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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[27778] viXra:1902.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-14 05:56:45

LED in Reverse Cool Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

In a finding that runs counter to a common assumption in physics, researchers at the University of Michigan ran a light emitting diode (LED) with electrodes reversed in order to cool another device mere nanometers away. [42] With enhanced understanding of this system, the Quantum Dynamics Unit aims to improve upon the industry standard for qubits – bits of quantum information. [41]
Category: Quantum Physics

[27777] viXra:1902.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-14 07:38:50

Merging Neutron Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

The opportunity to measure the gravitational waves of two merging neutron stars could offer answers to some of the fundamental questions about the structure of matter. [42] Experiments in astrophysics and nuclear and particle physics are crucial to analyse how the universe works. [41] A team of researchers at the University of Chicago has developed a circuit platform for the exploration of quantum matter made of strongly interacting microwave photons. [40]
Category: Astrophysics

[27776] viXra:1902.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-14 08:24:08

MAN1: Tracking the Crypter and the Actor

Authors: Jason Reaves
Comments: 24 Pages. Malware Research; PE Cryptor

In the world of malware crypters and packers are often time considered throwaway by researchers, it’s also fairly common to use them as training tools for junior personnel. In a way most obfuscations are treated as training, learning or for games like CTF(Capture The Flag). So it’s probably not surprising that lots of researchers don’t pay much attention to these layers. These layers can be used especially when you find some of the more sophisticated ones that tend to stick around for longer periods of time. While probably not as useful as tracking an actor to a backend system, these malware artifacts can provide valuable clues, serving as tools, techniques and procedures (TTPs) in tracking the ongoing operations of a specific threat actor across a wide range of operations and groups. In this case, we focus on MAN1, a sophisticated crypter dating back to 2014 that's still in use today.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[27775] viXra:1902.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-14 08:24:29

What is a Black Hole?

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Physically, a black hole is defined by the presence of a singularity, i.e., a region of space, bounded by an 'event horizon', within which the mass/energy density becomes infinite, and the normally well-behaved laws of physics no longer apply. [33] While current gravitational wave observations aren't yet sensitive enough to observe the effect, this will certainly become an important target of future experiments. [32] One of the most cataclysmic events to occur in the cosmos involves the collision of two black holes. [31]
Category: Astrophysics

[27774] viXra:1902.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-14 08:55:17

High-Speed Surveillance in Solar Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 68 Pages.

A research team at Osaka University has developed an improved method for producing microscope images that can spot speedy electrons zipping through nanomaterials used in solar panels. [43] Complex, three-dimensional (3-D) structures are regularly constructed using a reliable commercial method of 3-D laser micro- and nanoprinting. [42] A team led by University of Utah physicists has discovered how to fix a major problem that occurs in lasers made from a new type of material called quantum dots. [41]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[27773] viXra:1902.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-14 09:27:17

Machine Learning Plant's Secrets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Plants are master chemists, and Michigan State University researchers have unlocked their secret of producing specialized metabolites. [21] Marculescu, along with ECE Ph.D. student Chieh Lo, has developed a machine learning algorithm—called MPLasso—that uses data to infer associations and interactions between microbes in the GI microbiome. [20] A team of researchers from the University of Muenster in Germany has now demonstrated that this combination is extremely well suited to planning chemical syntheses—so-called retrosyntheses—with unprecedented efficiency. [19]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[27772] viXra:1902.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-14 11:04:26

An MHCE8S Flow Diagram Emphasizing Peculiar Z-Boson Phenomena and the Existence of One New Quark

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 4 Pages. I may not have much more to add to MHCE8S theory: others need to carry on!

Abstract: A forward- time, reverse-time cycle of the 4th cycle of an MHCE8S universe emphasizing peculiar Z-boson dating phenomena and one new quark making 7 in all.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[27771] viXra:1902.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-14 11:53:23

Meaning of the 5th Dimension According to the Theory of Total Relativity: Exclusive Variable for Measure of the Continuum Medium Stress

Authors: Pablo Hernan Pereyra
Comments: 5 Pages.

The meaning of the 5th Dimension is demonstrated as a variable of measure exclusive of the continuous medium for Stress and its relation with the conservation of Energy of the internal forces of matter. The Stress tensor of the continuum medium is obtained using the properties of the Quantum tensor according to the Theory of Total Relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[27770] viXra:1902.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-14 13:19:23

Refutation of Bisimulation

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

We evaluate two definitions of bisimularity, both not tautologous. That refutes bisimulation, along with its proof tools of coinduction and Howe's congruence method.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[27769] viXra:1902.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-14 16:59:49

Why The Solar Planet Motion Trajectory is An Ellipse?

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 12 Pages.

Why The Solar Planet Motion Trajectory is An Ellipse? 1-Solar planet motion real trajectory is a square 2-This square trajectory is seen by us as circular trajectory 3-The 2 forms of trajectories (square and circular) get interaction together and produce the ellipse as the planet motion final trajectory. 4-The square and circular trajectories interaction is done by Uranus and Neptune effects… 5-Saturn is the main player in the solar group geometry 6-Planet Eccentricity supports this claim
Category: Astrophysics

[27768] viXra:1902.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-14 21:55:04

Meth8/VŁ4 on One and Three in Arithmetic

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

We evaluate arithmetic using 0 and 3 as binary 00 and 11.. Arithmetic holds in nine theorems. For division by zero, the result is Not(0 and 3).
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[27767] viXra:1902.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-14 22:16:22

Recent Advances in the Meth8/VŁ4 Modal Logic Model Checker

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 619 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

We use the Meth8/VŁ4 modal logic model checker to evaluate 418 artifacts in 2283 assertions to confirm 444 as tautology and 1839 as not (80.6%).
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[27766] viXra:1902.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-15 03:36:58

Investigation of Biofield Treated Vitamin D3 to Improve Immunity of Bone Cells in MG-63 Cell Line.

Authors: Inthirani Arul, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Sambhu Charan Mondal, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 10 Pages.

The study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Consciousness Energy Healing-based vitamin D3 and DMEM on bone health in human bone osteosarcoma cells (MG-63). Test items (vitamin D3 and DMEM), were divided into two parts. One part of each sample was received the Biofield Energy Treatment by Inthirani Arul and those samples were denoted as Biofield Treated (BT) samples, while other parts of each sample were referred as untreated test items (UT). Cell viability revealed that test samples were found as safe in tested concentrations. ALP was significantly increased by 260% in BT-DMEM + BT-TI group at 0.1 µg/mL compared to UT-DMEM + UT-TI group. Moreover, collagen level was significantly increased by 102.94% and 52.94% in UT-DMEM + BT-TI and BT-DMEM + BT-TI groups, respectively at 0.1µg/mL than UT-DMEM + UT-TI group. Further, collagen level was significantly increased by 114.94%, 114.03%, and 152.33% in UT-DMEM + BT-TI, BT-DMEM + UT-TI, and BT-DMEM + BT-TI groups, respectively at 1µg/mL than untreated. Besides, percent of bone mineralization was significantly enhanced by 82.95% and 119.55% in UT-DMEM + BT-TI and BT-DMEM + BT-TI groups, respectively at 10µg/mL than untreated. Moreover, it was significantly increased by 166.44% and 212.49% in BT-DMEM + UT-TI and BT-DMEM + BT-TI groups, respectively at 50µg/mL than untreated. It was also significantly increased by 104.44%, 100%, and 230.22% in UT-DMEM + BT-TI, BT-DMEM + UT-TI, and BT-DMEM + BT-TI groups, respectively at 100µg/mL than untreated. Among three combination regimens, the Biofield Treated vitamin D3 and DMEM group was comparatively more improved the bone-related parameters and might be useful against various bone-related disorders (rickets, low bone density, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, Paget’s disease, chondrodystrophia fetalis), stress management, anti-aging, autoimmune and inflammatory disorders near future.
Category: Biochemistry

[27765] viXra:1902.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-15 04:42:33

Ultraviolet Outburst in the M87 Jet: Subluminal or Superluminal?

Authors: Giorgio Capezzali
Comments: 29 Pages. Accepted for publication in Physics Essays, Vol. 32, No. 1 (March 2019)

The observations of the M87 jet with the STIS instrument mounted on board the Hubble Space Telescope revealed that an outburst originating in the HST-1 knot occurred. Measuring the dimensions of the outburst in the epochs between 2001 July 30 and 2003 July 27 and correcting for optical illusion an expansion velocity v/c = 0.99893 +/- 0.00007 is found. However,the relativistic model fails to correctly predict the dimensions of the source and the outburst brightness. For this reason, as the apparent motion suggests, a superluminal mechanical model where even the light rays travel faster than light is introduced. By applying this model to correct for optical illusion an expansion velocity v/c = 21.8 +/- 0.7 is found along with reasonable source dimensions and brightness. This result, the study of the apparent motion of features in the M87 jet and the time-of-flight measurements of muonic neutrinos seem to confirm the possibility to travel faster than light. That does not imply a refusal of special relativity. Instead only the common interpretations of it are refused.Without them, we will also see that the so-called twin paradox does not have any reason to exist.
Category: Classical Physics

[27764] viXra:1902.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-15 04:35:12

Before We Can Find a Model, We Must Forget About Perfection

Authors: Dimiter Dobrev
Comments: 1 Page. This is a short summary.

In Reinforcement Learning we look for a model of the world. Typically, we aim to find a model which tells everything or almost everything. In other words, we hunt for a perfect model (a total determinate graph) or for an exhaustive model (Markov Decision Process). Finding such a model is an overly ambitious task and indeed a practically unsolvable problem with complex worlds. In order to solve the problem, we will replace perfect and exhaustive models with Event-Driven models.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[27763] viXra:1902.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-13 15:54:17

Higher Order Universe Saves Two Copies of the Hologram Universe

Authors: Dan Visser
Comments: 9 Pages.

It is possible to do it otherwise: I dared to transpose the dark mass-formula of Professor Erik Verlinde (UvA-NL) into my new universe-model, the RTHU, which is an abbreviation of Rotating Torus Hologram Universe. The RTHU generates the Big Bang Universe (BBU), or BBH in dutch, as a time-spatial hologram. In this setting the BBU is not fundamental, but originated from the RTHU. The RTHU is so to say more fundamental than the BBU and it that sense a ‘higher order universe’. All there is conservatively considered in the BBU is ruled by visible mass, inclusive the belonging coupled forces, and added with dark mass-dynamics and dark energy. However, in this article I show the transposition can lead to an unexpected result. The RTHU leaves a copy of the visible BBU-hologram behind at the open-torus-surface of the RTHU itself, as well as a copy within the light-horizon of black-holes. In this sense black-holes are to be transposed into the RTHU too, as I did. Moreover I show the RTHU needs dark energy for its rotation in order to drive the rotational BBU-hologram. Just as black-holes need dark energy to rotate in the RTHU. Conservatively black-holes are expected to exist in the BBU, but fundamentally considered black-holes are non-existential in the BBU and only reality as rotating black-holes in the RTHU. Inherently the Planck-boundary does not exist in the RTHU, as I described in my former article. Apparently, but theoretically, the two hologram-copies serve to secure the history of the Big Bang Hologram, which rotation causes future-changes in the RTHU and in the black-holes. These future changes seem to be verified in a natural way by the RTHU through the two hologram-copies. I don’t understand, why?
Category: Mathematical Physics

[27762] viXra:1902.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-13 17:25:16

Refutation of Surveillance Objectives

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

We evaluate an equivalence and theorem. Neither are tautologous. Hence the reduction of the multi-agent surveillance synthesis problem to solving single-sensor surveillance subgames is refuted. What follows is that surveillance objectives are non tautologous fragments of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[27761] viXra:1902.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-13 22:21:49

Supersymmetry: Natural, Beautiful, and Realistic

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 1 Page.

Ethan Siegel (Forbes 12 Feb 2019) says "... Supersymmetry may be the Greatest Failed Prediction in Particle Physics History ...". Peter Woit (10 Feb 2019 blog post and comments thereon) says "... I [Woit] don't have a well-motivated BSM [Beyond Standard Model] ... Neither does anyone else ...". What Siegel and Woit say is the Consensus View of Physicists and their Collaborations and Institutions. It is also WRONG! There exists a Natural, Beautiful Supersymmetric Physics Model that is Realistic = Consistent with Experimental Resuits and Observations. Why do Siegel, Woit, and the Consensus ignore it ? It is only published on my web site http://www.valdostamuseum.com/hamsmith/ and the viXra archive http://vixra.org/author/frank_dodd_tony_smith_jr because Consensus Physics has Blacklisted me. How does it work ? At Planck Energies it is an Octonionic model based on the Real Clifford Algebra Cl(16) with 8-dimensional Spacetime and 28 Spin(8) Gauge Bosons and 28 Ghosts and 8 Fundamental Fermion Particles and 8 Antiparticles (one generation). In the Octonionic Lagrangian each of the 28 Gauge bosons and 28 Ghosts carry 1 dimension and each of the 8+8 Fermions carry 7/2 dimensions so the 28+28 = 56 Bosonic terms are SUperSYmmetric with the (8+8) x 7/2 = 56 Fermionic terms.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[27760] viXra:1902.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-13 22:57:25

Zero and Infinity; Their Interrelation by Means of Division by Zero

Authors: Saburou Saitoh
Comments: 13 Pages. In this paper, we first fix the definitions of zero and infinity in very general senses and we will give their simple and definite relation by means of division by zero. On this problem and relation we have considered over the long history beyond mathema

In this paper, we first fix the definitions of zero and infinity in very general senses and we will give their simple and definite relation by means of division by zero. On this problem and relation we have considered over the long history beyond mathematics. As our mathematics, we will be able to obtain some definite result for the relation clearly with new concept and model since Aristotle and Euclid.
Category: General Mathematics

[27759] viXra:1902.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-13 23:19:21

The Ananda-Damayanthi-Radha-Rohith Rishi Sequence Trends Of Any Set Of Positive Real Numbers

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed the Theory Of Holistic Decomposition Of Any Set Of Prime Number, Natural Numbers, Positive Real Numbers As One Or More Sets Each With Some Periodicity Of The Number’s Non Integral Prime Basis Position Number.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[27758] viXra:1902.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-14 00:28:27

Extended GRA Strategy for Multi-Attribute Decision Making with Trapezoidal Neutrosophic Numbers

Authors: Surapati Pramanik, Rama Mallick
Comments: 10 Pages.

Multi-attribute decision making(MADM) strategy has been proposed to handle uncertain decision making problem .The most extensively used models of Grey system theory is grey relational analysis (GRA). This strategy was flourished by Chinese Professor J. Deng. This strategy also known as Deng’s Grey Incidence Analysis model. GRA uses a generic concept of intelligence. It describes any circumstance as, no information as black, and perfect information as white. Nevertheless, these idealized situations ever appear in real world problem. In this paper, we extend GRA strategy for multi attribute decision making in trapezoidal neutrosophic number (TrNN) environment. Here, we describe score and accuracy function for TrNNs. Then Hamming distance for twoTrNNs are also described. Lastly, a numerical problem is solved to explain thepertinence of the proposed strategy.
Category: General Mathematics

[27757] viXra:1902.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-14 01:46:18

Special Relativity (21st-Century-Style), Particle Physics, and the Dark Universe

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 8 Pages.

This article begins with “vector-tensor-scalar geometry” interacting photons and gravitons to produce the quantum spins of matter particles, the Higgs boson, plus the particles of the weak and strong nuclear forces. It then proposes the universe uses base-2 mathematics (a.k.a. electronics’ binary digits), the topology of Mobius strips and figure-8 Klein bottles, plus the geometry mentioned before, to produce photons and still hypothetical gravitons and non-hypothetical mass. It’s then proposed that the three-dimensional figure-8 Klein bottles composing the universe possess space-time's four dimensions (3 of space + 1 of time) when Wick rotation is programmed into them. This programming is adaptive, depending on the strength of gravity and electromagnetism (in Special Relativity, time slows in intense gravity and on approaching c, the speed of light). Because of the rotating between the x- and y-axes in Wick rotation, there’s a space-time we call imaginary or higher dimensional that is just as real as ordinary space-time. Gravity also leads to mass here - “dark” matter – and that matter’s associated “dark” energy. Back in this dimension, the Big Bang is regarded as dispensable due to the quantum-mechanical entanglement of microwave photons. And the speed of light becomes a duality – simultaneously having the two velocities of approx. 300 000, and approx. zero, km/s.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[27756] viXra:1902.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-13 05:05:09

Theory Of Holistic Decomposition Of Any Set Of Any Natural Numbers As One Or More Sets Each With Some Periodicity Of The Number’s Non Integral Prime Basis Position Number. {Version 4}

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed the Theory Of Holistic Decomposition Of Any Set Of Any Natural Numbers As One Or More Sets Each With Some Periodicity Of The Number’s Non Integral Prime Basis Position Number.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[27755] viXra:1902.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-13 05:23:19

The Proof of The ABC Conjecture - Part I: The Case c=a+1

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 6 Pages. Submitted to the The Ramanujan Journal. Comments welcome.

In this paper, we consider the abc conjecture in the case c=a+1. Firstly, we give the proof of the first conjecture that c rad(ac). We choose the constant K(\epsilon) as K(\epsilon)=e^{\left(\frac{1}{\ep*2} \right)}. A numerical example is presented.
Category: Number Theory

[27754] viXra:1902.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-13 07:40:30

Mapping Historical Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

A team led by the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe constructed a map of dark matter throughout the history of the universe by analysing images of more than ten million galaxies. [32] Key components for the sky-mapping Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), weighing about 12 tons, were hoisted atop the Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) near Tucson, Arizona, and bolted into place Wednesday, marking a major project milestone. [31]
Category: Astrophysics

[27753] viXra:1902.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-13 08:02:22

Hyperbolic Metamaterial Fingerprinting

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

Hyperbolic metamaterials are artificially made structures that can be formed by depositing alternating thin layers of a conductor such as silver or graphene onto a substrate. [41] For the first time scientists measured the vibrational structure of hydrogen and helium atoms by X-rays. [40] Laser physicists have succeeded in reducing the acquisition time for data required for reliable characterization of multidimensional electron motions by a factor of 1000. [39]
Category: Condensed Matter

[27752] viXra:1902.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-13 08:29:33

Multimaterial 3-D Laser Microprinting

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

Complex, three-dimensional (3-D) structures are regularly constructed using a reliable commercial method of 3-D laser micro- and nanoprinting. [42] A team led by University of Utah physicists has discovered how to fix a major problem that occurs in lasers made from a new type of material called quantum dots. [41] A team of researchers from the University of Central Florida and Michigan Technological University has developed a laser system concept built on the principles of supersymmetry. [40]
Category: Quantum Physics

[27751] viXra:1902.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-13 08:52:46

Mathematician Post-Stroke Therapy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

RUDN scientists have created a mathematical model describing changes in the properties of brain tissues after stroke. [37] But now, researchers from the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam have developed a way to parse this dynamic behavior into digestible chunks. [36]
Category: Mind Science

[27750] viXra:1902.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-13 08:54:51

Solar Planet Data Geometrical Concepts Disproves the Current Theory

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 14 Pages.

I claim that, the Solar group current theory and description are incorrect completely And contradict directly with the solar planet data geometrical meanings… let's discuss one example only for explanation… Example No.1 How the planet orbital distance is defined? How does the planet move? By gravity… The gravitation equation defines the planet orbital distance… ! Let's examine this answer 1st critic / Mercury – Venus – Earth ….. these 3 planets order lead us to conclude that, there's some relationship between the planet diameter and his orbital distance With a clear rule "Greater Diameter needs Greater Orbital Distance" The current theory tells us this is pure coincidences! But There's similar order (but reversed). Let's see that Jupiter – Saturn – Uranus – Neptune – Pluto The previous order tells us a reversed rule "Greater Diameter needs Shorter Orbital Distance" Something is occurred with Mars which caused the rule to be reversed after Mars! The current theory still consider this second order also as "pure Coincidences" But Uranus Diameter is greater than Neptune Diameter, where Neptune Mass is greater than Uranus… that tells us the solar planets order is done depending on the diameter and not on the mass! disproving the gravity concept …! This critic also is "pure coincidences", the current theory still insists … 2nd Critic/ If the planet moves by gravity, and defines his orbital distance by the gravitation equation, which depends on the masses, why Jupiter isn't in place of Mercury? Why the greatest Mass has no shortest orbital distance? According to the gravitation equation (m/r2)? The told answer is because of the initial points!! And why we accept the gravitation equation based on that if there's no any proof for it?! For myself I try to understand and don't believe deeply the current theory So the conclusions are clear before my eyes 1-There's A Relationship Between The Planet Diameter And His Orbital Distance 2-Mars causes Disturbance For This Relationship In this paper I provide many similar points which disprove clearly the current theory and push us to find more sufficient theory to explain the solar group origin and motion.
Category: Astrophysics

[27749] viXra:1902.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-13 09:44:57

Magnetic Nanoparticles in Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Although magnetic nanoparticles are being used more and more in cell imaging and tissue bioengineering, what happens to them within stem cells in the long term remained undocumented. [42] Hyperbolic metamaterials are artificially made structures that can be formed by depositing alternating thin layers of a conductor such as silver or graphene onto a substrate. [41]
Category: Physics of Biology

[27748] viXra:1902.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-13 11:39:51

Refutation of Prevarieties and Quasivarieties of Logic

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

We evaluate two papers by the same author group. For prevarieties, we test a theorem in M which is not tautologous. For quasivarieties, we test a definition and two theorems. The definition of a De Morgan monoid via an involution function is not tautologous. Theorems for the Dunn monoid and via Brouwerian (and Heyting) algebra are not tautologous. These results collectively refute prevarieties and quasivarieties in logic. What follows is that prevarieties and quasivarieties of logic are non tautologous fragments of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[27747] viXra:1902.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-12 15:09:13

Time in Modern Physics.

Authors: Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov
Comments: 3 Pages.

Modern physics is built and based on the concept of time, developed by Poincare. This article shows what Poincare’s concept of time is. And as based on the Poincaré concept of time, the The theory of relativity of Poincaré was built.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[27746] viXra:1902.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-12 16:21:24

Quantified Modifiers as Modal Operators† on Connectives in Modal Logic

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

Quantified modifiers as modal operators †do not apply directly to connectives, but to sentences and variables in the general format of antecedent, connective, consequent. We present quantified expressions in that format by connective for two variables. The quantified expressions are equivalent to the quantifier as a modal modifier distributed on the variables.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[27745] viXra:1902.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-12 18:30:41

From Hilbert to Dilbert: a Non-Orthodox Approach to Gravitation, Psychosynthesis, Economics, Cosmology and Other Issues

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Robert Neil Boyd, Yunita Umniyati, Daniel Chandra
Comments: 208 Pages. This book is distributed freely. Published by Divine Publishing, see also: www.sci4God.com

This book took an unconventional theme because we submit an unorthodox theme too. Karl Popper’s epistemology suggests that when the theory is refuted by observation, then it is time to look for a set of new approaches. In the first chapter, it is shown that Hilbert’s axiomatic program has failed not only by experiment (Mie theory does not agree with experiment) but also in terms of logic (Gödel theorem). Therefore we set out a new approach, starting from an old theory of Isaac Newton. Dilbert cartoon series often offer surprising for old problems, especially in this era of corporatocracy. Now we would call such an out-of-the-box solution to the old Hilbert axiomatic program as Dilbert way (or Dilbertian, if you wish). Readers may ask : but what can physicists learn from Dilbert cartoons? While it seems not obvious at first glance, yes we believe there is a great character of Dilbert cartoon, i.e. to put it in one phrase: “out-of-the box and brutally honest.” We do think that such a brutal honesty is also needed in many fields of physics: from theoretical physics to applied physics, as will be discussed throughout this book.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[27744] viXra:1902.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-12 18:39:18

Horn Torus Models for the Riemann Sphere and Division by Zero

Authors: Wolfgang W. D\"aumler, Hiroshi Okumura, Vyacheslav V. Puha, Saburou Saitoh
Comments: 16 Pages. We will introduce a beautiful horn torus model by Puha and D\"aumler for the Riemann sphere in complex analysis attaching the zero point and the point at infinity. Surprisingly enough, we can introduce analytical structure of conformality to the model.

In this paper, we will introduce a beautiful horn torus model by Puha and D\"aumler for the Riemann sphere in complex analysis attaching the zero point and the point at infinity. Surprisingly enough, we can introduce analytical structure of conformality to the model.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[27743] viXra:1902.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-12 22:36:59

Anomaly in Sign Function Probability Function Integration III

Authors: Han Geurdes
Comments: 7 Pages.

In the paper it is demonstrated that integration of products of sign functions and probability density functions such as in Bell’s formula for ±1 measurement functions, leads to inconsistencies. Keywords Inconsistency, Bell’s theorem.
Category: Quantum Physics

[27742] viXra:1902.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-12 23:41:31

A Remark of the Definition of $0/0=0$ by Brahmagupta

Authors: Hiroshi Okumura
Comments: 1 Page.

We consider why Brahmagupta did not refer to $z/0$ for $z\not=0$ but $0/0=0$.
Category: General Mathematics

[27741] viXra:1902.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-13 03:06:19

Comments on the Book "Architects of Intelligence" by Martin Ford in the Light of the SP Theory of Intelligence

Authors: J Gerard Wolff
Comments: 49 Pages.

The book "Architects of Intelligence" by Martin Ford presents conversations about AI between the author and people who are influential in the field. This paper discusses issues described in the book in relation to features of the "SP System", meaning the "SP Theory of Intelligence" and its realisation in the "SP Computer Model". The SP System, outlined in an appendix, has the potential to solve several of the problems in AI research described in the book, and some others. Strengths and potential of the SP System, which in many cases contrast with weaknesses of deep neural networks (DNNs), include the following: the system exhibits a more favourable combination of simplicity and versatility than, arguably, any alternatives; the system has strengths and long-term potential in pattern recognition; the system appears to be free of the tendency of DNNs to make large and unexpected errors in recognition; the system has strengths and potential in unsupervised learning, including grammatical inference; the SP Theory of Intelligence provides a theoretically coherent basis for generalisation and the avoidance of under- or over-generalisations; that theory of generalisation may help driverless cars avoid accidents; the system, unlike DNNs, can achieve learning from a single occurrence or experience; the system, unlike DNNs, has relatively tiny demands for computational resources and volumes of data, with much higher speeds in learning; the system, unlike most DNNs, has strengths in transfer learning; the system, unlike DNNs, provides transparency in the representation of knowledge and an audit trail for all its processing; the system has strengths and potential in the processing of natural language; as a by-product of its design, the system exhibits several different kinds of probabilistic reasoning; the system has strengths and potential in commonsense reasoning and the representation of commonsense knowledge; other strengths of the SP System are in information compression, biological validity, scope for adaptation, and freedom from catastrophic forgetting. Despite the importance of motivations and emotions, no attempt has been made in the SP research to investigate these areas.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[27740] viXra:1902.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-13 03:48:34

Are Going to Smear Skis

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 2 Pages. -

Futurology hypotheses
Category: Social Science

[27739] viXra:1902.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-12 06:19:19

Quantum Strangeness Electronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

Advances in this fast-paced domain could improve devices for data storage and information processing and aid in the development of molecular switches, among other innovations. [39] Princeton researchers have demonstrated a new way of making controllable "quantum wires" in the presence of a magnetic field, according to a new study published in Nature. [38] Physicists at the Kastler Brossel Laboratory in Paris have reached a milestone in the combination of cold atoms and nanophotonics. [37] The universal laws governing the dynamics of interacting quantum particles are yet to be fully revealed to the scientific community. [36]
Category: Quantum Physics

[27738] viXra:1902.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-12 06:24:16

Una Integral Para pi Y Algunos Fractales

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 13 Pages.

Esta nota muestra una integral para la constante Pi y algunos fractales.
Category: General Mathematics

[27737] viXra:1902.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-12 06:26:02

The Joy of Pi

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 1 Page.

This note presents a logarithmic integral for Pi.
Category: General Mathematics

[27736] viXra:1902.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-12 06:44:11

Two-Dimensional Quantum Technology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania's School of Engineering and Applied Science have now demonstrated a new hardware platform based on isolated electron spins in a two-dimensional material. [40] Advances in this fast-paced domain could improve devices for data storage and information processing and aid in the development of molecular switches, among other innovations. [39] Princeton researchers have demonstrated a new way of making controllable "quantum wires" in the presence of a magnetic field, according to a new study published in Nature. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[27735] viXra:1902.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-12 07:00:32

Questions in Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

With enhanced understanding of this system, the Quantum Dynamics Unit aims to improve upon the industry standard for qubits – bits of quantum information. [41] Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania's School of Engineering and Applied Science have now demonstrated a new hardware platform based on isolated electron spins in a two-dimensional material. [40] Advances in this fast-paced domain could improve devices for data storage and information processing and aid in the development of molecular switches, among other innovations. [39]
Category: Quantum Physics

[27734] viXra:1902.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-12 07:17:16

Chiral Weyl Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

The group of physicist Sebastian Huber at ETH Zurich now reports experiments in which they got a handle on one of the defining properties of Weyl fermions—their chirality. [14] At TU Wien recently, particles known as 'Weyl fermions' were discovered in materials with strong interaction between electrons. Just like light particles, they have no mass but nonetheless they move extremely slowly. [13] Quantum behavior plays a crucial role in novel and emergent material properties, such as superconductivity and magnetism. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[27733] viXra:1902.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-12 07:36:30

An Alternative Model for the Inner Structure of a Proton (And an Explanation of the Nature of Matter)

Authors: Harald Iglseder
Comments: 3 Pages.

Abstract: In this article I want to describe a model for the inner structure of a proton, that is an alternative to the quark-model and yet consistent with it. Furthermore, this model explains the nature of matter in a very simple way and gives an answer to the question, why the amount of matter and antimatter is not the same within the universe.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[27732] viXra:1902.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-12 07:39:47

Hydrogen Photoelectron Spectroscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

For the first time scientists measured the vibrational structure of hydrogen and helium atoms by X-rays. [40] Laser physicists have succeeded in reducing the acquisition time for data required for reliable characterization of multidimensional electron motions by a factor of 1000. [39] Princeton researchers have demonstrated a new way of making controllable "quantum wires" in the presence of a magnetic field, according to a new study published in Nature. [38] Physicists at the Kastler Brossel Laboratory in Paris have reached a milestone in the combination of cold atoms and nanophotonics. [37]
Category: Quantum Physics

[27731] viXra:1902.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-12 08:15:25

The Covariant Energy-Momentum Conservation Law in General Relativity, an Overlooked Role of the Equivalence Principle

Authors: Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen
Comments: 8 Pages.

Reconsideration of overlooked considerations about the Equivalence Principle leads to Covariant Energy-Momentum conservation law in General Theory of Relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[27730] viXra:1902.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-12 11:45:36

Refutation of the Unification Type of Simple Symmetric Modal Logics

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

We evaluate the definitions of two new modal connectives as box-plus and box-minus. Neither is tautologous and both are equivalent. This refutes the unification type of simple symmetric modal logics and implies it is a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[27729] viXra:1902.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-12 13:32:12

The Basis of Einstein's Theory of Relativity is the Local Poincare Time, and not the Constancy of the Speed of Light.

Authors: Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov
Comments: 6 Pages.

This article shows how Poincare solved the problem of the crisis in physics. And it is shown what the Poincare principle of relativity is.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[27728] viXra:1902.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-11 17:56:23

.Verification of Axioms Which Resolve the Continuum Power Problem

Authors: Vatolin Dm.
Comments: 14 Pages. Russian

In the interpretation of meta-theory, which is the canonical set theory, here proved are the theorems that are sufficient to resolve the Cantor (Hilbert) problem of the continuum power.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[27727] viXra:1902.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-11 18:02:00

Formula_of_force

Authors: Vatolin Dm.
Comments: 7 Pages. Russian

В работе исследуется согласованность обычного релятивистского определения электромагнитной силы с простым механическим движением тел. Формулируются «парадоксы лоренцевой силы». Находится «формула силы», устраняющая парадоксы и приводящая к тем же кинематическим уравнениям для одиночной частицы, что и «старая теория». Находится, что и новая формула не может быть окончательной. Изменение формулы силы сказывается и на определении тензора энергии-импульса электромагнитного поля, и на определении релятивистского импульса тела
Category: Mathematical Physics

[27726] viXra:1902.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-11 18:46:02

A Meaning and Interpretation of Minus Areas of Figures by Means of Division by Zero

Authors: Saburou Saitoh
Comments: 6 Pages. A new very interesting interpretation for negative areas of figures.

In this paper, we give a simple and surprising interpretation of minus areas of figures by means of the division by zero calculus 1/0=0.
Category: General Mathematics

[27725] viXra:1902.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-11 21:51:15

Refutation of Relevance Logic R and Models

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

We evaluate a definition and model formula for relevance logic R which are not tautologous. What follows is that logic R is a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[27724] viXra:1902.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-12 03:29:39

Novel Ideas About Dark Matter and the SuSy Multiverse.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 18 Pages.

Recent discussions about the need for a successor of the Large Hadron Collider called the FCC Future Circular Collider (Cern), is reason to search for “Tweaks” or extensions of the current paradigms about Wimps (Weak Interacting Massive Particles) and Super Symmetric particles. Example: Nima Arkani-Hamed: “where in the world are SuSy and Wimps? Quantum FFF Theory ( Function Follows Form) seems to be able to fill in those questions by an adapted paradigm about special relativity, the SuSy multiverse based on instant entangled super symmetric particles and the suggestion for monopole photon based microscopic Wimps and Dark Matter Black Holes.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[27723] viXra:1902.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-11 06:24:07

A Theorem on Sum of Triple of Distinct Proper Fractions

Authors: Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin
Comments: 2 Pages.

I claim that the sum of following distinct proper fractions [(1/2),(1/3),(1/6)] is the only triple of distinct proper fraction that sum to 1 {i.e. [(1/2)+(1/3)+(1/6)]=1}.
Category: Number Theory

[27722] viXra:1902.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-11 06:56:20

Dynamically Disordered Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Theoretical physicists at Linköping University have developed a computational method to calculate the transition from one phase to another in dynamically disordered solid materials. [31] Researchers at Tokai University report in Nano Letters a systematic study on the effects that using different forms of titanium oxide in planar perovskite solar cells has on the performance of the devices. [30] KU Leuven researchers from the Roeffaers Lab and the Hofkens Group have now put forward a very promising direct X-ray detector design, based on a rapidly emerging halide perovskite semiconductor, with chemical formula Cs2AgBiBr6. [29]
Category: Condensed Matter

[27721] viXra:1902.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-11 07:32:31

Motor Enzyme Protects Genome

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

A helicase, Pfh1, can thanks to several different mechanisms protect the genome from DNA obstacles and damages associated with cancer. [28] The discovery that protein therapeutics can hijack the HOPS complex to gain access to the cell interior should help scientists design therapeutic proteins to treat diseases that are not adequately treated using other approaches, Schepartz said. [27] DNA regions susceptible to breakage and loss are genetic hot spots for important evolutionary changes, according to a Stanford study. [26]
Category: Physics of Biology

[27720] viXra:1902.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-11 08:12:37

Refutation of the Method of Forcing

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

We evaluate two examples of paradoxes to be resolved by the method of forcing. The first is not tautologous, and the second is a contradiction so not proved as a paradox. This means the forcing method is refuted because it cannot coerce the two examples into abstract proofs and with the ultimate goal to produce larger truth values. What follows is that the forcing method is better suited for paraconsistent logics which are non tautologous fragments of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[27719] viXra:1902.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-11 08:33:38

Refutation of Subset Models for Justification Logic

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

We evaluate two axioms for justification logic which are not tautologous. This means subset models for justification logic are refuted.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[27718] viXra:1902.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-11 08:39:31

Machine Learning Quantum Fireworks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

A greater understanding of these behaviors could one day feed into technology, he said, such as ways to extend the reach of quantum networks across greater distances. [25] Physicists in the US have used machine learning to determine the phase diagram of a system of 12 idealized quantum particles to a higher precision than ever before. [24] The research group took advantage of a system at SLAC's Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) that combines machine learning—a form of artificial intelligence where computer algorithms glean knowledge from enormous amounts of data—with experiments that quickly make and screen hundreds of sample materials at a time. [23]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[27717] viXra:1902.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-11 09:35:34

Development of the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

The history of the universe is predicated on the idea that, compared to today, the universe was hotter and more symmetric in its early phase. [35] The universe consists of a massive imbalance between matter and antimatter. [34] Our universe could be the mirror image of an antimatter universe extending backwards in time before the Big Bang. [33]
Category: Astrophysics

[27716] viXra:1902.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-11 10:24:34

Electron's Trip Across a Border

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Electrons flowing across the boundary between two materials are the foundation of many key technologies, from flash memories to batteries and solar cells. [17] This new approach illuminates the origin of surface electromagnetic waves and explains why these waves appear at interfaces where one of the medium parameters (dielectric permittivity or magnetic permeability) changes its sign. [16] A team of physicists headed by Professor Sebastian Reineke of TU Dresden has developed a new method of storing information in fully transparent plastic foils. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[27715] viXra:1902.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-11 12:49:39

The Correct Theory of Electroweak Interaction

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

This is a review paper on electroweak (EW) interaction. Here we compared the orthodox EW theory with the EW theory described in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). We showed the true origin of the three mechanisms by which neutrinos and scalar and vector bosons/condensates acquire their gravitational mass. We calculated the surplus of baryonic matter from the properties of the inflation field and densities of fields. We present the EW equation that leads to the atom-like structure of baryons and we raise many other key issues on the basis of earlier scientific papers.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[27714] viXra:1902.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-11 13:21:03

Supersymmetric Preons Peeking Superstrings

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: 6 Pages.

Consenting to negative results in standard model superpartner search at the LHC and elsewhere an alternative point of view has been proposed, a preon model with unbroken supersymmetry. It offers a natural basis for constructing the standard model and going beyond it. Significance of the supersymmetric particle model to superstring theory is discussed briefly on the basis of Weinberg rationale.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[27713] viXra:1902.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-10 14:23:48

Some Pieces to the Great Red Spot on Jupiter Puzzle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 5 Pages.

This is a proposed reason there are red storms on Jupiter, with a few other ideas. The nitrogen and oxygen available in Jupiter's atmosphere, inside of ammonium hydrosulfide [(NH4)HS] and water (H2O) interact with UVB and UVC light. The high energy photons from UV light could break them down into their elemental forms, which can then recombine with each other forming dinitrogen tetroxide N2O4 a colorless gas, and a host of other compounds and molecules. For this paper though, I will focus on the Giant Red Spot maintaining equilibrium by converting N2O4 to NO2 and back to N2O4 again. This also provides a reason why hydrogen is lost in huge amounts, as more electronegative elements nitrogen and oxygen, begin dominating and forming more complex compounds.
Category: Astrophysics

[27712] viXra:1902.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-10 20:08:10

The Philosophy of Mathematics

Authors: Hugh Wang
Comments: 2 Pages.

What is mathematics? Why does it exist? Is it consistent? Is it complete? We answer these questions as well as resolve Russell’s Paradox and debunk Godel’s Incompleteness Theorem.
Category: General Mathematics

[27711] viXra:1902.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-10 20:20:24

Proof of the Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 2 Pages.

It proved the Riemann hypothesis. I use Eular and Riemann formula.
Category: General Mathematics

[27710] viXra:1902.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-10 22:40:35

The Simple and Typical Physical Examples of the Division by Zero 1/0=0 by Ctes\'ibio (BC. 286-222) and e. Torricelli (1608 1646)

Authors: Saburou Saitoh
Comments: 6 Pages. By the concrete examples, we will be able to understand 1/0=0 with clear feelings.

The division by zero 1/0=0 was discovered on 2014.2.2, however, the result may still not be accepted widely with old and wrong feelings. Since we gave already logically mathematics on the division by zero, here we will give very good examples in order to see the division by zero 1/0=0 clearly. By these examples, we will be able to understand the division by zero as a trivial one.
Category: General Mathematics

[27709] viXra:1902.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-10 23:08:47

The Zero-Dimensional Point Particle

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

How does one get to zero dimension? In “The Ultimate Answer to Life, the Universe, and Everything is an Entangled 42” we found that the universe could be spheres made out of spheres, made of spheres, down to a cuboctahedron with outer layer of 42 spheres. The equation follows the patter of x^2+x. This same pattern can be used to become a ring of 6 spheres to two spheres to one sphere. This may be a mathematical curiosity, or it may have some basis in reality. The origin of the number 42 is shown in the appendix.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[27708] viXra:1902.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-10 23:54:09

Computation, Complexity, and P!=NP Proof

Authors: Hugh Wang
Comments: 2 Pages.

If we refer to a string for Turing machines as a guess and a rejectable substring a flaw, then all algorithms reject similarly flawed guesses flaw by flaw until they chance on an unflawed guess, settle with a flawed guess, or return the unflawed guesses. Deterministic algorithms therefore must identify all flaws before guessing flawlessly in the worst case. Time complexity is then bounded below by the order of the product of the least number of flaws to cover all flawed guesses and the least time to identify a flaw. Since there exists $3$-SAT problems with an exponential number of flaws, $3$-SAT is not in $\mathbf{P}$, and therefore $\mathbf{P}\neq\mathbf{NP}$.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[27707] viXra:1902.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-11 00:25:42

The Rise and Fall of Evolution

Authors: Hugh Wang
Comments: 2 Pages.

Jeremy England proposed in his “Statistical physics of self-replication” that energy dispersion drives evolution. Such is the explanatory power of his theory that we build on it to rethink the relationship between life and entropy as handed to us by Schodinger, to find a place for the origin and evolution of life within the cosmos, to explain the Cambrian Explosion and the Mass Extinctions from an entropic perspective, hence the title, and finally, to find a way out of the gloom and doom of global warming.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[27706] viXra:1902.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-11 02:15:05

Theory Of Holistic Decomposition Of Any Set Of Any Natural Numbers As One Or More Sets Each With Some Periodicity Of The Number’s Non Integral Prime Basis Position Number {Version 2}

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed the Theory Of Holistic Decomposition Of Any Set Of Any Natural Numbers As One Or More Sets Each With Some Periodicity Of The Number’s Non Integral Prime Basis Position Number.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[27705] viXra:1902.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-10 06:06:40

Automatically Cool or Insulate

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

University of Maryland researchers have created a fabric that can automatically regulate the amount of heat that passes through it. [21] At EPFL, Selman Sakar's research team has developed micromachines able to mechanically stimulate cells and microtissue. [20] Scientists from ITMO in collaboration with international colleagues have proposed new DNA-based nanomachines that can be used for gene therapy for cancer. [19] CRISPR is a technique that is revolutionizing biomedical research through high-precision genome editing. [18]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[27704] viXra:1902.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-10 06:44:57

Sticky Situation at Nanoscale

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Brown University researchers have made a discovery about the way things stick together at tiny scales that could be helpful in engineering micro- and nanoscale devices. [22] University of Maryland researchers have created a fabric that can automatically regulate the amount of heat that passes through it. [21] At EPFL, Selman Sakar's research team has developed micromachines able to mechanically stimulate cells and microtissue. [20] Scientists from ITMO in collaboration with international colleagues have proposed new DNA-based nanomachines that can be used for gene therapy for cancer. [19]
Category: Condensed Matter

[27703] viXra:1902.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-10 07:01:36

Biological Nanomaterials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Collaboration between material scientists, biologists and chemists could advance the development of self-assembling nanomaterials, called nanoarchitectonics, argues a review in the journal Science and Technology of Advanced Materials. [23] Brown University researchers have made a discovery about the way things stick together at tiny scales that could be helpful in engineering micro- and nanoscale devices. [22] University of Maryland researchers have created a fabric that can automatically regulate the amount of heat that passes through it. [21] At EPFL, Selman Sakar's research team has developed micromachines able to mechanically stimulate cells and microtissue. [20]
Category: Physics of Biology

[27702] viXra:1902.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-10 08:27:33

Oxygen Tetrahedrons and Octahedrons in Biology

Authors: Zyryanova N.V., Savelyev I., Myakishev-Rempel M.
Comments: 7 Pages. In English и на русском языке

Uncentrosymmetric oxygen tetrahedrons and octahedrons produce piezoelectricity. In main biological molecules there are phosphorus-oxygen tetrahedrons. Biological molecules is uncentrosymmetric, and phosphorus-oxygen tetrahedrons enhance its reactivity. We suppose that oxygen octahedrons and tetrahedrons produce electricity in living organisms, and the electricity is condition for many biological phenomenon.
Category: Physics of Biology

[27701] viXra:1902.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-10 12:04:33

Refutation of Reverse Mathematics on Measurability Theory and Computability Theory

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

We evaluate the authors' definition of reverse mathematics in their anticipation of applying it to measurability and computability theory. The argument taking two equations to define reverse mathematics is not tautologous. Therefore to apply it to measure and computability theory is meaningless.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[27700] viXra:1902.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-09 19:21:51

Simple Explanation of Gravity Through Observation of Natural Phenomena

Authors: Jasin El Sammadoni
Comments: 5 Pages. new observations on gravity

this is a paper attempting to put forwards some new findings on gravity, how it is generated and it's nature through looking at different observations of naturally occurring phenomena
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[27699] viXra:1902.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-09 19:49:27

Theory of Quantum Gravity

Authors: Ravindra Sidramappa Mundase
Comments: 9 Pages.

Basically this theory has been developed to propose an oscillating universe. According to my theory, the matter is the only origin of gravity. In this theory all fundamental physical entities such as space, time, matter, force, energy and others are used in their usual meanings as in classical mechanics. The space and time are not related to each other. The space and time are independent.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[27698] viXra:1902.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-10 00:49:30

Theory Of Holistic Decomposition Of Any Set Of Any Natural Numbers As One Or More Sets Each With Some Periodicity Of The Number’s Non Integral Prime Basis Position Number

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed the Theory Of Holistic Decomposition Of Any Set Of Any Natural Numbers As One Or More Sets Each With Some Periodicity Of The Number’s Non Integral Prime Basis Position Number.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[27697] viXra:1902.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-10 03:35:11

Nanomachines Fight Cancer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Scientists from ITMO in collaboration with international colleagues have proposed new DNA-based nanomachines that can be used for gene therapy for cancer. [19] CRISPR is a technique that is revolutionizing biomedical research through high-precision genome editing. [18] The DNA molecules are chiral, which means they can exist in two forms which are mirror images, like a left and right hand. The phenomenon was dubbed "chiral induced spin selectivity" (CISS), and over the last few years, several experiments were published allegedly showing this CISS effect, even in electronic devices. [17]
Category: Physics of Biology

[27696] viXra:1902.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-10 04:00:21

Gummy-Like Robots Prevent Disease

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

At EPFL, Selman Sakar's research team has developed micromachines able to mechanically stimulate cells and microtissue. [20] Scientists from ITMO in collaboration with international colleagues have proposed new DNA-based nanomachines that can be used for gene therapy for cancer. [19] CRISPR is a technique that is revolutionizing biomedical research through high-precision genome editing. [18] The DNA molecules are chiral, which means they can exist in two forms which are mirror images, like a left and right hand. The phenomenon was dubbed "chiral induced spin selectivity" (CISS), and over the last few years, several experiments were published allegedly showing this CISS effect, even in electronic devices. [17]
Category: Physics of Biology

[27695] viXra:1902.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-09 05:03:46

Definition of Algebraic Graph and New Perspective on Chromatic Number

Authors: Gosu Choi
Comments: 5 Pages. I have withdrawn the previous article. I would like to submit a new paper with a changed title.

This paper is an article on the unusual structure that can be thought on set of simple graph. I discovered various characteristics of graph with such structures and defined algebraic graph as a set of graphs with a new perspective on the chromatic number they have.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[27694] viXra:1902.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-09 04:59:25

Conducting Edges in 2-D Material

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

A research team comprised of scientists at the University of California, Riverside, and the University of Washington has for the first time directly imaged "edge conduction" in monolayer tungsten ditelluride, or WTe2, a newly discovered 2-D topological insulator and quantum material. [41] A team of researchers at the University of Chicago has developed a circuit platform for the exploration of quantum matter made of strongly interacting microwave photons. [40]
Category: Condensed Matter

[27693] viXra:1902.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-09 05:31:27

Envelope to Aluminum Plasmonics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

When Rice University chemist and engineer Hossein Robatjazi set out to marry a molecular sieve called MOF to a plasmonic aluminum nanoparticle two years ago, he never imagined the key would be the same process nature uses to petrify wood. [42] A research team comprised of scientists at the University of California, Riverside, and the University of Washington has for the first time directly imaged "edge conduction" in monolayer tungsten ditelluride, or WTe2, a newly discovered 2-D topological insulator and quantum material. [41]
Category: Condensed Matter

[27692] viXra:1902.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-09 05:50:49

Pictionary-Like Game in Robots

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

At the Allen Institute of Artificial Intelligence, a private research center perched on the north shore of Lake Union in Seattle, computer scientists are working on imbuing software with humanlike abilities to recognize images and understand language that could someday make that sort of collaboration possible. [30] A study by the Centre for Cognitive Science at TU Darmstadt shows that AI machines can indeed learn a moral compass from humans. [29] A group of researchers from MIT have already developed an AI robot that can assist in a labour room. [28]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[27691] viXra:1902.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-09 06:26:40

Denial of the Refutation of Coherence in Modal Logic

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

We evaluate the refutation of coherence in modal logic as based on weakly transitive logics using a ternary term to admit finite chains. The term is not tautologous, thereby denying the refutation. What follows is that K, KT, K4, and S4 (and S5) are tautologous fragments of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[27690] viXra:1902.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-09 08:42:54

“Resemblance of Neutrinos with Different Quantum–Oscillating Flavor and Mass“

Authors: Imrich Krištof
Comments: 10 Pages.

This presented tech–science paper is focused on main themes of evolution and history of research of neutrinos – elusive elementary particles. The highlights is dedicated to the scheme of born and reborn and cascade decay hierarchic high energy particles, called hyperons (lambda, sigma, xi, epsilon, omega) and main position particles called mezons (mion, pion, kaon, rhó meson, éta meson, phí meson, omega meson, J/Ψ (J-Psí meson), h1 meson, a0-meson f1, f2 meson). This Sun or starshowers fall in energetic clusters and clouds on each cm-2, of Earth’s surface (φ average flux of neutrinos 10 billions neutrinos on cm2/sec. (1010 cm-2.s-1) for Eν > 7 MeV ->~ 106 cm-2.s-1). Cross section of neutrinos is very small σνN = 10-42 m2 – 10-48 m2 = 10-19 barn, 1 barn is an unit of cross section. In the Ending part of starshowers the photons, phonons and electron, mion, and tauon are detected in photomultipliers and scintillators, like a Cherenkov radiation – hyperrelativistic electrons, photons and mions and tauons, visually Fig. 4 Neutrino Detector SUDBURY(SNO) Canada. The main part of paper is focused on NEUTRINO FLAVOR AND MASS. According Pauli and Fermi–Dirac and Bose–Einstein Statistical Laws each particle is conjugated with its own antiparticles: electron (e-) and positron (e+), electron neutrino (νe) and electron antineutrino (̅), quark beauty / bottom (b) and antiquark beauty / bottom (̅). In the text is not forget the facts about 11 NOVEMBER 1974 – particles J/Ψ REVOLUTION MESONS J/Ψ consist of beauty quark and beauty antiquark. The Pioneer work of Clyde L. Cowan, Jr. and Frederick Reines in Hanford and Savannah River Plant lead to fundamental discovery and detection of neutrinos. On Fig. 7 is described Cowan–Reines Neutrino Experiment. In the End of this text is situation of Neutrinos and The Standard Model of particles. The goal of this work is clarified the evolution and theoretical background of elementary particles – neutrinos.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[27689] viXra:1902.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-09 11:35:51

On Forced Parallelism Within Characteristic States

Authors: Divyansh Mansukhani
Comments: 1 Page.

Characteristic states are shown to necessitate at least one parallel state to fulfil basic normalization. For this, an operator to input arbitrary state is formulated using inner product between dependent states.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[27688] viXra:1902.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-09 11:51:31

Unified Principles of Nature Solving the Problem of Time Introduction to the Final Master Theory (Toe)

Authors: M. U. E. Pohl
Comments: 10 Pages.

Althougth the concept of time was discussed intensively by authors over centuries the „problem of time“ is prominent today again in quantum gravity. As quantum physicists believe a more detailed understanding of the entaglement of time could lead to a unification of quantum-mechanics with general relativity, the author solves the „problem of time“ final in a deductive approach. Upon the solution of the problem of time, unified principles of nature are then postulated to integrate Newtonian laws, general relativity and quantum mechanics into one framework, offering a perspective to a new world model and a framework for the TOE.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[27687] viXra:1902.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-09 12:13:19

New Theory of Quantization and Mass of Waves' Particles Elecrtons Generate Waves and Waves Generate Electrons

Authors: Yaseen Ali Mohamed Al Azzam
Comments: 6 Pages.

By an alternative interpretation of Compton effect experiment, I concluded that waves generate electrons and that waves and electrons are quantized into units of mass (which I called phosons). The phoson is defined as a fundamental unit of energy carried by a variable mass and the origin of quantization where phosons are the waves’ particles which also comprise the electrons’ mass. Photons were just a misinterpretation of the photoelectric experiment and were confused with the waves’ power ( the waves’ energy in one second time) which came in accordance of our measurement units
Category: Quantum Physics

[27686] viXra:1902.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-09 12:09:45

Quantization of Poisson Brackets

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 1 page, written in english

We propose a quantization of the Poisson brackets. We introduce the non-commutativity of the endomorphisms of fiber bundles for quantized Poisson brackets.
Category: Quantum Physics

[27685] viXra:1902.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-08 22:48:09

Radio Frequency Water Treatment: Phenomenon and Explanation of Enhanced Water Transport in a Plant.

Authors: Andrew Holster
Comments: 38 Pages.

Radio frequency electromagnetic treatment of water using a commercial device (Vi Aqua Plantmate) was found to increase water transport in a plant by 20% - 35%, under suitable conditions. The experimental phenomenon is briefly presented, and the problem of explaining the effects is then examined. It is concluded that the EM treatment has long-lasting effects on water, and inferred that this reflects a structural property of the water. This water structure enhances capillarity and osmosis. It is suggested this is related to EZ structure. (Converted Powerpoint presentation from the 2017 Water Conference, Bulgaria).
Category: Physics of Biology

[27684] viXra:1902.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-09 00:13:06

Process Algebra/ccs/est to Probe Smart Devices & Iot Communications a Simple Suggestion on Using Est in Smart Devices/iot Informatics Domains.

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 3 Pages. Short Communication & Technical Notes

Process Algebra/CCS/EST - To Probe Smart Devices & IoT- Communications A Simple Suggestion on Using EST in Smart Devices/IoT- informatics Domains.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[27683] viXra:1902.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-09 00:12:48

Wound Healing Potential of Biofield Energy Treatment in HaCaT Cell Line Using Scratch Assay

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Mayank Gangwar, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 7 Pages.

Wounds may be acute, subacute, or chronic and are the common clinical life entities. It is a complex biochemical process to restore the cell structures that depends upon cell proliferation and migration, mainly by keratinocytes and fibroblast cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the Biofield Energy Treatment (Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment-The Trivedi Effect®) in the HaCaT cell line (Human keratinocytes) and DMEM (Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium) for wound healing action using scratch assay (48 hours) against positive control i.e., recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor (Hu-EGF, 30 ng/mL). In vitro scratch assay monitored proliferation and migration of keratinocytes in the scratched wounded area using WimScratch Image analysis software. The results showed that the Biofield Energy Treated DMEM group have significantly higher percentage of keratinocytes migration i.e., 35.4%, while no migration was monitored in the Biofield Energy Treated HaCaT cells as compared with the baseline control group. Additionally, the percentage of scratch area was significantly decreased by 7.3% in the Biofield Energy Treated DMEM, while an increased scratched area was reported by 14% in the Biofield Energy Treated cells. Hence, the results using scratch assay showed a promising scientific approach to differentiate the Biofield Energy Treatment on cells or media for their wound healing potential. The data concluded that The Trivedi Effect® has the significant capability in wound healing activity in DMEM as compared with the HaCaT cell line with respect to the cell migration and reduced wound scratched area. Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) can be used as a complementary and alternative approach to improve the cellular migration and proliferation and can be used in psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, skin cancer, rashes from bacterial or fungal infections as anti-wrinkling, skin-whitening, anti-ageing, and rejuvenating agent.
Category: Biochemistry

[27682] viXra:1902.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-09 02:15:11

Hypothesis of Tetraverse

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 5 pages, 3 figures

This paper discloses a hypothesis how four Universes can emerge from one photon. Two of them contain ordinary matter and antimatter. The other two contain matter of magnetic monopoles and antimonopoles. In magnetic matter atoms are bound together by magnetic forces, the electric field can be only solenoidal and electric charges cannot be separated from one another.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[27681] viXra:1902.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-09 02:13:13

Transmon Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

The researchers report controlling quantum phenomena in a custom-designed electrical circuit called a transmon. [41] A team of researchers at the University of Chicago has developed a circuit platform for the exploration of quantum matter made of strongly interacting microwave photons. [40] Laser physicists have succeeded in reducing the acquisition time for data required for reliable characterization of multidimensional electron motions by a factor of 1000. [39] Princeton researchers have demonstrated a new way of making controllable "quantum wires" in the presence of a magnetic field, according to a new study published in Nature. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[27680] viXra:1902.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-09 03:19:58

Quantum Mechanics as a Reactive Probabilistic System

Authors: Germano Resconi, Santanu Kumar Patro, Amrit Srecko Sorli
Comments: 20 Pages.

In this paper, we present quantum mechanics as a reactive system. To show this we introduce the holography as a reactive system. Illumination of the object and reference beam create sources (hologram) that activated by the same reference beam react in a way to produce the image Controlled chemical system react to the external or internal change generate new sources (chemical product) that diffuses in the body environment establish a new equilibrium. The droplets bouncing on a vertical vibrating fluid bath that simulate the main quantum phenomena is a reactive system between droplets and vibrating fluid. We show that quantum mechanics is a probabilistic reactive system between quantum potential and pseudo kinetic energy in which an integral is the Fisher information. We show that quantum mechanics can be built by only the probability normalization properties without assuming any other hypothesis. With join probability and Euler Lagrange equation we can find the quantum potential and with the continuity equation, we show that with only probability approach it is possible to give a meaning to the Schrodinger equation without any thermo-dynamical model of quantum mechanics. The reactive system can be denoted as a morphogenetic system where the form is generated by some designed rules or properties.
Category: Quantum Physics

[27679] viXra:1902.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-09 04:13:36

Who was Madame Calment?

Authors: Philip Gibbs
Comments: Pages.

Jeanne Calment is said to have lived to 122 years old, the oldest person who ever lived. however doubts have been raised that her daughter may have made an identity switch in 1934. In this discussion document I look at what new evidence may be sought to settle the question of her authenticity.
Category: Social Science

[27678] viXra:1902.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-09 04:14:03

Infrared Imaging Performance

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 85 Pages.

A new method developed by Northwestern Engineering's Manijeh Razeghi has greatly reduced a type of image distortion caused by the presence of spectral cross-talk between dual-band long-wavelength photodetectors. [49] Plasmonic materials can uniquely control the electromagnetic spectrum due to nano-scale surface architecture. [48] A research group led by Yasuhiro Kuramitsu at Osaka University has revealed a magnetic reconnection driven by electron dynamics for the first time ever in laser-produced plasmas using the Gekko XII laser facility at the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University. [47]
Category: Quantum Physics

[27677] viXra:1902.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-08 05:44:49

Theory Of Holistic Decomposition Of Any Set Of Given Primes As One Or More Sets Each With Some Periodicity Of The Prime Number’s Basis Position Number

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed the Theory Of Holistic Decomposition Of Any Set Of Given Primes As One Or More Sets Each With Some Periodicity Of The Prime Number’s Basis Position Number.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[27676] viXra:1902.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-08 06:42:34

5 Hábitos Que Ayudan a Que Tus Dientes se Vean Amarillos

Authors: Laura Smith
Comments: 2 Pages.

Un aspecto que preocupa mucho a las personas es el color de sus dientes pues en ocasiones éstos tienden a “amarillear”. Un blanqueamiento dental podría ser la solución a este problema, pero hay algunos hábitos que afectan negativamente y que quizá no sean demasiado conocidos. Descúbrelos aquí.
Category: Education and Didactics

[27675] viXra:1902.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-08 08:18:11

Disorder Traps Sound and Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

Sound and light are crucial for our life and are essential in many energy, communication and information technologies. [40] Laser physicists have succeeded in reducing the acquisition time for data required for reliable characterization of multidimensional electron motions by a factor of 1000. [39] Princeton researchers have demonstrated a new way of making controllable "quantum wires" in the presence of a magnetic field, according to a new study published in Nature. [38] Physicists at the Kastler Brossel Laboratory in Paris have reached a milestone in the combination of cold atoms and nanophotonics. [37]
Category: Condensed Matter

[27674] viXra:1902.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-08 08:47:51

Laser System Built on Supersymmetry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

A team of researchers from the University of Central Florida and Michigan Technological University has developed a laser system concept built on the principles of supersymmetry. [40] Laser physicists have succeeded in reducing the acquisition time for data required for reliable characterization of multidimensional electron motions by a factor of 1000. [39] Princeton researchers have demonstrated a new way of making controllable "quantum wires" in the presence of a magnetic field, according to a new study published in Nature. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[27673] viXra:1902.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-08 09:11:21

Definitive Proof of the Near-Square Prime Conjecture, Landau’s Fourth Problem

Authors: Kenneth A. Watanabe
Comments: 13 Pages.

The Near-Square Prime conjecture, states that there are an infinite number of prime numbers of the form x^2 + 1. In this paper, a function was derived that determines the number of prime numbers of the form x^2 + 1 that are less than n^2 + 1 for large values of n. Then by mathematical induction, it is proven that as the value of n goes to infinity, the function goes to infinity, thus proving the Near-Square Prime conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[27672] viXra:1902.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-08 09:15:59

Laser Wavelength Splitting

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

A team led by University of Utah physicists has discovered how to fix a major problem that occurs in lasers made from a new type of material called quantum dots. [41] A team of researchers from the University of Central Florida and Michigan Technological University has developed a laser system concept built on the principles of supersymmetry. [40] Laser physicists have succeeded in reducing the acquisition time for data required for reliable characterization of multidimensional electron motions by a factor of 1000. [39] Princeton researchers have demonstrated a new way of making controllable "quantum wires" in the presence of a magnetic field, according to a new study published in Nature. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[27671] viXra:1902.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-08 10:15:02

Protective Electromagnetic Fields

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Scientists never suspected that they had any tangible impact on life on Earth. But a new Tel Aviv University study finds that these fields may have protective properties for organisms living under stress conditions. [42] A team led by University of Utah physicists has discovered how to fix a major problem that occurs in lasers made from a new type of material called quantum dots. [41] A team of researchers from the University of Central Florida and Michigan Technological University has developed a laser system concept built on the principles of supersymmetry. [40]
Category: Physics of Biology

[27670] viXra:1902.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-08 10:39:53

Crispr Using Long DNA Fragments

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

CRISPR is a technique that is revolutionizing biomedical research through high-precision genome editing. [18] The DNA molecules are chiral, which means they can exist in two forms which are mirror images, like a left and right hand. The phenomenon was dubbed "chiral induced spin selectivity" (CISS), and over the last few years, several experiments were published allegedly showing this CISS effect, even in electronic devices. [17]
Category: Physics of Biology

[27669] viXra:1902.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-08 12:53:46

Exact Smooth Solution for General Form of Navier-Stokes Equations

Authors: Sangwha Yi
Comments: 5 Pages. Thank you for reading

In Wikipedia “Navier-Stokes existence and smoothness”, we discover the exact smooth solution for general form of Navier-Stokes Equations by Newton potential and timefunction.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[27668] viXra:1902.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-07 15:34:35

On the Probabilistic Nature of Observable Phenomena.

Authors: Muhammad Ali
Comments: 15 Pages.

This paper proposes a Gadenkan experiment named “Observer’s Dilemma”, to investigate the probabilistic nature of observable phenomena. It has been reasoned that probabilistic nature in, otherwise uniquely deterministic phenomena can be introduced due to lack of information of underlying governing laws. Through theoretical consequences of the experiment, concepts of ‘Absolute Complete’ and ‘Observably Complete” theories have been introduced. Furthermore, nature of reality being ‘absolute’ and ‘observable’ have been discussed along with the possibility of multiple realities being true for observer. In addition, certain aspects of quantum mechanics have been interpreted. It has been argued that quantum mechanics is an ‘observably complete’ theory and its nature is to give probabilistic predictions. Lastly, it has been argued that “Everettian - Many world” interpretation of quantum mechanics is very real and true in the framework of ‘observable nature of reality’, for humans.
Category: Quantum Physics

[27667] viXra:1902.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-07 18:52:35

Denial of Logic System PŁ4

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

We evaluate the logic system PŁ4 as refuting and replacing VŁ4. Seven modal theses and four axioms are not tautologous and contrary to those of PŁ4. This denies that PŁ4 refutes VŁ4, refutes PŁ4, and justifies VŁ4 as containing the non bivalent fragment named PŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[27666] viXra:1902.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-07 21:54:41

Two VŁ4 Theorems not in S5

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

We evaluate two equations not found as theorems in S5; both are theorems in VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[27665] viXra:1902.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-07 22:34:20

VŁ4 is the Universal Logic System

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

Abstract: Using Meth8/VŁ4, we evaluate 408 artifacts in 2252 assertions to confirm 442 as tautology and 1810 as not (80.4%). The logic systems tested as not tautologous become invalid fragments of VŁ4, and the logic systems tested as tautologous become valid fragments of VŁ4. What follows is that logic system VŁ4 is the universal logic system. We direct the reader to over 600 pages of results at: vixra.org/abs/1901.0415 .
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[27664] viXra:1902.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-07 22:47:16

Sum One Over X at Infinity is Equal to the Euler–Mascheroni Constant.

Authors: John Sherfey
Comments: 1 Page. Idk

This is a test to see how well this works
Category: General Mathematics

[27663] viXra:1902.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-08 03:10:15

Theory Of Decomposition Of Any Set Of Given Primes As One Or More Sets Each With Some Periodicity Of The Prime Number’s Basis Position Number

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed the Theory Of Decomposition Of Any Set Of Given Primes As One Or More Sets Each With Some Periodicity Of The Prime Number’s Basis Position Number.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[27662] viXra:1902.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-08 03:12:09

Emerging NUI-based Methods for User Authentication: A New Taxonomy and Survey

Authors: Napa Sae-Bae, Jonathan Wu, Nasir Memon, Janusz Konrad, Prakash Ishwar
Comments: 28 Pages.

As the convenience and cost benefits of Natural User Interface (NUI) technologies are hastening their wide adoption, computing devices equipped with such interfaces are becoming ubiquitous. Used for a broad range of applications, from accessing email and bank accounts to home automation and interacting with a healthcare provider, such devices require, more than ever before, a secure yet convenient user authentication mechanism. This paper introduces a new taxonomy and presents a survey of “point-of-entry” user-device authentication mechanisms that employ a natural user interaction. The taxonomy allows a grouping of the surveyed techniques based on the sensor type used to capture user input, the actuator a user applies during interaction, and the credential type used for authentication. A set of security and usability evaluation criteria are then proposed based on the Bonneau, Herley, Van Oorschot and Stajano framework. An analysis of a selection of techniques and, more importantly, the broader taxonomy elements they belong to, based on these evaluation criteria, are provided. This analysis and taxonomy provide a framework for the comparison of different authentication alternatives given an application and a targeted threat model. Similarly, the taxonomy and analysis also offer insights into possibly unexplored, yet potentially rewarding, research avenues for NUI-based user authentication that could be explored.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[27661] viXra:1902.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-08 04:39:01

Protein Folding Mechanisms – An Introduction & Novel Suggestion based on Dijkstra’s Algorithm.

Authors: DNTKumar
Comments: 3 Pages. Short Communication & Technical Notes

Protein Folding Mechanisms – An Introduction & Novel Suggestion based on Dijkstra’s Algorithm.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[27660] viXra:1902.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-08 04:28:58

Evaluation of the Effect of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Withania Somnifera

Authors: Alice Branton, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 11 Pages.

Ashwagandha root extract is a well-known popular health supplement, which is used in many nutraceutical and pharmaceutical formulations for the prevention and treatment of various diseases. This study was performed to evaluate the influence of the Trivedi Effect on the physicochemical and thermal properties of ashwagandha root extract using modern analytical techniques. One part of the test sample was considered as the control sample (no Biofield Energy Treatment), where as the second part was treated with Biofield Energy remotely by a famous Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton and was labelled as the treated sample. The particle size values were significantly decreased by 36.96%(d10), 20.26%(d50), 8.95%(d90), and 11.25%{D(4,3)} thus the specific surface area was significantly increased by 27.85% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The evaporation temperature and latent heat of evaporation of the treated sample were significantly decreased by 14.37% and 84.09%, respectively compared with the control sample. The total weight loss was increased by 11.37%; however, the residue amount was 73.67% less in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment created a new form of ashwagandha root extract which can be used for designing new nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations for the treatment of insomnia, hypoglycemia, Huntington's, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's disorders, etc.
Category: Biochemistry

[27659] viXra:1902.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-07 05:14:14

Impact of the Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing on Growth and Yield of the Plant Stem Cells Culture

Authors: Alice Branton, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 5 Pages.

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Biofield Energy Healing Treatment on the plant callus of Mandukparni (Centella asiatica), Katsarika (Barleria cristata), and Amla (Phyllanthus emblica) in Murashige & Skoog liquid medium (MS) for their yield on day 7. All the three plant callus and MS liquid media were divided into two parts, one part was received Biofield Energy Treatment (known as The Trivedi Effect®-Energy Of Consciousness Healing Treatment) by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton through the Healer’s unique Energy Transmission process remotely and defined as Biofield Energy Treated group. Another part did not receive any treatment and defined as the control group. On day 7 after the treatment, the flasks were observed and visualized under the phase contrast microscope for monitoring the cell growth and photomicrographs were captured at 200X magnification along with the wet weight of the callus cultures. Experimental data suggested that all the three plants viz. Mandukparni, Katsarika, and Amla callus showed significantly improved growth rate after seven days as compared with the respective untreated groups. The growth of the callus (weight in mg) of Mandukparni, Katsarika and Amla callus after 7 days of the Biofield Energy Treatment was 289.7, 348.5, and 512 mg respectively. However, the percentage increase in weight of the callus in Mandukparni, Katsarika, and Amla was 3.3%, 7.7%, and 79.6%, respectively as compared with the untreated group. Hence, the results indicated that there was a significant growth observed after The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Treatment in the tested plant stem cells. It can be concluded that The Trivedi Effect® would be used as a complementary and alternative treatment to maximize most valuable natural products yield and quality best quality such as herbal medicinal plants, food and dietary supplements, flavoring and coloring agents, cosmetics and fragrance products, and many more.
Category: Biochemistry

[27658] viXra:1902.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-07 05:15:01

The Effect of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the Physico-chemical and Thermal Properties of L-Cysteine

Authors: Alice Branton, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 9 Pages.

L-cysteine is an essential amino acid and the basic building block of glutathione (denoted as the mother of all antioxidants). The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the physicochemical and thermal properties of L-cysteine. The test sample was divided into control and treated samples. No treatment was given to the control sample, while the other portion remotely received the Biofield Treatment by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton, and was termed as the treated sample. The particle size values were significantly reduced by 10.78%(d10), 13.46%(d50), 14.84%(d90), and 13.95%{D(4, 3)}, thus, the specific surface area was significantly increased by 14.28% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The PXRD peak intensities and crystallite sizes were significantly altered ranging from -79.18% to 335.64% and -82.68% to 294.32%, respectively; however, the average crystallite size was significantly reduced by 42.93% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The latent heat of decomposition corresponding to 1st and 2nd peak of the treated sample was significantly reduced by 18.84% and 7.05%, respectively, compared with the control sample. The total weight loss was reduced by 2.53%; however, the residue weight was significantly increased by 784.73% in the treated sample in contrast to the control sample. Thus, the Biofield Treated L-cysteine might be more efficacious and advantageous to prepare pharmaceutical/nutraceutical dosage forms with improved solubility and bioavailability profile compared to the untreated sample, which can be used against various diseases/disorders such as bronchitis, COPD, psychosis, stress, aging, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[27657] viXra:1902.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-07 05:23:16

New Type of Magnet

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

A team of scientists has discovered the first robust example of a new type of magnet—one that holds promise for enhancing the performance of data storage technologies. [30] Single-molecule magnets (SMMs) have been attracting a lot of attention recently. This is because of the increased demand for faster, longer-lasting and lower-energy IT systems, and the need for higher data storage capacity. [29] Researchers have discovered that using an easily made combination of materials might be the way to offer a more stable environment for smaller and safer data storage, ultimately leading to miniature computers. [28]
Category: Condensed Matter

[27656] viXra:1902.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-07 06:03:51

Laser Photoelectron Spectroscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Laser physicists have succeeded in reducing the acquisition time for data required for reliable characterization of multidimensional electron motions by a factor of 1000. [39] Princeton researchers have demonstrated a new way of making controllable "quantum wires" in the presence of a magnetic field, according to a new study published in Nature. [38] Physicists at the Kastler Brossel Laboratory in Paris have reached a milestone in the combination of cold atoms and nanophotonics. [37] The universal laws governing the dynamics of interacting quantum particles are yet to be fully revealed to the scientific community. [36]
Category: Quantum Physics

[27655] viXra:1902.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-07 09:15:50

Refutation of Disturbance as a Feature

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

We evaluate four binary equations as not tautologous. The refutes the formal description of verifiability for disturbance as a feature.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[27654] viXra:1902.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-07 10:36:10

New Particles using Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

While current gravitational wave observations aren't yet sensitive enough to observe the effect, this will certainly become an important target of future experiments. [32] One of the most cataclysmic events to occur in the cosmos involves the collision of two black holes. [31] Black holes are known for their voracious appetites, binging on matter with such ferocity that not even light can escape once it's swallowed up. [30] During the formation of a black hole, a bright burst of very energetic light in the form of gamma rays is produced, these events are called gamma ray bursts. [29]
Category: Astrophysics

[27653] viXra:1902.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-07 11:05:13

Strongly Interacting Microwave Photons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

A team of researchers at the University of Chicago has developed a circuit platform for the exploration of quantum matter made of strongly interacting microwave photons. [40] Laser physicists have succeeded in reducing the acquisition time for data required for reliable characterization of multidimensional electron motions by a factor of 1000. [39] Princeton researchers have demonstrated a new way of making controllable "quantum wires" in the presence of a magnetic field, according to a new study published in Nature. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[27652] viXra:1902.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-07 11:30:17

Moral Compass from Human Text

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

A study by the Centre for Cognitive Science at TU Darmstadt shows that AI machines can indeed learn a moral compass from humans. [29] A group of researchers from MIT have already developed an AI robot that can assist in a labour room. [28] Researchers at Fukuoka University, in Japan, have recently proposed a design methodology for configurable approximate arithmetic circuits. [27]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[27651] viXra:1902.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-07 13:02:02

Top-Level Research in Physics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Experiments in astrophysics and nuclear and particle physics are crucial to analyse how the universe works. [41] A team of researchers at the University of Chicago has developed a circuit platform for the exploration of quantum matter made of strongly interacting microwave photons. [40] Laser physicists have succeeded in reducing the acquisition time for data required for reliable characterization of multidimensional electron motions by a factor of 1000. [39] Princeton researchers have demonstrated a new way of making controllable "quantum wires" in the presence of a magnetic field, according to a new study published in Nature. [38]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[27650] viXra:1902.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-07 13:17:34

Big Step in Nanolaser Design

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Lasers are widely used in household appliances, medicine, industry, telecommunications and more. Several years ago, scientists introduced nanolasers. [40] Laser physicists have succeeded in reducing the acquisition time for data required for reliable characterization of multidimensional electron motions by a factor of 1000. [39] Princeton researchers have demonstrated a new way of making controllable "quantum wires" in the presence of a magnetic field, according to a new study published in Nature. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[27649] viXra:1902.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-06 14:28:31

A Mathematical Timeline of Our Universe

Authors: Arturo Tozzi
Comments: 13 Pages.

We propose an unusual history of the Universe, drawing a coherent chronology from pre-big bang scenarios to the occurence of the human brain. Our math-framed account emphasizes the explanatory role of broken symmetries and topological features in physical, biological, neuroscientific and medical events.
Category: Physics of Biology

[27648] viXra:1902.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-06 18:13:16

Refutation of the Axiomatic Theory of Betweenness

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 3 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

We evaluate sixteen equations as axioms and conclusions, for nine as not tautologous. This refutes the axiomatic theory of betweenness.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[27647] viXra:1902.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-06 20:54:33

Correlation of the Fine-Structure Constant to the Cosmic Horizon and Planck Length

Authors: Ankur S. Bhatt, F.M. Becker
Comments: 8 Pages.

The following paper derives the fine-structure constant. This derivation suggests that the fine-structure constant can be theoretically determined as the spectrum range of all the energy modes fitting inside the observable universe. This corresponds to the number of allowed radiation modes of a particle from the cosmic horizon down to Planck length. Additionally, an association between Newton's Law of Gravity and Coulomb's Law suggests there is a connection between mass and charge via the fine-structure constant.
Category: Quantum Physics

[27646] viXra:1902.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-06 21:33:23

The Collapse of the Liemann Empire (Chapter II)

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 3 Pages.

In the mathematical world there was a crawl of analytical connections walking around and I noticed the fact that the mathematics world was dominated by the monster. You should wake up quickly escape from the brainwashing analysis connection (monster). I notice this, I will dare to write for justice. I have tried to prove Riemann hypothesis, I noticed this. That is, Riemann hypohesis is fundamentally completely mistake.
Category: Number Theory

[27645] viXra:1902.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-07 01:05:38

Полное доказательство великой теоремы Ферма методом деления

Authors: Ведерников Сергей Иванович
Comments: 11 Pages.

Простое доказательство инструментами элементарной алгебры.
Category: Algebra

[27644] viXra:1902.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-07 02:02:51

Electron Flow in Quantum Wires

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

Princeton researchers have demonstrated a new way of making controllable "quantum wires" in the presence of a magnetic field, according to a new study published in Nature. [38] Physicists at the Kastler Brossel Laboratory in Paris have reached a milestone in the combination of cold atoms and nanophotonics. [37] The universal laws governing the dynamics of interacting quantum particles are yet to be fully revealed to the scientific community. [36] Now NIST scientists have designed a vacuum gauge that is small enough to deploy in commonly used vacuum chambers. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[27643] viXra:1902.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-07 03:53:28

Can the Idea of a Complex-Valued Potential Explain the Zitterbewegung?

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 5 Pages. No TOC. Paper is short and structure is clear.

The Zitterbewegung model of an electron is intuitive and attractive because – when combining the idea of a motion in two dimensions (the Zitter) with the idea of a pointlike charge – we get all of the previously unexplained values of the observables (the Compton radius, its angular momentum and magnetic moment, and the correct value for the gyromagnetic ratio) out of a limited set of very fundamental equations - the force law and Einstein’s E = mc2 formula, basically. However, the core problem of the model is this very obvious question: what keeps the pointlike charge in its circular orbit? We can develop metaphors but – when everything is said and done – we do not have springs or pistons or any other mechanical devices in space. This paper explores a simple idea: if we can describe the particle itself by Euler’s wavefunction – exploring different aspects of its reality, such as the position of the pointlike charge, and the nature of the force that makes it move along its circular orbit – then we should, perhaps, also explore how we can use it to describe the nature of the space that comes with the particle. The basic idea is this: when we describe physical space (as opposed to a purely mathematical space – coordinate space, that is), we will usually describe its nature in terms of some potential, whose derivative will then give us the force acting on our particle. Hence, if the force on our particle can be described by a complex function, perhaps we should try to describe potential in terms of a complex-valued function as well. So that is what we will do here.
Category: Quantum Physics

[27642] viXra:1902.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-07 04:02:45

How Certain Nuclei Split

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology have extended an existing mathematical model so that it can be used to more accurately predict the products of fission reactions. [30] The nuclear force that holds protons and neutrons together in the center of atoms has a non-central component—the tensor force, which depends on the spin and relative position of the interacting particles. [29] Physicists at the TU Darmstadt and their collaboration partners have performed laser spectroscopy on cadmium isotopes to confirm an improved model of the atomic nucleus. [28] Protons in neutron-rich nuclei have a higher average energy than previously thought, according to a new analysis of electron scattering data that was first collected in 2004. [27]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[27641] viXra:1902.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-07 04:52:18

DNA Molecular Mystery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

The DNA molecules are chiral, which means they can exist in two forms which are mirror images, like a left and right hand. The phenomenon was dubbed "chiral induced spin selectivity" (CISS), and over the last few years, several experiments were published allegedly showing this CISS effect, even in electronic devices. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15]
Category: Physics of Biology

[27640] viXra:1902.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-06 04:57:52

Planck Force, The Strong force and Dirac’s Large Number Hypothesis

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

The strong force, within the proton, has been measured by Jefferson Laboratories [1], to about 7000 newtons. This paper proposes that Planck Force, Planck Pressure are manifestations of the properties of the Neutron and the Planck Sphere which is the building block of our Hubble Universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[27639] viXra:1902.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-06 06:53:06

Wave-Plasma Surrounding the Earth

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Researchers have investigated wave-particle interactions between energetic electrons and chorus waves evolving in the space surrounding the Earth using the scientific satellite Arase and, simultaneously, transient auroral flashes by the ground-based global observation network. [35] The universe consists of a massive imbalance between matter and antimatter. [34] Our universe could be the mirror image of an antimatter universe extending backwards in time before the Big Bang. [33] "As you celebrate New Year's Day, cast an eye upward and think for a moment about the amazing things our country and our species can do when we set our minds to it," Stern wrote in the New York Times on Monday. [32]
Category: Astrophysics

[27638] viXra:1902.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-06 07:16:51

Formation Mechanism of Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

A novel experiment at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) has demonstrated the validity of a widespread theory known as "magnetorotational instability," or MRI, that seeks to explain the formation of heavenly bodies. [36] Researchers have investigated wave-particle interactions between energetic electrons and chorus waves evolving in the space surrounding the Earth using the scientific satellite Arase and, simultaneously, transient auroral flashes by the ground-based global observation network. [35]
Category: Astrophysics

[27637] viXra:1902.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-06 07:39:14

Molecular DNA Repair

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Using a piece of molecular "Velcro" to attach a light-emitting probe to a protein molecule, University of Wollongong (UOW) researchers have unlocked the mystery of how an important protein goes about repairing damaged DNA in bacteria, with implications for understanding how antibiotic resistance develops. [21] In new research, Hao Yan of Arizona State University and his colleagues describe an innovative DNA walker, capable of rapidly traversing a prepared track. [20] Just like any long polymer chain, DNA tends to form knots. Using technology that allows them to stretch DNA molecules and image the behavior of these knots, MIT researchers have discovered, for the first time, the factors that determine whether a knot moves along the strand or "jams" in place. [19]
Category: Physics of Biology

[27636] viXra:1902.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-06 07:50:18

Remark on Last Fermat's Theorem

Authors: Algirdas Anatano Maknickas
Comments: 2 Pages.

This remark gives analytical solution of Last Fermat's Theorem
Category: Number Theory

[27635] viXra:1902.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-06 08:17:34

Remark on Creatio ex Nihilo, Intelligent Design and Emergence Philosophy Approaches to Origin of the Universe

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 20 Pages. This paper has been submitted to SciGod journal. Comments are welcome

It is known that the Big Bang theory was based on the concept of creation ex nihilo, after ancient Greek philosophers. In this paper, we will make few remark on the concept of creatio ex nihilo (as a commentary to a recent paper by Kalachanis, Athanasios Anastasiou, Ioannis Kostikas, Efstratios Theodossious and Мilan S. Dimitrijevi), as well as two other approaches, i.e. Intelligent Design and Emergence Theory by Clayton/Yong. As continuation of our recent paper to appear in forthcoming issue of J. Asia Mathematika, we argue that beside the above three approaches, a new concept called creatio ex-rotatione offers a resolution to the long standing disputes between beginning and eternity of the Universe. In other words, in this respect we agree with Vaas, i.e. it can be shown: “how a conceptual and perhaps physical solution of the temporal aspect of Immanuel Kant’s „first antinomy of pure reason“ is possible, i.e. how our universe in some respect could have both a beginning and an eternal existence. Therefore, paradoxically, there might have been a time before time or a beginning of time in time.” By the help of computational simulation, we also show how a model of early Universe with rotation can fit this new picture.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[27634] viXra:1902.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-06 08:19:07

Physics Beyond Catching a Mouse in the Dark: from Big Science to Deep Science

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 14 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Prespacetime Journal. Your comments are welcome

The Higgs particle has been detected a few years ago, that is what newspapers tell us. For many physicists, the Standard Model of particle physics has accomplished all the jobs. Or to put it simply: The game is over. Is it true? Then some physicists began to ask: can go beyond the Standard Model? Because the supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model has failed. If you feel that theoretical physics is becoming boring, you are not alone. Fortunately, there is good news: a new generation of physicists are doing table-top experiments in their basements. Can we expect new results later?2 If so, what will the future of physics look like? This article discusses this question, starting with a blunt look at the relationship between mathematics and physical reality, written from the perspectives of a mathematician and a cosmologist.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[27633] viXra:1902.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-06 08:21:09

Remark on Creation and Dis-Creation Processes Related to Origination of Charge and Matter

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Robert Neil Boyd
Comments: 16 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Canadian journal of physics

In this article, we discuss shortly on creation and dis-creation processes related to origination of charge and matter by the production of any force you like, especially from Kelvin-Helmholtz electron vortex theory. Both processes, creation and dis-creation, can produce excess electrical energy, so we think such an investigation is worthy to continue. When the matter creation process is deeply investigated and technologies arise from the studies, we will be able to make any amount of any kinds of atoms we like. Later, after deeper investigations, we will be able to make "designer atoms" which will have physical properties, as desired by us, perfectly suited for the selected specific application.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[27632] viXra:1902.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-06 09:25:36

Energy is not Conserved Masses Like to Act Like Waves and Waves Are Masses

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

In this paper we will talk about how masses actually spend their energies in space and how masses actually lose their mass energy masses are relative and are not conserved they lose their mass by radiation spinning and gravity now when we look at a mass we find that it has the same mass at all time which but in fact its because its losing its mass at a rate of c or the speed of light constant and becomes c times smaller after c seconds and all the mass lost is equal to mc or the number of mass multiplied by the c constant or mc^2/c=mc and what is left is the new mc rather than E=mc^2 energy and then we can talk about how mass likes to act like waves when they gain external energy from other masses as when you hit pond water with a ball and watch the ripples the wave is just energy that cant escape from the mass medium and then when its spread across a larger medium and the oscillations hights(peaks and troughs) are still the same unless and the wave is still there and is not lost unless of course if the wave hits air and then the wave disappears after some time but if there are no air and also if there is zero air in a water container and a wave is applied the water vibrates forever unless the energy is absorbed by the masses and are part of the masses and then we talk about waves and why waves are masses its because waves are not electromagnetic waves they are masses that have very much mass absorbed from the star it came from and then photon mass absorbs the energy inside of the mass and then the photon starts losing energy at c constant rate but since the photon has small mass to energy acquired ratio it moves at high speeds for long time
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[27631] viXra:1902.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-05 14:19:06

Longer Wavelength Optical Coherence Tomography

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a light-based imaging technique currently used in clinical diagnostics to examine organs in vivo. [17] This new approach illuminates the origin of surface electromagnetic waves and explains why these waves appear at interfaces where one of the medium parameters (dielectric permittivity or magnetic permeability) changes its sign. [16] A team of physicists headed by Professor Sebastian Reineke of TU Dresden has developed a new method of storing information in fully transparent plastic foils. [15] A new electron microscopy technique that detects the subtle changes in the weight of proteins at the nanoscale—while keeping the sample intact—could open a new pathway for deeper, more comprehensive studies of the basic building blocks of life. [14]
Category: Physics of Biology

[27630] viXra:1902.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-05 14:47:45

Special Relativity in Complex Space-Time. Part 5. Sketch of the Mathematical Structure of Complex Space-Time

Authors: Jozef Radomanski
Comments: 15 Pages.

The article compiles the existing information on complex space-time, from which a sketch of its mathematical structure can be outlined. We divided space-time into geometric and physical layers. The elements of the geometric layer are any four-vectors because, although it is an orthogonal space, it does not have a metrics. The physical layer is created by objects having energy, whose state coordinates are proper or singular paravectors, therefore it is posible to define a metrics for these objects. However, this metrics has no classic properties and it is not a pseudometric of the Minkowski space-time either, so we called it para-metrics. In the physical complex space-time the triangle inequality and the Cauchy inequality have been proved but, however, they have the opposite directions as their equivalents known from Euclidean geometry. At the end, we give a few tips on how to simplify the idea of a complex space-time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[27629] viXra:1902.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-05 17:29:24

Spacetime Engineering

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 3 Pages.

Explanation of spacetime engineering, tailored for general audience. It will be supplemented by demonstrations of reversible elimination of inertial mass (REIM), posted at my YouTube channel by Christmas 2019.
Category: Quantum Physics

[27628] viXra:1902.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-05 18:06:36

The Relativistic Effects Reason

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper discusses one conclusion only which is: All Matters and Materials around us are light beams we see as matters and materials because of the human mind realization process.
Category: Astrophysics

[27627] viXra:1902.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-05 20:48:51

Refutation of the Axiom of Extensionality

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

We evaluate the axiom of extensionality. The equation we tested is not tautologous. This refutes the axiom of extensionality.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[27626] viXra:1902.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-05 21:53:54

A Scientifically Irrefutable Foundation to Physics (Draft 3)

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 89 Pages.

The aim of this work is, first, to set the basis for a formal model of science, then, it is to show that the laws of physics are its theorems. Necessarily, all formal theories that are the product of science are theorems of our model. As this includes physics, our model is, therefore, its logical foundation. In the first part of the paper we present and investigate a number of desiderata regarding the formal practice of science including definitions and properties previously anticipated in the literature. Then, we present a formal model of science meeting these criteria. We define the domain of the theory of everything in physics as the set of all statements decidable by the practice of science in nature. For each named concept of the previous sentence (theory, physics, statement, decidable, practice of science and nature), we produce a suitable mathematical definition. The central thesis of this work is to show that the laws of physics are a theorem of these definitions; ergo, the laws of physics are formal theorems of science. With this definition, the difficulty of producing a sound axiomatic basis for the domain is reduced to formalizing the practice of science within mathematics and the laws of physics are simply theorems provable in it. Main result: The ideal practice of science consists of constructing a message (in the sense of Shannon's theory of information) of experiments (the elements of the message) constrained by the requirement that its elements are verifiable (provable) within some set of logical resources (the statistical priors of the message). In this context, we define the priors as Nature and we qualify the message as scientific. Nature is thus a general proof checker for experiments, and the World is understood by constructing a maximally informative scientific message. Central thesis: We show that the equation of state regarding the construction of a scientific message bounds nature (the priors) to a cosmology entirely emergent from the entropy of the scientific message. We argue that our model is an axiomatic realization of the (later) participatory universe envisioned by John Archibald Wheeler (the aphorism "it from bit"), in which the "it" and its properties are formally derived from the "bit" which we define as (and only as) the information obtained by practice of science. This derivation of the laws of physics is based only on the practice of science in nature and is thus scientifically irrefutable.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[27625] viXra:1902.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-06 02:13:33

How Much Time Does It Take...?

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 1 Page.

How much time does it take for the great mathematicians in physics to understand that...
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[27624] viXra:1902.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-06 04:13:20

Wired Quantum Node

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

Physicists at the Kastler Brossel Laboratory in Paris have reached a milestone in the combination of cold atoms and nanophotonics. [37] The universal laws governing the dynamics of interacting quantum particles are yet to be fully revealed to the scientific community. [36] Now NIST scientists have designed a vacuum gauge that is small enough to deploy in commonly used vacuum chambers. [35] A novel technique that nudges single atoms to switch places within an atomically thin material could bring scientists another step closer to realizing theoretical physicist Richard Feynman's vision of building tiny machines from the atom up. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[27623] viXra:1902.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-06 04:14:43

Estimation of Collagen Synthesis in Human Dermal Fibroblast Cells: an Impact of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Mayank Gangwar, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 7 Pages.

Human dermal fibroblasts are defined for skin strength and resilience by continuously secreting extracellular matrix (ECM) components, which are responsible for promoting skin rejuvenation and remodeling. Precisely, the branched collagen fibrils provide the skin with its shape and firmness. The objective of the present study was to assess the potential of Biofield Energy Treatment (Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment-The Trivedi Effect®) in the HFF-1 cell line (Human Foreskin Fibroblast) and DMEM (Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium) for evaluation of skin health parameters such as proliferation rate and collagen level using in vitro model. An increase in cellular proliferation and collagen levels were considered as markers for skin health promoting effects. An aliquot of HFF-1 cells and DMEM were divided into two equal parts, one was treated with the Biofield Energy Treatment and denoted as treated test sample, while other part was coded as the untreated test sample. MTT assay was used to study the cellular proliferation and collagen level was estimated by collagen dye complex formation using Biotek Synergy HT microplate reader. The HFF-1 cellular proliferation rate was significantly increased by 85% in the Biofield Energy Treated DMEM as compared with Biofield Treated cells. Similarly, the collagen level was significantly (p≤0.01) increased by 44.2% in the Biofield Energy Treated DMEM as compared with control. Hence, the result suggests a significant improvement of collagen level in the Biofield Energy Treated media (DMEM) for improving skin health. It can be concluded that The Trivedi Effect® might be a complementary and alternative approach with respect to the skin health, anti-aging activities in HFF-1 cell line.
Category: Biochemistry

[27622] viXra:1902.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-06 04:46:12

Nanosized Amplifier Photonics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

With international collaboration, researchers at Aalto University have now developed a nanosized amplifier to help light signals propagate through microchips. [38] Physicists at the Kastler Brossel Laboratory in Paris have reached a milestone in the combination of cold atoms and nanophotonics. [37] The universal laws governing the dynamics of interacting quantum particles are yet to be fully revealed to the scientific community. [36] Now NIST scientists have designed a vacuum gauge that is small enough to deploy in commonly used vacuum chambers. [35]
Category: Condensed Matter

[27621] viXra:1902.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-05 05:07:52

Read, Write and Erase Using Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

A team of physicists headed by Professor Sebastian Reineke of TU Dresden has developed a new method of storing information in fully transparent plastic foils. [15] A new electron microscopy technique that detects the subtle changes in the weight of proteins at the nanoscale—while keeping the sample intact—could open a new pathway for deeper, more comprehensive studies of the basic building blocks of life. [14] Researchers use a cavity-coupled double quantum dot to study electron-phonon interactions in a nanowire. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[27620] viXra:1902.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-05 05:29:41

Surface Electromagnetic Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

This new approach illuminates the origin of surface electromagnetic waves and explains why these waves appear at interfaces where one of the medium parameters (dielectric permittivity or magnetic permeability) changes its sign. [16] A team of physicists headed by Professor Sebastian Reineke of TU Dresden has developed a new method of storing information in fully transparent plastic foils. [15] A new electron microscopy technique that detects the subtle changes in the weight of proteins at the nanoscale—while keeping the sample intact—could open a new pathway for deeper, more comprehensive studies of the basic building blocks of life. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[27619] viXra:1902.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-05 05:57:27

Confirmation of the Failure of Modus Ponens When the Consequent is Itself a Conditional Sentence

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

We confirm the failure of modus ponens when the consequent is itself a conditional sentence. The reason a repeated consequent does not produce tautology is because it dilutes the original sentence to assume incorrectly other plausible consequents.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[27618] viXra:1902.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-05 06:24:33

The Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment: Impact on Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of L-Tryptophan

Authors: Gopal Nayak, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 12 Pages.

L-tryptophan is an essential amino acid that helps in growth in infants and aids nitrogen balancing in adults, etc. This study helps in evaluating the impact of the Trivedi Effect® on the physicochemical and thermal properties of L-tryptophan with the help of various analytical techniques. One part of L-tryptophan sample didn’t receive any treatment and was called the control sample, while the other part was given the Biofield Treatment remotely by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Gopal Nayak and named as the treated sample. The particle size values were significantly altered by -43.95%(d10), -6.28%(d50), 9.97%(d90), and 10.36%[D(4,3)]; thus, the specific surface area was significantly increased by 51.61% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The PXRD peak intensities and crystallite sizes were significantly altered ranging from -61.17% to 385.06% and -48.52% to 3.76% respectively, however, the average crystallite size was significantly reduced by 26.03% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The total weight loss was significantly increased by 17.35%; additionally, the residual amount was significantly reduced by 83.95% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The ΔHfusion was significantly increased by 10.43% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. Thus, the Biofield Treatment produced the novel polymorph of L-tryptophan that might give better solubility, bioavailability, and thermal stability in nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations with and an improved drug profile.
Category: Biochemistry

Replacements of recent Submissions

[10979] viXra:1902.0237 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-15 01:05:58

Special Relativity (21st-Century-Style), Particle Physics, and the Dark Universe

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 14 Pages.

Abstract This article begins with “vector-tensor-scalar geometry” interacting photons and gravitons to produce the quantum spins of matter particles, the Higgs boson, plus the particles of the weak and strong nuclear forces. It then proposes the universe uses base-2 mathematics (a.k.a. electronics’ binary digits), the topology of Mobius strips and figure-8 Klein bottles, plus the geometry mentioned before, to produce photons and still hypothetical gravitons and non-hypothetical mass. It’s then proposed that the three-dimensional figure-8 Klein bottles composing the universe possess space-time's four dimensions (3 of space + 1 of time) when Wick rotation is programmed into them. This programming is adaptive, depending on the strength of gravity and electromagnetism (in Special Relativity, time slows in intense gravity and on approaching c, the speed of light). Because of the rotating between the x- and y-axes in Wick rotation, there’s a space-time we call imaginary or higher dimensional that is just as real as ordinary space-time. Gravity also leads to mass here - “dark” matter – and that matter’s associated “dark” energy. Back in this dimension, the Big Bang is regarded as dispensable due to the quantum-mechanical entanglement of microwave photons. And the speed of light becomes a duality – simultaneously having the two velocities of approx. 300 000, and approx. zero, km/s. Introduction - The abstract of a review article in the journal “Science” states, “Both dark matter and dark energy require extensions to our current understanding of particle physics or point toward a breakdown of general relativity on cosmological scales.” Could it be that understanding dark matter and dark energy doesn’t require modification of general relativity, but needs Einstein’s 1905 masterpiece of special relativity? Nevertheless, modification of general relativity – and its unification with quantum mechanics – might be accomplished with the hidden variables of base 2 mathematics, Mobius strips, figure-8 Klein bottles, and Wick rotation. The greatest obstacle to understanding the dark universe, and beginning the journey to quantum gravity, will be the human reluctance to accept a paradigm shift to determinism.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[10978] viXra:1902.0206 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-15 00:25:05

Verification of Axioms Which Resolve the Continuum Power Problem

Authors: Vatolin Dm
Comments: 14 Pages. Russian

In the interpretation of meta-theory, which is the canonical set theory, here proved are the theorems that are sufficient to resolve the Cantor (Hilbert) problem of the continuum power.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[10977] viXra:1902.0206 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-13 20:11:21

Verification of Axioms Which Resolve the Continuum Power Problem

Authors: Vatolin Dm.
Comments: 14 Pages. Russian

In the interpretation of meta-theory, which is the canonical set theory, here proved are the theorems that are sufficient to resolve the Cantor (Hilbert) problem of the continuum power.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[10976] viXra:1902.0197 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-11 21:48:30

Refutation of the Method of Forcing

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages.

We evaluate two examples of paradoxes to be resolved by the method of forcing. The first is not tautologous, and the second is a contradiction so not proved as a paradox. This means the forcing method is refuted because it cannot coerce the two examples into abstract proofs and with the ultimate goal to produce larger truth values. What follows is that the forcing method is better suited for paraconsistent logics which are non tautologous fragments of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[10975] viXra:1902.0189 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-11 10:01:58

The Philosophy of Mathematics

Authors: Hugh Wang
Comments: 2 Pages.

What is mathematics? Why does it exist? Is it consistent? Is it complete? We answer these questions as well as resolve Russell’s Paradox and debunk Godel’s Incompleteness Theorem.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[10974] viXra:1902.0184 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-11 16:18:47

Computation, Complexity, and P!=NP Proof

Authors: Hugh Wang
Comments: 2 Pages.

If we refer to a string for Turing machines as a guess and a rejectable substring a flaw, then all algorithms reject similarly flawed guesses flaw by flaw until they chance on an unflawed guess, settle with a flawed guess, or return the unflawed guesses. Deterministic algorithms therefore must identify all flaws before guessing flawlessly in the worst case. Time complexity is then bounded below by the order of the product of the least number of flaws to cover all flawed guesses and the least time to identify a flaw. Since there exists 3-SAT problems with an exponential number of flaws, 3-SAT is not in P, and therefore P!=NP.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[10973] viXra:1902.0184 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-11 09:48:52

Computation, Complexity, and P!=NP Proof

Authors: Hugh Wang
Comments: 2 Pages.

If we refer to a string for Turing machines as a guess and a rejectable substring a flaw, then all algorithms reject similarly flawed guesses flaw by flaw until they chance on an unflawed guess, settle with a flawed guess, or return the unflawed guesses. Deterministic algorithms therefore must identify all flaws before guessing flawlessly in the worst case. Time complexity is then bounded below by the order of the product of the least number of flaws to cover all flawed guesses and the least time to identify a flaw. Since there exists 3-SAT problems with an exponential number of flaws, 3-SAT is not in P, and therefore P!=NP.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[10972] viXra:1902.0183 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-11 10:03:25

The Rise and Fall of Evolution

Authors: Hugh Wang
Comments: 2 Pages.

Jeremy England proposed in his “Statistical physics of self-replication” that energy dispersion drives evolution. Such is the explanatory power of his theory that we build on it to rethink the relationship between life and entropy as handed to us by Schodinger, to find a place for the origin and evolution of life within the cosmos, to explain the Cambrian Explosion and the Mass Extinctions from an entropic perspective, hence the title, and finally, to find a way out of the gloom and doom of global warming.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[10971] viXra:1902.0175 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-11 08:43:46

Theory of Quantum Gravity

Authors: Mundase Ravindra Sidramappa
Comments: 9 Pages.

Basically this theory has been developed to propose an oscillating universe. According to my theory, the matter is the only origin of gravity. In this theory all fundamental physical entities such as space, time, matter, force, energy and others are used in their usual meanings as in classical mechanics. The space and time are not related to each other. The space and time are independent.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10970] viXra:1902.0167 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-10 05:38:45

Denial of the Refutation of Coherence in Modal Logic

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page.

We evaluate the refutation of coherence in modal logic as based on weakly transitive logics using a ternary term to admit finite chains. The term is not tautologous, thereby denying the refutation. What follows is that K, KT, K4, and S4 (and S5) are tautologous fragments of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[10969] viXra:1902.0166 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-10 04:43:55

“Resemblance of Neutrinos with Different Quantum–Oscillating Flavor and Mass“

Authors: Imrich Krištof
Comments: 10 Pages.

This presented tech–science paper is focused on main themes of evolution and history of research of neutrinos – elusive elementary particles. The highlights is dedicated to the scheme of born and reborn and cascade decay hierarchic high energy particles, called hyperons (lambda, sigma, xi, epsilon, omega) and main position particles called mezons (mion, pion, kaon, rhó meson, éta meson, phí meson, omega meson, J/Ψ (J-Psí meson), h1 meson, a0-meson f1, f2 meson). This Sun or starshowers fall in energetic clusters and clouds on each cm-2, of Earth’s surface (φ average flux of neutrinos 10 billions neutrinos on cm2/sec. (1010 cm-2.s-1) for Eν > 7 MeV ->~ 106 cm-2.s-1). Cross section of neutrinos is very small σνN = 10-42 m2 – 10-48 m2 = 10-19 barn, 1 barn is an unit of cross section. In the Ending part of starshowers the photons, phonons and electron, mion, and tauon are detected in photomultipliers and scintillators, like a Cherenkov radiation – hyperrelativistic electrons, photons and mions and tauons, visually Fig. 4 Neutrino Detector SUDBURY(SNO) Canada. The main part of paper is focused on NEUTRINO FLAVOR AND MASS. According Pauli and Fermi–Dirac and Bose–Einstein Statistical Laws each particle is conjugated with its own antiparticles: electron (e-) and positron (e+), electron neutrino and electron antineutrino, quark beauty / bottom and antiquark beauty / bottom. In the text is not forget the facts about 11 NOVEMBER 1974 – particles J/Ψ REVOLUTION MESONS J/Ψ consist of beauty quark and beauty antiquark. The Pioneer work of Clyde L. Cowan, Jr. and Frederick Reines in Hanford and Savannah River Plant lead to fundamental discovery and detection of neutrinos. On Fig. 7 is described Cowan–Reines Neutrino Experiment. In the End of this text is situation of Neutrinos and The Standard Model of particles. The goal of this work is clarified the evolution and theoretical background of elementary particles – neutrinos.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[10968] viXra:1902.0141 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-08 06:38:43

Denial of Logic System PŁ4

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages.

We evaluate the logic system PŁ4 as refuting and replacing VŁ4. Eight modal theses and two axioms are not tautologous and contrary to those of PŁ4. This denies that PŁ4 refutes VŁ4, refutes PŁ4, and justifies VŁ4 as containing the non bivalent fragment named PŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[10967] viXra:1902.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-08 05:19:56

Two VŁ4 Theorems not in S5

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages.

We evaluate two equations not found as theorems in S5; both are theorems in VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[10966] viXra:1902.0139 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-08 06:54:53

VŁ4 is the Universal Logic System

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com. (We warn troll Mikko at Disqus to read the article four times before hormonal typing.)

Using Meth8/VŁ4, we evaluate 408 artifacts in 2250 assertions to confirm 442 as tautology and 1808 as not (80.4%). The logic systems tested as not tautologous become invalidated fragments of VŁ4, and the logic systems tested as tautologous become validated fragments of VŁ4. What follows is that logic system VŁ4 is the universal logic. We direct the reader to over 600 pages of results at: vixra.org/abs/1901.0415
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[10965] viXra:1902.0137 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-08 11:59:25

Right Decision-Making and Liberal Centrism

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 7 Pages.

A misleading self-image of liberal centrism.
Category: Social Science

[10964] viXra:1902.0117 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-14 18:03:45

The Collapse of the Riemann Empire (Chapter II-8)

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 3 Pages.

There is no infinity. The world of numbers is a sphere, not a two dimensional world represented by paper.
Therefore, 0 is present beyond eternity. Running the Earth eternally forever will come back to the original place. The number is made like this. Infinite next is 0. Equal Infinite next is x=y=imaginary number=0. Therefore Riemann Hypothesis is denied.
Category: Number Theory

[10963] viXra:1902.0117 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-12 01:24:03

The Collapse of the Riemann Empire (Chapter Ⅱ-3)

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 24 Pages.

2^s/(2^-1)*3^s/(3^-1)*5^s/(5^s-1)*7^s/(7^s-1)……… Whether the above equation converges to 0 was verified. Convergence is extremely slow, and divergence tendency was rather rather abundant when the prime number was 1000 or more. It was thought that the above equation could possibly be an expression that can be composed only of real numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[10962] viXra:1902.0117 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-07 06:22:01

The Collapse of the Liemann Empire (Chapter II-2)

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 3 Pages.

repeat zeta, the imaginary value goes to 0. This is considered to be one piece of evidence that the analytic connection is a monster. We must get out of the brainwashing of analytic connection monsters as soon as possible.
Category: Number Theory

[10961] viXra:1902.0113 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-12 11:15:18

The Zitterbewegung and the de Broglie Wavelength

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 11 Pages.

This paper explores some more philosophical aspects of the Zitterbewegung model of an electron, including a geometric interpretation of the de Broglie wavelength.
Category: Quantum Physics

[10960] viXra:1902.0106 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-10 10:53:42

Remark on Last Fermat's Theorem

Authors: Algirdas Antano Maknickas
Comments: 2 Pages.

This remark gives analytical solution of Last Fermat's Theorem
Category: Number Theory

[10959] viXra:1902.0106 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-09 02:11:25

Remark on Last Fermat's Theorem

Authors: Algirdas Antano Maknickas
Comments: 2 Pages. In previous version was mistake in middle name.

This remark gives analytical solution of Last Fermat's Theorem
Category: Number Theory

[10958] viXra:1902.0098 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-12 05:12:37

Spacetime Engineering

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 7 Pages. Final version.

Explanation of spacetime engineering, tailored for general audience. It will be supplemented by demonstrations of reversible elimination of inertial mass (REIM), which will be posted at YouTube until Christmas 2019.
Category: Quantum Physics

[10957] viXra:1902.0098 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-09 11:28:33

Spacetime Engineering

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 5 Pages. Text expanded and references added. Comments welcome.

Explanation of spacetime engineering, tailored for general audience. It will be supplemented by demonstrations of reversible elimination of inertial mass (REIM), which will be posted at YouTube until Christmas 2019.
Category: Quantum Physics

[10956] viXra:1902.0098 [pdf] replaced on 2019-02-07 05:48:32

Spacetime Engineering

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 4 Pages. Comments welcome.

Explanation of spacetime engineering, tailored for general audience. It will be supplemented by demonstrations of reversible elimination of inertial mass (REIM), which will be posted at YouTube until Christmas 2019.
Category: Quantum Physics