**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(59) - 0703(50) - 0704(5) - 0705(1) - 0706(8) - 0707(2) - 0708(3) - 0709(3) - 0710(1) - 0711(6) - 0712(3)

2008 - 0801(4) - 0802(4) - 0803(2) - 0804(9) - 0805(4) - 0806(1) - 0807(12) - 0808(6) - 0809(3) - 0810(16) - 0811(5) - 0812(9)

2009 - 0901(3) - 0902(7) - 0903(6) - 0904(5) - 0907(50) - 0908(109) - 0909(61) - 0910(66) - 0911(64) - 0912(54)

2010 - 1001(46) - 1002(51) - 1003(265) - 1004(138) - 1005(110) - 1006(68) - 1007(55) - 1008(91) - 1009(71) - 1010(61) - 1011(76) - 1012(52)

2011 - 1101(100) - 1102(55) - 1103(122) - 1104(82) - 1105(41) - 1106(61) - 1107(53) - 1108(49) - 1109(59) - 1110(71) - 1111(114) - 1112(86)

2012 - 1201(100) - 1202(83) - 1203(93) - 1204(95) - 1205(111) - 1206(91) - 1207(98) - 1208(222) - 1209(96) - 1210(163) - 1211(137) - 1212(143)

2013 - 1301(175) - 1302(156) - 1303(197) - 1304(152) - 1305(183) - 1306(210) - 1307(152) - 1308(140) - 1309(191) - 1310(243) - 1311(168) - 1312(203)

2014 - 1401(189) - 1402(147) - 1403(842) - 1404(260) - 1405(328) - 1406(179) - 1407(204) - 1408(219) - 1409(224) - 1410(188) - 1411(491) - 1412(247)

2015 - 1501(231) - 1502(229) - 1503(254) - 1504(232) - 1505(221) - 1506(206) - 1507(23)

Any replacements are listed further down

[10919] **viXra:1507.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-04 08:08:43*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 7 Pages. A short version of an eprint with the same name (1506.0212)

To complete the standard model I propose a phenomenological model of quantum black holes and dark matter. I assume that at the center of any black hole there is a Kerr (Schwarzschild) core object of size Planck length. The core replaces the general relativity singularity of the black hole. A simple phenomenological model is presented for the core. In the high curvature t~0 universe cores were created in the false vacuum. Subsequently they tunneled into the true vacuum causing the inflationary expansion of the universe. Gravitons condensate around the cores to form primordial black holes which evolve into dark matter in the big bang together with the standard model particles.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10918] **viXra:1507.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-03 12:26:31*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The solution of the fifteenth problem of Smale, the Navier-Stokes equations in three spatial dimensions.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[10917] **viXra:1507.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-03 07:04:05*

**Authors:** BERKOUK mohamed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

démonstration résumée , sans détailler les théorèmes de WARING ,EUCLIDE et le théorème des nombres premiers (TNP) que j'ai utilisé pour asseoir les jalons d'une démonstration de La conjecture de POLIGNAC.

**Category:** Number Theory

[10916] **viXra:1507.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-03 07:18:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have identified a system that could store quantum information for longer times, which is critical for the future of quantum computing. [10]
Around the world, small bands of such engineers have been working on this approach for decades. Using two particular quantum phenomena, called superposition and entanglement, they have created qubits and linked them together to make prototype machines that exist in many states simultaneously. Such quantum computers do not require an increase in speed for their power to increase. In principle, this could allow them to become far more powerful than any classical machine—and it now looks as if principle will soon be turned into practice. Big firms, such as Google, Hewlett-Packard, IBM and Microsoft, are looking at how quantum computers might be commercialized. The world of quantum computation is almost here. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10915] **viXra:1507.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-03 04:01:43*

**Authors:** Cheng Tianren

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this essays, we try to demonstrate the school life of Jeff. and we select more than 20
stories of him to explore our thoughts towards the most popular social events. In this paper, we publish essays five to eight as the second part of this work.

**Category:** Social Science

[10914] **viXra:1507.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-03 04:14:14*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A team from the RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science, along with collaborators from several Japanese institutions, have successfully produced pairs of spin-entangled electrons and demonstrated, for the first time, that these electrons remain entangled even when they are separated from one another on a chip. [27]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10913] **viXra:1507.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-03 04:33:27*

**Authors:** Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We discuss the gradient gauge invariance for the massive and massless fields described by sedeonic second-order and first-order wave equations.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[10912] **viXra:1507.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-03 01:06:44*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 16 pages. Advances in Physics Theories and Applications, Vol. 44, P. 123 – 138 (2015).

Based on the assumption of separation of the charges in matter of cosmic bodies the possibility of obtaining the magnetic moment by these bodies is proved. The magnitude of the magnetic field appears proportional to the angular velocity of the body’s rotation and to the radius of convective layer. The periods of change of polarity of magnetic field of the Earth and the Sun are calculated by means of the size the convective layer and the convection speed. The solar activity appears the consequence of periodic transformation of the thermal energy into the electromagnetic form of energy.

**Category:** Geophysics

[10911] **viXra:1507.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-02 07:25:19*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

With simple, but vivid argument I am proving, what the Universe has the Beginning, will have the End and is finite in volume. Tell the others on Facebook, Twitter, etc, to make this world a better place to live and think.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10910] **viXra:1507.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-02 04:14:17*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Will be brought up in Marcel Grossman Meeting, Rome

We initially look at a non singular universe representation as given by Rovelli and Vidotto, in terms of a quantum bounce, via quark stars, as a start of how to estimate of entropy and also of the number of operations of an expanding universe. The bench mark used is, to after considering a quark star, to look at the mass of a universe, estimated, and from there, we can obtain the entropy if we look at the Schwartzshield radii of a universe, and then the radii of the universe about 380,000 years after the big bang. In the latter, we show how to get the number of operations as akin to the reasoning used by Seth Lloyd , in 2001, and also from there close with a few comments as to the ‘naturalness’ of heavy Gravity from this formulation of entropy, which is based upon a start of considering what is a Planck star, as far as minimum quantum effects in Black hole physics, and by extension early universe cosmology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10909] **viXra:1507.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-02 04:54:16*

**Authors:** Kolosov Petya

**Comments:** 11 Pages. -

In this paper described some new view and properties of the power function, the main aim of the work is to enter some new ideas. Also described expansion of power function, based on done research. Expansion has like Binominal theorem view, but algorithm not same.

**Category:** Number Theory

[10908] **viXra:1507.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-02 05:17:19*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12]
Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[10907] **viXra:1507.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-01 13:43:35*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Phonons—the elemental particles that transmit both heat and sound—have magnetic properties, according to a landmark study supported by Ohio Supercomputer Center (OSC) services and recently published by a researcher group from The Ohio State University. [8]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[10906] **viXra:1507.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-01 14:49:39*

**Authors:** Thierry Periat

**Comments:** 36 Pages. This document is also deposed on "Hal archives ourvertes"

Physics needs permanently new pertinent mathematical tools proposing a better
description of what is observed and measured. The extended (deformed) Lie
products are one of them. In particular, they allow the denition of extended
angular momentum. Exploring the decompositions of extended Lie products in
general is enlightening our understanding of division for vectors. It will turn out
that the extended angular momentum have divisors from which the solutions
proposed by Bowen York for the initial data problem can be directly recovered.
The main dierence between our approach and the one followed by the masters
(Einstein, Lichnerowicz, Choquet-Bruhat,York, Bowen...) is its spirit. Our work
is a pure algebraic one and it is developed in keeping the notion of deformed
topological algebra in mind. This allows the construction of links between the
theory of relativity and the quantum mechanics without being obliged to carry
the problematic of supplementary dimensions.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[10905] **viXra:1507.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-01 14:55:55*

**Authors:** Thierry Periat

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The goal of this second
part is to go further, precisely to go as far as possible within an approach trying
to catch the exact formalism of the allowed metrics. This will force us to better
understand the six relations, especially the rst relation of coherence.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[10904] **viXra:1507.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-01 11:44:43*

**Authors:** R. Born

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This is not the best paper, it's pieces of a larger work that didn't fit the constraints of an essay I have many more details, references, I was not able to include, but will provide in other works. The important part here is that it helps preserve your free will by showing how it is important to gravity, a universal truth, law. The observer scales up in the far future, which astronomers can't see in telescopes. You don't need a crystal ball to use logic, follow trends like evolution another 85 billion years...

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10903] **viXra:1507.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-01 08:02:01*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The Overview Of Historical and Research With Regard to Nuclear Forces and Nuclear Structure

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[10902] **viXra:1507.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-01 08:25:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10]
Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10901] **viXra:1507.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-01 03:40:35*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Satisfied all possible experimental misses of General Relativity by simple and logical modification of Einstein equations. Namely to the left hand is added besides the cosmological constant the Dark Matter tensor. Hereby the Dark Matter is not discovered as the material one, because it is the phantomic matter: just the modification of the geometry rules. Tell the others on Facebook, Twitter, etc, to make this world a better place to live and think.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10900] **viXra:1507.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-01 00:45:24*

**Authors:** Diego Liberati

**Comments:** 1 Page.

An elementary proof of the Riemann hypothesis is offered

**Category:** Number Theory

[10899] **viXra:1507.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-01 02:49:30*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 5 Pages. in Russian

Discusses the principle and test results space engines that cravings creates due to directional microwave. Shows the inconsistency of allegations of violations of the momentum conservation law and performance of this idea

**Category:** Classical Physics

[10898] **viXra:1507.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-01 03:32:09*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Here we present the new structure of the Theory of Everything (ToE or SQUARE Theory). The time problem that concerns the General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Mechanics (QM) (contrary to QM, in GR is not a distinguished physical time) suggests that the irreversible separation of GR and QM during the inflation is the good idea - just there was created the two-component spacetime with very different properties of the two components. One component is directly associated with gravitational fields whereas the second with the Standard-Model interactions and particles. It causes that unification of GR and QM within the same methods is impossible. The separation of GR and QM follows from the succeeding phase transitions of the superluminal Higgs field that existence results from the extended GR (the phase transitions are described within the unique Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST)). The SST shows that both theories, i.e. GR and QM, start from correct but incomplete sets of initial conditions. It causes that, generally, they lead to experimental data so both are the correct theories but due to the incompleteness, there appear as well the not numerous incorrect solutions i.e. solutions that cannot be realized by Nature. The Scale-Symmetric Theory limits the GR and QM in such a way that there do not appear infinities, indeterminate mathematical forms, approximations, mathematical tricks and free parameters. Nature on lower and lower levels should be simpler and simpler, not more and more complex as it is in the not unique Loop Quantum Gravity or the not unique string/M-theory. We do not need new differential equations to solve the tremendous number of unsolved basic problems - we need a very simple theory that limits the GR and QM and describes the scales below the Planck scale and solves all problems above this scale and SST is such a theory. In the RHIC experiment we can test the SST.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10897] **viXra:1507.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-01 00:30:41*

**Authors:** Diego Liberati

**Comments:** 1 Page.

An elementary proof to the twin prime conjecture is offered

**Category:** Number Theory

[10896] **viXra:1506.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-30 17:15:39*

**Authors:** D. Rabounski, P. Robitaille, F. Smarandache, L. Mao, Etc.

**Comments:** 97 Pages.

Papers on physics and its applications.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[10895] **viXra:1506.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-30 19:46:35*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce for the first time the notions of Neutrosophic Axiom,
Neutrosophic Axiomatic System, Neutrosophic Deducibility and Neutrosophic
Inference, Neutrosophic Proof, Neutrosophic Tautologies, Neutrosophic Quantifiers,
Neutrosophic Propositional Logic, Neutrosophic Axiomatic Space, Degree of
Contradiction (Dissimilarity) of Two Neutrosophic Axioms, and Neutrosophic
Model. A class of neutrosophic implications is also introduced. A comparison
between these innovatory neutrosophic notions and their corresponding classical
notions is made. Then, three concrete examples of neutrosophic axiomatic systems,
describing the same neutrosophic geometrical model, are presented at the end of
the paper.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[10894] **viXra:1506.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-30 22:38:39*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** Pages.

The shared background independence of spacetime algebra and the impedance approach to quantization, coupled with the natural gauge invariance of phase shifts introduced by quantum impedances, opens the possibility that identifying the geometric objects of the impedance model with those of spacetime algebra will permit a more intuitive understanding of the equivalence of gauge theory gravity in flat space with general relativity in curved space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10893] **viXra:1506.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-30 23:37:33*

**Authors:** ChengGang.Zhang

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper will research one special function and it’s physics principle , the special function which has quantum properties ; Two hypothesis of quantum theory can be derived from the special function , and the special function also applies to atoms successfully；This paper proves that the special function is related to Coulomb force in the end , and reveals the essential reason .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10892] **viXra:1506.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-30 15:08:44*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This article concerns the psychology of the paradoxical Two Envelope Problem. The goal is to find instructive variants of the envelope switching problem that are capable of clear-cut resolution, while still retaining paradoxical features. By relocating the original problem into different contexts involving commutes and playing cards the reader is presented with a succession of resolved paradoxes that reduce the confusion arising from the parent paradox. The goal is to reduce confusion by understanding how we sometimes misread mathematical statements; or, to completely avoid confusion, either by reforming language, or adopting an unambiguous notation for switching problems. This article also suggests that an illusion close in character to the figure/ground illusion hampers our understanding of switching problems in general and helps account for the intense confusion that switching problems sometimes generate.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[10891] **viXra:1506.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-30 15:19:48*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 27 Pages. Comments on errors, omissions and opinions are welcome.

I propose a model of black holes and dark matter to extend the standard model. I assume that at the center of any black hole there is a Kerr (Schwarzschild) black hole core object. The core is proposed to replace the singularity of the hole. During early inflation gravitons condensate gradually around the cores to form a primordial quantum black holes which evolve into dark matter in the universe together with the standard model particles.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10890] **viXra:1506.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-30 10:06:38*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A growing number of conflicts within the Standard Model call into question the fundamental interpretation of the Doppler component of the putative Hubble Expansion Law and the nature of events in spacetime associated with conventional coordinates of the line element as attached to the physical basis of the observer. Also of paramount importance is that Einstein’s geometrodynamics is not a complete theory of gravity. We postulate that nonlinear effects associated with the propagation of light in an intense gravitational field produces shock waves creating ‘light-booms’ along boundary conditions at cosmological distances approaching the limit of observation that if correct would explain Quasi-Stellar Object (QSO) luminosity. These gravitational shock waves are considered observationally manifest in the spectrum of QSOs and Supernova as a continuous front of ‘light booms’ produced by superluminal boosts associated with continuous coordinate transformations relative to a distant observer. This model aligns with the view suggesting that QSOs are most likely a form of Seifert spiral galaxy with Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in the vicinity of the putative observational limit of the Hubble radius, HR.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[10889] **viXra:1506.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-30 07:28:53*

**Authors:** Aleksey Vaneev

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Includes Russian text

This essay presents the so called “delta-integrator” model of gravity which is a conceptual rethinking of gravity phenomena – stages of birth and life of the gravity field. This essay summarizes author’s previously presented information on this model. The model does not offer a comprehensive set of tools for use in theoretical and applied physics. The model offers philosophy, framework and terms for discussions about gravity’s nature, and also offers several hypotheses. The author has a hope that the required set of tools, formulas and constants can be further created by the interested parties considering specifics of their corresponding fields of expertise.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10888] **viXra:1506.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-30 08:52:49*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A team of researchers led by UCLA electrical engineers has demonstrated a new way to harness light particles, or photons, that are connected to each other and act in unison no matter how far apart they are —a phenomenon known as quantum entanglement. [6]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10887] **viXra:1506.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-29 08:21:08*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 13 Pages. in Russian

It is shown that from the standpoint of the wave theory of the structure of matter to be aired
regarded as "prematter" acquiring new properties
during its "condensation". Its specificity is discussed as a process structuring ether and marked with the opportunity to overcome a number of
the difficulties of theoretical physics

**Category:** Classical Physics

[10886] **viXra:1506.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-29 01:42:05*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 67 Pages. New Trends in Physics /book, elementes pictures, spheres in nuclei, forecasted nuclei, ZOO-3D editorfor interactive inspecting of nuclei spheres/, Academic Electronic Press, Bratislava, 2000, CD- ROM, ISBN 80-88880-38-6. http://www.trendsinphysics.info

Coming out from the motto we are going to revalue the experiments of Fizeau, Harres, Kaufmann, Michelson-Morley, which gave rise to Einstein's special and general theory of relativity. All these experiments are revalued from the point of view of the submitted new theory of relativity based on the new definition of medium, the new generalized law of inertia, the new law of propagation of light (waves, intensity), the new definition of equivalent coordinates system, the new principle of relativity. It has been derived the asymmetric form of intensity of the electric field of moving charge at the velocity of 0.001c-c. The theoretical values resulting from the new theory are compared with the experimental Kaufmann's values. It is affirmed the general validity of Maxwell's equations (not only in statics).
The results of Fizeau's and Harres' experiments prove the theory of non-linear form of interference field in moving medium without the drag coefficient. There are mentioned the correct relations for Doppler's effect. In the results of the theory there is outlined the possible generalization for the fields, in which the speed of propagation is finite. For the gravitational field there is outlined the way of getting off the Earth by means of rotation. It is explained the new determination of energies and velocities of particles for nuclear field. There are mentioned the relations for energy and the calculations of the radius of moving particles force reach.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10885] **viXra:1506.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-29 02:50:52*

**Authors:** Christian Corda, R. Katebi, N. O. Schmidt

**Comments:** 39 Pages. Paper dedicated to the 80th birthday of Mr. Ruggero M. Santilli, hoping that this will permit Santilli to understand how GTR and Lambda-CDM cosmology really work and, in turn, will permit him to withdraw his very wrong claims in gravitation and cosmology

In a series of papers, Santilli and collaborators released various strong statements against the general theory of relativity (GTR) and the stan-
dard Lambda-CDM model of cosmology. In this paper we show that such claims are due to fundamental misunderstandings of very basic concepts of gravitation and cosmology. In other words, we show that Santilli and collaborators demonstrated nothing. In particular, they demonstrated neither that the GTR is wrong, nor that the Universe is not expanding. We also show that the so-called iso-gravitation theory (IGT) of Santilli is in macroscopic contrast with geodesic motion and, in turn, with the Equivalence Principle (EP) and must therefore be ultimately rejected. Finally, we show that, although the so called iso-redshift could represent an interesting alternative
(similar to the tired light theory historically proposed by Zwicky) to the Universe expansion from a qualitative point of view, it must be rejected from a quantitative point of view because the effect of iso-redshift is 10^−6
smaller than the effect requested to achieve the cosmological redshift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10884] **viXra:1506.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-28 20:05:44*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Said Broumi, Irfan Deli, Fu Yuhua, Adesina Agboola, Shawkat Alkhazaleh, Ameirys Betancourt-Vázquez, Maikel Leyva-Vázquez, Karina Perez-Teruel, Hojjatollah Farahani, Lihshing Leigh Wang, A.A.A. Agboola, B. Davvaz

**Comments:** 104 Pages.

Papers on neutrosophic theory and its applications.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[10883] **viXra:1506.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-28 20:50:52*

**Authors:** editor Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 152 Pages.

Paradoxist folklore, poems, translations, prose, and illustrations by many authors.
Contributors by countries:
George ROCA (Australia);
Octavian BLAGA (Belgium);
Bernd HUTSCHENREUTHER (Germany);
Nicolae RUSU (Republic of Moldova);
Elena AGIU-NEACŞU, Vătuiu Roaua Ion ANDRUŞA, Virgil BORCAN, Adrian BOTEZ, Ana Maria BUZOIANU, Eugen EVU,
Constantin MANEA, Nicolae NICOARĂ, Gheorghe NICULESCU, Nicolae NISTOROIU, Ion PĂTRAȘCU, Gheorghe SĂVOIU,
Elena TRIFAN, Ioan Adrian TRIFAN (România);
Charles ASHBACHER, Nicholas NARCISS, Caytie RIBBLE,
Florentin SMARANDACHE (USA).

**Category:** Linguistics

[10882] **viXra:1506.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-28 10:33:17*

**Authors:** I.Virnoy, R. Ofvermen, G. Boccelli, F. Poliak

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Let us suppose 2ν 6= 0−5. In [19], the main result was the extension of Noetherian, pseudosimply
associative, completely Taylor–von Neumann subgroups. We show that r ≤ γw. Recent
developments in abstract graph theory [19] have raised the question of whether A ∼= khk. It
was Beltrami who first asked whether sub-linearly invertible, degenerate, super-algebraically
positive subgroups can be described.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[10881] **viXra:1506.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-28 06:59:16*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 8 pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2015,

The exact nature of non-locality and entanglement is still a matter of an ongoing controversy. Especially, the concept of non-locality as postulated by the orthodox Copenhagen quantum mechanics is claiming to reflect any non-locality in the quantum realm. Attention should be called to the obvious but very disconcerting fact that the concept of non-locality cannot contradict the theory of special relativity, as long as the same is not refuted theoretically or by experiments. Another way of expressing the peculiar situation is, under conditions of the special theory of relativity it remains rather discomforting to alter the properties of a distant system instantaneously (i. e. no light signal can travel) by acting on a local system. The purpose of this publication is to solve the problem of non-locality and entanglement from the standpoint of the special theory of relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10880] **viXra:1506.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-28 08:04:12*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 9 Pages. in Russian

It is shown that the rotation of the water flowing into the funnel, or arising out of the pipe under the effect of gravity, it can be explained by the fact that there are significant largest gravity-magnetic forces. \\ Показывается, что вращение воды, втекающей в воронку, или вытекающей из трубы под действием силы тяжести, может быть объяснено существованием значительных по величине гравитомагнитных сил.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[10879] **viXra:1506.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-28 04:48:50*

**Authors:** Peng Wang

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

To well understand crowd behavior, microscopic models have been developed in recent decades, in which an individual's behavioral/psychological status can be modeled and simulated. A well-known model is the social-force model innovated by physical scientists. A problem, however, is that the testing results of the model were not explained in consistency with the social-psychological findings, resulting in misunderstanding of the model by most social-psychologists. This paper will bridge the gap between psychological studies and physical explanation about this model. We interpret this physics-based model from a psychological perspective, clarifying that the model is consistent with psychological studies on stress and time-pressure. The simulation result of this model actually explicates how stress could improve or impair collective performance of crowd behaviors.

**Category:** Social Science

[10878] **viXra:1506.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-28 02:55:01*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this article we offer to enhance the standard model of a bosonic superconducting cosmic string (fig 1) and model it in our quantum harmonic system (fig. 2) to enable quantum devices for cars and aircrafts, superfluid propulsion, levitation and teleportation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10877] **viXra:1506.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-27 13:35:52*

**Authors:** Reuven Tint, Michael Tint

**Comments:** 34 Pages. Original article is written in Russian.

In the history of mathematics attempts to find common solutions in integers of Diophantine equations were unsuccessful (except iterate through numbers).In this paper, we obtain an algorithm (identity) of recurrent finding countless coprime integer solutions to equations
x^4+y^4=a^4+b^4 ,
x^4=y^4+a^4+b^4
and some arising from these extraordinary consequences.

**Category:** Number Theory

[10876] **viXra:1506.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-27 14:12:35*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Physicists in Japan have shown experimentally that a particle can be made to do work simply by receiving information, rather than energy. They say that their demonstration, which uses a feedback system to control the electric potential of tiny polystyrene beads, does not violate the second law of thermodynamics and could in future lead to new types of microscopic devices. [9]
Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[10875] **viXra:1506.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-27 15:08:41*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this paper I introduce the General Lorentz transformations which are a generalization of the original Lorentz transformations. These new transformations are the foundations of a new theory of relativity that I call: General Special Relativity (or Special Relativity based on the General Lorentz transformations). In this paper (a) I derive the formula for time dilation, (b) the formula for length contraction, (c) a new relativistic velocity addition formula which encompasses Einstein's
counterpart, and finally (d) I prove that Newton's law of Universal Gravitation is invariant under a General Lorentz transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10874] **viXra:1506.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-27 15:15:56*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The number 12 is found not only as a factor but also as a power in different equations. Thus, the
purpose of this article is to highlight the role of the number 12 in physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10873] **viXra:1506.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-27 10:22:50*

**Authors:** Paul A. Titze

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

In 2015 the answer is still no. However this paper will look at what current physics has to say on this topic and what further questions need to be put forward to advance our enquiries. This work is a modified compilation of several posts that were originally published in the author's blogsite [1] on Gravity Control Propulsion (GCP) looking at several papers that deal with related topics with some ideas and speculations for further research.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10872] **viXra:1506.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-27 11:12:51*

**Authors:** Zafar Turakulov

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Development of electrodynamics during last one and half a century is
discussed and it is shown that every half a century its contents changes
drastically. In fact, during each of the three past stages three distinct
doctrines were reigning in the field, which can safely be visioned as three
different theories. Each of these three theories is critically analyzed and
it is shown that the third stage is over and electrodynamics has reached the
threshold of the fourth stage of its development.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[10871] **viXra:1506.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-27 08:58:31*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A new universe is described, which comprehends the Big Bang-universe as a visible hologram of gravity. This hologram eternally orbits within the time-torus-universe (rTTU). Formulas prove this. The formulas are described in this paper. This causes dynamics, which relate to a light-torus, and which emerges per up-scaled Planck-scale to larger scales, but it is also accompanied by the rotation of quantum-gravity and dark matter-force. The result of the formulas show that the light-torus has a constant rotation of half the light-speed. Moreover, it contracts (+) or expands(-), which is dependent on the features (+) or (-) of the dark matter-force, also involved in the rTTU. But also quantum-gravity-force is involved. So, due to these dynamics the Big Bang-universe is not only a hologram of light, but actually a visible hologram of gravity. Then the question arises: How do neutrinos act in this rotating time-torus-universe? Neutrinos are not supposed to move faster-than-the-light-speed in a stand-alone Big Bang-universe, but in the rTTU violation of the light-speed is dependent on whether the dark matter-acceleration is stronger than the smallest quantum-gravity-acceleration in the rTTU. If so, then neutrinos hurl away from the visible hologram of gravity. That seems a violation of the GRT, but actually it isn’t, because ‘faster-than-light-neutrinos’ stay in the rTTU. Due to this new physics and formulas three calculations are made: An orbit-time of a light-torus, which explains why there exists a CMB-dipole. A calculation of an orbit-time of the quantum-gravity-torus, which explains why there exist CMB hot- and cold areas. A calculation of an orbit-time of the dark matter-torus, which explains why a series of shifted ‘concentric circles’ is showing-up in the CMB (up to 350). And at last I explain what the ‘cold spot’ in the CMB really is in perspective of the rotating time-torus-universe (rTTU).

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[10870] **viXra:1506.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-27 08:59:24*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 7 pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2015,

In general, the modification of our understanding of space and time undergone through Einstein's relativity theory is indeed a profound one. But even Einstein's relativity theory does not give satisfactory answers to a lot of questions. One of these questions is the problem of the ‘true’ tensor of the gravitational field. The purpose of this publication is to provide some new and basic fundamental insights by the proof that the gravitational field and time is equivalent even under conditions of the general theory of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10869] **viXra:1506.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-26 19:21:21*

**Authors:** Mouhcine AMRAR / BACCALAUREAT SCIENCES MATHEMATIQUES

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This work is a study of divisibility and these criteria, in which we will give general relationships and divisibility criteria. We begin this work by answering the following question: what conditions should check the digits dialing the number to make it divisible by d? Among the most known and used criteria are the divisibility by 2, 3, 5, 11...

**Category:** Number Theory

[10868] **viXra:1506.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-26 19:25:11*

**Authors:** Mouhcine AMRAR

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

WE GIVE ALL ABOUT PRIME NUMBERS

**Category:** Number Theory

[10867] **viXra:1506.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-26 10:55:03*

**Authors:** Tobias Richter

**Comments:** 2 Pages. no comment

It's a new perspective of gravitation and how it works. The Author sees in this paper gravitation as an magnetic force. The paper is in german.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[10866] **viXra:1506.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-26 08:39:20*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** International Journal of Emerging Engineering Research and Technology, Volume 3, Issue 6 (2015), Page 78--89.

We discuss the fact that a single spin observable
$\sigma_x$ in a quantum state
does not have a counterpart in physical reality.
We consider whether a single spin-1/2 pure state
has a counterpart in physical reality.
It is an eigenvector of Pauli observable $\sigma_z$ or an
eigenvector of Pauli observable $\sigma_x$.
We assume a state $|+_z\rangle$, which can be described
as an eigenvector of Pauli observable $\sigma_z$.
We assume also a state $|+_x\rangle$, which can be described
as an eigenvector of Pauli observable $\sigma_x$.
The value of transition probability $|\langle +_z|+_x\rangle|^2$ is 1/2.
We consider the following physical situation.
If we detect $|+_z\rangle$,
then we assign measurement outcome as $+1$.
If we detect $|+_x\rangle$,
then we assign measurement outcome as $-1$.
The existence of a single classical probability space
for the transition probability
within the formalism of the measurement outcome
does not coexist with the value of
the transition probability
$|\langle +_z|+_x\rangle|^2=1/2$.
We have to give up the existence of such a classical
probability space for the state $|+_z\rangle$ or
for the state $|+_x\rangle$, as they define the transition probability.
It turns out that
the single spin-1/2 pure state $|+_z\rangle$ or
the single spin-1/2 pure state $|+_x\rangle$ does not have
counterparts in physical reality, in general.
We investigate whether the
Stern-Gerlach experiment accepts hidden-variables theories.
We discuss that the existence of the
two spin-1/2 pure states
$|\uparrow\rangle$ and $|\downarrow\rangle$ rules out
the existence of probability space of
specific quantum measurement.
If we detect $|\uparrow\rangle$, then we assign measurement outcome as $+1$.
If we detect $|\downarrow\rangle$, then we assign measurement outcome as $-1$.
This hidden-variables theory does not accept
the transition probability
$|\langle\uparrow|\downarrow\rangle|^2=0$.
Therefore we have to give up the hidden-variables theory.
This implies the Stern-Gerlach experiment cannot accept the
hidden-variables theory.
A single spin-1/2 pure state (e.g., $|\uparrow \rangle\langle \uparrow|$)
is a single
one-dimensional projector.
In other word,
a single one-dimensional projector does not have
a counterpart in such physical reality, in general.
The one-dimensional projectors $|\uparrow\rangle\langle\uparrow|$ and $|\downarrow\rangle\langle \downarrow|$ are commuting with each other.
Our discussion shows that we cannot assign the specific definite values
($+1$ and $-1$) to the two commuting operators, simultaneously.
We study whether quantum phase factor
accepts a hidden-variables theory.
We discuss that the existence of
two spin-1/2 pure states
$|0\rangle=(|\uparrow\rangle+|\downarrow\rangle)/\sqrt{2}$
and $|\theta\rangle=(|\uparrow\rangle+e^{i \theta}|\downarrow\rangle)/\sqrt{2}$ rules out
the existence of probability space of a
hidden-variables theory.
If we detect $|0\rangle$,
then we assign measurement outcome as $+1$.
If we detect $|\theta\rangle$,
then we assign measurement outcome as $-1$.
The hidden-variables theory does not accept
the transition probability
$|\langle 0|\theta\rangle|^2=\cos^2(\theta/2)$.
Therefore we have to give up the hidden-variables theory
for quantum phase factor.
We explore phase factor is indeed a quantum effect, not classical.
Our research gives a new insight to the quantum information processing
which relies on quantum phase factor, such as Deutsch's algorithm.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10865] **viXra:1506.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-26 04:19:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10864] **viXra:1506.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-26 03:16:42*

**Authors:** Cheng Tianren

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In recent years, much interest was devoted to the Urysohn space and its isometry group. We also study Green algebra A(kG) generated by the isomorphism classes of indecomposable kG-modules. We then offer an elementary proof of pontryagin duality theorem for compact and discrete abelian groups. we extend the locally quasi-convex abelian group to maximally almost-periodic non-necessarily abelian groups. In this work, we are interested in constructing a C^{1} action on the interval of a special and universal nilpotent group denoted by N.

**Category:** Algebra

[10863] **viXra:1506.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-25 19:16:39*

**Authors:** a. a. Salama

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Since the world is full of indeterminacy, the neutrosophics
found their place into contemporary research. The fundamental
concepts of neutrosophic set, introduced by Smarandache
in [30, 31, 32] and Salama et al. in [4-29]. In Geographical
information systems (GIS) there is a need to model spatial regions with indeterminate boundary and under indeterminacy. In this paper the structure of some classes of neutrosophic crisp nearly open sets are investigated and some applications are given.Finally we generalize the crisp topological and intuitioistic studies to the notion of neutrosophic crisp set. Possible applications
to GIS topological rules are touched upon.

**Category:** Topology

[10862] **viXra:1506.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-25 15:58:43*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: People everywhere are awaiting with bated breath the discovery of supersymmetry at the LHC. We already have made the discovery - the ttH process entity by the ATLAS collaboration. There is no compelling reason why a proof of supersymmetry requires finding a partner pair particle. It should suffice to show that a supersymmetric force exists bringing bosons and fermions together in violation of the teachings of quantum mechanics, and this has been accomplished.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10861] **viXra:1506.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-25 12:28:11*

**Authors:** Stan Bumble

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

BRAIN expenditures to map the dynamics of neural activities in the brain of small organisms are cited and the work necessary to do it for the human brain is discussed. The difficulty is stressed because of the very large number of neurons considered that could be involved, their combinatory nature, and the missing characteristics that need to be determined experimentally. The physical and functional properties of neurons and their connected species are considered. Successful programs that may contribute to this humongous goal are described and some of the software and hardware are suggested that can help bring about this significant achievement.

**Category:** Mind Science

[10860] **viXra:1506.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-25 12:44:16*

**Authors:** Joel M WIlliams

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article illustrates that the rising, but shot-gun-appearing, annual temperatures for the contiguous US since 1900 are not properly described by either a linear or a 2nd degree polynomial.

**Category:** Climate Research

[10859] **viXra:1506.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-25 13:37:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Researchers in Austria have made what they call the "fattest Schrödinger cats realized to date". They have demonstrated quantum superposition – in which an object exists in two or more states simultaneously – for molecules composed of up to 430 atoms each, several times larger than molecules used in previous such experiments1. [5]
Patrick Coles, Jedrzej Kaniewski, and Stephanie Wehner made the breakthrough while at the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore. They found that 'wave-particle duality' is simply the quantum 'uncertainty principle' in disguise, reducing two mysteries to one. [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10858] **viXra:1506.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-25 09:21:03*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter, P.e.

**Comments:** Four pages

The author properly explains, as Dr. Einstein failed to do, the connection between mass, gravity, inertia, and acceleration.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[10857] **viXra:1506.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-25 04:30:18*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Theorists argue that warped spacetime prevents quantum superpositions of large-scale objects. [9]
Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10856] **viXra:1506.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-25 04:41:03*

**Authors:** Jean-Luc Paillet, Andrew Meulenberg

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

In this paper, we look into the difficult question of electron deep levels in the hydrogen atom. An introduction shows some general considerations on these orbits as “anomalous” (and usually rejected) solutions of relativistic quantum equations. The first part of our study is devoted to a discussion of the arguments against the deep orbits and for them, as exemplified in published solutions. We examine each of the principal negative arguments found in the literature and show how it is possible to resolve the questions raised. In fact, most of the problems are related to the singularity of the Coulomb potential when considering the nucleus as a point charge, and so they can be easily resolved when considering a more realistic potential with finite value inside the nucleus. In a second part, we consider specific works on deep orbits as solutions of the relativistic Schrödinger and of the Dirac equations, named Dirac Deep Levels (DDLs). The latter presents the most complete solution and development for spin ½ particles, and includes an infinite family of DDL solutions. We examine particularities of these DDL solutions and more generally of the anomalous solutions. Next we analyze the methods for, and the properties of, the solutions that include a corrected potential inside the nucleus, and we examine the questions raised by this new element. Finally we indicate, in the conclusion, open questions such as the physical meaning of the relation between quantum numbers determining the deep levels and the fact that the angular momentum seems two orders-of-magnitude lower than the values associated with the Planck constant. As a prerequisite to a deep comprehension of the resolution methods, we recall in the appendices some essential elements of the Dirac theory

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[10855] **viXra:1506.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-24 18:22:24*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A stellar mass black hole is an invented mathematical construct and has no place in physical theory such as the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis. Reasoning is provided.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[10854] **viXra:1506.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-24 13:01:14*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 19 pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2015,

The deterministic relationship between cause and effect is deeply connected with our understanding of the physical sciences and their explanatory ambitions. Though progress is being made, the lack of theoretical predictions and experiments in quantum gravity makes it difficult to use empirical evidence to justify a theory of causality at quantum level in normal circumstances, i. e. by predicting the value of a well-confirmed experimental result. For a variety of reasons, the problem of the deterministic relationship between cause and effect is related to basic problems of physics as such. Despite the common belief, it is a remarkable fact that a theory of causality should be consistent with a theory of everything and is because of this linked to problems of a theory of everything. Thus far, solving the problem of causality can help to solve the problems of the theory of everything (at quantum level) too.

**Category:** Statistics

[10853] **viXra:1506.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-24 11:41:59*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Four pages

A tiny composite field – mass particle is identified which accounts for all mass in the universe and explains both inertia and also suggests the intimate relationship between what is traditionally thought of as gravity and acceleration.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[10852] **viXra:1506.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-24 03:54:38*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[10851] **viXra:1506.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-24 04:30:18*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A University of Tokyo research group has successfully measured the spin Hall Effect in a superconductor for the first time. The spin Hall Effect is responsible for the conversion of magnetic flow to current flow and has not been thoroughly examined in superconductors. [27]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10850] **viXra:1506.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-24 05:21:05*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Around the world, small bands of such engineers have been working on this approach for decades. Using two particular quantum phenomena, called superposition and entanglement, they have created qubits and linked them together to make prototype machines that exist in many states simultaneously. Such quantum computers do not require an increase in speed for their power to increase. In principle, this could allow them to become far more powerful than any classical machine—and it now looks as if principle will soon be turned into practice. Big firms, such as Google, Hewlett-Packard, IBM and Microsoft, are looking at how quantum computers might be commercialized. The world of quantum computation is almost here. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[10849] **viXra:1506.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-23 19:52:49*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 10 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to any journal. Comments are welcome.

This paper was made with the realization that in the last 7-8 decades has raised a variety of cosmological theories that do not mention at all about God, where the role of man be lost in the cosmic drama of space and time, and this has been a particular challenge for many Christians both lay and theologians who are still leaning in God as the Creator of the universe. Indeed, some Christian thinkers assumed that modern cosmological theories such as the Big Bang are quite close to the biblical doctrine of creation, but not a few who think that the big bang actually replaces the role of God in creation with a random chance process triggered by fluctuations in vacuum. Others argue that the singular point where the universe began to expand need not be equated with the point of creation. Presumably these issues are more in depth than just maintaining the idea of six-day creation, like what most Creationists told us.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[10848] **viXra:1506.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-23 16:13:53*

**Authors:** Pavel Voráček

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

We present here a model for a common explanation of the phenomena of the dark energy and dark matter, which is lying outside the General relativity theory, yet still compatible or, perhaps, even complementary to it.
We discuss the principal results of the method of the *Causal dynamical triangulations*, when applied under the assumption of topology *S ^{3}* of our world,

[10847] **viXra:1506.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-23 04:11:28*

**Authors:** Harris V. Georgiou

**Comments:** 106 Pages. game theory; pattern recognition; classifier combination

Game Theory is one of the most challenging and controversial fields of applied Mathematics. Based on a robust theoretical framework, its applications range from analyzing simple board games and conflict situations to modeling complex systems and evolutionary dynamics.
This book is a short collection of introductory papers in the field, aimed primarily as reading material for graduate- and postgraduate-level lectures in Game Theory and/or Machine Learning. The four papers included here are all original works already published as open-access or conference publications, spanning a timeframe of several years apart and a wide range of topics. Hence, each paper is self-contained and can be studied on its own, without any prerequisite knowledge from the previous ones. However, their presentation order is consistent with going from the most elementary issues to the more advanced and experiment-rigorous topics.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[10846] **viXra:1506.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-23 10:54:52*

**Authors:** C. Coanda, Gh. Duta, Gh. Dragan, J. Ilie, I. Ivanescu, F. Smarandache, L. Tutescu, S. Draghici

**Comments:** 188 Pages.

Probleme de matematica rezolvate, din anii 1991-1997, pentru clasele V-VIII.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[10845] **viXra:1506.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-23 01:20:36*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Based on materialist dialectics, both`time and space have the duality, namely absoluteness and relativity. If absolute time and absolute space cannot exist, then relative time and relative space cannot exist too; vice versa. However, they aren’t equal. Absolute time and absolute space are more important, because they are the reference systems of relative time and relative space respectively. In addition, the absolute space is flat, while the relative space may be flat also may be curving. As for the dimensions of time and space, it is an extremely complicated question, we need to discuss the complicated time and the complicated space. The absolute space is three-dimensional, the absolute time is one-dimensional that is formed by the three-dimensional absolute time. For the relative space, it may have the multi-dimensional space, fractal dimensional space, plural dimensional space, variable dimensional space. For the relative time, it may have the multi-dimensional time, fractal dimensional time, plural dimensional time, variable dimensional time too, they are corresponding to the relative spaces. In other words, the relationship between space and time is the one by one corresponding relations. It is different to the general viewpoint that space is three-dimensional and time is one-dimensional, according to the viewpoints of self-similarity and similarity of fractal theory, three-dimensional time is derived. With the Lorentz transformation of Relativity, this paper presents the special form of three-dimensional time for a special case, which is also written as the form of variable dimension fractal. The examples given in this paper show that to establish the frames of multi-dimensional time, multi-dimensional space and the like, not only are possible but also necessary in some cases.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10844] **viXra:1506.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-22 20:30:53*

**Authors:** Takahiro Kato

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This article provides yet another characterization of Boolean algebras and, using this characterization, establishes a more direct connection between propositional logic and Boolean algebras.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[10843] **viXra:1506.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-22 21:19:45*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this short note I present a brief summary of the philosophical bases, axioms, transformations, and main results and predictions, of a recently proposed relativity theory termed Information Relativity theory (or IR).

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[10842] **viXra:1506.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-22 15:13:41*

**Authors:** Funkenstein the Dwarf

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Thank you

Coin-vote is a voting system for establishing opinion and resolving disputes amongst willing participants. Rather than using a traditional method of trying to tally one vote per person, it relies on a one vote per coin tally. This enables votes to be counted with provable security, as there are no longer the usual issues of identity fraud, counting fraud, or polling bias, which have plagued traditional polling systems. This document is meant to explain our platform and database for conducting coin-votes. We outline here security procedures and motivation for using the coin-vote system.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[10841] **viXra:1506.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-22 12:11:57*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This paper presents a numeric formula for the fine-structure constant as a function of the number π and nine powers of 2.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[10840] **viXra:1506.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-22 12:14:25*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper I derive the classical formula for the kinetic energy of a particle from Einstein's
relativistic kinetic energy without the use of the binomial expansion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5011] **viXra:1507.0019 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-04 05:45:30*

**Authors:** Cheng Tianren

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this essays, we try to demonstrate the school life of Jeff. and we select more than 20
stories of him to explore our thoughts towards the most popular social events. In this paper, we publish essays five to eight as the second part of this work.

**Category:** Social Science

[5010] **viXra:1507.0019 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-03 20:32:23*

**Authors:** Cheng Tianren

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this essays, we try to demonstrate the school life of Jeff. and we select more than 20
stories of him to explore our thoughts towards the most popular social events. In this paper, we publish essays five to eight as the second part of this work.

**Category:** Social Science

[5009] **viXra:1507.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-03 03:15:02*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The Overview Of Historical and Research With Regard to Nuclear Forces and Nuclear Structure

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[5008] **viXra:1507.0004 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-02 09:36:07*

**Authors:** Diego Liberati

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Taking into account infinitesimal and iperreal concepts from Robinsons' non standard analysis the proof in the previous versions has been made more general

**Category:** Number Theory

[5007] **viXra:1507.0004 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-02 00:59:47*

**Authors:** Diego Liberati

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A revised version of the elementary proof proposed yesterday: now positive integers are correctly called naturals

**Category:** Number Theory

[5006] **viXra:1506.0214 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-03 10:10:31*

**Authors:** ChengGang.Zhang

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper will research one special function and it’s physics principle , the special function which has quantum properties ; Two hypothesis of quantum theory can be derived from the special function , and the special function also applies to atoms successfully；This paper proves that the special function is related to Coulomb force in the end , and reveals the essential reason .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5005] **viXra:1506.0214 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-02 10:14:52*

**Authors:** ChengGang.Zhang

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

文中将研究一个具有量子化特征的特殊函数，和其所包含的物理学原理；量子理论中两个基本假设的形式可以通过这个特殊函数推导得到，特殊函数可以被应用到原子领域，最终发现并证明特殊函数与已知的库仑力形式相关，其揭示了量子化的真正本质。

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5004] **viXra:1506.0213 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-03 08:34:55*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This article concerns the psychology of the paradoxical Two Envelope Problem. The goal is to find instructive variants of the envelope switching problem that are capable of clear-cut resolution, while still retaining paradoxical features. By relocating the original problem into different contexts involving commutes and playing cards the reader is presented with a succession of resolved paradoxes that reduce the confusion arising from the parent paradox. The goal is to reduce confusion by understanding how we sometimes misread mathematical statements; or, to completely avoid confusion, either by reforming language, or adopting an unambiguous notation for switching problems. This article also suggests that an illusion close in character to the figure/ground illusion hampers our understanding of switching problems in general and helps account for the intense confusion that switching problems sometimes generate.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[5003] **viXra:1506.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-01 23:55:23*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 27 Pages. Added a simple model for gravons. Consequently the title had to be changed.

To complete the standard model I propose a phenomenological model of quantum black holes and dark matter. I assume that at the center of any black hole there is a Kerr (Schwarzschild) core object of size Planck length. The core replaces the general relativity singularity of the black hole. A simple phenomenological model is presented for the core. During very early inflation the overlapping wave functions of the cores caused rapid expansion of the universe. Gravitons condensated around the cores to form primordial black holes which evolve into dark matter in the big bang together with the standard model particles.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5002] **viXra:1506.0201 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-01 13:42:58*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

It is shown that the rotation of the water flowing into the funnel, or arising out of the pipe under the effect of gravity, it can be explained by the fact that there are significant largest gravity-magnetic forces. \\ Показывается, что вращение воды, втекающей в воронку, или вытекающей из трубы под действием силы тяжести, может быть объяснено существованием значительных по величине гравитомагнитных сил.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[5001] **viXra:1506.0196 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-02 13:38:54*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this paper I introduce the Symmetric Lorentz transformations. These new transformation
equations are the foundations of a new theory of relativity that I call: Symmetric Special Relativity. In this paper I derive: (a) the formula for time dilation, (b) the formula for length contraction, (c) a new relativistic velocity addition formula which encompasses a part of Einstein's counterpart, and finally I prove that Newton's law of Universal Gravitation is invariant under a Symmetric Lorentz
transformation. It seems that the Symmetric Lorentz transformations can indicate whether a given mathematical description of nature is acceptable (e.g. Newton's Gravity Law). On the other hand, the Lorentz transformations, can indicate whether a mathematical description of a law of nature is, strictly speaking, true or false (e.g. The Maxwell equations).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5000] **viXra:1506.0185 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-26 21:46:48*

**Authors:** Cheng Tianren

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In recent years, much interest was devoted to the Urysohn space and its isometry group. We also study Green algebra A(kG) generated by the isomorphism classes of indecomposable kG-modules. We then offer an elementary proof of pontryagin duality theorem for compact and discrete abelian groups. we extend the locally quasi-convex abelian group to maximally almost-periodic non-necessarily abelian groups. In this work, we are interested in constructing a C^{1} action on the interval of a special and universal nilpotent group denoted by N.

**Category:** Algebra

[4999] **viXra:1506.0179 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-01 16:48:32*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter, P.e.

**Comments:** Six pages

The author properly explains, as Dr. Einstein failed to do, the connection between mass, gravity, inertia, and acceleration.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[4998] **viXra:1506.0179 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-30 10:21:57*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter, P.e.

**Comments:** Five pages

The author properly explains, as Dr. Einstein failed to do, the connection between mass, gravity, inertia, and acceleration.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[4997] **viXra:1506.0179 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-27 19:09:37*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter, P.e.

**Comments:** Four pages

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[4996] **viXra:1506.0179 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-26 09:00:42*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Four pages

A tiny composite field – mass particle is identified which accounts for all mass in the universe and explains both inertia and also suggests the intimate relationship between what is traditionally thought of as gravity and acceleration.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[4995] **viXra:1506.0165 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-28 20:03:57*

**Authors:** Takahiro Kato

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This article provides yet another characterization of Boolean algebras and, using this characterization, establishes a more direct connection between propositional logic and Boolean algebras.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[4994] **viXra:1506.0164 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-22 22:22:11*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this short note I present a brief summary of the philosophical bases, axioms, transformations, and main results and predictions, of a recently proposed relativity theory termed Information Relativity theory (or IR).

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[4993] **viXra:1506.0161 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-27 15:03:31*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper I derive the classical formula for the kinetic energy of a particle from Einstein's
relativistic kinetic energy formula without the use of the binomial expansion. This method is
suitable to be taught in secondary schools' physics senior courses.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology