers.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8806] **viXra:1410.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-12 11:37:20*

**Authors:** Ray Fleming

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The common statement of the principle of conservation of energy fails to take into account the energy of the vacuum, the zero-point energy. What happens for example when a body of matter displaces the local vacuum and reduces the local zero-point energy? In a prior paper the author determined that the mass-energy of electron and proton is equivalent to the zero-point energy they displace.1 This opens up the intriguing possibility that the principle of conservation of energy should be restated, the total amount of energy including zero-point energy is constant. This paper will include investigations of how different forms of energy can be seen as a displacement of zero-point energy thus confirming the modified principle of conservation of energy. This principle of conservation of energy can also be stated as; the net energy of space is always zero after the baseline zero-point energy is subtracted. In terms of classical forms of energy, there is no net energy in the universe. That leads to the interesting observation that there is no energy beyond the ever-present zero-point energy and thus no problem with regard to the origin of energy.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[8805] **viXra:1410.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-12 06:30:38*

**Authors:** J. Foukzon, Podosenov S A, Potapov A A, Menkova ER

**Comments:** 83 Pages.

Quantum cosmology space-time negative fractal dimension and quantum-perturbative model of vacuum Einstein-Gliner-Zel'dovich and Sakharov induced gravity in a Riemannian space of negative fractal dimension is developed
J. Foukzon,Podosenov S.A, Potapov A.A, Menkova E.R
Nonholonomic, fractal and related structures in the relativistic continuous media, electrodynamics, quantum mechanics and cosmology: Asymptotic methods in problems of classical and fractal pulse electrodynamics and quantum cosmology in the space. Vol.3
2015 paperback. In press.
ISBN 978-5-9710-1525-3
http://translate.google.co.il/translate?hl=en&sl=ru&u=http://urss.ru/cgi-bin/db.pl%3Flang%3DRu%26blang%3Dru%26page%3DBook%26id%3D191199&prev=/search%3Fq%3D%25D0%259F%25D0%25BE%25D0%25B4%25D0%25BE%25D1%2581%25D0%25B5%25D0%25BD%25D0%25BE%25D0%25B2%2B%25D0%25A1.%25D0%2590.,%2B%25D0%259F%25D0%25BE%25D1%2582%25D0%25B0%25D0%25BF%25D0%25BE%25D0%25B2%2B%25D0%2590.%25D0%2590.,%2B%25D0%25A4%25D0%25BE%25D1%2583%25D0%25BA%25D0%25B7%25D0%25BE%25D0%25BD%2B%25D0%2594%25D0%25B6.,%2B%25D0%259C%25D0%25B5%25D0%25BD%25D1%258C%25D0%25BA%25D0%25BE%25D0%25B2%25D0%25B0%2B%25D0%2595.%25D0%25A0.%26biw%3D1024%26bih%3D599

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8804] **viXra:1410.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-11 20:50:39*

**Authors:** Choe Ryong Gil

**Comments:** 8 pages, 2 tables

In this paper we consider the Riemann hypothesis by the primorial numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8803] **viXra:1410.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-12 03:43:38*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A presentation of various formulas is given. Many of these findings have no explanation
whatsoever. One is related to the mass ratio of the neutron and proton: 1.00137841917. They
were found using a variety of methods using either a HP‐15C calculator in 1988 to the current
database of constants of the author which consist of 12.3 billion entries.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8802] **viXra:1410.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-11 17:40:46*

**Authors:** J. Foukzon, A. A. Potapov, S. A. Podosenov

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A number of experiments on trapped single ions or atoms have been performed in recent years [1,2,3,4]. Monitoring the intensity of scattered laser light off of such systems has shown abrupt changes that have been cited as evidence of "quantum jumps" between states of the scattered ion or atom . The existence of such jumps was required by Bohr in his theory of the atom. Bohr’s quantum jumps between atomic states [5] were the first form of quantum dynamics to be postulated. He assumed that an atom remained in an atomic eigenstate until it made an instantaneous jump to another state with the emission or absorption of a photon. Since these jumps do not appear to occur in solutions of the Schrodinger equation, something similar to Bohr's idea has been added as an extra postulate in modern quantum mechanics.
Stochastic quantum jump equations [6], [7],[8]were introduced as a tool for simulating the dynamics of a dissipative system with a large Hilbert space and their links with quantum measurement the or were also noted [9],[10],[11],[12],[13].This measurement interpretation is generally known as quantum trajectory theory [14].By adding filter cavities as part of the apparatus, even the quantum jumps in the dressed state model can be interpreted as approximations to measurement-induced jumps [15].
The question arises whether an explanation of these jumps can be found to result from an Colombeau solution [16]-[18] of the Schrödinger equation alone without additional postulates. We found exact quasi-classical asymptotic of the quantum averages.The physical interpretation of these asymptotics given below, shows that the answer is "yes."

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8801] **viXra:1410.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-11 09:53:33*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** In portuguese. 2 pages of print computer.

Fortunately I found the classical proof of the unexplained precession of the perihelion of Mercury.
It is completely given by the Laplace theory, the same used by Stockwell, but with current values of the planetary masses, added to the satellites, and a calculation in longer series, done by computer. That is, recalculated the coefficients (0, k) e [0, k] and used the coefficients of adjustments mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8800] **viXra:1410.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-11 10:44:25*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 6 Pages. HISTORY OF SUBMITTING is presented

It is shown that spin of a light wave is absorbed by all surface of an absorbing plate, while the edge of the plate absorbs orbital angular momentum. Absorption of electrodynamics spin cannot be expressed in terms of the energy-momentum tensor. Spin tensor is needed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[8799] **viXra:1410.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-10 17:20:16*

**Authors:** Tian Hao

**Comments:** 24 pages, 10 figures, under peer review

New conduction equations are derived on the basis of Eyring’s rate process theory and free volume
concept. The basic assumptions are that electrons traveling from one equilibrium position to the
other may obey Eyring’s rate process theory; the traveling distance is governed by the free volume
available to each electron by assuming that electrons may have a spherical physical shape with an
imaginative eﬀective radius. The obtained equations predict that the superconductivity happens
only when electrons form certain structures of a relative small coordinate number like Cooper pair at
low temperatures; If each electron has a large coordinate number such as 8 when electrons form the
body-centered-cubic (bcc) lattice structure like Wigner crystal, the predicted conductivity decreases
instead increases when temperatures approach to zero. The electron condensation structures have
a big impact on the conductivity. A sharp conductivity decrease at low temperatures, probably
due to an Anderson transition, is predicted even when the Cooper pair is formed and the electrons
can only travel short distances; While the Mott transition appears when crystalline structures like
Wigner crystal form. On the other hand, the electron pairing or called the strong spin-spin coupling
is predicted to induce Kondo eﬀect when electrons are assumed to travel a very short distance. The
Anderson localization seems to have a lot of similarities as Kondo eﬀect such as electron pairing
and low traveling distances of electrons at low temperatures. The Cooper pair that is the essence
of BCS theory for superconductivity and the spin-spin coupling that is the cause for Kondo eﬀect
seem to contradict each other, but are seamlessly united in our current conductivity equations. The
topological insulators become the natural occurrences of our equations, as both Kondo insulator
and superconductivity share a same physical origin–the electron pairs, but the electrons just travel
diﬀerent distances at these two cases. A material containing an element of a high electro-negativity
(or high ionization energy) and an element of a low electro-negativity(or low ionization energy) may
form a good topological insulator and superconductor. Any magnetic element, like Iron, Nickel, and
Cobalt, that has unpaired electrons and can induce Kondo eﬀect as a dopant, could be a very good
superconductor candidate once it is synthesized together with other proper elements of low electro-
negativity (for example forming pnictide superconductors). The numbers of both conduction and
valence electrons and the volume of a material under investigation have positive impacts on the
conductivity. Any method that may increase the numbers of both conduction and valence electrons
may move the superconductivity transition temperatures to higher regions. Any method that may
reduce the volume of the material like external pressure seems to lower transition temperatures,
unless that the applied pressure is so high that the electron density between the chemical bonds
increases. The derived equations are in good agreement with the currently observed experimental
phenomena. The current work may shed light on the mechanisms of superconductivity, presenting
clues on how to move the superconductivity transition temperatures to higher regions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[8798] **viXra:1410.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-10 22:19:00*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This short note posits the indisputable physical law prescribing that distance = velocity x time, and shows that this proposition contradicts Special Relativity, such that the above proposition is correct and Special Relativity is incorrect, or vice versa.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4006] **viXra:1410.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-21 17:30:41*

**Authors:** A. Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Perfecting the demonstration

This proof uses a congruence, which is implicit in the condition, mandatory, demonstrated by Euler. More precisely, a congruence that must be fulfilled in the equation that equals the odd number 2N, with Euler condition, and the formula for the sum of the divisors of the number N. Following a rigorous and meticulous way, this mandatory congruence; a final equation is obtained after several polynomials simplifications on both sides of the original equation that equals the number 2N with the sum of the divisors of the number N. With this final equation, the impossibility of the existence of odd perfect numbers is demonstrated by applying several lemmas ,which lead to the impossibility of the existence of odd perfect numbers by the impossibility of satisfiability of a condition of parity and thus lead to the inexistence of odd perfect numbers \;2N=\sigma(N)\;
is fulfilled.

**Category:** Number Theory

[4005] **viXra:1410.0095 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-20 07:02:29*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

We present in this first part of the article a summary of the theories of Le Verrier, Stockwell and Laplace on the secular precession of the perihelion of the planets, especially Mercury, leaving part 2 a review of the theory of Mercury from Le Verrier, comments Newcomb on anomalies of Mercury and a description of how the observed values were obtained by Clemence, important reference cited by Weinberg. Also shown is one more hypothesis for the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, a decrease in the mass of the Sun, rather than an increase in the mass of the planets, similar to what has been done with the assumption of the solar wind. This new assumption, however, appears to be unnecessary before most important fact here presented. An exact theoretical value was classically obtained following the theory of Stockwell, based on planetary theory of Laplace, your Mécanique Céleste: we find 5600'',84 of arc per century for the angular velocity of the longitude of the perihelion of Mercury, dw/dt, adding the precession of the equinoxes of the Earth relative to the beginning of the year 1850, as calculated by Stockwell.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4004] **viXra:1410.0091 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-21 05:52:06*

**Authors:** Peter H. Michalicka

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The curvature of the space is the Gravitation Constant G.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4003] **viXra:1410.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-18 17:53:29*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Previous theoretical and empirical studies of the effects of religion on adherent prosociality have focused, almost entirely, on the intragroup and intergroup aspects of religion, as facilitators of prosocial attitudes and behavior. The moral values preached by various religions were treated inseparably from other religious practices, which contribute to the evolution of cohesive, more adapted and larger groups. The present research takes another direction by addressing the question of the intrinsic effects of religious moral principles on the economic behavior of its adherents.
For this purpose I consider simple symmetric and asymmetric economic interactions between two rational individuals who nonetheless obey the moral maxim “treat others as you treat yourself,” considered to be of highest importance by most religions. I solve for the divisions of a shared resource that guarantee equal levels of satisfaction by the interacting parties. As expected, for the symmetric case, adherence to the aforementioned maxim prescribes an equal division of the resource. Strikingly, for the asymmetric case, the prescribed division is one in which the decision maker keeps Φ (and transfers to the recipient 1- Φ), where Φ is the famous golden ratio (≈ 0.618), known for its unique aesthetic properties. I further show that the same solution could be obtained if we replace the above maxim’s constraint with an efficient sanctioning mechanism.
I conclude by discussing the numerical identity between the derived fair division and the aesthetically pleasing perceptions of humans. I suggest an experimental test for the hypothesis: fair (just) = fair (beautiful). I then consider the possibility of an evolutionary link between our sense of fairness and our aesthetic tastes, and between the two and the animate and inanimate world in which we live.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[4002] **viXra:1410.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-21 04:52:00*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

The Illustris supercomputer simulation of the universe models a huge chunk of the universe: a cube 350 million light years across, and home to tens of thousands of galaxies. The final words in a TV program about it (“Virtual Universe” on the Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s “Catalyst” – Oct. 16, 2014) are
"On the left is the real Hubble image. On the right is the one from the mock Hubble. The two were extraordinarily similar. Illustris shows we do now understand the basics of how our universe evolved."
The extraordinary similarity does not show we understand the basics. If the universe is represented as the numeral 1, there's more than one way to arrive at that number e.g. 2-1 or 3-2. Illustris takes one way, this article takes a different approach. Both can describe the cosmos but since the cosmos only has one history, both cannot be correct. Nevertheless, "Quantum Gravity Personalized" does say that the universe is indeed a computer simulation. This sounds outrageous, perhaps it would be better to say "an outgrowth of computer simulation". This is explained throughout the article, as are original interpretations of the basics (including the universe, string theory, gravity, computer science, topology, wave-particle duality, the wave function of the universe, the Holographic Quantum Model, and the Unified Field with its application not just in mathematics but also in human activities).
This article is a summary, and partial revision, of ideas in my previous articles on the vixra.org ePrint archive (hopefully, all previous errors have been detected and corrected). It provides answers to the questions of what dark energy and dark matter are. It also links dark energy to gravitation, and gravity to mass (as the producer, not the product, of mass); as well as linking gravity to creation of black holes, and of electromagnetism and the nuclear forces. The end result is an original picture of everything cosmological, from the overall universe of space-time to the quantum world of string theory. The picture is developed from experiments as well as theory; and is of a universe that is fundamentally mathematical and electronic. The paper explains time travel to the past, giving it practical use and providing an alternative to the 3 concepts of a “primordial soup” creating life (evolution explains adaptations, not origins), a supernatural God and the multiverse. It culminates in sections entitled “Speculations Concerning Future Humanity” and “Quantum Gravity Personalized”.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4001] **viXra:1410.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-18 07:04:05*

**Authors:** S. Roy

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper a slightly stronger version of the Second Hardy-Littlewood Conjecture, namely that inequality $\pi(x)+\pi(y) > \pi (x+y)$ s examined, where $\pi(x)$ denotes the number of
primes not exceeding $x$. It is shown that the inequality holds for all sufficiently large x and y. It has also been shown that for a given value of $y \geq 55$ the inequality $\pi(x)+\pi(y) > \pi (x+y)$ holds for all sufficiently large $x$. Finally, in the concluding section an argument has been given to completely settle the conjecture.

**Category:** Number Theory

[4000] **viXra:1410.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-13 07:49:37*

**Authors:** S. Roy

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper a slightly stronger version of the Second Hardy-Littlewood
Conjecture, namely the inequality $\pi(x) + \pi(y) > \pi(x + y)$ is examined,
where $\pi(x)$ denotes the number of primes not exceeding $x$. It is shown
that there the inequalty holds for all suciently large $x$ and $y$.

**Category:** Number Theory

[3999] **viXra:1410.0061 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-22 16:05:56*

**Authors:** Denise Vella-Chemla

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

On propose une modélisation des décompositions binaires de Goldbach dans un langage à 4 lettres qui permettent de découvrir des relations invariantes entre nombres de décompositions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[3998] **viXra:1410.0061 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-18 14:41:35*

**Authors:** Denise Vella-Chemla

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

On propose une modélisation des décompositions binaires de Goldbach dans un langage à 4 lettres qui permettent de découvrir des relations invariantes entre nombres de décompositions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[3997] **viXra:1410.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-19 01:42:06*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 6 Pages. new formulas for mass ratios

A presentation of various formulas is given. Many of these findings have no explanation
whatsoever. One is related to the mass ratio of the neutron and proton: 1.00137841917. Other
expression are given to the mass ratio of the neutron and the electron. They were found using a
variety of methods using either a HP‐15C calculator in 1988 to the current database of constants
of the author which consist of 13.155 billion entries.

**Category:** Number Theory

[3996] **viXra:1410.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-18 18:42:23*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 6 Pages. an additional formula for the mass ratio of the proton and electron : 1/5/sinh(Pi)+6*Pi^5+1/5/cosh(Pi)

A presentation of various formulas is given. Many of these findings have no explanation
whatsoever. One is related to the mass ratio of the neutron and proton: 1.00137841917. They
were found using a variety of methods using either a HP‐15C calculator in 1988 to the current
database of constants of the author which consist of 12.3 billion entries.

**Category:** Number Theory

[3995] **viXra:1410.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-14 08:56:01*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Fortunately I found the classical proof of the unexplained precession of the perihelion of Mercury.
It is completely given by the Laplace theory, the same used by Stockwell, but with current values of the planetary masses, added to the satellites, and a calculation in longer series, done by computer. That is, recalculated the coefficients (0, k) e [0, k] and used the coefficients of adjustments mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3994] **viXra:1410.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-13 12:40:45*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** In portuguese. 3 pages, with 2 pages of print computer´s.

Fortunately I found the classical proof of the unexplained precession of the perihelion of Mercury.
It is completely given by the Laplace theory, the same used by Stockwell, but with current values of the planetary masses, added to the satellites, and a calculation in longer series, done by computer. That is, recalculated the coefficients (0, k) e [0, k] and used the coefficients of adjustments mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3993] **viXra:1410.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-11 19:50:05*

**Authors:** Jonathan Tooker

**Comments:** 1 Page. Occupy America, updated draft

Occupy America

**Category:** Quantum Physics