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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[32823] viXra:1912.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-07 01:33:42

Superconducting Electronic Map

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Using a clever technique that causes unruly crystals of iron selenide to snap into alignment, Rice University physicists have drawn a detailed map that reveals the "rules of the road" for electrons both in normal conditions and in the critical moments just before the material transforms into a superconductor. [29] Superconducting quantum microwave circuits can function as qubits, the building blocks of a future quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[32822] viXra:1912.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-07 03:23:50

Gamma-Ray Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

A physicist at the University of California, Riverside, has performed calculations showing hollow spherical bubbles filled with a gas of positronium atoms are stable in liquid helium. [15] During nuclear fusion two atomic nuclei fuse into one new nucleus. In the lab this can be done by particle accelerators, when researchers use fusion reactions to create fast free neutrons for other experiments. [15] A new 3-D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation tool developed by researchers from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and CEA Saclay is enabling cutting-edge simulations of laser/plasma coupling mechanisms that were previously out of reach of standard PIC codes used in plasma research. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32821] viXra:1912.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-07 04:58:43

Magnetic Resonance Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 77 Pages.

Physicists at University of California, Riverside, have designed an experiment to explain the concept of magnetic resonance. The project was carried out by undergraduate students in collaboration with local high school teachers. [43] Magnetic reconnection, a process in which magnetic field lines tear and come back together, releasing large amounts of kinetic energy, occurs throughout the universe. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32820] viXra:1912.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-07 05:21:11

Artificial Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Artificial Cells Protocells-artificial cells-that are active and mimic living cells by moving independently and that are biocompatible and enzymatically active are now possible using an improved method developed by Penn State researchers. [32] Pioneering new research into the way in which cells communicate with each other could hold the key to unlocking new, improved treatment for life-threatening diseases, including cancer. [31] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have demonstrated that magnetic nanoparticles can be used to ferry chemotherapy drugs into the spinal cord to treat hard-to-reach spinal tumors in an animal model. [30] Small vessel vasculitis-inflammation of the small blood vessels-appears as a stain of tiny, red dots covering the skin that, depending on the severity, can evolve into painful pustules or ulcers. [29] Scientists from the University of Freiburg have developed materials systems that are composed of biological components and polymer materials and are capable of perceiving and processing information. [28] Nanotechnology may provide an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, a team of researchers suggests. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22]
Category: Physics of Biology

[32819] viXra:1912.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-07 06:05:07

Nanocontainer Drugs into Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Scientists at Johns Hopkins Medicine report they have created a tiny, nanosize container that can slip inside cells and deliver protein-based medicines and gene therapies of any size-even hefty ones attached to the gene-editing tool called CRISPR. [33] Protocells-artificial cells-that are active and mimic living cells by moving independently and that are biocompatible and enzymatically active are now possible using an improved method developed by Penn State researchers. [32] Pioneering new research into the way in which cells communicate with each other could hold the key to unlocking new, improved treatment for life-threatening diseases, including cancer. [31] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have demonstrated that magnetic nanoparticles can be used to ferry chemotherapy drugs into the spinal cord to treat hard-to-reach spinal tumors in an animal model. [30] Small vessel vasculitis-inflammation of the small blood vessels-appears as a stain of tiny, red dots covering the skin that, depending on the severity, can evolve into painful pustules or ulcers. [29] Scientists from the University of Freiburg have developed materials systems that are composed of biological components and polymer materials and are capable of perceiving and processing information. [28] Nanotechnology may provide an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, a team of researchers suggests. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25]
Category: Physics of Biology

[32818] viXra:1912.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-07 07:16:30

Does Particle Data Depend on Its Motion? (Lorentz Transformations Analysis)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 9 Pages.

My basic work is "Planet Data Analysis" – Specifically I try to know how planet data is created? – that's why my regular questions are – How the matter is created? Why Earth Circumference =40080 km? Why Saturn diameter =120536 km? or Why Jupiter Mass =1898 x1024 kg? I search behind the planet data to know how this data is created… Then I have discovered one important Discovery, let's refer to it in following: Puzzled Data (A/B) =1.0725 A & B are different distances in the solar system… Specially 18 distances of the solar system internal and orbital distances are rated to each other with this same rate 1.0725 i.e. 40% of all the solar system distances are rated to each other with 1.0725 ……why?? (These distances are provided in appendix no. 1 of this paper) All answers – whatsoever its form – give one meaning – (Pure Coincidences)! Simply no one knows how the planet orbital distance is defined nor why these distances are rated to each other by this same rate 1.0725! General Effect Because the rate 1.0725 is used with 18 distances which = 40% of all distances – I had to conclude that – this rate is not created by any planet effect – it's not related to any specific planet – on the contrary – this rate is a general effect found in the solar system - That means – A general force or cause effect on the whole solar system –causes this rate 1.0725. What's this general effect? At this junction I had to suppose that – the rate 1.0725 is found as Lorentz Length Contraction Rate – i.e. There are relativistic effects in the solar system (generally) and these relativistic effects caused the rate 1.0725 to be created as Lorentz Length Contraction Rate (Hypothesis) Lorentz Transformations Lorentz Transformations are 3 equations : 4 values are changing by high velocity motion Time – Distance – Particle Length – Particle Mass Einstein had used 2 values (Distance & Time) to create the space-time geometry – and he claimed that –particle space & time values are function in its motion velocity (even without explanation why?) But Einstein simply had ignored the other 2 values which are Particle Length and Mass If we follow Einstein steps in explanation – so we will reach to the conclusion that – Particle own data is a function of its motion Simply because Particle length and mass are changed with particle high velocity motion Then we had to ask the question… Is Lorentz length contraction a real phenomenon or illusion of measurements? The physics textbooks contradict each other in answer – and in appendix No.2 of this paper I provide the references which show the clear contradicting answers! After fighting we reach to the conclusion that the contraction is a real phenomenon and particle own length is changed by particle high velocity motion… Because (1)The measurements show this contraction and in physics what's measured is what's real (2)If we consider the length contraction is an illusion of measurements, that tells Particle properties correct definition is found when no difference in motions velocities between me and this particle, which supposes that I'm The Universe Reference Point – that's similar to a person looks at mirror – which pushes us to refuse the claim that the contraction is an illusion of measurement Particle Mass discussion is similar to the previous one – so particle data (length and mass) is changed with high velocity motion. That creates more complex situation – because – based on this conclusion – Particle Own Data must be created as a function of this particle motion! That's why Particle own length is contracted with high velocity motion If we use this conclusion for The Solar Planet – we will have serious problem – because Based on this conclusion – Particle mass (Planet Mass) is created as a function of its motion – means the motion was found before the mass So – How Does Planet Move? Where we consider that planet motion is a result of masses gravity forces between this planet and the sun – now the mass is created based on the motion which prevent the masses gravity explanation Now let's summarize the questions in following: Question No. 1 Why does Particle Own Nature change with Particle Motion Velocity? i.e. Is Particle data a function of This Particle Motion? Question No. 2 Can Lorentz Transformations help us to know how the matter is created? Question No. 3 Are the rated distances by the same rate 1.0725 which are provided in appendix No. 1 of this paper – can be a proof that – there are relativistic effects in the solar system? Gerges Francis Tawdrous +201022532292
Category: Astrophysics

[32817] viXra:1912.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 08:25:01

Unification for Gravity and Electromagnetic Field in Kerr-Newman Solution

Authors: Sangwha Yi
Comments: 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

Solutions of unified theory equations of gravity and electromagnetism has to satisfy Einstein-Maxwell equation. Specially solution of the unified theory is generally Kerr-Newman solution in vacuum. We finally found the revised Einstein gravity tensor equation with new term (2 order contravariant metric tensor two times product and the constant matrix) is right in Kerr Newman solution.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32816] viXra:1912.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 11:46:27

An Alternate Resolution of the Solar Neutrino Problem

Authors: William L. Stubbs
Comments: 7 Pages.

The solar neutrino problem for the various neutrino detectors appears to lie in not understanding and analyzing adequately how the neutrinos interact with the various detector materials. The measured data were not properly interpreted, resulting in miscalculation of the neutrino fluxes measured. This gave the appearance of the detectors not seeing fractions of the neutrinos expected. By modeling nucleons as collections of electron-like and positron-like particles, I show that the 37Cl, 71Ga, H2O and D2O detectors all saw the electron neutrino flux predicted by the Standard Solar Model.
Category: Astrophysics

[32815] viXra:1912.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 12:00:41

Statins and Death Due to Any Cause – All Doubts Removed?

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 29 Pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, 2019, Jever, Germany. All rights reserved.

Objective: To date, it is quite common to claim that some patient groups benefit from statin therapy in both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease while equally the use of higher-intensity statin therapies is emphasized. In this Review, the efficacy of statin therapy in light of the study data available is explored. Methods: All in all, 40 studies with a sample size of n = 88388 were re-analyzed. The exclusion relationship was used to test the null-hypothesis: a certain statin does exclude death due to any cause. The causal relationship k was used to test the data for causality. The level of significance was set to Alpha = 0,05. Results: The data of the studies reanalyzed provide convincing evidence that statins unfortunately do not exclude death due to any cause. An immediate statin therapy discontinuation should be considered. Conclusions: Overwhelming evidence suggests that the risk potential harmful effects of statin therapy far outweigh any real or perceived benefit. Keywords: Statins, death, causal relationship. Barukcic@t-online.de
Category: Statistics

[32814] viXra:1912.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 12:11:38

Automatic Language Identification in Short Utterances

Authors: Diptanu Sarkar
Comments: 7 Pages.

Language Identification (LID) in Natural Language Processing (NLP) is the process of identifying the spoken language in speech utterances. In the last decade, the interest and functional application of speech processing systems have grown exponentially. The proliferated use of handsfree voice-operated devices, speech-to-speech translation systems requires low latency, reliable automatic speech identification systems. This article examines three different models to recognize languages automatically in speech. The first model uses Dynamic Hidden Markov Networks (DHMNet) for LID in utterances. Another model utilizes Deep Neural Network (DNN), and the third uses the recently developed Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Network (RNN). Finally, comparing three different models, it is shown that a fusion of LSTM RNN and DNN model gives better results than the state-of-the-art models when applied to short utterances.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[32813] viXra:1912.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 12:55:20

Refutation of Voqc as a Verified Optimizer for Quantum Circuits in Coq as Bivalent

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate the CNOT operator, seminal to voqc in the tool Coq, as not tautologous. This refutes the conjecture that voqc is “the first fully verified compiler for quantum circuits”, and further refutes Coq as a bivalent proof assistant. These results form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Quantum Physics

[32812] viXra:1912.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 13:34:45

Anti-Gravity, Gravity, and Dark Energy

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Science fiction has always wondered if there is anti-gravity. If there is a positive and negative to elementary charge, why can’t there be positive and negative gravity. If the strong force and weak force are limited by distance, why not gravity. This paper proposes gravity is limited in its action distance. After this action distance is exceeded, then anti-gravity takes over. This is the force that causes universe to look like it is expanding. This paper will propose that the limitations of gravity is about 18.93 million light years in radius. Islands of approximately 18.93 million light years in radius will form within the universe and then be pushed apart by anti-gravity. This paper’s purpose is to propose a size limit to action distance of gravity. Later papers will analyze redshift, galaxy luminosities, surface brightness, and size, and determine if this anti-gravity model correlates the information better than existing models. This model will also be used to try to model the non-linear Hubble Constant.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32811] viXra:1912.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 13:56:15

Refutation of Perfectly Parallel Fairness Certification of Neural Networks

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

e evaluate the seminal definition of causal fairness which is not tautologous. This refutes the conjecture of perfectly parallel fairness certification of neural networks. These results form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[32810] viXra:1912.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 14:34:36

Proving the Goldbach’s Conjecture

Authors: Ninh Khac Son
Comments: 5 Pages.

Goldbach’s conjecture is one of the oldest and best-known unsolved problems in number theory and all of mathematics. It states: ”Every even integer greater than 2 can be expressed as the sum of two primes”. Manuscript content: Prove that Goldbach’s conjecture is correct. Key words: Prime numbers, Goldbach’s conjecture, number theory.
Category: Number Theory

[32809] viXra:1912.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 17:40:20

Refutation of the Fan Theorem

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

The definition of the decidable fan theorem is evaluated as not tautologous, hence refuting it and derived conjectures such as “uniform continuity theorem with continuous moduli”. These results form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[32808] viXra:1912.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 19:26:18

Cellular Automaton Graphics(10)

Authors: Morio Kikuchi
Comments: 202 Pages.

Developping a regular polyhedron on a plane, setting discrete coordinates on the development and applying a boundary condition of regular polyhedron to it, we realize a symmetrical graphics.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[32807] viXra:1912.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 19:31:15

Auxiliary Brake System(3)

Authors: Morio Kikuchi
Comments: 8 Pages.

To brake system, we add an auxiliary brake system in which paddle at the front of steering wheel is an input device.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[32806] viXra:1912.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 01:21:50

Stable Quantum Computing Platform

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Harvard University researchers have demonstrated the first material that can have both strongly correlated electron interactions and topological properties. [35] A novel technique that nudges single atoms to switch places within an atomically thin material could bring scientists another step closer to realizing theoretical physicist Richard Feynman's vision of building tiny machines from the atom up. [34] One of the most enduring "Holy Grail" experiments in science has been attempts to directly observe atomic motions during structural changes. [33] Faster and more compact memory storage devices will become a reality when physicists gain precise control of the spins of electrons. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32805] viXra:1912.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 02:07:40

Simple Prime Number Determination Method for Natural Numbers Including Carmichael Numbers

Authors: Takamasa Noguchi
Comments: 4 Pages. Explanation of effective prime number judgment method even for Carmichael number.

Explanation of effective prime number judgment method even for Carmichael number. This method of judgment does not give a 100% correct answer. Care must be taken especially for (n=p^k (P=Prime)) with primitive roots.
Category: Number Theory

[32804] viXra:1912.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 03:22:10

Birth of Photoelectrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

The creation of photoelectrons through ionisation is one of the most fundamental processes in the interaction between light and matter. [23] Researchers led by Tracy Northup at the University of Innsbruck have now built a quantum sensor that can measure light particles non-destructively. [22] A study by the Quantum Technologies for Information Science (QUTIS) group of the UPV/EHU's Department of Physical Chemistry, has produced a series of protocols for quantum sensors that could allow images to be obtained by means of the nuclear magnetic resonance of single biomolecules using a minimal amount of radiation. [21] An international team of physicists at ETH Zurich, Aalto University, the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, and the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics in Moscow has demonstrated that algorithms and hardware developed originally in the context of quantum computation can be harnessed for quantum-enhanced sensing of magnetic fields. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32803] viXra:1912.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 04:20:47

Non-Abelian Class Field Theory and Langlands Program

Authors: Matanari Shimoinuda
Comments: 32 Pages.

In this article, we review the local Langlands program. I hope that this article is a useful guide to understand Langlands program.
Category: Number Theory

[32802] viXra:1912.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 04:42:38

The Effect of Thymus Vulgaris Extract on the Rate of Calcium Oxalate Inhibition

Authors: Yasmin Bahaa Ahmed, Noura Moustafa Maklad
Comments: 10 Pages.

We all hear about kidney stones but, actually what are kidney stones? Kidney stones are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside your kidneys. On 11 September, the Chinese central government and Ministry of Health informed that several thousands of Chinese had been diagnosed with kidney stones. About 54 000 citizens have been examined, 13 000 of them are in hospitals and four deaths have been reported so far. kidney stones are formed due to dehydration, changes in the diet, hormonal changes, and infections in kidney. They present with renal pain, blood in urine, pus in urine, and fever. If the concentration of the kidney stones increased, it leads to affecting the function of the kidney and other parts of the human body. If the concentration of the kidney stones increased, it leads to affecting the function of the kidney and other parts of the human body and sometimes leads to death. As the kidney stones are a real and series problem, several treatments were developed and found. As examples for these treatments: medication, lithotripsy, tunnel surgery, ureteroscopy and more. They all have common disadvantages as high cost, unsafety and feeling lot of pain. We made a solution that is an depends on an extraction from natural plant which is thymus vulgaris that is used to fragment the kidney stones. That is an efficient, safe and economical solution.
Category: Biochemistry

[32801] viXra:1912.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 04:57:22

A Proof of Twin Prime Conjecture by Clement's Theorem

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 3 Pages.

I proved the Twin Prime Conjecture by using Clement's theorem.\\ I was able to transform below.\ (n\ is\ positive\ integer)\\ \\ 4$\times(6n-2)!+6n+3\equiv0\ \ \ ( mod\ \ (6n-1)(6n+1)).$ \\ Even if the number(n) reaches the limit, use {n=x+1} from {n=x}.\ \ Larger Twin Primes are born.\ \ Repeat this.\\ That is, Twin Primes exist forever.\\
Category: Number Theory

[32800] viXra:1912.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 05:00:30

Disruptive Gravity (Corrected)

Authors: Ramses BOUNKEU SAFO
Comments: 20 pages in English. Corrected version of Disruptive Gravity (vixra:1905.0264)

Viewing gravity as a spacetime bending force instead of just a spacetime curvature, we come to the conclusion of rest mass relativity since it yields equivalent equations as General Relativity. A close analysis of the Schwarzschild metric leads us naturally to the Vacuum Apparent Energy Invariance principle from which we derive the metric equation. Applying this theory to cosmology, we can explain galaxies redshift as a delayed gravitational redshift which explains Hubble diagrams with no need for Dark Energy. This theory has the same predictive power as General Relativity for every local experimental tests of the latter since it's based on a slight modification of the Schwarzchild metric.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32799] viXra:1912.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 05:10:56

Strong Lasers Fusion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

During nuclear fusion two atomic nuclei fuse into one new nucleus. In the lab this can be done by particle accelerators, when researchers use fusion reactions to create fast free neutrons for other experiments. [15] A new 3-D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation tool developed by researchers from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and CEA Saclay is enabling cutting-edge simulations of laser/plasma coupling mechanisms that were previously out of reach of standard PIC codes used in plasma research. [14] Researchers from Osaka University have developed a technique for improving accuracy of laser beam shaping and wavefront obtained by conventional methods with no additional cost by optimizing virtual phase grating. [13]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[32798] viXra:1912.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 05:30:28

Undulating Relativity +§ 29 Yukawa Potential Energy “Continuation

Authors: Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia
Comments: 164 Pages.

Undulating Relativity + § 29 Yukawa Potential Energy “Continuation
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32797] viXra:1912.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 06:03:47

Refutation of Duty to Warn in Strategic Games

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate two axioms for duty to warn modalities: negative introspection from epistemic logic S5 and the conjecture introspection of blameworthiness. Both are not tautologous and refutations. This forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[32796] viXra:1912.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 06:24:08

Sound Drug-Delivery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Drugs can be delivered into individual cells by using soundwaves, Melbourne researchers have discovered. [31] MIT engineers have designed tiny robots that can help drug-delivery nanoparticles push their way out of the bloodstream and into a tumor or another disease site. [30] Researchers have shown that existing optical fibre technology could be used to produce microscopic 3-D images of tissue inside the body, paving the way towards 3-D optical biopsies. [29]
Category: Physics of Biology

[32795] viXra:1912.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 06:49:41

On the Ramanujan’s Equations Applied to Various Sectors of Particle Physics and Cosmology: New Possible Mathematical Connections. ix

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 83 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed further Ramanujan formulas and described new possible mathematical connections with some sectors of Particle Physics and Cosmology
Category: Number Theory

[32794] viXra:1912.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 07:09:54

Convulted Blood Vessels Networks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

A team led by Professor Sylvain Martel at the Polytechnique Montréal Nanorobotics Laboratory has developed a novel approach to tackling one of the biggest challenges of endovascular surgery: how to reach the most difficult-to-access physiological locations. [38] A team of researchers from Massachusetts Institute of Technology has designed a new surgical tool that is maneuverable through some of the narrowest twisting networks of blood vessels to help treat stroke and aneurysm. [37] A new paper in Nature Photonics from researchers at CU Boulder details impressive improvements in the ability to control the propagation and interaction of light in complex media such as tissue-an area with many potential applications in the medical field. [36] The new microscopes, known as mesoSPIMs, can image the minute detail of brain tissue down to individual neurons, and can uncover the 3-D anatomy of entire small organs faster than ever before. [35] A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [34] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have replicated one of the most well-known electromagnetic effects in physics, the Hall Effect, using radio waves (photons) instead of electric current (electrons). [33] A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [32] "With optical tweezers, you can capture a single particle in its native state in solution and watch its structural evolution," said Linda Young, Argonne distinguished fellow. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29]
Category: Physics of Biology

[32793] viXra:1912.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 07:32:41

Compression Algorithm Calculating Entropy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Now, a new Tel Aviv University study proposes a radically simple and efficient way of calculating entropy-and it probably exists on your own computer. [22] "We studied two systems: a Bose-Einstein condensate with 100,000 atoms confined in a cavity and an optomechanical cavity that confines light between two mirrors," Gabriel Teixeira Landi, a professor at the University of São Paulo's Physics Institute (IF-USP), told. [21] Search engine entropy is thus important not only for the efficiency of search engines and those using them to find relevant information as well as to the success of the companies and other bodies running such systems, but also to those who run websites hoping to be found and visited following a search. [20] "We've experimentally confirmed the connection between information in the classical case and the quantum case," Murch said, "and we're seeing this new effect of information loss." [19] It's well-known that when a quantum system is continuously measured, it freezes, i.e., it stops changing, which is due to a phenomenon called the quantum Zeno effect. [18] Physicists have extended one of the most prominent fluctuation theorems of classical stochastic thermodynamics, the Jarzynski equality, to quantum field theory. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating-something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14]
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[32792] viXra:1912.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 07:44:50

A Note on the Gravitational Waves Detections.

Authors: Kovalyov, Mikhail
Comments: 10 Pages.

The gravitational waves detections exhibit rather curious correlation with lunar/solar events similar to that of powerful earthquakes. Due to a rather small number of samples it is hard to draw any decisive conclusions; however, the argument presented suggests that the observations of gravitational waves may have in fact been observations of minute changes in the gravitational field due to movements in the Earth’s liquid core.
Category: Astrophysics

[32791] viXra:1912.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 08:03:36

Chip-Based Optical Sensor Detects Cancer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

For the first time, researchers have used a chip-based sensor with an integrated laser to detect very low levels of a cancer protein biomarker in a urine sample. [30] Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have made a silicon chip that distributes optical signals precisely across a miniature brain-like grid, showcasing a potential new design for neural networks. [29] Researchers have shown that it is possible to train artificial neural networks directly on an optical chip. [28] Scientists from Russia, Estonia and the United Kingdom have created a new method for predicting the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of organic molecules. [27] Predictions for an AI-dominated future are increasingly common, but Antoine Blondeau has experience in reading, and arguably manipulating, the runes-he helped develop technology that evolved into predictive texting and Apple's Siri. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning-and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts-a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20]
Category: Physics of Biology

[32790] viXra:1912.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 08:26:51

Refutation of RCC Scourge of Christian Fundamentalists by Lambeth Quadrilateral (1888)

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate the Lambeth Quadrilateral of 1888 as minimal membership in the Historic Church. The Roman Catholic Church and Christian fundamentalists share the same non tautologous states, hence refuting claim of supremacy. These results form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[32789] viXra:1912.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 08:30:47

Diffusive Josephson Junctions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

Understanding how microwave absorption changes the transport properties of diffusive Josephson junctions is at the forefront of interest in the quantum transport community. [43] The Josephson junction is one of the most important elements in turning quantum phenomena into usable technology. [42] The ultimate degree of control for engineering would be the ability to create and manipulate materials at the most basic level, fabricating devices atom by atom with precise control. [41] A team of researchers from the University of California and Fudan University has developed a way to use a single molecule magnet as a scanning magnetometer. [40] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology designed a new type of molecular wire doped with organometallic ruthenium to achieve unprecedentedly higher conductance than earlier molecular wires. [39] Quantum wells of the highest quality are typically fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (sequential growth of crystalline layers), which is a well-established technique. [38] Scientists found that relatively slow electrons are produced when intense lasers interact with small clusters of atoms, upturning current theories. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32788] viXra:1912.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 08:48:18

Mathematics as Information Compression Via the Matching and Unification of Patterns

Authors: J Gerard Wolff
Comments: Now published in "Complexity", vol. 2019, Article ID 6427493, 25 pages, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/6427493 (PDF, bit.ly/2LqUHIr).

This paper describes a novel perspective on the foundations of mathematics: how mathematics may be seen to be largely about "information compression (IC) via the matching and unification of patterns" (ICMUP). That is itself a novel approach to IC, couched in terms of non-mathematical primitives, as is necessary in any investigation of the foundations of mathematics. This new perspective on the foundations of mathematics reflects the idea that, as an aid to human thinking, mathematics is likely to be consonant with much evidence for the importance of IC in human learning, perception, and cognition. This perspective on the foundations of mathematics has grown out of a long-term programme of research developing the "SP Theory of Intelligence" and its realisation in the "SP Computer Model", a system in which a generalised version of ICMUP -- the powerful concept of "SP-multiple-alignment" -- plays a central role. The paper shows with an example how mathematics, without any special provision, may achieve compression of information. Then it describes examples showing how variants of ICMUP may be seen in widely-used structures and operations in mathematics. Examples are also given to show how several aspects of the mathematics-related disciplines of logic and computing may be understood as ICMUP. Also discussed is the intimate relation between IC and concepts of probability, with arguments that there are advantages in approaching AI, cognitive science, and concepts of probability via ICMUP. Also discussed is how the close relation between IC and concepts of probability relates to the established view that some parts of mathematics are intrinsically probabilistic, and how that latter view may be reconciled with the all-or-nothing, "exact", forms of calculation or inference that are familiar in mathematics and logic. There are many potential benefits and applications of the mathematics-as-IC perspective.
Category: General Mathematics

[32787] viXra:1912.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 09:28:35

On the Nature of Time

Authors: Marc Kießling
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper describes the coherence of time, velocity and covered distance. Contrary to believe, time is not a universal property of nature but an interpretation of motion. If we observe an object 1, we can determine its velocity by putting its covered distance in relation to the covered distance of an object 2. In this case the covered distance s 2 of an object 2 equals the required time of object 2. This means that , if 2 covered distances are putt in relation, we can interpret their value as velocity of one of these objects and the covered distance in the denominator as time (s2=t). Therefore we get the equation: v1= s1/s2.
Category: Classical Physics

[32786] viXra:1912.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 09:20:48

Atomic Music Listeners

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Atom music is a fun new way to explore the atomic world via musical synthesis techniques. [39] Researchers at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have recorded the most detailed atomic movie of gold melting after being blasted by laser light. [38] A team at TU Wien now has the proof behind the speculations that water molecules can form complex bridge-like structures when they accumulate on mineral surfaces. [37] Liquid water sustains life on earth, but its physical properties remain mysterious among scientific researchers. [36]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32785] viXra:1912.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 09:35:30

On the Nature of Atoms

Authors: Marc Kießling
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper postulates an advanced model of atoms under consideration of the research results from Marc Kießling by his paper entitled “ About the properties of energy”. There is a centered, approximately spherical area of energy. Around it there is/are approximately spherical energy value/values . The centered energy is of higher value as the surrounding spherical energy value/values. In the following the model is described with more than one outer spherical energy value. The motions of the energy values within the center and the outer energy values are synchronous. The motions of the centered energy influence the motions of the outer energy values in terms of their direction and velocity and vice versa. This occurs as a consequence of the energy values tending to the smallest amount of ∆W in their surroundings, which is on the specific ways of the synchronized motions. The motions of the centered energy area and the spherical energy values lead to an frequency pattern, which influences other energy values (particles) or other atoms. This leads to the observable effect of the wave character of energy values (particles) in double-slit experiments. Assumably under these conditions (double-slit), the frequency patterns of the atoms of the slit interfere with each other and generate a wave pattern. Therefore the energy values (particles) follow these generated patterns to the detector. Although the outer spherical energy values move on determined ways, they take variable ways within a generated space by the motions within the atom and influences from other atoms. Therefore chemical bindings are determined by the generated spaces, in which the outer energy values are located. But their specific motions within these spaces lead to another property of atoms, namely, assimilation and differentiation between atoms concerning their frequency pattern.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[32784] viXra:1912.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 09:43:58

Neutron Insight into Quantum Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Bose-Einstein condensates are macroscopic quantum phases of matter which appear only under very particular conditions. [35] A novel technique that nudges single atoms to switch places within an atomically thin material could bring scientists another step closer to realizing theoretical physicist Richard Feynman's vision of building tiny machines from the atom up. [34] One of the most enduring "Holy Grail" experiments in science has been attempts to directly observe atomic motions during structural changes. [33] Faster and more compact memory storage devices will become a reality when physicists gain precise control of the spins of electrons. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32783] viXra:1912.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 11:10:06

A Note on Manifolds VS Networks as Mathematics Models in Modern Physics

Authors: Lucian M Ionescu
Comments: 10 Pages.

Some stages of development of Manifold Theory are inspected, and how they evolved into the modern discrete frameworks of lattice and spin networks, with help from Topology and Homological Algebra. Recalling experimental evidence that reality is discrete, notably quantum Hall effect, includes more recent findings of quantum knots and spin-net condensates. Thus Pythagoras, Zeno and Plato were right after all: “Number rules the Uni- verse”, perhaps explaining the “unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics”, but not quite, why Quantum Physics’ scattering amplitudes are often Number Theory’s multiple zeta values.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[32782] viXra:1912.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 14:23:18

Alternate Models of Some of the Leptons

Authors: William L. Stubbs
Comments: 9 Pages.

It is shown here that the three leptons, the electron, the muon and the tau, appear to not be fundamental as declared by the Standard Model of Particle Physics, but are, instead, made of component particles. Electron-like particles here dubbed beta electrons and beta positron make up muons and free electrons. Muons are made of 103 beta electron-beta positron pairs plus a valence beta electron or beta positron surrounding a muon neutrino or antineutrino. The electron is beta electron orbiting an electron neutrino and the positron, a beta positron orbiting an electron antineutrino. The tau also appears to be beta electrons and beta positrons surrounding a tau neutrino or antineutrino; however, a definitive model is not offered here. Consequently, all three leptons and their antiparticles appear to be made of the beta electrons and positrons and their respective neutrinos or antineutrinos.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[32781] viXra:1912.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 14:44:36

Solving Unsolved Problems in Neuroscience

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Here, applying the brain-mind resonance described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we solve the unsolved basic problems in neuroscience.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[32780] viXra:1912.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 21:38:28

Refutation of Disjunction as Defined in Alternative Herbrand Functional Interpretation

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page.

For alternative formulation of the Herbrand functional interpretation, we evaluate disjunction as defined from the other connectives and quantifiers which is not tautologous. This refutes the conjecture to simplify types of witnesses in the Herbrand functional interpretation, avoiding the use of “sets of functionals”. These results form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[32779] viXra:1912.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 23:51:13

About Persistent Depressive Disorder for 16 Years After Remission by Fishing

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 6 Pages.

I experienced a depressive disorder for 16 years that has dramatically remissioned by fishing. The patient has received various treatments such as drug therapy and electric shock therapy for 16 years, but none has been effective. It was thought that uniting with nature without a heart led to remission of persistent depressive disorder. If you are enthusiastic about fishing, the annoyance of social life becomes trivial and you tend not to worry. This was thought to have greatly reduced the stress of the cases. It was thought that the modern life that departed from nature caused frequent mental disorders such as depressive disorder. It was thought that the “Ki” of the sea ameliorated the persistent depressive disorder.
Category: Mind Science

[32778] viXra:1912.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 02:17:37

Equation of a Wave in Galilean Space Уравнение волны в ГП

Authors: Valery Timin
Comments: timinva@yandex.ru, 11 pages in Russian

The main task of this work is a formulaic description of the wave propagation process in Galilean space (GP). The cases of isotropic wave propagation in an absolute reference system (ASO), the equation of wave propagation in inertial-term reference frame (IDF), wave propagation from moving source in its own ISO, ASO and ISO observer. Questions of Doppler effect and aberration are considered. When considering these issues, it is assumed that the source of the wave is not a point object, but is the source of a monochromatic wave that fills all space. It is also assumed that the wave source time and distance are synchronized with the GP time and distance. The word "Galileo"is often used in the work. It is this word – perhaps, the main thing in this work. Galilean space, Galilean standard, Galilean metric. The practical physical model for the application (use) of these words and phrases is a fixed continuous (air, liquid, solid) medium – ASO, in which the wave propagates, and where this "air" medium is located is an empty absolute Galilean space. In itself, this medium is not an absolute inertial frame of reference, it can nahzoditsya in a state of arbitrary motion in the GP. But for propagating waves as independent entities when embedded in Galilean space, this is the current Galilean ASO. A wave in a continuous medium (ASO) of GP can propagate only with one certain speed – the speed of sound. Once the waves are defined as entities, they can be considered separately from its basis, to forget about the existence of the material basis for its existence, leaving only the essential points of this fact. They are the frequency and speed of wave propagation. In this case, the wave as an independent object itself determines the ASO. In addition to waves, there may be non-wave objects in it, the speed of movement of which is not limited to the speed of sound. But in this work they are not considered. The word "relativistic"is hardly used. This is the next level of abstraction of the independent existence of the wave. Главной задачей этой работы является формульное описание процесса распространения волны в галилеевом пространстве (ГП). Рассмотрены случаи распространения изотропной волны в абсолютной системе отсчета (АСО), уравнение распространения волны в инерциальной системе отсчета (ИСО), распространения волны от движущегося источника в собственном ИСО, АСО и ИСО наблюдателя. Рассмотрены вопросы эффекта Доплера и аберрации. При рассмотрении данных вопросов предполагается, что источник волны не является точечным объектом, а является источником монохроматической, заполняющей все пространство, волны. Также предполагается, что время источника волны и расстояния синхронизированы с временем и расстоянием ГП. В работе очень часто используется слово "галилеево". Именно это слово – пожалуй, глав-ное в этой работе. Галилеево пространство, галилеев эталон, галилева метрика. Практической физической моделью для применения (использования) этих слов и словосочетаний является неподвижная сплошная (воздушная, жидкая, твердая) среда – АСО, в которой распространяется волна, а то, где находится эта "воздушная" среда, есть пустое абсолютное галилеево про-странство. Само по себе эта среда не является абсолютной инерциальной системой отсчета, она может нахзодится в состоянии произвольного движения в ГП. Но для распространяющих-ся волн как самостоятельных сущностей при вложении в галилеево пространство это настоящее галилеево АСО. Волна в сплошной среде (АСО) ГП может распространяться только с одной определенной скоростью – скоростью звука. После того, как определены волны как сущности, их можно рассматривать отдельно от ее основы, забыть о существовании материальной основы для ее существования, оставив только существенные моменты этого факта. Ими являются частота и скорость распространения волны. В этом случае волна как самостоятельный объект само определяет АСО. Кроме волн, в ней могут существовать и не волновые объекты, скорость движения которых не ограничена скоростью звука. Но в данной работе они не рассматриваются. Практически не используется слово "релятивистское". Это – следующий уровень абстрак-ции самостоятельного существования волны.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32777] viXra:1912.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 03:12:16

Teoria Simmetrica - Gas di Planck

Authors: Giuseppe Azzarello
Comments: 11 Pages.

Nell’articolo precedente, sulla Teoria Simmetrica, è stato mostrato che la particella di Planck è una particella simmetrica, nella condizione di unificazione gravi-elettro-magnetica. Il dominio di questa particella è il vacuum, in cui regna accoppiata nel dipolo positivo-negativo, costituendo il medium Planck. Proseguendo la teoria, mostreremo che il medium Planck, descritto dalle unità naturali introdotte da Planck, stabilisce il quanto di entropia , conferendo un nuovo significato alla costante dei gas . Vedremo la riunificazione energetica alla scala di Planck, da cui si potranno individuare delle relazioni importanti per il proseguo, e mostreremo come il medium Planck è identificabile con il gas ideale della teoria termodinamica. Successivamente ipotizzeremo un possibile sistema termodinamico, in cui il medium Planck costituisce un cosmic background (CBPM). L’introduzione del quanto di entropia prolunga, come consequenza logica, il concetto di quantizzazione alla termodinamica, ottenendo un quadro più aderente alla realtà fisica, nella direzione della riunificazione.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[32776] viXra:1912.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 05:25:17

On the Ramanujan’s Equations Applied to Various Sectors of Particle Physics and Cosmology: New Possible Mathematical Connections. Viii

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 133 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed further Ramanujan formulas and described new possible mathematical connections with some sectors of Particle Physics and Cosmology
Category: Number Theory

[32775] viXra:1912.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 05:38:09

Law of Planetary Gravity

Authors: Kirov
Comments: 2 Pages.

Criticism of the Law of Universal Gravitation is given, the derivation of LUG from actual physical parameters, the local nature of the action of LUG corresponding to planetary interaction is determined. The non-gravitational character of stellar interactions is determined. The magnetic character of stellar interactions is updated.
Category: Astrophysics

[32774] viXra:1912.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 10:25:56

Small-World Networks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Discovered in the field of social sciences in the 1960s, the phenomenon known as small-world networks has fascinated popular culture and science for decades. [29] "We basically combined advances in neural networks and machine-learning with quantum Monte Carlo tools," says Savona, referring to a large toolkit of computational methods that physicists use to study complex quantum systems. [28] As cosmologists and astrophysicists delve deeper into the darkest recesses of the universe, their need for increasingly powerful observational and computational tools has expanded exponentially. [27] Now, a team of scientists at MIT and elsewhere has developed a neural network, a form of artificial intelligence (AI), that can do much the same thing, at least to a limited extent: It can read scientific papersand render a plain-English summary in a sentence or two. [26] To address this gap in the existing literature, a team of researchers at SRI International has created a human-AI image guessing game inspired by the popular game 20 Questions (20Q), which can be used to evaluate the helpfulness of machine explanations. [25]
Category: Social Science

[32773] viXra:1912.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 10:39:53

Snapshot of Artificial Proteins

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Protein-like molecules called "polypeptoids" (or "peptoids," for short) have great promise as precision building blocks for creating a variety of designer nanomaterials, like flexible nanosheets-ultrathin, atomic-scale 2-D materials. [29] For the first time, a University of Michigan chemist has used quantum entanglement to examine protein structures, a process that requires only a very small number of photons of light. [28] Sunlight is essential for all life, and living organisms have evolved to sense and respond to light. [27] Using X-ray laser technology, a team led by researchers of the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI has recorded one of the fastest processes in biology. [26] A Virginia Commonwealth University researcher has developed a procedure for identifying the source of cells present in a forensic biological sample that could change how cell types are identified in samples across numerous industries. [25] In work at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland in College Park, researchers have devised and demonstrated a new way to measure free energy. [24] A novel technique developed by researchers at the ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics (CNBP) will help shine new light on biological questions by improving the quality and quantity of information that can be extracted in fluorescence microscopy. [23] Micro-computed tomography or "micro-CT" is X-ray imaging in 3-D, by the same method used in hospital CT (or "CAT") scans, but on a small scale with massively increased resolution. [22] A new experimental method permits the X-ray analysis of amyloids, a class of large, filamentous biomolecules which are an important hallmark of diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [12] Thumb through any old science textbook, and you'll likely find RNA described as little more than a means to an end, a kind of molecular scratch paper used to construct the proteins encoded in DNA. [20]
Category: Physics of Biology

[32772] viXra:1912.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 12:14:26

The Particles Inside the Proton

Authors: William L. Stubbs
Comments: 10 Pages.

It shows here that the results of the electron-proton deep inelastic scattering experiments can be interpreted to show that the proton and the neutron are made of eight pions. The experiments also appear to show that the pions are made of electrons and positrons. Consequently, the proton appears to be made of 917 electrons and 918 positrons.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[32771] viXra:1912.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 20:13:14

Reverse-Engineered Proofs for Riemann Hypothesis, Polignac's and Twin Prime Conjectures

Authors: John Yuk Ching Ting
Comments: 49 Pages. Reverse-Engineered Rigorous Proofs for Riemann Hypothesis (and Explanations for two types of Gram points), Polignac's and Twin Prime Conjectures.

Mathematics for Incompletely Predictable Problems is associated with Incompletely Predictable problems containing Incompletely Predictable entities. Nontrivial zeros and two types of Gram points in Riemann zeta function (or its proxy Dirichlet eta function) together with prime and composite numbers from Sieve of Eratosthenes are Incompletely Predictable entities. Correct and complete mathematical arguments for first key step of converting this function into its continuous format version, and second key step of applying Information-Complexity conservation to this Sieve result in direct spin-offs from first step consisting of proving Riemann hypothesis (and explaining two types of Gram points), and second step consisting of proving Polignac's and Twin prime conjectures. We justify our Reverse-Engineered rigorous proofs and explanations.
Category: Number Theory

[32770] viXra:1912.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 02:40:41

Quantum Dots for Biomedical Applications

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Positioning is important especially for targeted therapies, e.g. photodynamic therapy, because it allows the drug to be released evenly in a particular environment and at the right speed. In addition, owing to the achieved ligands ordering, we are able to pack a lot of active drug particles on a small carrier," adds Professor Lewinski. [28] Nanotechnology may provide an effective treatment for Parkinson’s disease, a team of researchers suggests. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26]
Category: Physics of Biology

[32769] viXra:1912.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 02:52:55

Nanostructure Electron Correlations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

The researchers hope that these predictions will now also be tested experimentally and lead to the development of new nanostructures. Such systems can make important contributions to the further miniaturisation of electronics. [32] Researchers at Cardiff University have shown tiny light-emitting nanolasers less than a tenth of the size of the width of a human hair can be integrated into silicon chip design. [31] Large-scale plasmonic metasurfaces could find use in flat panel displays and other devices that can change colour thanks to recent work by researchers at the University of Cambridge in the UK. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22]
Category: Condensed Matter

[32768] viXra:1912.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 03:05:42

Van der Waals Interlayer Magnetism

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

The researchers expect the work principle to manipulate 2-D magnetism by engineering unique spatially dependent spin textures for a variety of applications with vDW materials. [32] Researchers at Cardiff University have shown tiny light-emitting nanolasers less than a tenth of the size of the width of a human hair can be integrated into silicon chip design. [31] Large-scale plasmonic metasurfaces could find use in flat panel displays and other devices that can change colour thanks to recent work by researchers at the University of Cambridge in the UK. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22]
Category: Condensed Matter

[32767] viXra:1912.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 03:16:08

Закон Планетарного Тяготения

Authors: Киров
Comments: 2 Pages. Russian lang

Дана критика Закона Всемирного Тяготения, вывод ЗВТ из актуальных физических параметров, определен локальный характер действия ЗВТ, соответствующий планетарному взаимодействию. Определён негравитационный характер звёздных взаимодействий. Актуализирован магнитный характер звёздных взаимодействий.
Category: Astrophysics

[32766] viXra:1912.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 04:36:49

Why Are there Three Generations of Quarks, Leptons, and Neutrinos?

Authors: Wan-Chung Hu
Comments: 2 Pages.

Three generations of quarks, leptons, and neutrinos can be related to the three vectors of three-dimensional space. Based on charge relativity, charge is due to spacetime torsion. However, the spacetime torsion will have three forms based on x-axis, y-axis, and z-axis. Three generations of quarks, leptons, and neutrinos will be related to the three axes of spacetime torsion. And, decaying into one axis of spacetime torsion will help to align the interaction force field due to spacetime torsion. Thus, it explains why there are three generations of quarks, leptons, and neutrinos. And, only one generation is most stable and constitutes the majority of atoms to universe.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[32765] viXra:1912.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 04:46:56

Mathematical Connections Between Various Ramanujan’s Equations, Values of Mass and Electric Charges of Fundamental Particles and Physical Data of Kerr Supermassive Black Hole M87

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 123 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have described some mathematical connections between various Ramanujan’s equations, values of mass and electric charges of fundamental particles and physical data of Kerr Supermassive Black Hole M87. We have obtained some very interesting results concerning a possible mathematical unification between some sectors of particle and string physics and some sectors of black hole physics, through the use and development of some formulas discovered by S. Ramanujan
Category: Mathematical Physics

[32764] viXra:1912.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 04:59:47

Refutation of Flow Theory

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 3 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate two theorems, one postulate, and nine examples of ZFC axioms as not tautologous. This refutes flow theory. These results form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[32763] viXra:1912.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 06:51:46

5th-Force-Particle in Vacuum Fits in New Universe Rthu-Postulate.

Authors: Dan Visser
Comments: 6 Pages.

This article refers to a 5th-force that fits a new model for the universe: Rotating Torus Hologram Universe, abbreviated as RTHU. Thereto the scale is calculated whereon negative charged quarks in the neutron of Helium4 are affected by a dark-boson X17 being the 5th-force-particle on a scale of approximately 0,3x10^-18 meter, at the moment of He4 decay in vacuum. Simultanuously the belonging dark-force is felt at a scale of approximately 0,7 millimeter in vacuum. This follows from formules used to describe the RTHU model. However, significantly the value of the dark force also appears to be equivalent to its very small dark energy of approximately 10^-88 Joule^2. The exercises given in this article postulate a duo-bit process from below the Planckborder to be the origin of X17, dark matter-force and dark energy according to the RTHU model. That model generates a materialized holographic Big Bang universe.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[32762] viXra:1912.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 07:10:56

V={e, (1 2)(3 4), (1 3)(2 4),(1 4)(2 3)} is a Characteristic Subgroup of the Alternating Group of Degree 4

Authors: Henry Wong
Comments: 1 Page.

An addendum to group theory.
Category: Algebra

[32761] viXra:1912.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 08:16:48

State of Solitary Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Scientists at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), working with the University of Latvia, the University of Berlin, Cambridge University and University College London, have developed a tomographic method to visualize the state of solitary electrons emitted from electron pumps. [26] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new quantum probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [25] Researchers have studied how a 'drumstick' made of light could make a microscopic 'drum' vibrate and stand still at the same time. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32760] viXra:1912.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 08:56:45

The Riemann Flow (II)

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 2 pages, written in english

The Riemann flow is defined with help of the Riemann curvature. The Einstein-Riemann metrics are also defined.
Category: Geometry

[32759] viXra:1912.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 08:57:53

Dark Matter Particles Can Travel at the Speed of Light. Special Relativity and General Relativity Are Wrong

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 464 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

Dark Matter particles can travel at the speed of light. Special Relativity and General Relativity are wrong “Dark Matter particles can travel at the speed of light” Adrian Ferent “The gamma ray and the Dark Matter electron travel together at the speed of light” Adrian Ferent “Because the Dark Matter electron travels at the sped of light, Special Relativity is wrong” Adrian Ferent “Because Special Relativity is wrong, General Relativity is wrong” Adrian Ferent “In electron – positron collision gamma ray and Dark Matter electrons are created and Special Relativity and General Relativity are wrong” Adrian Ferent “The electron – positron collision is another proof that Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity is right” Adrian Ferent You learned from Einstein, your professors that when v = c, mass and energy goes to infinity and that’s not physically possible. In particle accelerators scientists try to accelerate electrons to the speed of light. Because the scientists do not understand what the electron is, they do not understand what they do there. In Ferent Quantum Gravity, FQG, during the electron – positron collision are created gamma rays and Dark Matter electrons. I discovered that: “The electron is a photon around Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “The Dark Matter electron is the Dark Matter inside the electron” Adrian Ferent “Between the Ferent time t = 1.294 × 10^(-86) s and the Planck time t = 5.391 × 10^(-44) s were created the Dark Matter electrons” Adrian Ferent “What the scientists, the Nobel Laureates, your professors… do not understand? When the electron is accelerated gains kinetic energy and when the electron – positron collide the kinetic energy is transferred to the photons and Dark Matter electrons” Adrian Ferent “In electron – positron collision gamma ray and Dark Matter electrons are created” Adrian Ferent The electron – positron pair is produced by a photon – photon interaction. This means: “The gamma ray and the Dark Matter electron travel together at the speed of light” Adrian Ferent “Because the Dark Matter electron travels at the sped of light, Special Relativity is wrong” Adrian Ferent “Because Special Relativity is wrong, General Relativity is wrong” Adrian Ferent “Dark Matter particles can travel at the speed of light” Adrian Ferent “In electron – positron collision gamma ray and Dark Matter electrons are created and Special Relativity and General Relativity are wrong” Adrian Ferent “The electron – positron collision is another proof that Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity is right” Adrian Ferent 279. I am the first who discovered that Dark Matter particles can travel at the speed of light 280. I am the first who discovered that the gamma ray and the Dark Matter electron travel together at the speed of light 281. I am the first who discovered because the Dark Matter electron travels at the sped of light, Special Relativity is wrong 282. I am the first who discovered because Special Relativity is wrong, General Relativity is wrong 283. I am the first who discovered that in electron – positron collision, gamma ray and Dark Matter electrons are created and Special Relativity and General Relativity are wrong 284. I am the first who discovered that the electron – positron collision is another proof that Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity is right
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32758] viXra:1912.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 09:06:53

Laser Evaluate Mental States

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Scientists at the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russia) along with international colleagues have studied the biomechanics of hand movements when writing and drawing and developed a unique method to evaluate the individual properties of writing speed and pencil pressure. [40] New research from the University of Rochester will enhance the accuracy of computer models used in simulations of laser-driven implosions. [39] By using an infrared laser beam to induce a phenomenon known as an electron avalanche breakdown near the material, the new technique is able to detect shielded material from a distance. [38] The light scattered by plasmonic nanoparticles is useful, but some of it gets lost at the surface and scientists are now starting to figure out why. [37] In a new review, researchers have described the fundamental physics that causes magnetoelectricity from a theoretical viewpoint. [36] Physicists at EPFL propose a new "quantum simulator": a laser-based device that can be used to study a wide range of quantum systems. [35] The DESY accelerator facility in Hamburg, Germany, goes on for miles to host a particle making kilometer-long laps at almost the speed of light. Now researchers have shrunk such a facility to the size of a computer chip. [34] University of Michigan physicists have led the development of a device the size of a match head that can bend light inside a crystal to generate synchrotron radiation in a lab. [33] A new advance by researchers at MIT could make it possible to produce tiny spectrometers that are just as accurate and powerful but could be mass produced using standard chip-making processes. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32757] viXra:1912.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 09:48:26

Josephson Circuit Quantum Control

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

Superconducting circuits, which have zero electrical resistance, could enable the development of electronic components that are significantly more energy-efficient than most chips used today. [33] Rice University physicist Qimiao Si began mapping quantum criticality more than a decade ago, and he's finally found a traveler that can traverse the final frontier. [32] Physicists studying the strange behavior of metal alloys called heavy fermions have made a surprising discovery that could be useful in safeguarding the information stored in quantum bits, or qubits, the basic units of encoded information in quantum computers. [31] Properties of complex materials are often determined by the interplay of several electron properties. TU Wien (Vienna) has now succeeded in disentangling this mess. [30] Physicists have found "electron pairing," a hallmark feature of superconductivity, at temperatures and energies well above the critical threshold where superconductivity happens. [29] It was a three-hour nighttime road trip that capped off a journey begun seven years ago. [28] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32756] viXra:1912.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 12:21:34

How Planets are Formed, How Stars Evolve

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski, Barrington James Taylor
Comments: 7 Pages. transcript for youtube video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CM0Hi0YwAJA

Earth was shaped by the same processes in operation today. Charles Lyell and James Hutton were correct, it is ancient almost beyond measure. But why? This outline should serve as an explanation to that "why." The present is key to the past and much more is written in the sky than in the rocks.
Category: Astrophysics

[32755] viXra:1912.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 14:36:21

Deterministic Free Will with Resonant Decision Making

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

There is the obvious incompleteness in the description of quantum mechanics (QM). QM makes it impossible to find the right solutions for the greatest secrets of nature such as the matter-antimatter asymmetry, the origin of dark matter (DM) and dark energy, or the difference of mind and brain which leads to the origin of free will and decision making. Here we show that free will is compatible with determinism and that mind is a DM structure.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[32754] viXra:1912.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 17:16:26

Antena Maxwell para VHF

Authors: Carlos Alejandro Chiappini
Comments: 6 Pages.

La parte irradiante de la antena Maxwell para VHF es un disco plano de 327 milímetros de diámetro. Un transductor especial transfiere energía entre el disco y la línea de alimentación proveniente del equipo. Entre la salida del transmisor y el disco irradiante no existe continuidad galvánica de tipo alguno. El rendimiento es plenamente satisfactorio,
Category: Classical Physics

[32753] viXra:1912.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 19:07:45

Allow the Wizard of oz to Reply to His Critic

Authors: John Roach
Comments: 38 Pages.

18 articles for Science & Philosophy discussion
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[32752] viXra:1912.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 19:44:01

A Maximum Entropy Approach to Wave Mechanics

Authors: Juho Leppäkangas
Comments: 9 pages. Feel free to send an email about corrections or suggestions.

We employ the maximum entropy principle, in the context of Bayesian inference by the impersonal physical interactions, together with the experimental Heisenberg's uncertainty principle for a simple construction of the general wave mechanical static state of a single, interacting mass particle with no internal degrees of freedom. Subsequently, this first principle approach allows to derive via Newtonian mechanics the dynamical equation of motion in the realm of non-relativistic wave mechanics, i.e., the Schrödinger equation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[32751] viXra:1912.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 21:16:23

Effective Range of Gravitation

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 11 Pages. 1 figure

It is generally believed that both gravitational and electromagnetic forces belong to macroscopic interactions. However, since the smallest unit of matter is impossible to be infinitely small, the gravity or electromagnetic force cannot be infinitely small too. When these two macroscopic interactions are less than a certain value, it can be considered that there is no longer any interaction. How to determine the interaction range of gravitation, this article mainly analyzes by using the Planck length as the smallest unit of spacetime. It is assumed that if the gravitational potential changes across spacetime of Planck length less than a certain energy value, it indicates that gravitational potential cannot cross the Planck length. The gravitation will disappear as a result. From this, it is inferred that the effective interaction range of the gravitational force is related to the size of the mass. According to the gravitational effective range of the sun, the gravitational effective range of the huge mass of the galaxy's center can be calculated, and then the diameter of the galaxy's core can be calculated.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32750] viXra:1912.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 03:15:13

End for the Big Bang Theory, Dark Matter and Dark Energy. A New Logical, Clear and Scientific Explanation for the Accelerating Expansion of the Universe

Authors: Vaggelis Talios
Comments: 8 Pages.

The “big bang theory” was established at the end of the third decade of the past century, when astrophysicist Edwin Hubble made the very great discovery, that the Galaxies of the Universe do not have fixed positions, but they move and even move away, which means that the “Universe is expanding”. The theory of the big bang was in completely agreement with Hubble's discovery; so although it had many doubts, it was established as a cosmological theory, provided, of course, that over the time and the advancement of science, these doubts would be clarified. However, in the 1990s-2000s decade, something unexpected happened; two independent research teams, the Supernova Cosmology Project and the High Z Supernova Team, trying to study more thoroughly the expansion of the Universe, discovered that this expansion is accelerated, something that did not agree with the big bang theory, which provides for the opposite; that the expansion of the Universe is, a slowed down expansion. Since then, all of the scientific community has been in turmoil, because an overthrow of the theory of the big bang will overthrow and most of the newer theoretical physics too, which is related to the big bang theory. Unfortunately, science attempting to explain the accelerated expansion, through the controversial concepts of “dark matter” and “dark energy”, –defined as strange cosmic “some-things” and nothing more–, has failed and so far, not produced any positive result. Following these developments, I thought it necessary to get out of my office drawer and restore forward once again the “theory of the chain reaction”, which explains the accelerated expansion, describes with credibility and scientific consistency the creation and operation of the Cosmos and answers to almost all the questions that do not answer the big bang and the other cosmological theories.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32749] viXra:1912.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 04:37:43

Laser Beams Meet Plasma

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

New research from the University of Rochester will enhance the accuracy of computer models used in simulations of laser-driven implosions. [39] By using an infrared laser beam to induce a phenomenon known as an electron avalanche breakdown near the material, the new technique is able to detect shielded material from a distance. [38] The light scattered by plasmonic nanoparticles is useful, but some of it gets lost at the surface and scientists are now starting to figure out why. [37] In a new review, researchers have described the fundamental physics that causes magnetoelectricity from a theoretical viewpoint. [36] Physicists at EPFL propose a new "quantum simulator": a laser-based device that can be used to study a wide range of quantum systems. [35] The DESY accelerator facility in Hamburg, Germany, goes on for miles to host a particle making kilometer-long laps at almost the speed of light. Now researchers have shrunk such a facility to the size of a computer chip. [34] University of Michigan physicists have led the development of a device the size of a match head that can bend light inside a crystal to generate synchrotron radiation in a lab. [33] A new advance by researchers at MIT could make it possible to produce tiny spectrometers that are just as accurate and powerful but could be mass produced using standard chip-making processes. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31] Materials scientists at Duke University computationally predicted the electrical and optical properties of semiconductors made from extended organic molecules sandwiched by inorganic structures. [30] KU Leuven researchers from the Roeffaers Lab and the Hofkens Group have now put forward a very promising direct X-ray detector design, based on a rapidly emerging halide perovskite semiconductor, with chemical formula Cs2AgBiBr6. [29]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[32748] viXra:1912.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 05:15:03

Controlling Antimatter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

The success of ALPHA and ASACUSA has also inspired a new generation of antimatter experiments. [25] Mysterious radiation emitted from distant corners of the galaxy could finally be explained with efforts to recreate a unique state of matter that blinked into existence in the first moments after the Big Bang. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[32747] viXra:1912.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 05:42:16

Population Structure, Fecundity and Morphological Characteristics of M. Vollenhovenii (Herklots, 1857) on Lower Volta River Basin Channel, Ghana

Authors: Eniade Abiodun Adeyemi, Odedeyi Dominic Olabode, Bello-Olusoji A Oluayo, Adebayo Olabode Thomas, Agyakwah Seth Koranteng
Comments: 11 Pages.

Population structure, fecundity and morphological characteristics of M. vollenhovenii were studied around Lower Volta River, Ghana subject to dirt of information on this prawn species around the study location. The most prominent morphological characteristics already documented for identification of this species was rostrum bearing 13-15 continuous teeth dorsally and 4-5 teeth on its ventral part. These morphological traits formed the principal components for identification in this study. Results showed that morphological traits on second pereiopods such as presence of spines, spinules, teeth borne within the fingers, and dense projections of setae-like features on telson and uropod were observed relevant for identification purposes. Other results revealed that maximum total length recorded in this study (150-155mm) was higher than total length ranges (≤125mm) documented for this species in earlier studies. Consequently, two adult’s classes of prawns were identified (old adult class 81-120mm; and young adults 31-80mm) and older class was observed to be more in catches than the younger prawns. Absolute fecundity revealed that oocytes estimation varied with respect to seasons, ages of prawns and body sizes of specimens examined. In conclusion, this study observed that M. vollenhovenii fishery is operating in a sustainable manner at the time of this study around the study location.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[32746] viXra:1912.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 05:45:08

Comparative Differential Leucocyte Count and Morphometrical Analyses of Black Rats Rattus Rattus (Linnaeus, 1758) and White Rats Rattus Norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769)

Authors: Aryadhara Das, Prafulla Kumar Mohanty
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper aims at a systematic approach to morphologically characterize of five types of white blood cells (WBC), and its nuclei from light microscopic image of blood samples. Hence, cellular and nuclei based geometric features are computed and analyzed statistically with t-test to show their discriminating potentiality among the species. In morphometry study, the length and breadth along with nucleus of leukocytes are compared between and within the species using oneway Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s pairwise comparison tests. In this study, the estimated values of Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus with respect to sex were compared. A total of 20 black and white rats (05 each from males and females) were collected. Blood samples were then collected from the caudal vein of anaesthetized rats. In differential leucocyte count, the parameters namely, lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil (p < 0.001) and eosinophil and basophil (p < 0.05) reveal significant difference. In morphometrical study, the cell length, breadth along with nucleus of lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil (p < 0.01) and eosinophil, basophil (p < 0.05) deviates significantly between and within the species.
Category: Biochemistry

[32745] viXra:1912.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 05:47:18

Bacteriological Quality of Kunu-Zaki Sold on the Streets of Owerri Metropolis, Nigeria

Authors: Anumudu I. C., Anumudu C. K.
Comments: 5 Pages.

Kunu-zaki is a nourishing non-alcoholic beverage widely consumed in Nigeria. There is no standardized method for its preparation thus production practices differ amongst retailers. This study was undertaken to evaluate the bacteriological quality of kunu drink retailed in major markets of Owerri metropolis, Nigeria. Triplicate samples were obtained from four markets in Owerri and a control sample prepared in the laboratory. Kunu drink was analysed using the standard pour plate procedure. The results obtained showed that total heterotrophic bacteria count, total coliform count and total Salmonella Shigella count ranged from 1.4 x 103 – 4.5 x 104 cfu/ml, 1.2 x 103 – 3.8 x 104 cfu/ml to 0.6 x 103 – 3.1 x 104 respectively. A total of 9 bacteria genera including Staphylococcus specie, E. coli, Enterobacter specie, Proteus specie, Citrobacter specie, Serratia specie, Lactobacillus specie, Salmonella specie and Streptococcus specie were isolated with the highest percentage frequency of occurrence recorded for Staphylococcus sp. (16.66%) indicating possible low hygiene of the kunu zaki producers. The bacteria genera isolated from kunu zaki sold in Owerri and their number constitute main concerns for public health as these can cause a variety of infections or food intoxications. Thus, there is a need to establish a system of monitoring of street vended kunu zaki to make sure that it is safe for consumption.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[32744] viXra:1912.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 05:52:12

Comparative Cytomorphometry of Red Blood Cells of Some Fishes

Authors: Gayatri Acharya, Prafulla Kumar Mohanty
Comments: 10 Pages.

This study aims to compare the size of the red blood cells of different freshwater fishes to gain knowledge of their activity. In this study, 11 different freshwater fishes of four different order like Siluriformes, Cypriniformes, Perciformes, and Osteoglossiformes were selected. For analyses of cytomorphometry of blood cells, blood was collected from caudal vein, and blood smear was prepared at the site of collection. In order to obtain size of different blood cell types, 30 cells of each cell type for each fish were photographed and dimensions of cell-like length and breadth were measured using Microscope Eyepiece Digital Camera (CatCam130 – 1.3 Mega Pixel (MP), Code No. CC130, Catalyst Biotech, Maharashtra, India, attached to Hund Wetzlar Microscope GmbH, Wetzlar-Nauborn, Germany) and computer. This study confirms the cytomorphometry of red blood cells differ significantly at p< 0.001 concerning sex and species. The study will help in diagnosis which in turn will accelerate production of fishes.
Category: Biochemistry

[32743] viXra:1912.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 05:53:09

Investigating Genotoxicity of Eleusine Indica by Micronuclei Assay in Albino Rats

Authors: Hannah Edim Etta, Ekei Victor Ikpeme, Effiom, Helen Offiong
Comments: 8 Pages.

Genotoxicity of Eleusine indica (Nkim enang: Efik) was investigated in the Wister strain albino rat (Rattus novergicus). Nine (9) male and nine (9) female rats were randomly assigned to three (3) groups, of which two were exposed to the aqueous extract of E.indica – Group A (control-no extract)), Group B (50 mg/kg BW of E. indica) and Group C (100 mg/kg BW of E. indica). This was administered to the rats by oral gavage for 14 days after which the peripheral blood from the tail tips were collected and assayed for the presence of micronuclei, following standard procedures. Proximate analysis and phytochemical screening of the herb extract was carried out. Results obtained showed that E. indica did not cause any significant (P > 0.05) increase in the incidence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in rat peripheral blood at any of the doses administered. The polychromatic: normochromatic erythrocyte (PCE: NCE) ratio was found to be in the range of 0.50 ± 0.11 to 0.55 ± 0.02. Also, the aqueous herb extract is rich in Carbohydrates (76.17%) and Tannins (21.76%). Mean body weights (MBW) of rats showed normal distribution throughout the duration of the investigation. The results of this study demonstrate that E. indica does not confer any genotoxicity in mammals. Further in-depth study on its efficacy is recommended.
Category: Biochemistry

[32742] viXra:1912.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 05:55:36

Quantum Entanglement in Theoretical Physics as a New Insight Into Cancer Biology

Authors: Sorush Niknamian, Spmayeh Zaminpira, Sprephanie Seneff
Comments: 12 Pages.

Quantum entanglement is a phenomenon in theoretical physics that happens when pairs or groups of particles are generated in such a way that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the others, even when the particles are separated by a large distance. Instead, a quantum state must be described for the system as a whole. Based on the theory of cancer as an evolutionary metabolic disease (Evolutionary Metabolic Hypothesis of Cancer or EMHC), the cancerous cells are eukaryotic cells with different metabolic rate from healthy cells due to the damaged or shut down mitochondria in them. Assuming each human eukaryotic cell as a particle and the whole body as a Quantum Entangled System (QES), is a new perspective on the description of cancer disease, and this link between theoretical physics and biological sciences in the field of cancer therapies can be a new insight into the cause, prevention and treatment of cancer. Additionally, this perspective admits the Lamarckian evolution in the understanding of the mentioned disease. We have presented each human eukaryotic cell containing mitochondria as a QES, and the whole body containing healthy and normal cells as a QES as well. The difference between the entropy of the healthy cells and cancer cells has also been mentioned in this research.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[32741] viXra:1912.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 05:56:45

Variations of Biomass and Carbon Contents in Different Traits and Components of Herbaceous Species from Tropical Grassland

Authors: Preeti Verma, R. Sagar, Hariom Verma, Abhishek Rai, Pratibha Chaturvedi, Prem Pratap Singh, Kuldeep Kumar, Sandeep Kumar Singh
Comments: 32 Pages.

Grasslands play a critical role in the global storage of atmospheric carbon (C). Precise estimation of C contents in different plant components is essential to formulate a strategy for mitigating the atmospheric C. Biomass (B) and C of different herbaceous plant components at species, functional group and site levels from tropical grassland locating on the campus of Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India were estimated. For this; 117 herbaceous species just-before flowering were harvested. B and C contents for each species and component were measured and statistically analyzed. The measured C (g plant-1) across the components varied from 0.08 to 31.12. On gm-2 basis; it varied between 29 (leaf) and 49 (root). Plant components, species and functional groups in isolation caused significant differences in the measured C. In the present study; the C content of stem was greater than the leaf and root. The perennial, erect, leguminous and native traits had greater C than the others. Therefore, this observation revealed that the perennial, erect, leguminous and native plants could be a better option for reducing the atmospheric CO2 by capturing it and then converting into B through photosynthesis. Further, the fitted regression equation between the root and shoot for B and C could be used for the extrapolation of B and C of the root component based on the shoot component. The conservative field measurement methods may give precise data on B and C but are destructive to grassland, difficult, time-consuming, and costly to cover at large scale. Hence, the present work could be substantial for the estimation of root C based on shoot component.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[32740] viXra:1912.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 05:57:47

Explaining the Benefits of Human Genome Patent

Authors: Shahima Akter Topu
Comments: 5 Pages.

Gene patenting has been facing backlash for decades now. Even Michael Crichton, science fiction novelist, as joined the bandwagon speaking against gene patent.1 Such hostility towards patents, the professional interests of academics, researchers and inventors are under the threat of losing their rights over the work they have done. The biotech industry can never be out of discoveries. With constant biological changes, new diseases are appearing and they have to dig deeper. However, not all progress is free. Rewarding the inventors is not at all unfair. This paper will demonstrate that (i) patents are a foundation of the industry. They need to innovate further progress. The reason patent law exists to protect the inventions for a limited period of time. The paper will also demonstrate that (ii) the social myths about gene patent are not really manifested in reality. It will discuss the argument against gene patenting and then will present counter arguments with empirical evidence whether the myths are really true.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[32739] viXra:1912.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 05:58:46

Genetic and Environmental Factors in Skin Color Determination

Authors: Callixte Yadufashije, Rebero Samuel
Comments: 4 Pages.

The origin of skin color has been significantly a discussion of importance among human biology scientists, anthropologists and others interested in evolution of human skin color. Experience was done to chimpanzee and other primates shared almost the same characters with mankind, and this impressed scientists to know what makes difference in skin color among people. Different researches conducted to know the real cause of dark skin and light skin among people of the same origin. There are no other results found out of permanent variation happened to our ancestors based on geographical location. Environmental factors played a huge role in skin color determination. High UVR has been led to dark skin color and low production of UVR led to lightly skin. By natural selection genes responded to environmental conditions for a human to survive in his own environment. Melanin production came as a response to UVR to protect against consequence of UVR in low latitude regions. Depigmentation happened due migration from low latitude to high latitude regions and led lightly skinned color for our ancestors. Everyone has skin color due to ancestry antique geographical location.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[32738] viXra:1912.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 05:59:43

Dormancy and Germination in Two Australian Native Species (Acacia Aneura and Rhodanthe Floribunda)

Authors: Paul Theophile Epee Misse
Comments: 5 Pages.

In the laboratory of plant physiology of the University of Queensland (Gatton Campus), a seed germination experiment was undertaken on seeds of two Australian native plant species – Rhodanthe floribundato and Acacia aneura. Most Acacia, including A. aneura exhibit a physical dormancy due to the waxy coat covering the seed. Comparably, just a few species of Rhodanthe are studied as to their dormancy. However, they are also known to present different forms of dormancy. To understand and describe these dormancy mechanisms, a seed germination experiment was conducted on Acacia aneura and Rhodanthe floribunda. This experiment will either add to the existing knowledge regarding these species’ dormancy or corroborate them. It is expected that both species display some form(s) of dormancy.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[32737] viXra:1912.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:00:46

Analysis of Certain Biochemical Indices on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats Administered with Protein Isolated and Purified from Vernonia Amygdalina

Authors: Ihimire I.G., Kayode E.A., Osagie V.E.
Comments: 8 Pages.

This study investigated the effect of protein isolate from leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina in diabetic rats. Thirty (30) adults male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six (6) groups of five (5) each based on their body weight. Diabetes was induced with administration of alloxan, 150 mg/kg body weight (i.p). Group A served as the control and received 1 mL/kg body weight of 5% ethanol being solvent used, Group B received 1 mL alloxan containing 150 mg/kg only. Group C, D, E and F were respectively alloxanized but treated with 1%, 3%, 5% and 7% of protein isolate obtained from V. amygdalina leaves for 14 days. On the 15th day, the animals were humanely sacrificed and their liver homogenates were prepared. Standard biochemical procedures were adopted for determination of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, Malondialdehyde (MDA) and glucose levels. Data were subjected to one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison post-hoc test using Graph Pad, version 6 software. Results showed that CAT activity in alloxan-induced untreated rats (1.17 μmole H2O2) was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than observed in control rats (2.10 mole H2O2). Treatment with the respective doses recorded comparable values to those observed in control rats. Similar observation was seen with SOD data. Rats treated with 7% protein isolate recorded the most significant (p < 0.05) decrease in serum glucose level. The study suggests that the protein isolate possesses anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects on alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
Category: Biochemistry

[32736] viXra:1912.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:02:36

Autophagic Processes of Normal and Malignant Metabolic Pathways

Authors: Aurelian Udristioiu, Manole Cojocaru
Comments: 13 Pages.

Autophagy is a cellular process that maintains the homeostasis of the normal cell, but autophagic dysfunction is associated with human diseases, such as cancer. In normal cells, the initial signal to form auto-phagosomes is by the class III phosphatidyl-inositol (PI) 3 kinase complex consisting of sequence genes, Beclin1/Atg6 and class III PI3K (Vps34). This process is negatively regulated by binding of Bcl-2 family members such as Bcl-xL to Beclin1 preventing Beclin1 binding to the PI3K-III complex and thereby reducing autophagy. In cancer, the autophagy can be neutral, tumor-suppressive, or tumor-promoting in different contexts. Genomic analysis of human cancers indicates that the loss or mutation of core autophagy Atg genes, whereas oncogenic events that activate autophagy and lysosomal biogenesis have been identified in malignant diseases. Optimal combination of inductors or inhibitors of autophagy with chemo or radiotherapy in a variety of tumor type, in different phases, can be successful approaches for improve the effect of anticancer therapies.
Category: Biochemistry

[32735] viXra:1912.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:04:28

The Effect of Aqueous Extract of Morinda Lucida on Haematological Parameters and Intestinal Atpases, Lactase Activity and Histopathology Studies in Lactose Induced Diarrhea in Wistar Rats

Authors: Ugbeni C.O., Idiakheua D.O.
Comments: 8 Pages.

Diarrhea remains a major health burden in developing society till date. Efforts aimed at ameliorating this condition is very imminent. In this study, the antidiarrheal effect of aqueous extracts (dried and fresh forms) of M. lucida leaves was evaluated in Wistar rats. 25% lactose enriched diet was used to induce diarrhea. 25 Wistar rats of an average weight of 150g were divided equally into five groups labeled A-E. The diet was admonished for 72 h to rats in groups B-E. Fresh aqueous extract of M. lucida, dried aqueous extract of M. lucida and loperamide were then administered to groups C-E respectively for the next seven days. The animals were then sacrificed and blood collected for lactase, intestinal ATPases, and some haematological parameters were assayed using standard laboratory procedures. Histopathological examination of the small intestine was also examined. Our results showed a significant increase in the intestinal lactase activity of diarrheic rats. However, the dried extract was able to restore parity with the control. We observed a significant increase in the activities of Na+/K+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase while a decrease in the activity of Ca2+ATPase in lactose induced diarrheic rats when compared with the control. The extracts of M. lucida further increased significantly the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase when compared with the control and the untreated group. However, no significant effect of the extracts on Ca2+ATPase was observed. On haematological parameters, we observed increase in hematocrit and hemoglobin. Treatment with fresh extract and loperamide was able to reverse this increase. Furthermore results of the differential white blood cell count revealed higher lymphocyte count in the group given dried extract of M. lucida. The extracts were able to ameliorate the aberrations observed in the architecture of the intestinal lumen.
Category: Biochemistry

[32734] viXra:1912.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:05:47

Salt Stress Induced Effects on Biochemical Parameters in Etiolated Maize Leaf Segments During Greening

Authors: Meeta Jain, Jayesh Vaishnav
Comments: 10 Pages.

Treatment of etiolated maize leaf segments with 0-300 mM NaCl during greening decreased the osmotic potential of leaf sap significantly. Na+ content of the leaf tissue increased significantly on supplying different concentrations of salt. Relative water content of the leaf tissue was marginally affected by the supply of NaCl. Total protein and RNA content of the maize leaf segments gradually increased when treated with lower concentrations of NaCl and subsequently decreased at higher concentrations. Decrease in DNA content was noted with increasing salt treatment in a concentration dependent manner. SDS-PAGE analysis of salt treated maize leaf tissue revealed appearance of one protein band (approx. 73 kD) in samples incubated with ≥50 mM NaCl compared to control. Protein identification performed with the Mascot search engine in NCBI database indicated extensive homology of this protein with chloroplast heat shock protein 70 of Cenchrus americanus (Protein score: 295), hypothetical proteins SELMODRAFT_267815 of Selaginella moellendorffii (Protein score: 125), VITISV_000728 of Vitis vinifera (Protein score: 118) and SELMODRAFT_230659 of Selaginella moellendorffii (Protein score: 51). The results revealed that the dark grown maize leaf segments exhibit high degree of stress due to NaCl treatment, which affects the biochemical parameters governing the metabolic activities of the leaf tissue. Further, the stress induced proteins are being synthesized in leaf tissue in response to salt stress.
Category: Biochemistry

[32733] viXra:1912.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:07:48

Study of Chorioamnionitis Among Women with Preterm Birth at Ruhengeri Referral Hospital

Authors: Callixte Yadufashije, Jasmine Umugwaneza, Cedrick Izere, Emmanuel Munyeshyaka, Thierry Habyarimana
Comments: 8 Pages.

Background: Chorioamnionitis is the association of microorganisms infection in fetal membrane, placental membrane and amniotic fluid. About 2 to 4% of chorioamnionitis occurs in full-term deliveries, but higher than this prevalence in preterm birth. Objectives: The objective of this study was to detect the most dominant bacteria of chorioamnionitis and evaluate correlation of the presence of microorganisms infection in placental membrane, fetal membrane and amniotic fluids in women with preterm birth. Methods: It was cross section study where 20 women with preterm premature rupture of membrane, premature rupture of membrane or preterm birth. By caesarean section or without caesarean section with a group of control of 10 women with term delivery. After delivery immediately the samples swab of amniotic fluid, fetal membrane and placenta membrane sample were placed in separate sterile container (swabs Stuart plastic) in the hospital, where it was stored at temperatures ranging between 8oC-20oC. Culture technique, gram staining and biochemical test were used to identify the microorganisms in this study at INES-Ruhengeri Microbiology laboratory. At the Ruhengeri Referral Hospital and analyzed according to INES Microbiology Laboratory standard operating procedures. Results: in 20 women with preterm birth, the most dominant mircoroganism was yeast 28.4% and mould 28.4%, other infections were caused by Escherichia coli, with 9.3%, Klebsiella species with 3.7%, Streptococcus species with 9.3%, Staphylococcus species with 9.3%, Candida albican with 11.7%. Those microorganisms show the association in fetal membrane, placenta membrane and amniotic fluid, of all women suspected to have chorioamnionitis. In 10 samples of control group, for women with term birth, same microorganisms were found like in fetal membrane were (Staphylococcus species 11%, mould 33%, and Yeast 56%), in placenta membrane were (Staphylococcus species 20%, mould 30%, Yeast 50%) and Amniotic fluid were (Staphylococcus species 0%, mould 33%, Yeast 67%). Conclusion: Chorioamnionitis can be in women with preterm birth or with term birth, untreated microorganism infections will cause a big problem of chorioamnionitis in pregnant women this will conduct to preterm morbidity and mortality.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[32732] viXra:1912.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:09:43

Artificial Neural Network (Ann) and Regression Model for Predicting the Albumin to Globulin (A/g) Ratio in a Serum Protein Electrophoresis Test

Authors: Akshansh Mishra
Comments: 10 Pages.

Multiple myeloma affects the several parts of bodies such as the spine, skull, pelvis and ribs. The cause of multiple myeloma is not known properly. The poor prognoses is associated with most cancers creates a sense of urgency for the brains behind healthcare Artificial Intelligence (AI) research. AI is able to detect cancer and other diseases earlier than possible through standard diagnostic methods, which could be lifesaving for future patients. The main objective of the research paper is to predict the Albumin to Globulin (A/G) ratio obtained by the electrophoresis test by developing regression model and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model. The results obtained showed that the Mean Square Error (MSE) obtained by ANN model is less than the MSE obtained by the regression model.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[32731] viXra:1912.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:11:26

Susceptibility of Common Weeds and Cultivated Crops in Major Maize Growing Agroecological Zones of Uganda to Viruses Causing Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease

Authors: Mudde, B., Miano D. W., Olubayo, F. M., Asea, G., Kilalo, D.c., Kwemoi, D. B., Adriko, J., Ssekiwoko, F., Male, A., Kiggundu, A.
Comments: 14 Pages.

Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) disease is caused when maize plants become coinfected with Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and potyviruses notably Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV). Apart from maize, little is known about susceptibility of weed species and cultivated crop species usually growing in proximity with maize to MLN viruses in Uganda. The common weeds and crop plants were mechanically inoculated with combined sap from MCMV and SCMV infected maize plants. Samples were tested for MLN causing viruses by Double Antibody Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (DAS-ELISA) and Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). The weeds that were susceptibility to MCMV were Digitaria abyssinica, Eleusine africana and Roetboellia cochinchinensis; while those susceptible to SCMV were Pennisetum purpureum, Panicum maximum and Roetboellia cochinchinensis. The cultivated crops were susceptible only to MCMV and included cassava (Manihot esculenta), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Common weeds and cultivated crops growing close to maize in Uganda have differential susceptibility to MLN causing viruses and can act as reservoirs of MLN causing viruses. It is critical to identify non MLN hosts in cultivated crops for crop rotation and early weeding to reduce on MLN virus inoculum in cropping systems.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[32730] viXra:1912.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:13:08

Effect of Dietary Substitution of Maize Meal with Finger Millet Meal on Fat Deposition on Broiler Meat

Authors: Ndlovu, N., Usai, T., Usai, E., Manhokwe, S.
Comments: 9 Pages.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a finger millet-based broiler feed on the meat quality of chicken. Proximate nutrient composition was analyzed on the finger millet meal and a feed formulated with finger millet as the main energy source. The feed was formulated on percent crude protein (CP) basis using Pearson square method. An experiment was designed and conducted on Ross Hybrid chickens to determine the effect of the feed on lean tissue development. A two-tailed t-test statistical analysis was conducted at a significance level of 5% to determine the effect of the feed on fat deposition and lean tissue development in broiler muscle. The finger millet feed increased mean lean tissue mass by 3.47%. This study showed that use of finger millet feed reduced the fat deposition and favored protein deposition in broiler muscle (increased leanness). This study also showed that finger millet feed significantly enhanced broiler growth performance. We concluded that finger millet has the potential to replace maize meal in broiler feed formulation in order to produce lean and healthier meat for consumers.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[32729] viXra:1912.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:14:57

Phylogenetic and Morphological Diversity of Culturable Cyanobacteria from Lake Magadi in Kenya

Authors: Ngetha Edwin, Julia Khayeli Akhwale, Romano Mwirichia
Comments: 8 Pages.

Lake Magadi is an alkaline saline Lake in Kenya, which lies on the Great Eastern Rift valley. Although the lake is characterized by extremes of salt, pH and temperature, it supports diverse groups of cyanobacteria. In this study, we used different media to isolate novel groups of cyanobacteria. We recovered 11 isolates affiliated to the orders Chroococcales, Oscillatoriales, Pleurocapsales and Nostocales. Isolates affiliated to Chroococcidiopsis species had similarity values below 90% to currently characterized taxa indicating that these could be completely new phylotypes. This taxon has not been isolated before from the soda lake indicating the power of molecular techniques in identifying novel cyanobacterial taxa. Only two of the recovered isolates had 99% similarity to known organisms. Previous studies have mainly relied on microscopic examination and identification, which can lead to misidentification and subsequent assignment of an organism to the wrong taxon. The recovered isolates are a useful resource of more studies on taxonomy and secondary metabolite production.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[32728] viXra:1912.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:16:46

Comparative Growth and Survival Performance of Sea Cucumber (Holothuria Scabra) in co-Cultured Pen System with Commercial Macroalgae

Authors: Muumin I. Hamad, Augustine W. Mwandya, Renalda S. Munubi, Sebastian Chenyambuga, Heiromin A. Lamtane.
Comments: 10 Pages.

Mariculture has recently been adopted in many parts of coastal East Africa as a source of income and employment to many women and heartbroken fishermen who are the main victim of dwindling wild stock of aquatic resources. The sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra) has for long time been collected and sold as export marine product. Macroalgae (Eucheuma denticulatum and Kappaphycus alvarezii) are the common cultured seaweed species that provide hope for future increase in mariculture production. An experiment was conducted along the intertidal lagoon of Unguja Ukuu village in Zanzibar to assess the survival and growth performance of sea cucumber (H. scabra) in two separate pens under co-cultured systems with E. denticulatum and K. alvarezii. Juvenile sea cucumber H. scabra with mean weight (± se) of 67.18 ± 2.06 were integrated with the two common commercial seaweed in pen system for 10 weeks. The results revealed that the growth rate and survival of H. scabra, E. denticulatum and K. alvarezii were better under integration system. The growth of H. scabra was higher (1.038 gd-1) in pen systems co-cultured with K. alvarezii compared to 0.898 gd-1 in pen systems co-culture with E. denticulatum. Survival rate of H. scabra was higher (76%) in the pen systems co-cultured with E. denticulatum compared to that (70%) observed in pen systems co-cultured with K. alvarezii. The results suggest that the best integration of sea cucumber and macroalgae is between H. scabra and K. alvarezii. However, reliable source of H. scabra juvenile is essential for the future expansion of pen co-culture system.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[32727] viXra:1912.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:17:52

Influence of Mangrove Deforestation and Land Use Change on Trophic Organization of Fish Assemblages in Creek Systems

Authors: Augustine W. Mwandya
Comments: 15 Pages.

The impacts of human related activities on trophic structure of mangrove associated fish species, was investigated by sampling fish in mangrove creeks. Trophic organization and stable isotope signatures (δ13C and δ15N) of fish in undisturbed mangrove creeks were compared with clear-cut areas of mangrove and reservoirs for saltworks and fish farms constructed after mangrove clearing. Results showed significantly higher densities, species numbers, diversity (H’) and numbers of trophic groups in undisturbed sites compared to disturbed sites. Overall, omnivorous fish comprised the most abundant feeding guild, which dominated in the cleared sites followed in order by the uncleared sites and reservoirs. The zoobenthivores/piscivores was the most diverse group, with the highest species richness in the undisturbed areas. Multivariate analysis showed that assemblage structure of omnivores in the reservoirs was separated from those in uncleared and cleared sites, while zoobenthivores/piscivores differed between uncleared sites and disturbed areas. Stable isotope ratios of δ13C and δ15N values in fish muscles indicated significant diet shifts between undisturbed and disturbed mangrove creek systems, although the effects were species-specific. The findings suggest that mangrove deforestation combined with land-use changes, has a greater impact on the trophic structure of fish in mangrove creeks than mangrove deforestation only.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[32726] viXra:1912.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:19:20

Determination Prevalence of Cymothoid Parasite Fish Families in Iwofe (Port Harcourt) Rivers State

Authors: Gloria Wonodi, Ugbomeh A.P., Gabriel U.U.
Comments: 10 Pages.

The aim of this study is to provide information on the morphology of the Cymothoid parasites of Haemulidae and Elopidae from Iwofe in Port Harcourt determine physico chemical parameter of study area. To determine the percentage prevalence of Cymothoid parasite of both fish families in the study area. To determine the species of the Cymothoid parasite in the study area. To compare the structure and morphology of the different life stages of the Cymothoids. A total of seventy six (76) fishes from Iwofe landing site were examined, forty six (46) fishes were infected with a prevalence of 68%, Pomadasys perotetei had (96.7%), Pomadasys jubelini had (57.1%), Clarias arius had (50%) and none was also isolated from Mugil curema. During the period of study no Elopidae was found in this station, samples were obtained only from Haemulidae. The fishermen said they do not always have that catch because of the kind of net they use in fishing the morphology of the Cymothoid parasites of Haemulidae and Elopidae and the sampling sites was Iwofe water side . The isolated parasite that was collected was Cymothoid parasites and they Cymothoid sodwana, Cymothoid pleibeia, Cymothoid spp1, Cymothoid spp2, Nerocila acuminata, Nerocila lomatia and Nerocila orbignyi. The physical chemical parameters of the water was analyzed and the result showed that there was a significant difference in salinity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and Electrical Conductivity (EC) across the sampling stations. Pomadasyidae had a higher prevalence of isopods than the other fish hosts and more than one type of parasite was found in the mouth while Elopidae had the parasite on their fins and body wall and none was recorded in the mouth. The cephalon, pereomeres, pleomeres, pleotelson, eyes and marsupium was different in the Cymothoids studied. The parasite also affected the condition of the fish.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[32725] viXra:1912.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 06:20:24

Detection of Helicobacter Pylori Among Gastritis Patients Attending Nemba District Hospital

Authors: Callixte Yadufashije, Ange Yvette Uwitonze, Yvonne Manizabayo, Thierry Habyarimana
Comments: 8 Pages.

Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a small, spiral-shaped bacterium that lives in the surface of the stomach and duodenum. More than half of the world’s population is colonized with H. pylori in the gastric mucosa which is the major cause of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer and also the most important etiological factor responsible for the duodenal and gastric ulcer and has an important role in the pathogenesis leading to gastric cancer. Objectives: The objectives of this study was to determine the prevalence of H. pylori among gastritis patients at Nemba district hospital, to compare sex prevalence level of H. pylori among gastritis patients and determine the prevalence of H. pylori among gastritis patients according to the age of gastritis patients. Methods: This study involved 140 patients with gastritis who attended Nemba district hospital from August to October 2018. The samples were collected and H. pylori rapid test strip was performed for all patients to diagnose H. pylori among gastritis patients. Results: Findings of the study showed that the prevalence of H. pylori infection was found to be significantly high among female participants than male participants. Despite high prevalence in females, the findings showed that there was no statistical significance of sex with H. pylori infection (χ2 = 0.6 and p > 0.05, p = 0.1). On basis of age, the prevalence of H. pylori infection was found to be high among participants and the prevalence increase between young age and old age. Results show that there was statistical significance between age and H. pylori infection with χ2 = 1.2 and p > 0.05, p = 0.04. the group of individuals with that ≥ 45 years old were more affected compared to other age groups and the prevalence of H. pylori infection was increased in older patients than younger patients. Our study showed an overall prevalence of H. pylori among gastritis patients was (45.7% n = 140). Conclusion: H. pylori infection is terrible burden of public health and affect people of all age and sex. H. pylori infection was significantly high in females and significance was found in age group of patients. Number of people are carrier of this terrible bacterium, thus hospitals are recommended to carry out early diagnosis to avoid later complication of infection.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[32724] viXra:1912.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 07:22:50

The Cosmological Redshift Falsifies Special Relativity

Authors: Dino Bruniera
Comments: The file contains two versions of the paper: English, pages 1-2 and Italian, pages 3-4

The observations show that the apparent brightness of the celestial objects with high redshift, is lower than that expected, that is calculated considering the cosmological redshift as an indicator of the expansion of space. Which shows, of course, that it cannot be this indicator. So, since Special Relativity is compatible with the cosmological redshift only if it indicates the expansion of space, the proof that it is not so, falsifies Special Relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32723] viXra:1912.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 09:25:07

Quantum Matrix Product Operators

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

In quantum physics, scrambling is the dispersal of quantum information across a complex quantum system, such as chaotic quantum many-body systems. [28] At the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, researchers have realized the swap of electron spins between distant quantum dots. [27] A quantum circuit that can unambiguously test for information scrambling in an experiment could help verify the calculations of quantum computers and even shed more light on what happens to quantum information when it falls into a black hole. [26] Researchers at the University of Florence and Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, in Italy, have recently proved that the invasiveness of quantum measurements might not always be detrimental. [25] Now, researchers in the UK and Israel have created miniscule engines within a block of synthetic diamond, and have shown that electronic superposition can boost their power beyond that of classical devices. [24] In the latest wrinkle to be discovered in cubic boron arsenide, the unusual material contradicts the traditional rules that govern heat conduction, according to a new report by Boston College researchers in today's edition of the journal Nature Communications. [23] Beyond the beauty of this phenomenon, which connects heating processes to topology through an elegant quantization law, the results reported in this work designate heating measurements as a powerful and universal probe for exotic states of matter. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32722] viXra:1912.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 09:50:07

Cardiac Interferometry Diagnose

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 78 Pages.

A new imaging technique developed by Biwei Yin and interdisciplinary researchers at the Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School in the U.S., provides resolution at the subcellular-level to image the heart's vascular system. [47] The key to ghost imaging is to use two or more correlated beams of particles. [46] Physicists at the University of Alberta in Canada have developed a new way to build quantum memories, a method for storing delicate quantum information encoded into pulses of light. [45] Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38]
Category: Physics of Biology

[32721] viXra:1912.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 11:50:41

Zeros of the Riemann Zeta Function Within the Critical Strip and Off the Critical Line

Authors: Jonathan W. Tooker
Comments: 22 Pages. 1 color figure

In a recent paper, the author demonstrated the existence of real numbers in the neighborhood of infinity. It was shown that the Riemann zeta function has non-trivial zeros in the neighborhood of infinity but none of those zeros lie within the critical strip. While the Riemann hypothesis only asks about non-trivial zeros off the critical line, it is also an open question of interest whether or not there are any zeros off the critical line yet still within the critical strip. In this paper, we show that the Riemann zeta function does have non-trivial zeros of this variety. The method used to prove the main theorem is only the ordinary analysis of holomorphic functions. After giving a brief review of numbers in the neighborhood of infinity, we use Robinson's non-standard analysis and Eulerian infinitesimal analysis to examine the behavior of zeta on an infinitesimal neighborhood of the north pole of the Riemann sphere. After developing the most relevant features via infinitesimal analysis, we will proceed to prove the main result via standard analysis on the Cartesian complex plane without reference to infinitesimals.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[32720] viXra:1912.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 13:53:35

3n+1 Problem for a Number Which Never Land

Authors: BOUARFAOUI Saïd
Comments: 8 Pages. Some studies on the 3n+1 problem

In the present paper, we study the 3n+1 problem to know if there is a theoretical number such as the number never land on the cycle {4;2;1}and grows continually.We will specify the general formula such as the number of uneven steps (3��+1)and even steps (��/2)are equals.We want to know also the uneven number form 2^��+2^0 and its composition during ��uneven (3��+1)and even steps (��/2).The composition number 2��+20will be viewed in two ways :1. When the powers which compose the numbers are expanded. We will recognize the Pascal’s triangle.2. When the powers which compose the numbers are agglutinate. We will recognize (3^��) in base 2.
Category: Number Theory

[32719] viXra:1912.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 14:14:55

Effective Asteroid Deflection Through Impulsive Influence by the Use of a High-Thrust Plasma-Propulsion Driven Platform

Authors: Danny Kirmse
Comments: 5 Pages.

One of the most significant threats from outer space is a massive celestial object with a path crossing the earth’s solar orbit. It is obvious; from a statistic point of view such an event will be rather unlikely. But it can happen, and the consequences would be dramatic. A threat is always scaled by probability and effect. And in sum it is worth to be prepared, when the probability may be low but the potential expected effect is an extensive destruction of human habitat. In general, there are two different opportunities to impact an asteroid and its orbit. One way is to try to destroy the whole asteroid by conventional or even nuclear explosives. But this procedure involves the risk that the number and sizes of the resulting pieces of the asteroid and their trajectories are almost not calculable. Therefore, it is unpredictable if one is decreasing the risk of an earth impact or even increasing it. The other way is to deflect the orbit of the asteroid and to prevent hereby a crossing with the solar orbit of the earth. Without assessing the chance of success, it seems clear that the approach of deflecting will at least not increase the threat compared with the one of destruction.
Category: Classical Physics

[32718] viXra:1912.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 14:28:34

Refutation of Abstract Argumentation and the Rational Man

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate the rational man in abstract argumentation. It is not tautologous, hence refuting its bounded rationality in choice. This forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[32717] viXra:1912.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 14:49:00

On the Ramanujan’s Equations Applied to Various Sectors of Particle Physics and Cosmology: New Possible Mathematical Connections. Vii

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 100 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed further Ramanujan formulas and described new possible mathematical connections with some sectors of Particle Physics and Cosmology
Category: Mathematical Physics

[32716] viXra:1912.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 16:04:37

Kryptos - Hidden Hill Cipher

Authors: Robert Mereau
Comments: 23 Pages.

This paper is intended to provide support for those working to solve Kryptos. The hope is that the content, be it in part or complete, contains novel discoveries and mechanics that can assist the greater communities development of new approaches.
Category: General Mathematics

[32715] viXra:1912.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-01 21:06:56

Refutation of Axiomatisability of the Class of Monolithic Groups in Nilpotent Groups

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate main theorem of the paper which is not tautologous, refuting the conjecture of axiomatisability of the class of monolithic groups in a variety of nilpotent groups. This forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[32714] viXra:1912.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-01 22:55:31

Electric Field and Divergence Theorem

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages. Note that the author does not read Disqus comments here, please respond by email. Including a list of publications is also a healthy gesture.

The divergence theorem states that the surface integral of the flux is equal to the volume integral of the divergence of the flux. This is not true if the volume integral is zero due to the inverse square law. One example is the electric field flux described by Coulomb's law. The divergence of the electric flux is zero. Another example is the gravitational force. Consequently, Gauss's flux theorem is not applicable to the divergence of the electric field.
Category: Classical Physics

[32713] viXra:1912.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-01 23:30:36

Le Politique le Vrai Projet Militaire

Authors: Rachid ELAÏDI
Comments: 105 Pages.

Egypte, Soudan, Algéeie...en est une illustration de projet militaire dont le politique est l'élement à définir. il s'agit d'un dialogue politique d'un autre temps
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[32712] viXra:1912.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 01:20:45

Agriculture 4.0

Authors: Diego Liberati
Comments: 3 Pages.

principles and actions mutuated from Industry 4.0 are trensposed and implemented to agriculture
Category: Economics and Finance

[32711] viXra:1912.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 02:09:15

Critical Mass (The End of General Relativity)

Authors: Matthew Taylor
Comments: 2 Pages. Original work. All rights reserved.

Having dispatched multiple, significant confirmations of General Relativity, it’s time to find out what went wrong and, if possible, fix it. (Spoiler: It can’t be fixed.)
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32710] viXra:1912.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 02:51:54

Neutrino Experiments

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

If it turns out that neutrinos and antineutrinos oscillate in a different way from one another, this may partially account for the present-day matter–antimatter imbalance. [21] Studying this really interesting particle that's all around us, and yet is so hard to measure, that could hold the key to understanding why we're here at all, is exciting—and I get to do this for a living," says Mauger. [20] In the Standard Model of particle physics, elementary particles acquire their masses by interacting with the Higgs field. This process is governed by a delicate mechanism: electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB). [19]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[32709] viXra:1912.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 05:50:40

Kareem's Radiation

Authors: Kareem Muhammad
Comments: 2 Pages.

derive the formula which calculate the radiation power of 1 mole of a sodium atoms due to the earth motion around sun
Category: Classical Physics

[32708] viXra:1912.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 07:26:24

Nanoscale Solids and Liquids

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

How a liquid interacts with the surface of a solid is important in batteries and fuel cells, chemical production, corrosion phenomena, and many biological processes. [39] With international collaboration, researchers at Aalto University have now developed a nanosized amplifier to help light signals propagate through microchips. [38] Physicists at the Kastler Brossel Laboratory in Paris have reached a milestone in the combination of cold atoms and nanophotonics. [37]
Category: Condensed Matter

[32707] viXra:1912.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 07:45:15

Controlling Solids with Acoustic Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Physicists from Switzerland, Germany, and France have found that large-amplitude acoustic waves, launched by ultrashort laser pulses, can dynamically manipulate the optical response of semiconductors. [28] Scientists at Princeton University in the US have discovered that a material known as a Weaire-Phelan foam can act as an optical filter. [27] Using X-ray laser technology, a team led by researchers of the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI has recorded one of the fastest processes in biology. [26] A Virginia Commonwealth University researcher has developed a procedure for identifying the source of cells present in a forensic biological sample that could change how cell types are identified in samples across numerous industries. [25]
Category: Condensed Matter

[32706] viXra:1912.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-01 10:18:48

Лекция презентация: "Механизм и таблицы периодизации химических элементов" (новая система периодизации атомов)

Authors: Райков Александр Геннадьевич
Comments: 11 Pages. Лекция презентация является фрагментом печатного издания "Том Третий"

Настоящее просветительское издание подготовлено для ознакомления широких кругов общественности и научного сообщества с новой системой периодизации химических элементов на основе универсального и всеобъемлющего механизма (закона) причинно-следственной периодичности возникновения, развития и угасания качественно-количественных форм и процессов материи. Периодизация химических элементов (атомов) выполнена на основе разработанного автором принципиально нового операционно-аналитического (математического) аппарата философии диалектического материализма. Лекция презентация является фрагментом печатного издания "Том Третий"
Category: Chemistry

[32705] viXra:1912.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-01 12:35:41

Cosmological Redshift of the Universe

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Cosmological Redshift has typically been calculated an effect of expansion of the universe. Currently there is debate about why the Hubble constant is different depending on the method being used to calculate the Hubble constant. This paper proposes that there are at least three different contributing factors to the cosmological redshift. These are radial redshift for the acceleration of matter in the universe, transverse redshift for the spinning of the universe, and gravitational blue shift for gravitational affects on cosmological light. There are also local affects. Perhaps our area of the universe has a gravitationally bound cosmic structure, and we observe other gravitational bound. There may also be other contributions to the gravitational redshift of the universe. There may be some difficulty in calculating cosmological redshift, because we really don’t know where in the universe we really are.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[32704] viXra:1912.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-01 15:49:48

Evidence for the Speed Over the Speed of Light is Equal to Imaginary Quantity

Authors: Kareem Muhammad
Comments: 2 Pages.

evidence For the speed over the speed of light is equal to imaginary quantity by the geometry of conic sections
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[32703] viXra:1912.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-01 16:22:06

QUANTIVITY The Unified Theory of Everything Part 1: Cosmological Constants as Quantized Spacetime Parameters, Vacuum Mass/Energy, and Partial Spacetime Anatomy

Authors: Sam Nassiri
Comments: 9 Pages.

Quantivity covers the fundamental concepts due to high-energy being explored in Special Relativity(SR), General Relativity(GR) Quantum Mechanics (QM) as well as String Theory (ST), and eventually reconciles them. Through our unique reverse engineering approach, we have got the big picture, we have conceptually unraveled the glorious grand design of the Universe. Our theory strongly supports the Holographic model of the universe. We claim that all the objects measurements might be turned into dimensionless frequencies, referred by us as q (or q factor), by using relevant cosmological units. It is further postulated that nature uses the same approach for objects measurements, so these q factors are compatible with each other and are capable of seamlessly being mixed with each other in any desired equation. Additionally, we strongly confirm the existence of the hidden world as mentioned in the literature, which simultaneously communicates with our visible world. While SR and GR address our visible world, and QM addresses the hidden world, QUANTIVITY addresses both. We have a comprehensive set of findings that will be published in multiple articles. In this article, as the first article of series of our articles, we concentrate on showing that the Spacetime is quantized, by deriving its grain size, rigorously, employing the previously known constants, which then consequently reveals its inverse as the number of Spacetime grains. Going into deeper discussions, we will show that, this fixed expansion of Spacetime is due to a special built-in mechanism that inflated its size vertically, due to high builtin velocity (i.e., c) and small rest mass (i.e., vacuum pos/neg masses), causing the Spacetime excitation with high frequency (coined by us as qmax, see Fig. 1). Additionally, said Spacetime inflation has caused a series of resource shortages, making objects to obey a resource sharing scheme for resources including energy, mass, space, and time. This concept might be considered as the propagation of resources, in the (vertical) Time, additional to their propagation in the (horizontal) Space. The value of this intrinsic qmax with the value of its inverse partner (qmin, as a pair of dimensionless constants) is the glorious set of numbers: 10±38.6308177. This pair behaves similar to the parameters of a balloon, wherein the size of its inflated space competes with its thickness. Further, we show that this pair of constants are being used everywhere as ultimate sizes, as well as addressing the following issues: (1) the long being sought for Cosmological Constant, (2) the ratio between the Strong Force and the Gravitational Force, (3), and the reason behind the so-called Gravity leak and/or possibly the presence of Dark Matter/Energy. Additionally, in this and our future articles we make interesting conclusions, including a postulate stating that length and space (after redefinition of space) are inverses of each other, and the time dilation, as well as the space dilation (i.e., the length contraction), lead to extreme light motion traversing the whole Spacetime almost instantly, without violating the SR’s 2nd postulate.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32702] viXra:1912.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-01 17:34:29

On Four Velocity and Four Momentum

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 6 Pages.

We derive in this article that the four dot product between two arbitrary velocities is less than the square of the speed of light in vacuum and the product of two four momenta is less than the product of the two masses involved and the square of the speed of light[in vacuuo].Based on these results we strive to show a contradiction. Flat spacetime has been considered.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32701] viXra:1912.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-01 01:47:59

Gravitational Waves Debunked

Authors: Matthew Taylor
Comments: 2 Pages. Original work. All rights reserved.

Applying the Natural Mechanics model (Taylor M 2019 Natural Mechanics http://vixra.org/abs/1911.0294) to describe the decay of Binary quasar systems - necessary to forge a consensus among astrophysicists
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32700] viXra:1912.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-01 02:25:25

The Equation of a Wave in Space of the Absolute Frame of Reference Уравнение волны в пространстве АСО

Authors: Valery Timin
Comments: timinva@yandex.ru, 14 pages in Russian

This work is devoted to the equations of propagation of harmonic waves in one of the ISOS of space–time, which can be taken as ASO for waves. The equations of wave propagation in the case of infinite, dimensionless spaces, cyclic and mixed spaces are derived. A practical physical model for the application (use) of the equations is a fixed continuous (air, liquid, three–dimensional) medium in which the wave propagates, and where this "continuous" me-dium is located can be taken as an empty absolute Galilean space. In itself, this medium is not an ab-solute inertial frame of reference, but for propagating waves as independent entities when embedded in Galilean space, it is a real Galilean AISO. A wave in a medium in Galilean space can propagate at only one particular speed – the speed of sound. Once the waves are defined as entities, they can be considered separately from its basis, to forget about the existence of the material basis for its exist-ence, leaving only the essential points of this fact. In this case, the wave as an independent object it-self determines the AISO. Galilean space with embedded AISO allows the determination of aIso pa-rameters using wave standards. Данная работа посвящена уравнениям распространения гармонических волн в одном из ИСО пространства–времени, которое можно принять как АСО для волн. Выведены уравнения распространения волн в случае бесконечных, неограниченных размерами пространств, цикли-ческих и смешанных пространств. Практической физической моделью для применения (использования) уравнений является неподвижная сплошная (воздушная, жидкая, трердая) среда, в которой распространяется вол-на, а то, где находится эта "сплошная" среда, можно принять как пустое абсолютное галилеево пространство. Само по себе эта среда не является абсолютной инерциальной системой отсче-та, но для распространяющихся волн как самостоятельных сущностей при вложении в гали-леево пространство это настоящее галилеево АИСО. Волна в среде в галилеевом пространстве может распространяться только с одной определенной скоростью – скоростью звука. После того, как определены волны как сущности, их можно рассматривать отдельно от ее основы, забыть о существовании материальной основы для ее существования, оставив только сущест-венные моменты этого факта. В этом случае волна как самостоятельный объект само опреде-ляет АИСО. Галилеево пространство с вложенной в нее АИСО допускает определение пара-метров АИСО с использованием волновых эталонов.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32699] viXra:1912.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-01 02:27:47

Power Transmission Via Wire Antennas Inside Metal Case

Authors: Xiaodong Liu, Qichang Liang, Yu Liang
Comments: 5 Pages.

A power transfer system is designed with wire antennas inside a metal case. There are two wire antennas namely transmitter and receiver. The metal case is connected to the ground and it serves as a third electrode between transmitter and receiver. The metal case also shields the radiation from antennas to outer space. The reflected impedance to the transmitter is reduced due to the interference with the metal case.
Category: Classical Physics

[32698] viXra:1912.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-01 03:03:07

Searching for Waves in the Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations - The Adventure

Authors: Aubery D.
Comments: 28 Pages.

This article traces the journey of discovery undertaken to search for wave phenomena in the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. From the early days of interest in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for consulting purposes, and the use of various commercial solvers eventually leading to research programs, at a number of universities, spanning a number of years. It reviews research programs at Dortmund University (Dortmund, Germany), and a research program that began during post-graduate study at Chulalongkorn University (Bangkok, Thailand). During the latter, it was noticed that flow solutions became unstable when certain combinations of parameters were used - especially when real-life density and viscosity were used. Clarity was needed. It was as though a bridge was extending from the present into a misty distant country. Tensor calculus became an essential ally in order to understand the macro nature of the NS Equations, and to place them firmly into the family of wave equations. The program continued in private for some 15 years, with the occasional presentation of findings at conferences, and a blog. In recent months major breakthroughs have been made, and now the evidence for wave phenomena is presented openly.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[32697] viXra:1912.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-01 03:18:51

Nullification of Relativity Theory Via the Sufficiency of the Galilean Velocity Transformation

Authors: John Lawrence Duval
Comments: 2 Pages.

If Relativity Theory is wrong, the error should be found at the very beginning of its derivation. This work does just that.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32696] viXra:1912.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-01 07:44:01

Refutation of the Quaternion Based on Its Implication Truth Table

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate the standard definition of the quaternion as four equations to produce its multiplication table. We then derive the implication table for the quaternion which is not tautologous, and hence refutes the quaternion. This result forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Algebra

[32695] viXra:1912.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-01 08:14:59

On the Ramanujan’s Equations Applied to Various Sectors of Particle Physics and Cosmology: New Possible Mathematical Connections. vi

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 136 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed further Ramanujan formulas and described new possible mathematical connections with some sectors of Particle Physics and Cosmology
Category: Mathematical Physics

[32694] viXra:1911.0528 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-30 20:13:21

Http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1983apj...271....9j

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Our universe appears to be 13.8 billion years old, or at least have an age. But the author sees evidence that the universe is infinitely old, but continually has new matter created and old matter destroyed. How could such a mechanism exist? A universe that appears to continually expand could be part of this mechanism. This paper proposes that there is a mechanism that causes this appearance of expansion and it all takes place in a spinning sphere universe that is infinitely old, but it always rejuvenates. This continuous creation of matter has been proposed before [4]. The difference in this paper is that the universe never changes size, and matter is always continuously destroyed as well.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[32693] viXra:1911.0527 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-30 09:13:10

Quantum Dot Lasers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

(NTU Singapore) have developed a way to make Colloidal Quantum Dots produce laser light with the help of an electric field. [29] University of Toronto Engineering researchers have combined two emerging technologies for next-generation solar power-and discovered that each one helps stabilize the other. [28] Photoresponsive flash memories made from organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) that can be quickly erased using just light might find use in a host of applications, including flexible imaging circuits, infra-red sensing memories and multibit-storage memory cells. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32692] viXra:1911.0526 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-30 09:52:47

Anti-Gravity, a Mechanism for the Appearance of an Expanding Universe in a Spinning Sphere Universe

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Our universe appears to be expanding away from every point in the universe. The measurements of this phenomena is seen in the red-shifting of light. No mechanism for this expansion has been proven. This paper proposes that there is a mechanism that causes this expansion and it all takes place in a spinning sphere universe that is infinitely old, but it always rejuvenates.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[32691] viXra:1911.0525 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-30 10:17:22

II.La Conjetura de Collatz (continuación).

Authors: Miguel Cerdá Bennassar
Comments: 7 Pages.

Este escrito es continuación del publicado en Agosto 2019 con título "LA CONJETURA DE COLLATZ. Orden y armonía en los números de las secuencias".
Category: Number Theory

[32690] viXra:1911.0523 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-30 10:59:17

Quantum Dots Without Heavy Metals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

A team at Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology has announced that they have improved quantum dot (QD) technology for use in large displays by developing QDs that are both more efficient and have no heavy metals. [30] Scientists from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) have developed a way to make Colloidal Quantum Dots produce laser light with the help of an electric field. [29] University of Toronto Engineering researchers have combined two emerging technologies for next-generation solar power-and discovered that each one helps stabilize the other. [28] Photoresponsive flash memories made from organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) that can be quickly erased using just light might find use in a host of applications, including flexible imaging circuits, infra-red sensing memories and multibit-storage memory cells. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32689] viXra:1911.0522 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-30 11:23:25

Electro-Optical Computing Processors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 76 Pages.

The first ever integrated nanoscale device which can be programmed with either photons or electrons has been developed by scientists in Harish Bhaskaran's Advanced Nanoscale Engineering research group at the University of Oxford. [47] So far, techniques for computing Hamiltonian eigenstates on quantum computers have been primarily based on phase estimation or variational algorithms, which are designed to approximate the lowest energy eigenstate (i.e., ground state) and a number of excited states. [46] Physicists at the University of Innsbruck are proposing a new model that could demonstrate the supremacy of quantum computers over classical supercomputers in solving optimization problems. [45] Using data from the CMS experiment there, the researchers studied the entropy resulting from entanglement within the proton. [44] A German-Austrian research team is now presenting the largest entangled quantum register of individually controllable systems to date, consisting of a total of 20 quantum bits. [43] Neill is lead author of the group's new paper, "A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits," now published in the journal Science. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41] Physical experiments were performed by Schiffer's team at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32688] viXra:1911.0521 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-30 12:37:24

Perovskite Nanocrystals Durability

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Perovskite nanocrystals hold promise for improving a wide variety of optoelectronic devices-from lasers to light emitting diodes (LEDs)-but problems with their durability still limit the material's broad commercial use. [30] KU Leuven researchers from the Roeffaers Lab and the Hofkens Group have now put forward a very promising direct X-ray detector design, based on a rapidly emerging halide perovskite semiconductor, with chemical formula Cs2AgBiBr6. [29] Physicists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have proven that incoming light causes the electrons in warm perovskites to rotate, thus influencing the direction of the flow of electrical current. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Condensed Matter

[32687] viXra:1911.0520 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-30 13:08:24

Microneedle Reversible Contraception

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

In an effort to increase access to long-acting contraception, a US-based research team has developed a microneedle patch that slowly releases contraceptive hormone for more than a month, and generates no biohazardous sharps waste (Science Advances 10.1126/sciadv.aaw8145). [26] Researchers at the UPV/EHU-University of the Basque Country have developed a biomedical device for cell immune-isolation (microcapsules) with luminescence for in vivo tracking. [25] Using x-rays to reveal the atomic-scale 3-D structures of proteins has led to countless advances in understanding how these molecules work in bacteria, viruses, plants, and humans—and has guided the development of precision drugs to combat diseases such as cancer and AIDS. [24]
Category: Physics of Biology

[32686] viXra:1911.0519 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-30 13:59:45

Scratching Perovskite Surface

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

"These perovskite surfaces are much more dynamic than we previously anticipated," said Stecker. [31] Perovskite nanocrystals hold promise for improving a wide variety of optoelectronic devices—from lasers to light emitting diodes (LEDs) - but problems with their durability still limit the material's broad commercial use. [30] KU Leuven researchers from the Roeffaers Lab and the Hofkens Group have now put forward a very promising direct X-ray detector design, based on a rapidly emerging halide perovskite semiconductor, with chemical formula Cs2AgBiBr6. [29] Physicists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have proven that incoming light causes the electrons in warm perovskites to rotate, thus influencing the direction of the flow of electrical current. [28]
Category: Condensed Matter

[32685] viXra:1911.0518 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-30 15:25:52

Compressive Analysis and the Future for Privacy

Authors: Suyash Shandilya
Comments: Pages. THIS WORK IS CURRENTLY UNDER PROGRESS

Compressive analysis is the name given to the family of techniques that map raw data to their smaller representation. Largely, this includes data compression, data encoding, data encryption, and hashing. In this paper, we analyse the prospects of such technologies in realising customisable individual privacy. We enlist the dire need to establish privacy preserving frameworks and policies and how can individuals achieve a trade-off between the comfort of an intuitive digital service ensemble and their privacy. We examine the current technologies being implemented, and suggest the crucial advantages of compressive analysis.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[32684] viXra:1911.0517 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-30 18:04:01

Il Vero Volto Dell'elettrone

Authors: Francesco Ferrara
Comments: 16 Pages.

Il documento presenta un nuovo modello per l'elettrone; le proprietà distintive di questa importantissima particella si evincono direttamente dal modello stesso, in modo chiaro ed inequivocabile. Il modello da risposte convincenti e significative a domande a cui la scienza ufficiale non ha mai dato risposte convincenti. Dal modello emergono tutte le proprietà distintive come lo spin, l'origine della massa, la massa relativistica, senza che queste ultime siano assunte a priori "sic et simpliciter". Di seguito anche un link ad un video, realizzato dal sottoscritto, che spiega in modo chiaro le peculiarità del nuovo modello, mostrando anche delle animazioni in 3D. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PtMJon49DPg&t=929s
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[32683] viXra:1911.0516 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 21:13:33

Integrating Induction and Deduction in Order to Complement Experiments and Priors for the Understanding, Forecast, Control and Foresight of Apparently Complex Processes in Internet of Beings.

Authors: Diego Liberati
Comments: 12 Pages.

integrating inference and deductions
Category: Quantitative Biology

[32682] viXra:1911.0514 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-30 00:03:58

Hafele-Keating Errors, GPS Desynchronization and Time Dilation Explanation (GR not Included)

Authors: Matthew Taylor
Comments: 2 Pages. Original work. All rights reserved.

This paper is the second in a series dedicated to debunking a major experiment that purported y confirms Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity. The main errors throughout the remained of this series will focus on Confirmation Bias and flawed methodology (especially, design).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32681] viXra:1911.0513 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-30 02:59:28

Factoring ANY Second Order Linear Ordinary Differential Equation

Authors: Claude Michael Cassano
Comments: 4 Pages.

Any Second Order Linear Ordinary Differential Equation may be factored via two linear differential operators. The initial theorem demonstrates that for homogeneous 2nd order LODEs. Theorems that follow improve by supplying the solution of such factorization, extending the theorem to inhomogeneous LODEs, and further providing a generalization which includes the constant coefficients and Cauchy-Euler LODEs; culminating in a single-parameter LODE solution formula with suggested usage examples.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[32680] viXra:1911.0512 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-30 03:36:02

Adiabatic Quantum Shortcuts

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

In the quantum world 'adiabatic' processes are those in which the system controls are modified slowly. [30] In quantum physics, some of the most interesting effects are the result of interferences. [29] When Nebraska's Herman Batelaan and colleagues recently submitted a research paper that makes the case for the existence of a non-Newtonian, quantum force, the journal asked that they place "force" firmly within quotes. [28] Computing the dynamics of many interacting quantum particles accurately is a daunting task.
Category: Quantum Physics

[32679] viXra:1911.0511 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-30 04:09:21

Superconducting Under Attack

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

"After thirty years, evidence is mounting that high Tc-superconductivity is pointing toward a radically new form of matter, which is governed by the consequences of quantum entanglement in the macroscopic world." [18] The emerging field of spintronics leverages electron spin and magnetization. [17] The first known superconductor in which spin-3/2 quasiparticles form Cooper pairs has been created by physicists in the US and New Zealand. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[32678] viXra:1911.0510 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-30 05:12:35

The Dirac-Ricci Operator

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 2 pages, written in english

We define a Dirac type operator called the Dirac-Ricci operator with help of the Ricci curvature.
Category: Geometry

[32677] viXra:1911.0509 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-30 07:21:49

Über Die Substanz Von Raum Und Zeit

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 4 Pages. Comments welcome.

My personal, and probably biased, opinion on the substance or spacetime, with wide-ranging implications.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[32676] viXra:1911.0508 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-30 07:54:46

Evidence for the Generation of Baryons from Electromagnetic Instabilities of the Vacuum from a Comparison with Energetic Cosmic Rays Data for Protons.

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: 14 Pages. 3 figures

Following previous work, we present a field-theoretical treatment in which baryons are generated from perturbations of magnetodynamic origin built upon a background sea of excitations located by the model at 3.7 GeV. A Zeta-function regularization procedure previously adopted for the Casimir Effect is applied to account for the infinite range of the excitations spectrum, and states of negative energy compared to the background state( in the physical form of vortices) are obtained to represent the baryons. A prediction of this theory is that if the energy difference of 2.7 GeV between the vacuum background energy level and a proton rest energy is surpassed by energetic protons, such particles might not be detected since the vortices would become unstable. In reality, a marked decrease in the flux of cosmic rays protons is observed beyond 2.7GeV kinetic energies. Such results gives support to the existence of a vacuum energy state at 3.7 GeV, but the fact that protons are still observed in small amounts even at extremely high energies cannot fit in the simple vortex picture. We argue that at very high energies the binding interactions between individual constituents inside protons not considered in the vortex picture become relevant and this determines the survival of part of the protons in the rays.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[32675] viXra:1911.0507 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-30 08:54:53

A Study on the Enhancement of the Breaker Ability of Contactors

Authors: Yong Chol Jong, Un Chol Ri, Gum Chol Ri
Comments: 5 Pages.

Increasing the life of contactors, which are widely used in the power industry, is a very important issue. In this paper, a new U-shaped arc lattice was introduced to increase the arc extinguishing capacity of the contactor.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[32674] viXra:1911.0506 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 10:10:55

Problem of the Origin of Profit

Authors: James Smith
Comments: 34 Pages. Enjoy

I think I have proved that in an economy with fixed amount of money, no monetary profit is sustainable. The aggregate prices will always be above the public purchasing ability, therefore we have a mathematical problem. The notion that banks create new money is incorrect, that's why the government has to create new money and periodically inject it into circulation. Circulation with fixed amount of money would be inefficient and won't allow effective consumption of all the products produced.
Category: Economics and Finance

[32673] viXra:1911.0505 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 12:38:58

Further Ramanujan’s Equations Applied to Various Sectors of Particle Physics and Cosmology: Some Possible New Mathematical Connections. V

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 176 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed further Ramanujan formulas and described new possible mathematical connections with some sectors of Particle Physics and Cosmology
Category: Mathematical Physics

[32672] viXra:1911.0504 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 12:59:18

Eigenstates on Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 75 Pages.

So far, techniques for computing Hamiltonian eigenstates on quantum computers have been primarily based on phase estimation or variational algorithms, which are designed to approximate the lowest energy eigenstate (i.e., ground state) and a number of excited states. [46] Physicists at the University of Innsbruck are proposing a new model that could demonstrate the supremacy of quantum computers over classical supercomputers in solving optimization problems. [45] Using data from the CMS experiment there, the researchers studied the entropy resulting from entanglement within the proton. [44] A German-Austrian research team is now presenting the largest entangled quantum register of individually controllable systems to date, consisting of a total of 20 quantum bits. [43] Neill is lead author of the group's new paper, "A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits," now published in the journal Science. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41] Physical experiments were performed by Schiffer's team at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32671] viXra:1911.0503 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 13:23:34

Hypothetical X17 Particle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

A new paper from the same team, led by Attila Krasznahorkay at the Atomki institute in Hungary, now reports another anomaly, in a similar nuclear transition, that could also be explained by the same hypothetical particle. [28] These new subatomic particles could either be made of six heavy quarks (charm and bottom) or heavy and strange quarks. [27] Argonne scientists look to 3-D printing to ease separation anxiety, which paves the way to recycle more nuclear material. [26] Recently, scientists suggested switching from electron to nuclear transitions that may considerably increase the precision of clocks due to higher frequency. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been "squeezed" to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by "twisted light" can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[32670] viXra:1911.0502 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 18:47:00

Cheap, Small Electric Space Propulsion

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this research, the author proposes a fundamentally different way to launch spacecraft. The method is characterized in that the spacecraft is accelerated by an electric accelerator that ionizes the air and throws it at a high speed regardless of the speed of the accelerator itself. The accelerator returns to the launch site after the launch and returns the energy spent on accelerating the accelerator body. That is, the electric ground (from the power plant) energy is spent only on the acceleration of the spacecraft itself. As a result, we have the lowest possible launch cost (about $1 / kg) and are not limited in the number of launches. This will allow us to really engage in space exploration. In addition, in wartime, it allows an unlimited number of military vehicles to launch and organize anti-missile defense (electric gun). The proposed invention also allows to solve the problem of the engine for hypersonic aircraft.
Category: Classical Physics

[32669] viXra:1911.0501 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-28 23:00:22

Mercurian Perihelion Precession (General Relativity Not Included)

Authors: Matthew Taylor
Comments: 2 Pages. Original work. All rights reserved.

The problematic assumption associated with the observed precession of the perihelion of Mercury is Mercury formed as it appears today. If Mercury’s origins were different from its assumed origins, then the calculated estimate of its density and mass would be inaccurate and this minor discrepancy would account for the precession of Mercury’s perihelion. If these values are in error, then the observed precession of Mercury’s perihelion would also be erroneous. Asserting a Relativistic solution would require all values to be accurate and the methodology to be sufficient. And would also require ignoring the actual formation of Mercury.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32668] viXra:1911.0500 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 01:49:06

Physical Principles in Revealing the Working Mechanisms of Brain, Part One

Authors: Nicolae Mazilu
Comments: 50 Pages.

This work is addressed to a wide range of scientists who approach the research of the human brain from different points of view. Our main point is that no matter of the angle of approach in the brain research, a scientist has to be aware of the physical possibility of working of the brain. We describe this possibility by modeling the brain as light. The essential physical property of this model is fractality. It will be physically explained for the light itself and then applied as such to the brain. The main brain functions: the memory, acquiring information, and handling this information are then explained as scale transient fractal phenomena. This physical model is thereby useful in guiding any research on brain, no matter of its nature.
Category: Physics of Biology

[32667] viXra:1911.0499 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 01:58:50

Associating Bending Geometry with Bending Space-Time

Authors: Donghui Wang
Comments: 19 Pages.

In this study, a method of bending a fan ring-shaped copper sheet into a “3D arc” or a “ring” is introduced, and the physical mechanism and mathematical connections during bending process are analyzed. Then, the shape and formation principle of the “ring” and a water wave are analyzed and compared. It is concluded that a “ring” and a water wave have many similarities. The measure of how much the water body is bent is deduced by referring to the measure of how much the quadrant is bent. Then, the relationship between the shape evolution and physical quantity variation in the water wave is studied. A series of equivalent relations are obtained, and these relations are applied to the energy and momentum calculations of a water wave or a gravitational wave. Finally, it is concluded that in the future, people will be able to determine the distance from the interception point to the gravitational wave center, the energy of the gravitational wave, and the momentum as well as and the surface gravitational acceleration of the moving body by analyzing various data of the gravitational waves from other planets.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32666] viXra:1911.0498 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 03:07:56

A New Take on Gravitational Waves

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies, Richard Lawrence Norman
Comments: 3 Pages.

Following recent announcements concerning the detection of gravitational waves and the accompanying claims that this offers further proof of the validity of the theory of general relativity, here some long forgotten work showing that the existence of such waves was predicted in the very early years of the last century and had been hinted at even before that is brought to light. Yet again the question of whether or not a piece of experimental work establishes the place of general relativity in modern physics is raised.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32665] viXra:1911.0497 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 04:27:31

Magnetic Waves for Efficient Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

MIT researchers have devised a novel circuit design that enables precise control of computing with magnetic waves-with no electricity needed. [38] Scientists have added a crucial tool to the atomic-scale manufacturing toolkit with major implications for today's data driven-carbon intensive-world, according to new research from the University of Alberta in Canada. [37] From books to floppy disks to magnetic memory, technologies to store information continue to improve. Yet threats as simple as water and as complex as cyberattacks can still corrupt our records. [36] Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have come up with a way to manipulate tungsten diselenide (WSe2)-a promising two-dimensional material-to further unlock its potential to enable faster, more efficient computing, and even quantum information processing and storage. [35] The human brain has amazing capabilities making it in many ways more powerful than the world's most advanced computers. [34] In 2017, University of Utah physicist Valy Vardeny called perovskite a "miracle material" for an emerging field of next-generation electronics, called spintronics, and he's standing by that assertion. [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32664] viXra:1911.0496 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 05:14:51

Photon in Organic Solar Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

Organic solar cells are steadily improving as new materials are developed for the active layer, particularly when materials are stacked in a bulk heterojunction design that takes advantage of multiple combined absorption windows to use photons at more parts of the spectrum. [37] The experiments showed that quantum light can be used to probe enzyme activities in real time without perturbing the sample. [36] The biological technique of 'optogenetics' uses light to control cells within living tissues that have been genetically modified to be light-sensitive. [35]
Category: Physics of Biology

[32663] viXra:1911.0495 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 08:14:14

Gravitation - Flat Power Field

Authors: Sergey A. Orlov
Comments: 10 Pages.

A new principle of origin and the nature of the action of gravity forces are proposed. Forces of universal attraction have plane-symmetrical directions. On this basis, it becomes possible to reconsider certain regularities in natural science. The new principle of gravitation will allow to explain physical paradoxes, to improve methods of scientific research and some technological processes.
Category: Classical Physics

[32662] viXra:1911.0494 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 08:16:38

Genesis of the Planet Earth

Authors: Sergey A. Orlov
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this article we consider the origin and subsequent evolution of our planet. Theoretical studies are based on the author's theory of vortex gravity, cosmology and cosmogony, and also on the law of conservation of the angular momentum of the body's rotation. As a practical justification for calculations and conclusions, the well-known fact of slowing the rotation of the Earth is used. The principles of the formation of elementary particles and all types of inorganic and organic substances are proposed. The calculation of the physical state of our planet in the past and in the future is done. The age of the Earth is calculated in the article, which exceeds the generally accepted value by 1.2 billion years. It is shown that the principle of the origin and evolution of the Earth is fully applicable for the genesis of all other celestial bodies.
Category: Classical Physics

[32661] viXra:1911.0493 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 08:19:13

On Invariant Speed of Light

Authors: Sergey A. Orlov
Comments: 6 Pages.

A new physical model of the appearance of light, properties, and its trajectory. Explains the paradox of invariance and isotropy of light based on the laws of classical physics.
Category: Classical Physics

[32660] viXra:1911.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 08:21:28

Photon Mass

Authors: Sergey A. Orlov
Comments: 6 Pages.

The atomic structure is presented on the basis of the theory of vortex gravitation. The feasibility and calculation of the values of the density and mass of electromagnetic particles are proposed. A calculation is made, which proves that the photon must have mass. In the calculations, some physical characteristics of electromagnetic particles that are accepted by modern physics are refuted.
Category: Classical Physics

[32659] viXra:1911.0490 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 08:31:43

Equivalence of Energy and Atomic Gravitation

Authors: Sergey A. Orlov
Comments: 4 Pages.

Investigated directly proportional dependence of the energy end mass of a physical object on the strength of the vortex gravitation, which created the object.
Category: Classical Physics

[32658] viXra:1911.0489 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 08:05:14

Topological (in) Hegel

Authors: Borislav G. Dimitrov
Comments: 521 Pages.

Preface Even a cursory reading of Hegel’s works is sufficient to convince one that the categories of quality and quantity, the concepts of space, time, place are basic to the system. In contrast with Aristotle and Kant, Hegel’s speculative logic exhibits a presuppositionless derivation of the categories. Hegel regards his categories, concepts and notions not as completed and frozen. For him, the categories must be derived, not from presupposed forms of judgement, or from our presuppositions, but from what he calls the sheer ‘simplicity of thinking’, from the indeterminate being of thought and from the indeterminate thought of being. Hegel’s categories of quality and quantity, in particular ‘qualitative quantity’ in relation with his concepts of space, time, place are subject to which much attention has not been paid by Hegel’s expositors and commentators and yet the importance of it cannot be denied. (Haldar,1932). Topological reading of ‘qualitative quantity’ within Hegel’s fourfold (manifold) of multiplicity is subject that lack attention at all from Hegel’s commentators. This conceptual gap, ontological, epistemological, phenomenological is widening within the ‘linguistic turn’, ‘spatial turn’ or ‘topological turn’ and emerging topological approaches to various fields of social science and their need for deep conceptualization based on the philosophical categories, notions and concepts. As Richard Ek establishes in Theorizing the Earth (2010), “The spatial turn is actually a ‘philosophical turn’ repackaged and promoted as a fundamental concern with question of space, place and polity in the social sciences and humanities.” (Ek, Richard, Mekonnen, T. 2010:49-66) John WP Phillips, who critically examines the recent arguments asserting a ‘topological turn’ in culture, the range of topologically informed interventions in social and cultural theory, remarkes in his paper On Topology (2013) , that such contemporary fashionable notions of ‘topological approaches’ and ‘becoming topological of culture’ “demands a greater critical reflection than the notion of a ‘topological turn’ suggests.” I believe that such demand of critical reflection shall be based on Hegel’s categories of logic, notions and concept, and following my assertion that ‘topological’ in intuitively presented by Hegel in his logic, dialectic and method, with the present thesis I argue how Hegel’s categories of qualitative and quantitative, the concept of space, time and place can provide contemporary researcher with the power and methodology of such a greater critical reflection, and ability to readdress in the new and enhanced mode the variety of these toplogical approaches. The methodology of an applied philosophical topology shall be based on the topological re-reading of Hegel and topological hermeneutics. The main objective of the present thesis is to demonstrate how Hegel’s categories, concepts, language, syntax and semantics, his use of rethorical power exibit topological notions and thus the reading of topological (in) Hegel is open for conceptualization. Perhaps it would not be an exaggeration to say that there is no system of thought more intimately bound up with one fundamental principle than is the system of Hegel. My assertion with the present thesis is that topological reading of Hegel reviels true topological system, thus there are reasonable grounds for us to see the doctrine of Hegel, in particular his Science of Logic and Philosophy of Nature as Hegel’s Analysis Situs. A correct interpretation of Hegel’s system depends upon a thorough comprehension of the categories of quality and quantity, the concepts of space, time, and place. If these categories and concepts are neglected, the system must remain a sealed book. The aim of the present thesis is to unseal the topological character of Hegel’s though, that influenced the formation and presence of topological thinking within the tradition of later continental philosophy and directs toward the horizon of new philosophical topology. The concern of the present thesis is to set forth topological reading and interpretation of such categories as quality and quantiny, in particular the qualitative quantity within Hegel’s forfold of multiplicity and such concepts as space, time, place, to emphasize on the importance of topological (in) Hegel for a theory of knowledge, and, in the light of it, and to give some insight toward the current philosophical topology. The aim of the thesis is to critically examine whether it is methodologically possible to combine mathematical rigor – topology with a systematic dialectical methodology in Hegel, and if so, to provide as result of my interpretation the outline of Hegel’s Analysis Situs, also with the proposed models (build on the topological manifold, cobordism, topological data analysis, persistent homology, simplicial complexes and graph theory, to provide an indication of how the merger of Hegel’s dialectical logic and topology may be instrumental to a systematic logician and of how a systematic dialectical logic perspective may help mathematical model builders. Abstract The present study is interdisciplinary, involving the interrelations between philosophy and topology, where topology is understood in both meanings as mathematical discipline and rhetorical notions, and culminating to what I regard as topological philosophy or philosophical topology, based in particular on Hegel’s notion of multiplicity, implemented in his logic unfolding the true topological fourfold of infinities, where qualitative and quantitative, spatial and temporal, as well as rhetorical notions such as the four basic tropes of rhetoric: ‘metaphor’, ‘metonymy’, ‘synecdoche’, ‘ironi’ are presented in Hegel’s manifold (Mannigfaltigkeit) of infinities, quality and quantity, time and space. Not only these four basic tropes of rhetoric are equally presented in Hegel’s philosophical narratives, but also the emphasis is on the metonymy seen as metonymy of metonymy or ‘metalepsis’, is strongly presented in Hegel’s logic, in particular in his ‘topological’ notion of Qualitative quantity. The study investigate in particular the categories of ‘quality’, ‘quantity’ and ‘measures’ within the notions of ‘multiplicity in Hegel’s dialectical logic, with an emphasis on the topological notion of qualitative quantity - the category that remained ‘inapparent’ within the well know dialectics of transformation of quality to quality, where the new quality appears as leap (nodal line) exhibiting abrupt changes and discontinuous transformation leading to the new measure. The exhibit form of Hegel’s qulitative quantity is related with continuous changes and smooth, gradual, topological transformations. The gradualness of such transformations demonstrates topological homeomorphism as exhibit form of the category of qualitative quantity, which can be successfully implemented in mathematical, indeed topological models and methods, such as topological manifold, cobordism, topological data analysis, persistent homology, simplicial complexes and graph theory. The topological notions of multiplicity in Hegel’s fourfold of infinities is discussed: (1) the bad qualitative infinity; (2) the good qualitative infinity; (3) the bad quantitative infinity; (4) the good quantitative infinity, related with the fourfold interplay of the two pair of Ancient Greek categories of ‘time’ and ‘space’ as fourfold constructed of ‘Chronos’ and ‘Kairos’, ‘Chora’ and ‘Topos’ as follow: (1) chronochora, chronotopos, kairochora and kairotopos - where the four categorical models implements the following: ‘quantitative quantity’ – ‘quantitative quality’ - ‘qualitative quantity’ – ‘qualitative quality’. The claim supported is that ‘quality’ is in the core of ‘quantitative infinity’, ‘infinity’ is a quality of quantity – ‘Qualitative quantity’. There is homology between Hegel’s fourfold of infinities (multiplicity) and the fourfold of Hegel’s judgments (Judgment of Existence; Judgment of Reflection; Judgment of Necessity; Judgment of the Notion). The true topological character of Hegel’s logic is revealed as coherence between Hegel’s fourfold of infinities (multiplicity) and the fourfold of Hegel’s judgments, between method and subject matter, and this topological character is presented in Hegel through the double negation, where the Understanding and its negation, Dialectical Reason, and the Negation of the Negation – Speculative Reason, can be seen in the fourfold of Hegel’s judgments. In the very last chapter of Hegel’s Science of Logic, method and subject matter supposedly conjoin. (Carlson 2005). Following William Lawvere’s assertion (Lawvere, 1996) that a significant fraction of Hegel’s Logic can be modeled mathematically through the use of “cylinders” (diagrams of shape Δ) in a category, wherein the two identical subobjects (united by the third map in the diagram) are “opposite”.about the use of “cylinders” (diagrams of shape Δ), my interpretation of Hegel’s Objective Logic offer methodological modeling of the categories, based on cylinders - the ‘cobordism’, and on the shape Δ - the ‘simplicial complex’ (simplicial complexes). Hegel’s fourfold of infinities is build on the fourfold of quality and quantity ratio – the notions and ratios of quantitative quantity; quantitative quality; qualitative quantity; qualitative quality. The fourfold of the qualitative and quantitative ratios, relate to the fourfold of the measure. All measures are ratios of two other measures. Measure is twofold, divided into two—the external and the internal measure. This is the dialectical real of the real measure. Measure is the unity of quality and quantity, yet in the center of the series of measures is a master signifier that organizes everything, even while escaping measurement. This ‘master signifier’, the empty center between quality and quantity is like the hole of the torus, the nothing, the void, and Hegel names it ‘substrate.’ The substrate is discontinuous within the series of measure and continuous at the same time. The substrate is what Hegel calls a true infinity. Substrate can be organized in a series of measures. Substrate is abstract measureless. What is important to see at this point in relation to measure is entailed in a duality between the nodal relation of quantity and quality, on the one side, and substrate, on the other side. The first side is measure as such—quantity and quality. The second side—the substrate—is something deeper than quantity and quality. The model of Cobordism (Rene Thom) is proposed as topological model of Hegel’s fourfold of infinities within his concept of multiplicity. For Hegel multiplicity means the quantification of quality and the qualification of quantity, multiplicity of the double-entendre implemented in the inevitable double-meaning of Qualitative quantity. For Hegel, the inability to read history as two-sided, as both continuous and discrete, to co-board between, into, within this twofold, to see beings as double, as both qualitative and quantitative, is the road to the destruction of spirit. Trough the ‘Topological’, Hegel’s logic and dialectics are seen in the current. Today, it is Hegel who give us the true, current, topological reply on the question - What does it mean to think multiplicity as both quality and quantity? Topological is subject to philosophical systematization, as well as the philosophical is subject to topological (mathematical) formalization. In the development of philosophy and mathematics (mathematical and philosophical Mind) there is mathesis universalis and some "problematic situations" that have a common "categorial" structure to study them and the "method" of the study can not be other than "mathematical (topological) modeling" or "explication" of philosophical "categories" and together with it – categorial (philosophical) "interpretation" of the mathematical (topological) "structures". Philosophical-topological (mathematical) Mind and mathematical (topological)-philosophical Mind have one and the same "subject", to whom study apply with the two "polar-opposite” of its "form" methods, or studying the same "subject" in the two polar-opposite "forms" through "method", which is inherently "the same". Novel ‘topological’ reading of Hegel’s notions of spatial and temporal, qualitative and quantitative, is proposed as fundamental in re-thinking of the evolution of hierarchical systems. The evolution of hierarchical systems is approached topologically as specific ‘problem situation’ for mathematical and philosophical mind, in the term of Philosophical Analisis Situs, where philosophical aspect is present through the categories of Hegel’s multiplicity – the dialectics and logic of ‘qualitative’ and ‘quantitative’, spatial and temporal, and mathematical aspect is presented through the models, such as Cantor Set, logistic map, bifurcation diagrams and topological notion of Cobordism. In addition to the Hierarchical (vertical evolution) relations, an emphasis on the topological notion of qualitative quantity in Hegel, reveals the role of Heterarchy and heteronomy in Evolution (horizontal evolution), since the exhibit form of Qualitative quantity is related with continuous changes and smooth, gradual, topological transformations. The gradualness of such transformations demonstrates topological homeomorphism as exhibit form of the category of Qualitative quantity, which could be successfully implemented in mathematical, indeed topological models and methods. Hegel’s notions of manifold presented in the model of Rene Thom’s cobordism is discussed and implemented through the logistic map of Feigenbaum bifurcation Diagram accepted as universal scenario of development, change and evolution. The proposed outcome demonstrate that within the interval of chaos, marked in the Feigenbaum Diagram, where the parameter ‘a’ increase over the value of 3.0 in the higher octaves of 4.33 , the ‘voices’ of Hegel and Cantor are present within the region of chaos known as Cantor dust. In the zone of chaos and Cantor dust, Hegel’s multiplicity and four measures works in progress and logic breaths the thin air of being retrieving itself in metaphysic. Beyond the octaves of the values 4.33 in Feigenbaum bifurcation Diagram, within the chaos, there are the heads of Canto comets or the divergence diagrams, where can be found the seeds of the new orders and multiplicity (manifolds) of new bifurcations and Feigenbaum diagrams. The visible ‘white’ corridors of homeostasis are windows open for new hierarchies of order and possibilities of development. Based on the said proposition, the focus of the present paper is on the evolutionary scenario, where in addition to the currently accepted paradigm of hierarchy of evolutionary systems where the core of representation is through the phylogenetic tree structure (vertical evolution), the thesis of reticulate (horizontal evolution) is asserted and discussed as exhibiting the heterarchy and heteronomy of evolutionary systems. The standard evolutionary representation, the phylogenetic tree, and the notion of hierarchy of evolutionary systems, faithfully represents the vertical evolution, but cannot capture horizontal, or reticulate, events, which occur when distinct clades merge together to form a new hybrid lineage. Both hierarchy and heterarchy of the tree structure and the structure of reticulate events could be mathematically investigated, modeled and represented through the field of algebraic topology known as Topological Data Analysis, where the primary mathematical tool considered is a homology theory for point-cloud data sets—persistent homology—and a novel representation of this algebraic characterization— simplicial complex and barcodes. The persistent homology in evolution, which characterizes global properties of a geometric object that are invariant to continuous deformation, such as stretching or bending without tearing or gluing any single part of it, and the properties that includes such notions as connectedness, is the current method of implementation of Hegel’ topological logic of multiplicity and Qualitative quantity.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[32657] viXra:1911.0488 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 06:32:40

Logic Cila (Da Costa’s C1) Confirmed as Algebraizable, Refuting Paraconsistent Set Theory

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

For logic Cila, we evaluate the implication connective truth table from 2001 which is not tautologous. This means the implication connective is algebraizable and refuted, and further refutes paraconsistent logic, and the derived conjecture of paraconsistent set theory as based thereon from 2019. These results form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[32656] viXra:1911.0487 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 07:21:22

Heating Plasma by Cooling

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 76 Pages.

When you cool the edge of the plasma by injecting impurities, what every standard theory and intuition would tell you is that a cold pulse propagates in, so that eventually the core temperature will drop as well. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[32655] viXra:1911.0486 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 07:47:36

Cutting Nanoparticles to Size

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

In a new study, published in Nature Communications, researchers from the University of Birmingham and the University of Bath have demonstrated a technique that will allow chemists to more closely control the size and shape of nanoparticles. [33] Rice University scientists have found revealing information where light from a molecule meets light from a nanoparticle. [32] A University of Wyoming researcher and his team have shown, for the first time, the ability to globally align single-wall carbon nanotubes along a common axis. [31] The fight against global antibiotic resistance has taken a major step forward with scientists discovering a concept for fabricating nanomeshes as an effective drug delivery system for antibiotics. [30] The solution consisting of colloidal quantum dots is inkjet-printed, creating active photosensitive layer of the photodetector. [29] I'm part of a group of nanotechnology and neuroscience researchers at the University of Washington investigating how quantum dots behave in the brain. [28] Nanotechnology may provide an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, a team of researchers suggests. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22]
Category: Physics of Biology

[32654] viXra:1911.0485 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 09:43:25

Clarkson’s Disease: a Rare Syndrome to Better Understand Science

Authors: Diego Liberati
Comments: 16 Pages.

a priming on such rare disease
Category: Physics of Biology

[32653] viXra:1911.0484 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 09:47:14

Fermat Triples using Modular Arithmetic

Authors: James Edwin Rock
Comments: 1 Page.

Andrew Wiles proved there are no integers x, y, and z and a prime p ≥ 3 with x^p+y^p +z^p=0. We use the Barlow relations to generate Fermat Triples where x^p+y^p +z^p ≡ 0 for an infinite number of moduli.
Category: Number Theory

[32652] viXra:1911.0483 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 09:47:49

SCLS Una Sindrome Rara Per L’approfondimento Scientifico (In Italian, Internal Report Ieiit CNR)

Authors: Diego Liberati
Comments: 7 Pages.

a priming in Italian
Category: Physics of Biology

[32651] viXra:1911.0482 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-28 10:08:20

The Shocking Hypothesis of the Double Settlement of Humanity.

Authors: Alexander I. Dubinyansky, Julia A. Krupenina.
Comments: 6 Pages. dubinyansky@mail.ru

The hypothesis that the resettlement of a person after leaving Africa occurs for the second time is substantiated. The first resettlement ended 65,000 years ago with a military or genetic disaster and the self-destruction of mankind.
Category: Archaeology

[32650] viXra:1911.0481 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-28 10:11:51

Шокирующая гипотеза двойного расселения человечества.

Authors: Александр И. Дубинянский и Юлия А. Крупенина.
Comments: 6 Pages. dubinyansky@mail.ru

Обоснована гипотеза о том, что расселение человека после выхода из Африки происходит во второй раз. Первое расселение закончилось 65.000 лет назад военной или генетической катастрофой и самоистреблением человечества.
Category: Archaeology

[32649] viXra:1911.0480 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-28 10:51:26

Molecular Eraser for AI Data Storage

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Scientists have added a crucial tool to the atomic-scale manufacturing toolkit with major implications for today's data driven-carbon intensive-world, according to new research from the University of Alberta in Canada. [37] From books to floppy disks to magnetic memory, technologies to store information continue to improve. Yet threats as simple as water and as complex as cyberattacks can still corrupt our records. [36] Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have come up with a way to manipulate tungsten diselenide (WSe2)-a promising two-dimensional material-to further unlock its potential to enable faster, more efficient computing, and even quantum information processing and storage. [35] The human brain has amazing capabilities making it in many ways more powerful than the world's most advanced computers. [34] In 2017, University of Utah physicist Valy Vardeny called perovskite a "miracle material" for an emerging field of next-generation electronics, called spintronics, and he's standing by that assertion. [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32648] viXra:1911.0479 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-28 13:22:22

Policies for Constraining the Behaviour of Coalitions of Agents in the Context of Algebraic Information Theory

Authors: Christopher Goddard
Comments: 27 Pages.

This article takes an oblique sidestep from two previous papers, wherein an approach to reformulation of game theory in terms of information theory, topology, as well as a few other notions was indicated. In this document a description is provided as to how one might determine an approach for an agent to choose a policy concerning which actions to take in a game that constrains behaviour of subsidiary agents. It is then demonstrated how these results in algebraic information theory, together with previous investigations in geometric and topological information theory, can be unified into a single cohesive framework.
Category: Algebra

[32647] viXra:1911.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-27 23:31:24

On the Generation of High-Energy Gamma Rays Near Sunspots During the Transition from Solar Minimum to Maximum

Authors: Michael Harney
Comments: 6 Pages.

It has been recently discovered by Linden and others that high-energy gamma rays (>100 GeV in some cases) are being generated from the solar disk near the location of sunspots as the solar cycle progresses from solar minimum to solar maximum, corresponding with the movement of sunspots from the equator to the poles. It is postulated that the generation of the gamma rays are due to the interaction and inter-modulation of multiple magnetic fields near and under sunspots, which from the Wave Structure of Matter, will result in the conversion the static magnetic fields into high-energy gamma rays based on the moving wave structure of the electron, which in turn makes up the magnetic field.
Category: Astrophysics

[32646] viXra:1911.0477 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-28 02:22:12

Evidence, that X^2+y^3=1 and Others Have no Solution in Q>0

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 3 Pages.

Due to the Incompleteness Theorems of Gödel one can say, that some true conjectures do not have valid proofs. One could think it also about my conjectures below, but I was lucky to find evidence for them.
Category: Number Theory

[32645] viXra:1911.0476 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-28 03:21:46

Machine Learning Synchrotron Beams

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Machine learning has been used by scientists in the US to reduce unwanted fluctuations in photon beams from a synchrotron light source. [23] There may not be an obvious connection between rewilding and machine learning, but as highlighted today at ESA's ɸ-week, a project in the Netherlands uses satellite data and new digital technology to understand how a nature reserve responds to the pressure of being grazed by herbivores. [22] At the University of South Florida, researchers are integrating machine learning techniques into their work studying proteins. [21] Bioinformatics professors Anthony Gitter and Casey Greene set out in summer 2016 to write a paper about biomedical applications for deep learning, a hot new artificial intelligence field striving to mimic the neural networks of the human brain. [20] A team of researchers from the University of Muenster in Germany has now demonstrated that this combination is extremely well suited to planning chemical syntheses-so-called retrosyntheses-with unprecedented efficiency. [19] Two physicists at ETH Zurich and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have developed a novel machine-learning algorithm that analyses large data sets describing a physical system and extract from them the essential information needed to understand the underlying physics. [18]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[32644] viXra:1911.0475 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-28 04:06:09

Topological Metals Spintronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Topological materials have become a hot topic in quantum materials research, as they have potential applications for quantum information and spintronics. [34] The team utilized analytical and ab-initio theories to establish a link between this spin engine concept and room-temperature experiments on a solid-state spintronic device called a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ). [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[12603] viXra:1912.0102 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-06 12:30:48

Refutation of RCC Scourge of Christian Fundamentalists by Lambeth Quadrilateral (1888)

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate the Lambeth Quadrilateral of 1888 as minimal membership in the Historic Church. The Roman Catholic Church and Christian fundamentalists share the same non tautologous states, hence refuting claim of supremacy. These results form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[12602] viXra:1912.0082 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-05 00:46:19

Reverse-Engineered Proofs for Riemann Hypothesis, Polignac's and Twin Prime Conjectures

Authors: John Yuk Ching Ting
Comments: 49 Pages. Reverse-engineered Rigorous proofs for Riemann hypothesis (and explaining the two types of Gram points) and Polignac's and Twin prime conjectures.

Mathematics for Incompletely Predictable Problems is associated with Incompletely Predictable problems containing Incompletely Predictable entities. Nontrivial zeros and two types of Gram points in Riemann zeta function (or its proxy Dirichlet eta function) together with prime and composite numbers from Sieve of Eratosthenes are Incompletely Predictable entities. Correct and complete mathematical arguments for first key step of converting this function into its continuous format version, and second key step of applying Information-Complexity conservation to this Sieve result in direct spin-offs from first step consisting of proving Riemann hypothesis (and explaining two types of Gram points), and second step consisting of proving Polignac's and Twin prime conjectures. We justify our Reverse-Engineered rigorous proofs and explanations.
Category: Number Theory

[12601] viXra:1912.0021 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-03 16:08:59

Electric Field and Divergence Theorem

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages. Note that the author does not read Disqus comments here, please respond by email. Including a list of publications is also a healthy gesture.

The divergence theorem states that the surface integral of the flux is equal to the volume integral of the divergence of the flux. This is not true if there is singularity in the volume integral. One example is the electric field flux described by Coulomb's law. Another example is the gravitational force. Consequently, Gauss's flux theorem is not applicable to the divergence of the electric field.
Category: Classical Physics

[12600] viXra:1912.0021 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-03 00:43:50

Electric Field and Divergence Theorem

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages. Note that the author does not read Disqus comments here, please respond by email. Including a list of publications is also a healthy gesture.

The divergence theorem states that the surface integral of the flux is equal to the volume integral of the divergence of the flux. This is not true if there is singularity in the volume integral. One example is the electric field flux described by Coulomb's law. The divergence of the electric flux is zero or undefined. Another example is the gravitational force. Consequently, Gauss's flux theorem is not applicable to the divergence of the electric field.
Category: Classical Physics

[12599] viXra:1912.0007 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-06 13:09:28

He Equation of a Wave in Space of the Absolute Frame of Reference Уравнение волны в пространстве АСО

Authors: Valery Timin
Comments: timinva@yandex.ru, 14 pages in Russian

This work is devoted to the equations of propagation of harmonic waves in one of the ISOS of space–time, which can be taken as ASO for waves. The equations of wave propagation in the case of infinite, dimensionless spaces, cyclic and mixed spaces are derived. A practical physical model for the application (use) of the equations is a fixed continuous (air, liquid, three–dimensional) medium in which the wave propagates, and where this "continuous" me-dium is located can be taken as an empty absolute Galilean space. In itself, this medium is not an ab-solute inertial frame of reference, but for propagating waves as independent entities when embedded in Galilean space, it is a real Galilean AISO. A wave in a medium in Galilean space can propagate at only one particular speed – the speed of sound. Once the waves are defined as entities, they can be considered separately from its basis, to forget about the existence of the material basis for its exist-ence, leaving only the essential points of this fact. In this case, the wave as an independent object it-self determines the AISO. Galilean space with embedded AISO allows the determination of aIso pa-rameters using wave standards. Данная работа посвящена уравнениям распространения гармонических волн в одном из ИСО пространства–времени, которое можно принять как АСО для волн. Выведены уравнения распространения волн в случае бесконечных, неограниченных размерами пространств, цикли-ческих и смешанных пространств. Практической физической моделью для применения (использования) уравнений является неподвижная сплошная (воздушная, жидкая, трердая) среда, в которой распространяется вол-на, а то, где находится эта "сплошная" среда, можно принять как пустое абсолютное галилеево пространство. Само по себе эта среда не является абсолютной инерциальной системой отсче-та, но для распространяющихся волн как самостоятельных сущностей при вложении в гали-леево пространство это настоящее галилеево АИСО. Волна в среде в галилеевом пространстве может распространяться только с одной определенной скоростью – скоростью звука. После того, как определены волны как сущности, их можно рассматривать отдельно от ее основы, забыть о существовании материальной основы для ее существования, оставив только сущест-венные моменты этого факта. В этом случае волна как самостоятельный объект само опреде-ляет АИСО. Галилеево пространство с вложенной в нее АИСО допускает определение пара-метров АИСО с использованием волновых эталонов.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[12598] viXra:1912.0005 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-06 02:25:29

Searching for Waves in the Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations - The Adventure

Authors: Aubery D.
Comments: 29 Pages.

This article traces a journey of discovery undertaken to search for wave phenomena in the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. From the early days of my interest in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) used for consulting purposes, and the use of various commercial solvers eventually leading to research programs, at a number of universities, spanning a number of years. It reviews research programs at Dortmund University (Dortmund, Germany), and this author’s post-graduate study at Chulalongkorn University (Bangkok, Thailand). During the latter, it was noticed that flow solutions became unstable when certain combinations of parameters were used - especially when real-life density and viscosity were used. Clarity was needed. This author had a perception that this research could lead to an understanding of the turbulence phenomenon, Tensor calculus was used to understand the macro nature of the NS Equations, and to place them firmly into the family of wave equations. My research continued in private for some 15 years, with the occasional presentation of findings at conferences, and an internet blog. In recent months major breakthroughs have been made, and now the evidence for wave phenomena is convincingly demonstrated.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[12597] viXra:1912.0004 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-03 18:41:09

Nullification of Relativity Theory Via the Sufficiency of the Galilean Velocity Transformation

Authors: John Lawrence Duval
Comments: 2 Pages.

If Relativity Theory is wrong, the error should be found at the very beginning of its derivation. This work does just that.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[12596] viXra:1911.0528 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-01 09:06:50

Continuous Creation and Destruction of Matter and Energy in a Spinning Sphere Universe

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 2 Pages. replaced title

Our universe appears to be 13.8 billion years old, or at least have an age. But the author sees evidence that the universe is infinitely old, but continually has new matter created and old matter destroyed. How could such a mechanism exist? A universe that appears to continually expand could be part of this mechanism. This paper proposes that there is a mechanism that causes this appearance of expansion and it all takes place in a spinning sphere universe that is infinitely old, but it always rejuvenates. This continuous creation of matter has been proposed before [4]. The difference in this paper is that the universe never changes size, and matter is always continuously destroyed as well.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12595] viXra:1911.0509 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-07 07:38:24

Über Die Substanz Von Raum Und Zeit

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 6 Pages. Final version.

My personal, and probably biased, opinion on the substance or spacetime, with wide-ranging implications.
Category: Quantum Physics

[12594] viXra:1911.0509 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-04 12:41:05

Über Die Substanz Von Raum Und Zeit

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 5 Pages. Comments welcome.

My personal, and probably biased, opinion on the substance or spacetime, with wide-ranging implications.
Category: Quantum Physics

[12593] viXra:1911.0509 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-01 08:37:08

Über Die Substanz Von Raum Und Zeit

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 4 Pages.

My personal, and probably biased, opinion on the substance or spacetime, with wide-ranging implications.
Category: Quantum Physics

[12592] viXra:1911.0501 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-05 00:35:43

Mercurian Perihelion Precession (General Relativity Need Not Apply)

Authors: Matthew Taylor
Comments: 2 Pages. Original work. All rights reserved.

The problematic assumption associated with the observed precession of the perihelion of Mercury is Mercury formed as it appears today. If Mercury’s origins were different from its assumed origins, then the calculated estimate of its density would be inaccurate and this minor discrepancy would account for the precession of Mercury’s perihelion. A minor increase in density wouldn't affect Mercury's mass or volume either. (See paper for details.) If Mercury's estimated density is in error, then the calculated precession of Mercury’s perihelion would also be erroneous. Asserting a Relativistic solution would require all values to be accurate and the methodology to be sufficient. And, such a solution would also require ignoring the actual formation of the planet Mercury.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology