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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[15462] viXra:1608.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-27 14:57:18

Astrological Darwinism

Authors: E.P.J. de Haas
Comments: 134 Pages.

Astrological Darwinism centers around two axioms. The first is the axiom of `chosen wave function collapse' and its subset of `chosen mutations'. It is the Bersonian `élan vital' of the soul that makes the choices by quantum looking and thus acting as a metaphysical or vital `hidden variable' causing genetic mutations. The second axiom is that the capacity of complex, multi-cellular life forms to apply the `chosen mutations' is cyclic, following the 26.000 year precession of the equinox. Astrological Darwinism's Cycle of Life can be projected upon the Zodiac of Dendera, as it can be found in the book of Schwaller de Lubicz. During the Age of Leo, the capacity to produce `chosen mutations' is at its peak and during the Age of Aquarius this capacity is at its minimum. The evolution of humanity is cyclic and can be characterized by Great Years of cyclic appearance of creative genetic boosts and subsequent expansion of the fittest. The most obvious example is the Upper Paleolithic Great Year. The present one started with the Neolithic agrarian revolution and will have its expansionist peak during the upcoming Age of Aquarius. Astrological Darwinism will be put in contrast to Neodarwinism in its twenty first century version of the Everett Many Worlds Darwinism scenario, the last being part of the Anthropic/Multiverse narrative. Astrological Darwinism needs Quantum Biology and ultimately Quantum Gravity Biology as its natural environment. Astrological Darwinism is a metaphysical narrative with implications for biology and evolution but without any implications for physics because it strictly follows Bohr's Copenhagen Interpretation in combination with his concept of complementary principles for animate and inanimate matter.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[15461] viXra:1608.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-27 15:05:24

The Temperature Principle of Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper it is explained that stars’ surfaces cool as they evolve, therefore leading to a general principle of stellar evolution according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[15460] viXra:1608.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-27 15:39:44

The Crust Solidification Principle of Life Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper it is explained another principle of foundational structure of stellar evolution according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[15459] viXra:1608.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-27 08:26:58

Abismo Y Travía

Authors: Emiro Díez Saldarriaga
Comments: 9 Pages. En Español

Muchos sistemas en delicado equilibrio lo perderían ante cambios de las dimensiones de sus partes, como las que se darían para observadores con diversas velocidades relativas respecto a esos sistemas, si la relatividad fuera cierta. Tal es el caso de un tranvía que cae y no cae en un abismo, según los observadores. De ahí la paradoja. O que cae para todos los observadores, pero violando las mas elementales leyes física, si se intenta resolver desesperadamente la tal paradoja.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15458] viXra:1608.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-27 04:19:30

The Formation Mechanism of the Crab Nebula

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: giving an explanation regard to the formation mechanism of the Crab Nebula.
Category: Astrophysics

[15457] viXra:1608.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-26 19:09:34

Exact Analytical Periodic Solutions with Sinusoidal Form to a Class of Position-Dependent Mass Liénard-Type Oscillator Equations

Authors: M. D. Monsia, J. Akande, D. K. K. Adjaï, L. H. Koudahoun, Y. J. F. Kpomahou
Comments: 3 pages

This letter consists of additions to the paper ’’ A Class of Position-Dependent Mass Liénard Differential Equations via a General Nonlocal Transformation’’. The objective is to highlight the fact that the general second-order nonlinear differential equation theory of position-dependent mass oscillators developed previously has the ability to provide exact analytical periodic solutions with sinusoidal form to the class of quadratic Liénard-type equations, like the motion of a particle on a rotating parabola and Morse- type oscillator equation, under question.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[15456] viXra:1608.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-26 21:10:58

The Search for a Hamiltonian Whose Energy Spectrum Coincides with the Riemann Zeta Zeroes

Authors: Raymond Aschheim, Carlos Castro Perelman, Klee Irwin
Comments: 28 Pages. Submitted to IJGMMP

Inspired by the Hilbert-Polya proposal to prove the Riemann Hypothesis we have studied the Schroedinger QM equation involving a highly non-trivial potential, and whose self-adjoint Hamiltonian operator has for its energy spectrum one which approaches the imaginary parts of the zeta zeroes only in the $asymptotic$ (very large $N$) region. The ordinates $\lambda_n$ are the positive imaginary parts of the nontrivial zeta zeros in the critical line : $ s_n = { 1\over 2} + i \lambda_n $. The latter results are consistent with the validity of the Bohr-Sommerfeld semi-classical quantization condition. It is shown how one may modify the parameters which define the potential, and fine tune its values, such that the energy spectrum of the (modified) Hamiltonian matches not only the first two zeroes but the other consecutive zeroes. The highly non-trivial functional form of the potential is found via the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization formula using the full-fledged Riemann-von Mangoldt counting formula ($without$ any truncations) for the number $ N (E) $ of zeroes in the critical strip with imaginary part greater than $0$ and less than or equal to $E$.
Category: Number Theory

[15455] viXra:1608.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-26 22:17:37

Global Policy and the Scientific Age in the Modern Era

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 5 Pages.

Policy in the Scientific Age.
Category: Social Science

[15454] viXra:1608.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-27 02:02:10

Comparative Physicochemical Evaluation of Biofield Treated Phosphate Buffer Saline and Hanks Balanced Salt Medium

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

Phosphate buffer saline (PBS) has numerous biological and pharmaceutical applications. Hank buffer salt (HBS) has been used as a medium for tissue culture applications. This research study was aimed to investigate the influence of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on physicochemical properties of the PBS and HBS. The study was executed in two group’s i.e. control and treated. The control group was kept aside as control and treated group had received the biofield energy treatment. The control and treated samples were further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XRD analysis indicated the increase in crystallite size by 5.20% in treated PBS as compared to the control. Similarly, the treated HBS also showed increase in crystallite size by 3.20% with respect to the control. Additionally, the treated PBS showed an increase in Bragg’s angle (2θ) as compared to the control sample. However, a decrease in Bragg’s angle of XRD peaks of the treated sample was noticed in the treated HBS. The DSC analysis of the control PBS showed melting temperature at 224.84°C; however melting temperature was not observed in the treated sample. However, DSC analysis of the treated HBS showed an increase in melting temperature (152.83°C) in comparison with the control (150.60°C). Additionally, the latent heat of fusion of the treated HBS was increased substantially by 108.83% as compared to the control. The TGA thermogram of the treated PBS showed an increase in onset of thermal degradation (212°C) as compared to the control (199°C). Whereas, the treated HBS showed less weight loss comparing with the control sample. This indicated the increase in thermal stability of the both the treated PBS and HBS samples. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of treated PBS showed alterations in the frequency of the functional groups such as O-H, C-H, P=O, O=P-OH, and P-OH as compared to the control. Additionally, the FT-IR spectrum of the treated HBS showed increase in frequency of calcium chloride phase (1444→1448 cm-1) as compared to the control sample. Altogether, it was observed that biofield energy treatment had caused physical, thermal and spectral changes in the treated samples as compared to the control. It is assumed that biofield energy treated PBS and HBS could be a good prospect for biological and tissue culture applications.
Category: Biochemistry

[15453] viXra:1608.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-27 03:19:35

TRL Lustre Is The Light’s Cumulative Consecutive Higher Orders Orthogonal Primality Overgrowth (All Inclusive) Of It’s Own Primality.

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 1 Page.

TRL Lustre Is The Light’s Cumulative Consecutive Higher Orders Orthogonal Primality Overgrowth (All Inclusive) Of It’s Own Primality.
Category: General Mathematics

[15452] viXra:1608.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-27 03:31:49

Solving the Muon Mystery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

It may only take scientists a few more years to solve one of the biggest puzzles in modern elementary particle physics, the so-called "muon mystery." Russian scientists from the National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI) will make a significant contribution to this research. [13] A large team made up of researchers from across the globe has repeated experiments conducted several years ago that showed a different radius for a proton when it was orbited by a muon as opposed to an electron—a finding dubbed the proton radius puzzle—using a deuterium nucleus this time and has found the same puzzle. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes the experiments they conducted, what they found and offer a few possible ideas to help dispel the notion that the puzzle indicates that there may be some problems with the Standard Model. [12] The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[15451] viXra:1608.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-27 03:46:04

Electrons Speed Limit

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Electronic components have become faster and faster over the years, thus making powerful computers and other technologies possible. Researchers at ETH Zurich have now investigated how fast electrons can ultimately be controlled with electric fields. Their insights are of importance for the petahertz electronics of the future. [11] The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, with facilities in Florida and New Mexico, offers scientists access to enormous machines that create record-setting magnetic fields. The strong magnetic fields help researchers probe the fundamental structure of materials to better understand and manipulate their properties. Yet large-scale facilities like the MagLab are scarce, and scientists must compete with others for valuable time on the machines. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[15450] viXra:1608.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-27 03:57:52

Thousand Times Bigger Diatomic Molecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Research pair create two-atom molecules that are more than a thousand times bigger than typical diatomic molecules. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15449] viXra:1608.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-26 10:01:53

Verification of Axioms Which Resolve the Cantor Problem on the Continuum Power

Authors: Vatolin Dm.
Comments: 9 Pages. Russian

In the interpretation of meta-theory, which is the canonical set theory, the theorems that are sufficient to resolve the Cantor (Hilbert) problem of the continuum power are proved here.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[15448] viXra:1608.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-26 07:40:35

Cortical Conscious Network

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

New research published in the New Journal of Physics tries to decompose the structural layers of the cortical network to different hierarchies enabling to identify the network's nucleus, from which our consciousness could emerge. [21] Where in your brain do you exist? Is your awareness of the world around you and of yourself as an individual the result of specific, focused changes in your brain, or does that awareness come from a broad network of neural activity? How does your brain produce awareness? [20] In the future, level-tuned neurons may help enable neuromorphic computing systems to perform tasks that traditional computers cannot, such as learning from their environment, pattern recognition, and knowledge extraction from big data sources. [19] IBM scientists have created randomly spiking neurons using phase-change materials to store and process data. This demonstration marks a significant step forward in the development of energy-efficient, ultra-dense integrated neuromorphic technologies for applications in cognitive computing. [18] An ion trap with four segmented blade electrodes used to trap a linear chain of atomic ions for quantum information processing. Each ion is addressed optically for individual control and readout using the high optical access of the trap. [17] To date, researchers have realised qubits in the form of individual electrons (aktuell.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/pm2012/pm00090.html.en). However, this led to interferences and rendered the information carriers difficult to programme and read. The group has solved this problem by utilising electron holes as qubits, rather than electrons. [16] Physicists from MIPT and the Russian Quantum Center have developed an easier method to create a universal quantum computer using multilevel quantum systems (qudits), each one of which is able to work with multiple "conventional" quantum elements – qubits. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Physics of Biology

[15447] viXra:1608.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-26 09:45:07

Natural Non-Godel Definitions of Incompleteness

Authors: Vatolin Dm.
Comments: 7 Pages. Russian

Here are definitions of «completeness» and «incompleteness» for math-ematical theories. These definitions are different from those that gave Godel and avoid their contradictions. Found are theorems that put everything in its place.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[15446] viXra:1608.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-26 07:11:36

Network Theory of Consciousness

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Where in your brain do you exist? Is your awareness of the world around you and of yourself as an individual the result of specific, focused changes in your brain, or does that awareness come from a broad network of neural activity? How does your brain produce awareness? [20] In the future, level-tuned neurons may help enable neuromorphic computing systems to perform tasks that traditional computers cannot, such as learning from their environment, pattern recognition, and knowledge extraction from big data sources. [19] IBM scientists have created randomly spiking neurons using phase-change materials to store and process data. This demonstration marks a significant step forward in the development of energy-efficient, ultra-dense integrated neuromorphic technologies for applications in cognitive computing. [18] An ion trap with four segmented blade electrodes used to trap a linear chain of atomic ions for quantum information processing. Each ion is addressed optically for individual control and readout using the high optical access of the trap. [17] To date, researchers have realised qubits in the form of individual electrons (aktuell.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/pm2012/pm00090.html.en). However, this led to interferences and rendered the information carriers difficult to programme and read. The group has solved this problem by utilising electron holes as qubits, rather than electrons. [16] Physicists from MIPT and the Russian Quantum Center have developed an easier method to create a universal quantum computer using multilevel quantum systems (qudits), each one of which is able to work with multiple "conventional" quantum elements – qubits. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Physics of Biology

[15445] viXra:1608.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 20:25:15

A Proof of the Collatz Conjecture (Sixth Revised Version)

Authors: Zhang Tianshu
Comments: 15 Pages.

Positive integers which can operate to 1 by the set operational rule of the conjecture and positive integers got via contrary operations of the set operational rule are one-to-one correspondence unquestionably. In this article, we classify positive integers to prove the Collatz conjecture by the mathematical induction via operations of substep according to confirmed two theorems plus a lemma in advance.
Category: Number Theory

[15444] viXra:1608.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 23:29:39

Evaluation of Vegetative Growth Parameters in Biofield Treated Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria Siceraria) and Okra (Abelmoschus Esculentus)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

The objective of the study was to assess the growth contributing characters of biofield treated bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) seeds. The seeds of both crops were divided into two groups, one was kept aside and denoted as untreated, while the other group was subjected biofield energy treatment. The variabilities in growth contributing parameters were studied and compared with their control. Further the level of glutathione (GSH) in okra leaves, along with DNA fingerprinting in bottle gourd were analyzed using RAPD method. After germination, the plants of bottle gourd were reported to be strong and erect with better canopy as compared with the control. The vegetative growth of okra plants after biofield energy treatment was found to be stout with small canopy, strong steam, and more fruits per nodes, that contributed high yield as compared with the control. However, endogenous level of GSH in the leaves of okra was increased by 47.65% as compared to the untreated group, which may suggest an improved immunity of okra crops. Besides, the DNA fingerprinting data, showed polymorphism (42%) between treated and untreated samples of bottle gourd. The overall results suggest that the biofield energy treatment on bottle gourd and okra seeds, results an improved overall growth of plant and yield, which may enhance flowering and fruiting per plant. Study results conclude that the biofield energy treatment could be an alternate method to improve the crop yield in agricultural science.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[15443] viXra:1608.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 23:31:27

Morphological Characterization, Quality, Yield and DNA Fingerprinting of Biofield Energy Treated Alphonso Mango(mangifera Indica L.)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Alphonso is the most delicious variety of mango (Mangifera indica L.) known for its excellent texture, taste, and richness with vitamins and minerals. The present study was attempted to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on morphological characteristics, quality, yield and molecular assessment of mango. A plot of 16 acres lands used for this study with already grown mango trees. This plot was divided into two parts. One part was considered as control, while another part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment without physically touching and referred as treated. The treated mango trees showed new straight leaves, without any distortion and infection, whereas the control trees showed very few, distorted, infected, and curly leaves. Moreover, the flowering pattern of control trees did not alter; it was on average 8 to 10 inches with more male flowers. However, the flowering pattern of treated trees was completely transformed into compact one being 4 to 5 inches in length and having more female flowers. Additionally, the weight of matured ripened mango was found on an average 275 gm, medium sized with 50% lesser pulp in the control fruits, while the fruits of biofield energy treated trees showed on average weight of 400 gm, large sized and having 75% higher pulp as compared to the control. Apart from morphology, the quality and nutritional components of mango fruits such as acidity content was increased by 65.63% in the treated sample. Vitamin C content in the treated Alphonso mango pulp was 43.75% higher than the pulp obtained from the control mango farm. The spongy tissue content in pulp of the matured ripened mangoes was decreased by 100% for two consecutive years as compared to the control. Moreover, the yield of flowers and fruits in the treated trees were increased about 95.45 and 47.37%, respectively as compared to the control. Besides, the DNA fingerprinting data using RAPD revealed that the treated sample did not show any true polymorphism as compared to the control. The overall results envisaged that the biofield energy treatment on the mango trees showed a significant improvement in the morphology, quality and overall productivity along with 100% reduction in the spongy tissue disorder. In conclusion, the biofield energy treatment could be used as an alternative way to increase the production of quality mangoes.
Category: Biochemistry

[15442] viXra:1608.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-26 01:17:34

Dark Matter Galaxy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Using the world's most powerful telescopes, an international team of astronomers has found a massive galaxy that consists almost entirely of dark matter. [16] Astrophysicists from the Johns Hopkins University have proposed a clever new way of shedding light on the mystery of dark matter, believed to make up most of the universe. [15] "These studies are providing increasingly sensitive results, slowly shrinking the box of parameters where dark matter particles can hide," said Alexander Kashlinsky, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "The failure to find them has led to renewed interest in studying how well primordial black holes-black holes formed in the universe's first fraction of a second-could work as dark matter." [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[15441] viXra:1608.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 13:26:18

Single-Photon Microwave Source

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

A collaboration including researchers at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) has developed a tuneable, high-efficiency, single-photon microwave source. The technology has great potential for applications in quantum computing and quantum information technology, as well as in studying the fundamental reactions between light and matter in quantum circuits. [19] Researchers from MIT and MIT Lincoln Laboratory report an important step toward practical quantum computers, with a paper describing a prototype chip that can trap ions in an electric field and, with built-in optics, direct laser light toward each of them. [18] An ion trap with four segmented blade electrodes used to trap a linear chain of atomic ions for quantum information processing. Each ion is addressed optically for individual control and readout using the high optical access of the trap. [17] To date, researchers have realised qubits in the form of individual electrons (aktuell.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/pm2012/pm00090.html.en). However, this led to interferences and rendered the information carriers difficult to programme and read. The group has solved this problem by utilising electron holes as qubits, rather than electrons. [16] Physicists from MIPT and the Russian Quantum Center have developed an easier method to create a universal quantum computer using multilevel quantum systems (qudits), each one of which is able to work with multiple "conventional" quantum elements – qubits. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[15440] viXra:1608.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 13:37:23

Earthquakes

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

A possible correlation between earthquake, electric fields and ionosphere
Category: Geophysics

[15439] viXra:1608.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 11:49:07

The Collapse of the Wave Function

Authors: Joseph Palazzo
Comments: 14 Pages.

In the interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, there were four major mistakes done at different levels: (1)A misinterpretation of Bell’s theorem in which the original intent did not include non-locality, but as a test to see whether or not a particle has a certain property that can be measured. (2)A misinterpretation of the disagreement between Einstein and Bohr. Einstein’s objection to the collapse of the wave function implied a spooky action at a distance, while Bohr insisted on the instantaneous collapse of the wave function which he mistook to be a real wave. (3)A misinterpretation that the wave function represents a real wave when in actuality it represents the possible states of a quantum system before a measurement. (4)When Bell’s theorem was violated by a quantum system, those violations were misinterpreted as evidence of an instantaneous collapse of the wave function and non-locality. We will argue: there is no collapse of the wave function. Bell’s theorem is not about non-locality. There is no spooky action at a distance. And Quantum Mechanics is about measuring quantities at the microscopic scales and in doing so, these quantities are altered. So what we get is partial knowledge. But in spite of that obstacle, we still get a theory of reality with considerable success.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15438] viXra:1608.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 12:02:33

About a Definition in Time

Authors: Junnichi Fujii
Comments: 3 Pages.

The definition in time in the present-day physics is insufficient. Several problems which are to reconsider a definition in time and concern in time can be settled. This definition isn't inconsistent with general relativity. 4 are supposed. This isn't also inconsistent with general relativity. Mystery in the life expectancy of the neutron can be settled by this. Several dilemmas which concern at time can be settled. It's possible to deepen the understanding simpler than the one of the general relativity.
Category: Classical Physics

[15437] viXra:1608.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 08:09:08

Catalan's Constant :G=0.9159...

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas for Catalan's constant G=0.915965594177...
Category: General Mathematics

[15436] viXra:1608.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 08:14:20

Some Questions Related with Elementary Analysis

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas related with: pi constant pi=3.1415...,Catalan's constant G=0.9159...,Euler's constant gamma=0.5772...
Category: General Mathematics

[15435] viXra:1608.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 04:35:33

Fast Radio Bursts and Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Astrophysicists from the Johns Hopkins University have proposed a clever new way of shedding light on the mystery of dark matter, believed to make up most of the universe. [15] "These studies are providing increasingly sensitive results, slowly shrinking the box of parameters where dark matter particles can hide," said Alexander Kashlinsky, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "The failure to find them has led to renewed interest in studying how well primordial black holes-black holes formed in the universe's first fraction of a second-could work as dark matter." [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[15434] viXra:1608.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:50:00

Analysis of DSm Belief Conditioning Rules and Extension of Their Applicability

Authors: Milan Daniel
Comments: 22 Pages.

Analysis of belief conditioning rules (BCRs) is presented in this chapter. Some simplifications of formulas for BCRs are suggested. A comparison of BCRs with classic rules of conditioning is performed. Finally, definition domains and applicability of BCRs are extended. Full formal definition of the extended version of BCR12 is presented.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15433] viXra:1608.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:51:33

Attribute Information Evaluation in C&C Systems

Authors: Ksawery Krenc, Adam Kawalec
Comments: 25 Pages.

This chapter describes what particular pieces of information about a source should be taken into account in order to get a reasonable assessment of an attribute information retrieved based on the sensor data or human originated information. It has been proven that actual sensor weights and hypotheses masses do not change randomly, but they vary in time according to tracked target motion, however not directly to the target position. It is postulated that the knowledge about target position only is insufficient and at least two dynamical coordinates target state vectors are required to reflect the target orientation, which has an influence on actual hypotheses assessment formed, on the basis of the sensor data or visual sightings.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15432] viXra:1608.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:52:34

Automatic Goal Allocation for a Planetary Rover with DSmT

Authors: Massimiliano Vasile, Matteo Ceriotti
Comments: 25 Pages.

In this chapter, we propose an approach for assigning an interest level to the goals of a planetary rover. Assigning an interest level to goals, allows the rover to autonomously transform and reallocate the goals. The interest level is defined by data-fusing payload and navigation information.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15431] viXra:1608.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:53:24

Definition of Evidence Fusion Rules Based on Referee Functions

Authors: Frederic Dambreville
Comments: 32 Pages.

This chapter defines a new concept and framework for constructing fusion rules for evidences. This framework is based on a referee function, which does a decisional arbitrament conditionally to basic decisions provided by the several sources of information.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15430] viXra:1608.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:55:18

Fusion of Esm Allegiance Reports Using DSmT

Authors: Pascal Djiknavorian, Pierre Valin, Dominic Grenier
Comments: 17 Pages.

Electronic Support Measures consist of passive receivers which can identify emitters coming from a small bearing angle, which, in turn, can be related to platforms that belong to 3 classes: either Friend, Neutral, or Hostile.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15429] viXra:1608.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:56:33

Implementing General Belief Function Framework with a Practical Codification for Low Complexity

Authors: Arnaud Martin
Comments: 58 Pages.

In this chapter, we propose a new practical codification of the elements of the Venn diagram in order to easily manipulate the focal elements. In order to reduce the complexity, the eventual constraints must be integrated in the codification at the beginning.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15428] viXra:1608.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:57:25

Improvement of Multiple Ground Targets Tracking with Fusion of Identification Attributes

Authors: Benjamin Pannetier, Jean Dezert
Comments: 31 Pages.

Multiple ground targets (MGT) tracking is a challenging problem in real environment. Advanced algorithms include exogeneous information like road network and terrain topography.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15427] viXra:1608.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:58:42

Information Fusion for Natural Hazards in Mountains

Authors: Jean-Marc Tacnet, Mireille Batton-Hubert, Jean Dezert
Comments: 96 Pages.

From a real case application based on snow-avalanche risk management, an integrated framework mixing evidential reasoning and multi-criteria decision analysis (ER-MCDA) is proposed. This methodology considers a simplified decision sorting problem based on qualitative and quantitative criteria on which more or less reliable sources provide uncertain and imprecise evaluations.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15426] viXra:1608.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:00:15

Map Regenerating Forest Stands Based on DST and DSmT Combination Rules

Authors: Brice Mora, Richard A. Fournier, Samuel Foucher
Comments: 20 Pages.

Our results demonstrated the ability of the Free Dezert-Smarandache (DSm) model to improve thematic classification of forest regeneration overthe use of Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) and a classical Maximum Likelihood Algorithm (MLA).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15425] viXra:1608.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:01:45

Multimodal Information Retrieval Based on DSmT. Application to Computeraided Medical Diagnosis

Authors: Gwenole Quellec, Mathieu Lamard, Guy Cazuguel, Beatrice Cochener, Christian Roux
Comments: 33 Pages.

We propose in this chapter a content-based information retrieval framework to select documents in a database, consisting of several images with semantic information. Information in these documents is not only heterogeneous, but also often incomplete.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15424] viXra:1608.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:02:46

Multiple Cameras Fusion Based on DSmT for Tracking Objects on Ground Plane

Authors: Esteban Garcia, Leopoldo Altamirano
Comments: 15 Pages.

This chapter presents comparative results of a model for multiple cameras fusion, which is based on Dezert-Smarandache theory of evidence. Our architecture works at the decision level to track objects on a ground plane using predefined zones, producing useful information for surveillance tasks such as behavior recognition.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15423] viXra:1608.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:03:42

Non-Numeric Labels and Constrained Focal Elements

Authors: Christophe Osswald, Arnaud Martin
Comments: 24 Pages.

The theory of belief functions allows to build a large family of combination operators, based mostly on intersections and unions between the focal elements expressed by the experts, and multiplications and additions on the masses affected to these focal elements.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15422] viXra:1608.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:04:41

Performance Evaluation of a Tracking Algorithm Including Attribute Data

Authors: Jean Dezert, Albena Tchamova, Ludmil Bojilov, Pavlina Konstantinova
Comments: 14 Pages.

The main objective of this work is to investigate the impact of the quality of attribute data source on the performance of a target tracking algorithm.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15421] viXra:1608.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:05:48

Satellite Image Fusion Using Dezert-Smarandache Theory

Authors: Abdenour Bouakache, Aichouche Belhadj-Aissa, Gregoire Mercier
Comments: 17 Pages.

Free and hybrid models of multisource satellite images fusion are developed using the plausible and paradoxical reasoning theory of Dezert-Smarandache. The aim of this work is to show the contribution of these fusion models for improving the thematic classification and the quantification of change.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15420] viXra:1608.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:06:53

Utilizing Classifier Conflict for Sensor Management and User Interaction

Authors: Willem L. van Norden, Catholijn M. Jonker
Comments: 17 Pages.

This chapter describes how the conflict encountered by the PCR6 rule can be utilized in sensor management. We therefore discuss the classification model that is used in the fusion problem and two different types of conflict. To enable operators to exert constraints on singletons we propose a (slightly) altered PCR6 rule, dubbed PCR6a. We show how the algorithm works and we illustrate how the amount of conflict can be used for sensor management and/or for operator feedback by using an example.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15419] viXra:1608.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 07:23:46

God Seems to Plays Dice with Dual Entangled Pinball Machines in a Super Symmetric (Susy) Multiverse.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 7 Pages. 7

In a SUSY (Super symmetric ) multiverse, God seems to plays dice with dual entangled distant Quantum pinball machines to let the quantum world and intelligent species like us humans make decisions. Intelligent beings are lucky to became more time ( 0.5 sec.) to veto actions initiated by one of the other universes. As a result: the creation of "democratic free will" In Quantum FFF Theory it is assumed that each quantum is instant entangled with one or more dual Charge Parity (anti) symmetric copy particles present in opposing multiverse bubbles embedded in the so called raspberry shaped multiverse. Benjamin Libet measured the so called electric Readiness Potential (RP) time to perform a volitional act, in the brains of his students and the time of conscious awareness (TCA) of that act, which appeared to come 500 m.sec behind the RP. In addition, I found recently support for a multiverse related quantum experiment done by Giulia Rubino and Philip Walther of Institute for Quantum Optics Vienna as a strong indication, that not only for humans but also for “ dead” quanta a possible multiverse relation could be postulated. As a result we may say, that God seems to plays dice with dual entangled distant Quantum pinball machines (universal bubbles like ours) to let the quantum world and intelligent species like us make more or less conscious decisions.
Category: Astrophysics

[15418] viXra:1608.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 18:28:40

Additional Solutions of the Special Case "CLP" of the Problem of Apollonius via Vector Rotations using Geometric Algebra

Authors: James A. Smith
Comments: 38 Pages.

This document adds to the collection of solved problems presented in References [1]-[6]. The solutions presented herein are not as efficient as those in [6], but they give additional insight into ways in which GA can be used to solve this problem. After reviewing, briefly, how reflections and rotations can be expressed and manipulated via GA, it solves the CLP limiting case of the Problem of Apollonius in three ways, some of which identify the the solution circles' points of tangency with the given circle, and others of which identify the solution circles' points of tangency with the given line. For comparison, the solutions that were developed in [1] are presented in an Appendix.
Category: Geometry

[15417] viXra:1608.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 23:09:08

The Potential Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment on the Atomic and Physical Properties of Antimony Tin Oxide Nanopowder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Antimony tin oxide (ATO) is known for its high thermal conductivity, optical transmittance, and wide energy band gap, which makes it a promising material for the display devices, solar cells, and chemical sensor industries. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the atomic and physical properties of ATO nanopowder. The ATO nanopowder was divided into two parts: control and treated. The treated part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The control and treated samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The XRD data revealed that the crystallite size on the plane (110) was significantly reduced to 53.1 nm as compared to the control (212.6 nm). In addition, the lattice parameter, unit cell volume, density, and molecular weight were also altered as compared to the control. The FT-IR spectra showed that the stretching vibration corresponding to Sn-OH was shifted to higher wavenumber (512 cm-1) in the treated sample as compared to the control (496 cm-1). Besides, ESR spectral analysis exhibited that the g-factor was reduced in the treated ATO sample by 21.1% as compared to the control. Also, the ESR signal width and height were reduced by 70.4% and 93.7%, respectively as compared to the control. Hence, the XRD, FT-IR, and ESR data revealed that the biofield energy treatment has a significant impact on the atomic and physical properties of ATO nanopowder. Therefore, the biofield energy treatment could be more useful in display devices and solar cell industries.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[15416] viXra:1608.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 23:10:12

Quantitative Determination of Isotopic Abundance Ratio of 13C, 2H, and 18O in Biofield Energy Treated Ortho and Meta Toluic Acid Isomers

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

O-Toluic acid (OTA) and m-toluic acid (MTA) are two isomers of toluic acid that act as an important organic intermediates, mostly used in medicines and pesticides. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on isotopic abundance ratios of 2H/1H, 13C/12C, (PM+1)/PM and 18O/16O, (PM+2)/PM, in toluic acid isomers using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The OTA and MTA samples were divided into two parts: control and treated. The control sample remained as untreated, while the treated sample was further divided into four groups as T1, T2, T3, and T4. The treated group was subjected to biofield energy treatment. The GC-MS spectra of both the isomers showed five m/z peaks due to the molecular ion peak and fragmented peaks of toluic acid derivatives. The isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM and (PM+2)/PM were calculated for both the isomers and found significant alteration in the treated isomers. The isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM in treated samples of OTA was decreased and then slightly increased upto 2.37% in T2, where the (PM+2)/PM in treated OTA, significantly decreased by 55.3% in T3 sample. Similarly, in case of MTA, the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM in the treated sample showed a slight increase the (PM+2)/PM was decreased by 11.95% in T2 as compared to their respective control. GC-MS data suggests that the biofield energy treatment on toluic acid isomers had significantly altered the isotopic abundance of 2H, 13C, and 18O in OTA and MTA as compared to the control.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[15415] viXra:1608.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 00:10:41

Part 2 :Review of Tokamak Physics as a Way to Construct a Device Optimal for Graviton Detection and Generation Within a Confined Small Spatial Volume, as Opposed to Dyson’s “infinite Astrophysical Volume” Calculations

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 17 Pages.

Review of arguments in refutation of Dyson’s alleged prohibition against use of device physics as to determining if Gravitons can be determined to exist is followed up by use of a hot Plasma within a Tokamak in a re do of the amplitude of alleged Gravitational waves. This overlaps with gravitons, and we follow up with an analysis of the pertinent form of Gravitons, i.e. do we have massless or massive gravitons. In addition we also obtain GW of amplitude as low as five meters above the Tokamak center such low strain values are extremely close to brane world GW, and strain values in early universe cosmology.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15414] viXra:1608.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 00:13:47

Part 1: Possible Graviton Detection, for Outer Space Treatment of the Gertenshehtein Effect. I.e. Dyson’s Construction/ Analysis Does not Precludes Earth Bound Generation of Gravitons.

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 8 Pages.

We are reviewing Freeman Dyson’s paper which alleged that detection of gravitons via LIGO, or by outer space experiments (due to probabilistic calculations which we review in the document), an impossibility. The disagreement we have with Dr. Dyson is that his probability calculations are taking place in almost infinite spatial domains, which renders the detection protocols, using his probability scheme, impossible. After we summarize the Dyson outer space arguments, and how Dyson got them, we will refer the reader to the very strain calculation done in the referenced PRD article, so cited, as to how a nuclear weapon could generate GW, and then afterwards, refer the reader to a 2nd paper, of how Tokamaks could detect GW/ Gravitons, as detectable by the 3DSR effect. Nowhere are we suggesting DETONITION of a nuclear device to generate GW! The reader is referred to another Li et.al. PRD article, 2008, as to 3DSR, as to how detection of GW/Gravitons could occur due to something other than the Gertenshehtein effect, in this paper, i.e. they can look it up, and then in a 2nd follow up paper learn how a Tokamak could be utilized to have a finite sized geometry, for using the 3DSR effect for GW generation. The first paper highlights how if one assumes that only by use of infinite spatial geometry, and by using only the Gertenshehtein effect, that indeed one can convince oneself as to not bothering with the very real prospects of earthbound generation of Gravitons and GW, and that in doing so, GW research will be strictly limited, even with the outstanding results of LIGO, which in no way should be criticized. The entire analysis makes the case that foundational research as to the nature of GRAVITY means moving beyond the mental limitations place on GW/ Graviton research by Dyson’s 2009 paper.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15413] viXra:1608.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 03:20:39

How Atoms are Arranged in Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Researchers from North Carolina State University, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have developed a novel approach to materials characterization, using Bayesian statistical methods to glean new insights into the structure of materials. The work should inform the development of new materials for use in a variety of applications. [20] Scientists from Russia and Australia have proposed a simple new way of counting microscopic particles in optical materials by means of a laser. [19] A new MIT study could open up new areas of technology based on types of light emission that had been thought to be "forbidden," or at least so unlikely as to be practically unattainable. The new approach, the researchers say, could cause certain kinds of interactions between light and matter, which would normally take billions of years to happen, to take place instead within billionths of a second, under certain special conditions. [18] Researchers from North Carolina State University have developed a new tool for detecting and measuring the polarization of light based on a single spatial sampling of the light, rather than the multiple samples required by previous technologies. The new device makes use of the unique properties of organic polymers, rather than traditional silicon, for polarization detection and measurement. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[15412] viXra:1608.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 03:50:33

Poly-Complex Clifford Algebra and Grand Unification

Authors: Robert G Wallace
Comments: 8 Pages.

An algebra for unit multivector components for a manifold of five poly-complex dimensions is presented. The algebra has many properties that suggest it may provide a basis for a grand unification theory.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[15411] viXra:1608.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 04:01:08

About the Life Time of the Neutron

Authors: Valery B. Smolensky
Comments: 10 Pages.

Based on the comparison of the experimental data obtained in determining the lifetime of neutrons using two fundamentally different measurement methods offered a reasonable explanation of the reasons for the discrepancy of experimental results. Theoretical calculations determine the lifetime of the neutron and the final results of these calculations. The comparison of the results of theoretical calculations with experimental data. On the basis of experimental confirmation of the existence of the neutron from different times of life, theoretical confirmation of the existence of the neutron that is two times life and justice and the CPT theorem, proved the hypothesis of the existence in nature of stable bound States of matter – antineutron long-lived and short-lived neutron.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[15410] viXra:1608.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 13:25:16

Neutrino Horns

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Neutrinos are tricky. Although trillions of these harmless, neutral particles pass through us every second, they interact so rarely with matter that, to study them, scientists send a beam of neutrinos to giant detectors. And to be sure they have enough of them, scientists have to start with a very concentrated beam of neutrinos. To concentrate the beam, an experiment needs a special device called a neutrino horn. [7] The ultra-low background KamLAND-Zen detector, hosted by research institutes inside and outside Japan demonstrates the best sensitivity in the search for neutrinoless double-beta decay, and sets the best limit on the effective Majorana neutrino mass. [6] Now, researchers from the University of Tokyo, in collaboration with a Spanish physicist, have used one of the world's most powerful computers to analyse a special decay of calcium-48, whose life, which lasts trillions of years, depends on the unknown mass of neutrinos. This advance will facilitate the detection of this rare decay in underground laboratories. [5] To measure the mass of neutrinos, scientists study radioactive decays in which they are emitted. An essential ingredient is the decay energy which corresponds to the mass difference between the mother and daughter nuclei. This decay energy must be known with highest precision. A team of scientists now succeeded to resolve a severe discrepancy of the decay energy for the artificial holmium (Ho) isotope with mass number 163. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[15409] viXra:1608.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 10:21:25

Atomic Gyroscope

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

The NIST team has demonstrated a compact atomic gyroscope design that could, with further development, be portable, low power, and accurate enough to be used for navigation. Gyroscopes, traditionally based on mechanical components that spin or vibrate, are common in navigation applications and are increasingly used in consumer electronics such as smartphones. The new NIST device might find uses in applications requiring ultra-precise navigation with extreme size, weight and power limits, such as on spacecraft or submarines. [9] A proposal for a gravitational-wave detector made of two space-based atomic clocks has been unveiled by physicists in the US. [8] The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15408] viXra:1608.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 12:02:20

Dynamic Universe Model Solves “Faster Than Light Neutrinos” Riddle

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 36 Pages. Additional supplimentary files are there

There are many instances that reported Superluminal neutrinos. Dynamic Universe Model explains the how and why of “Faster than Light Neutrinos” without any modification in its theory. Various instances like Astronomical jets, Gravitational catapult, MINOS experiment and Fermilab1979 in particle experiments and supernova SN1987A and Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) in astronomy Neutrinos travelling faster than speed of light were recorded. There were 76 theoretical experiments conducted and their results are reported in this paper. These experiments were done between 2009 to 2011. Dynamic Universe Model theory was tested in explaining many anomalies in Physics. Dynamic Universe Model’s many predictions came true.
Category: Astrophysics

[15407] viXra:1608.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 12:44:16

Challenges in Separating of Free Electrons (Persian Language)

Authors: Hosein Majlesi
Comments: 15 Pages. Persian language,Patent:139350140003006698,Tuesday,September16,2014

This present paper studied about the challenge in separating of free electrons and history of experiment in Persian language, This present paper is only for Persian readers that want to know more information about the history of experiment and challenges in the theory and experiment by free electrons.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15406] viXra:1608.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 09:37:57

Proton Quantum Tunneling

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

A discovery by a research team led by Northeastern's Paul Champion upends the understanding held for centuries of protons' behavior. The researchers— using an ultrafast pulsed laser system designed at Northeastern—have revealed that protons actually tunnel through thermodynamic barriers rather than travel over them. [12] Scientists have discovered an anomaly in the properties of ice at very cold temperatures near 20 K, which they believe can be explained by the quantum tunneling of multiple protons simultaneously. The finding is a rare instance of quantum phenomena emerging on the macroscopic scale, and is even more unusual because it is only the second time—the first being superconductivity— that macroscopic quantum phenomena have been observed in a system that is based on fermions, which include protons, electrons, and all other matter particles. Other systems exhibiting macroscopic quantum phenomena have been based on photons, a type of boson, which mediate the forces between matter. [11] Neutron scattering and computational modeling have revealed unique and unexpected behavior of water molecules under extreme confinement that is unmatched by any known gas, liquid or solid states. [10] An international team of scientists studying ultrafast physics have solved a mystery of quantum mechanics, and found that quantum tunneling is an instantaneous process. The new theory could lead to faster and smaller electronic components, for which quantum tunneling is a significant factor. It will also lead to a better understanding of diverse areas such as electron microscopy, nuclear fusion and DNA mutations. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15405] viXra:1608.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:15:19

A Class of Fusion Rules Based on the Belief Redistribution to Subsets or Complements

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Arnaud Martin, Jean Dezert
Comments: 24 Pages.

In this chapter we present a class of fusion rules based on the redistribution of the conflicting or even non-conflicting masses to the subsets or to the complements of the elements involved in the conflict proportionally with respect to their masses or/and cardinals. At the end, these rules are presented in a more general theoretical way including explicitly the reliability of each source of evidence. Some examples are also provided.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15404] viXra:1608.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:16:34

An Introduction to DSmT

Authors: Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 72 Pages.

The management and combination of uncertain, imprecise, fuzzy and even paradoxical or highly conflicting sources of information has always been, and still remains today, of primal importance for the development of reliable modern information systems involving artificial reasoning. In this introduction, we present a survey of our recent theory of plausible and paradoxical reasoning, known as Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT), developed for dealing with imprecise, uncertain and conflicting sources of information.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15403] viXra:1608.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:17:36

DSm Field and Linear Algebra of Refined Labels

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Jean Dezert, Xinde Li
Comments: 11 Pages.

This chapter presents the DSm Field and Linear Algebra of Refined Labels (FLARL) in DSmT framework in order to work precisely with qualitative labels for information fusion. We present and justify the basic operators on qualitative labels (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, root, power, etc).
Category: Algebra

[15402] viXra:1608.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:19:03

Fusion of Qualitative Information Using Imprecise 2 Tuple Labels

Authors: Xinde Li, Xinhan Huang, Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache, Li Duan
Comments: 25 Pages.

In this chapter, Herrera-Mart´ınez’ 2-tuple linguistic representation model is extended for combining imprecise qualitative information using fusion rules drawn from Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) or from Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) frameworks.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15401] viXra:1608.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:20:08

New Fusion Rules for Solving Blackman’s Association Problem

Authors: Albena Tchamova, Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 13 Pages.

This chapter presents a new approach for solving the paradoxical Blackman’s association problem. It utilizes a new class of fusion rules based on fuzzy T-conorm/T-norm operators together with Dezert-Smarandache theory and the relative variations of generalized pignistic probabilities measure of correct associations defined from a partial ordering function of hyper-power set.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15400] viXra:1608.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:21:22

Object Identification Using T-Conorm/norm Fusion Rule

Authors: Albena Tchamova, Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 10 Pages.

This small chapter presents an approach providing fast reduction of total ignorance in the process of target identification. It utilizes the recently defined fusion rule based on fuzzy T-conorm/Tnorm operators, as well as all the available information from the adjoint sensor and additional information obtained from the a priori defined objective and subjective considerations, concerning relationships between the attribute components at different levels of abstraction. The approach performance is estimated on the base of the pignistic probabilities according to the nature of the objects considered here.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15399] viXra:1608.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:22:28

Probabilistic PCR6 Fusion Rule

Authors: Frederic Dambreville, Francis Celeste, Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 25 Pages.

This chapter defines and implements a non-Bayesian fusion rule for combining densities of probabilities, derived from imprecise knowledge.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15398] viXra:1608.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:23:17

Target Type Tracking with DSmP

Authors: Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache, Albena Tchamova, Pavlina Konstantinova
Comments: 19 Pages.

In this chapter we analyze the performances of a new probabilistic belief transformation, denoted DSmP, for the sequential estimation of target ID from classifier outputs in the Target Type Tracking problem (TTT).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15397] viXra:1608.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:27:29

Transformations of Belief Masses Into Subjective Probabilities

Authors: Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 53 Pages.

In this chapter, we propose in the DSmT framework, a new probabilistic transformation, called DSmP, in order to build a subjective probability measure from any basic belief assignment defined on any model of the frame of discernment.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15396] viXra:1608.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-23 19:44:34

The Hydrogen Balloon Rocket with Laser Power

Authors: Zhixian Lin
Comments: 6 Pages.

Laser propulsion is not a new conception, but by now still no one can launch a spacecraft into space with laser propulsion. To launch a spacecraft with laser propulsion, high-power laser beams need to focus on the spacecraft, but high-power laser beams will destroy the spacecraft. This paper describes a hydrogen balloon rocket with laser power which allow high-power laser beams focus on it. It is reusable and is much effective than chemical rockets. It makes laser propulsion feasible and has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of space launches.
Category: Astrophysics

[15395] viXra:1608.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-23 20:38:53

Einstein's Light Clock

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 1 Page.

The light clock is wrong.
The apparatus (the clock) would just move away from the beam of light.
You would have to angle the light beam to make it hit the clock pads (mirrors) and that changes everything. i.e. the distance the light beam has to travel does NOT increase because of the moving clock -- it is because you have to angle the beam.
You might need to think about it for a couple of months to realize everything. Good luck with your endeavors.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15394] viXra:1608.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-23 21:34:23

Creation of Matter Waves with Water

Authors: Royan Rosche
Comments: 8 Pages.

Abstract: Water is shown to create two-dimensional matter waves with soluble chemicals via an alternate chemical dissolution method that is extremely simple and can be done instantaneously by anyone with water and a pure soluble chemical compounds. I have included many images because I know what I am disclosing sounds too good to be true or unbelievable to the modern world of science. Through experimentation of matter waves it is realized that they form opposite motion as opposed to dissolved ions in water indicating that water can hold two distinct phases of matter at once, I am calling these vertical (which is normal dissolved ions) and horizontal (matter waves) phases of matter in water. Matter waves are visible as a quantum fluid having quantum circles made out of what looks like very thin strings. Ions, vertical phase of matter, in water can mix with matter waves generating a new type of chemical reaction.
Category: Chemistry

[15393] viXra:1608.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-23 23:21:48

Characterization of Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Properties of Biofield Energy Treated Bio Peptone

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Bio peptone is a combination of enzymatic digest of animal tissues and casein; and generally used for the growth of several varieties of microbes. The aim of present study was to investigate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of bio peptone. The present study was carried out in two groups i.e. control and treated. The control group was kept without treatment, while the treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Subsequently, both the samples were assessed using numerous analytical techniques. The X-ray diffractograms (XRD) showed the halo patterns of XRD peaks in both the samples. The particle size analysis exhibited about 4.70% and 17.58% increase in the d50 (average particle size) and d99 (particle size below which 99% particles are present), respectively of treated bio peptone as compared to the control. The surface area analysis revealed the 253.95% increase in the specific surface area of treated sample as compared to the control. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis showed the 29.59% increase in the melting temperature of treated bio peptone sample as compared to the control. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed the increase in onset of degradation temperature by 3.31% in the treated sample with respect to the control. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) study revealed the changes in the wavenumber of functional groups such as O-H stretching from 3066 cm-1 to 3060 cm-1; C-H stretching from 2980, 2893, and 2817 cm-1 to 2970, 2881, and 2835 cm-1, respectively; N-H bending from 1589 cm-1 to 1596 cm-1; C=C stretching from 1533 cm-1 to 1525 cm-1; and P=O stretching from 1070 cm-1 to 1078 cm-1 in treated sample as compared to the control. The UV-vis spectroscopy showed the similar patterns of absorbance maxima (λmax) i.e. at 259 nm and 257 nm in both the control and treated samples, respectively. Overall, the analytical results suggested that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has substantial effect on physicochemical and spectral properties of bio peptone. Owing to this, the treated bio peptone might be more effective as culture medium than the corresponding control.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[15392] viXra:1608.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-23 23:24:14

Physical, Spectroscopic and Thermal Characterization of Biofield Treated Fish Peptone

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

The by-products of industrially processed fish are enzymatically converted into fish protein isolates and hydrolysates having a wide biological activity and nutritional properties. However, the heat processing may cause their thermal denaturation thereby causing the conformational changes in them. The present study utilized the strategy of biofield energy treatment and analysed its impact on various properties of the fish peptone as compared to the untreated (control) sample. The fish peptone sample was divided into two parts; one part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment, coded as the treated sample and another part was coded as the control. The impact of biofield treatment was analysed through various analytical techniques and results were compared with the control sample. The particle size data revealed 4.61% increase in the average particle size (d50) along with 2.66% reduction in the surface area of the treated sample as compared to the control. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed the amorphous nature of the fish peptone sample; however no alteration was found in the diffractogram of the treated sample with respect to the control. The Fourier transform infrared studies showed the alterations in the frequency of peaks corresponding to N-H, C-H, C=O, C-N, and C-OH, functional groups in the treated sample as compared to the control. The differential scanning calorimetry data revealed the increase in transition enthalpy (ΔH) from -71.14 J/g (control) to -105.32 J/g in the treated sample. The thermal gravimetric analysis data showed the increase in maximum thermal degradation temperature (Tmax) from 213.31°C (control) to 221.38°C along with a reduction in the percent weight loss of the treated sample during the thermal degradation event. These data revealed the increase in thermal stability of the treated fish peptone and suggested that the biofield energy treatment may be used to improve the thermal stability of the heat sensitive compounds.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[15391] viXra:1608.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 01:36:28

An In-Depth Look at Quantitative Information Fusion Rules

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 33 Pages.

This chapter may look like a glossary of the fusion rules and we also introduce new ones presenting their formulas and examples: Conjunc tive, Disjunctive, Exclusive Disjunctive, Mixed Conjunctive-Disjunctive rules, Conditional rule, Dempster’s, Yager’s, Smets’ TBM rule, Dubois-Prade’s, Dezert-Smarandache classical and hybrid rules, Murphy’s average rule, Inagaki-Lefevre-Colot-Vannoorenberghe Unified Combination rules [and, as particular cases: Iganaki’s parameterized rule, Weighted Average Operator, minC (M. Daniel), and newly Proportional Conflict Redistribution rules (Smarandache-Dezert) among which PCR5 is the most exact way of redistribution of the conflicting mass to non-empty sets following the path of the conjunctive rule], Zhang’s Center Combination rule, Consensus Operator (Jøsang), Cautious Rule (Smets), -junctions rules (Smets), etc. and three new T -norm & T -conorm rules adjusted from fuzzy and neutrosophic sets to information fusion (Tchamova-Smarandache). Introducing the degree of union and degree of inclusion with respect to the cardinal of sets not with the fuzzy set point of view, besides that of intersection, many fusion rules can be improved.
Category: General Mathematics

[15390] viXra:1608.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 01:38:48

Fusion of Qualitative Beliefs

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Jean Dezert
Comments: 18 Pages.

This chapter introduces the notion of qualitative belief assignment to model beliefs of human experts expressed in natural language (with linguistic labels).We show how qualitative beliefs can be efficiently combined using an extension of Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) of plausible and paradoxical quantitative reasoning to qualitative reasoning. We propose a new arithmetic on linguistic labels which allows a direct extension of classical or hybrid DSm fusion rules. An approximate qualitative PCR5 rule is also proposed jointly with a Qualitative Average Operator. We also show how crisp or interval mappings can be used to deal indirectly with linguistic labels. A very simple example is provided to illustrate our qualitative fusion rules.
Category: General Mathematics

[15389] viXra:1608.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 01:45:02

Target Type Tracking with Different Fusion Rules: A Comparative Analysis

Authors: J. Dezert, A. Tchamova, P. Konstantinova, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 21 Pages.

We analyze the behavior of several combinational rules for temporal/sequential attribute data fusion for target type estimation. Our comparative analysis is based on: Dempster’s fusion rule, Proportional Conflict Redistribution rule no. 5 (PCR5), Symmetric Adaptive Combination (SAC) rule and a new fusion rule, based on fuzzy T-conorm and T-norm operators (TCN).
Category: General Mathematics

[15388] viXra:1608.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 01:48:59

A Comparison of the Generalized minC Combination and the Hybrid DSm Combination Rules

Authors: Milan Daniel
Comments: 18 Pages.

A generalization of the minC combination to DSm hyper-power sets is presented. Both the special formulas for static fusion or dynamic fusion without non-existential constraints and the quite general formulas for dynamic fusion with non-existential constraints are included. Examples of the minC combination on several different hybrid DSm models are presented. A comparison of the generalized minC combination with the hybrid DSm rule is discussed and explained on examples.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[15387] viXra:1608.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 01:49:56

A DSmT-based Fusion Machine for Robot’s Map Reconstruction

Authors: Xinhan Huang, Xinde Li, Min Wang
Comments: 22 Pages.

Characteristics of uncertainty and imprecision, even imperfection is presented from knowledge acquisition in map reconstruction of autonomous mobile robots. Especially in the course of building grid map using sonar, this characteristic of uncertainty is especially servere.
Category: General Mathematics

[15386] viXra:1608.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 01:51:11

A New Generalization of the Proportional Conflict Redistribution Rule Stable in Terms of Decision

Authors: Arnaud Martin, Christophe Osswald
Comments: 21 Pages.

In this chapter, we present and discuss a new generalized proportional conflict redistribution rule. The Dezert-Smarandache extension of the Dempster- Shafer theory has relaunched the studies on the combination rules especially for the management of the conflict. Many combination rules have been proposed in the last few years. We study here different combination rules and compare them in terms of decision on didactic example and on generated data. Indeed, in real applications, we need a reliable decision and it is the final results that matter. This chapter shows that a fine proportional conflict redistribution rule must be preferred for the combination in the belief function theory.
Category: General Mathematics

[15385] viXra:1608.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 01:55:36

A Note on the Smarandache Cyclic Geometric Determinant Sequences

Authors: A. A. K. Majumdar
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper gives an alternative approach to ¯nd the determinant of the right circular matrix with geometric sequence, using the known results of the circulant matrix.Keywords circulant matrix, right circulant matrix with geometric sequence.
Category: General Mathematics

[15384] viXra:1608.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 01:57:02

Application of DSmT for Land Cover Change Prediction

Authors: Samuel Corgne, Laurence Hubert-Moy, Gregoire Mercier, Jean Dezert
Comments: 13 Pages.

This chapter presents an environmental application of DSmT for the land cover prediction. The spatial prediction of land cover at the field scale in winter is useful to reduce the bare soils in agricultural intensive regions.
Category: General Mathematics

[15383] viXra:1608.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 01:58:54

Classical Combination Rules Generalized to DSm Hyperpower Sets and their Comparison with the Hybrid DSm Rule

Authors: Milan Daniel
Comments: 25 Pages.

Dempster’s rule, non-normalized conjunctive rule, Yager’s rule and Dubois-Prade’s rule for belief functions combination are generalized to be applicable to hyper-power sets according to the DSm theory. A comparison of the rules with DSm rule of combination is presented. A series of examples is included.
Category: General Mathematics

[15382] viXra:1608.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:00:20

Comparison Between DSm and Minc Combination Rules

Authors: Milan Daniel
Comments: 20 Pages.

Both DSm and minC rules of combination endeavor to process conflicts among combined beliefs better. The nature of conflicts as well as their processing during the belief combination is sketched. An presentation of the minC combination,an alternative to Dempster’s rule of combination, follows. Working domains, structures and mechanisms of the DSm and minC combination rules are compared in the body of this chapter. Finally, some comparative examples are presented.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15381] viXra:1608.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:01:33

Conflict Free Rule for Combining Evidences

Authors: Frederic Dambreville
Comments: 29 Pages.

Recent works have investigated the problem of the conflict redistribution in the fusion rules of evidence theories. As a consequence of these works, many new rules have been proposed. Now, there is not a clear theoretical criterion for a choice of a rule instead another. The present chapter proposes a new theoretically grounded rule, based on a new concept of sensor independence. This new rule avoids the conflict redistribution, by an adaptive combination of the beliefs. Both the logical grounds and the algorithmic implementation are considered.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15380] viXra:1608.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:02:21

DSm Models and Non-Archimedean Reasoning

Authors: Andrew Schumann
Comments: 23 Pages.

The Dezert-Smarandache theory of plausible and paradoxical reasoning is based on the premise that some elements i of a frame have a non-empty intersection.
Category: General Mathematics

[15379] viXra:1608.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:03:23

Estimation of Target Behavior Tendencies using DSmT

Authors: Albena Tchamova, Tzvetan Semerdjiev, Jean Dezert
Comments: 12 Pages.

This chapter presents an approach for target behavior tendency estimation (Receding, Approaching). It is developed on the principles of Dezert-Smarandache theory (DSmT) of plausible and paradoxical reasoning applied to conventional sonar amplitude measurements, which serve as an evidence for corresponding decision-making procedures.
Category: General Mathematics

[15378] viXra:1608.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:04:50

Florentin Smarandache: Mă Consider om de știință, Dar în Aceeași Măsură și om de Cultură

Authors: Ion Paraianu
Comments: 4 Pages.

Să vorbești despre Florentin Smarandache, trebuie să ai curajul unui luptător,care, când intră în ring, să fie sigur de victorie, ceea ce, în cazul de față, nu se poate. Florentin Smarandache nu poate fi învins !
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15377] viXra:1608.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:06:16

General Fusion Operators from Cox’s Postulates

Authors: Denis de Brucq
Comments: 20 Pages.

This chapter presents new important links between the most important theories developed in literature for managing uncertainties (i.e. probability, fuzzy sets and evidence theories).
Category: General Mathematics

[15376] viXra:1608.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:08:08

Generalized Data Association for Multitarget Tracking in Clutter

Authors: A. Tchamova, T. Semerdjiev, P. Konstantinova, Jean Dezert
Comments: 23 Pages.

The objective of this chapter is to present an approach for target tracking in cluttered environment, which incorporates the advanced concept of generalized data (kinematics and attribute) association (GDA) to improve track maintenance performance in complicated situations (closely spaced and/or crossing targets), when kinematics data are insufficient for correct decision making. It uses Global Nearest Neighbour-like approach and Munkres algorithm to resolve the generalized association matrix.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15375] viXra:1608.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:09:26

Generalized Proportional Conflict Redistribution Rule Applied to Sonar Imagery and Radar Targets Classification

Authors: Arnaud Martin, Christophe Osswald
Comments: 17 Pages.

In this chapter, we present two applications in information fusion in order to evaluate the generalized proportional conflict redistribution rule presented in chapter [7]. Most of the time the combination rules are evaluated only on simple examples. We study here different combination rules and compare them in terms of decision on real data. Indeed, in real applications, we need a reliable decision and it is the final results that matter. Two applications are presented here: a fusion of human experts opinions on the kind of underwater sediments depicted on a sonar image and a classifier fusion for radar targets recognition.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15374] viXra:1608.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:10:34

Multitarget Tracking in Clutter based on Generalized Data Association: Performance Evaluation of Fusion Rules

Authors: J. Dezert, A. Tchamova, T. Semerdjiev, P. Konstantinova
Comments: 18 Pages.

The objective of this chapter is to present and compare different fusion rules which can be used for Generalized Data Association (GDA) for multitarget tracking (MTT) in clutter.
Category: General Mathematics

[15373] viXra:1608.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:11:56

Neutrosophic Frameworks for Situation Analysis

Authors: Anne-Laure Jousselme, Patrick Maupin
Comments: 34 Pages.

In situation analysis, an agent observing a scene receives information from heterogeneous sources of information including for example remote sensing devices,human reports and databases.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15372] viXra:1608.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:13:14

On Conjunctive and Disjunctive Combination Rules of Evidence

Authors: Hongyan Sun, Mohamad Farooq
Comments: 31 Pages.

In this chapter, the Dempster-Shafer (DS) combination rule is examined based on the multi-valued mapping (MVM) and the product combination rule of multiple independent sources of information. The shortcomings in DS rule are correctly interpreted via the product combination rule of MVM. Based on these results, a new justification of the disjunctive rule is proposed.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15371] viXra:1608.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:14:26

On the Smarandache LCM ratio

Authors: A. A. K. Majumdar
Comments: 8 Pages.

Two types of the Smarandache LCM ratio functions have been introduced by Murthy. Recently, the second type of the Smarandache LCM ratio function has been considered by Khainar, Vyawahare and Salunke. This paper establishes the relationships between these two forms of the Smarandache LCM ratio functions, and derives some reduction formulas and interesting properties in connection with these functions.
Category: General Mathematics

[15370] viXra:1608.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:15:25

Power and Resource Aware Distributed Smart Fusion

Authors: Shubha Kadambe
Comments: 28 Pages.

Large distributed sensor networks (DSN) with disparate sensors, processors and wireless communication capabilities are being developed for a variety of commercial and military applications.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

Replacements of recent Submissions

[6891] viXra:1608.0369 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-27 09:57:16

The Formation Mechanism of the Crab Nebula

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a new explanation regard to the formation mechanism of the Crab Nebula.
Category: Astrophysics

[6890] viXra:1608.0360 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-27 10:47:51

Verification of Axioms Which Resolve the Continuum Power Problem

Authors: Vatolin Dm.
Comments: 9 Pages. Russian

In the interpretation of meta-theory, which is the canonical set theory, the theorems that are sufficient to resolve the Cantor (Hilbert) problem of the continuum power are proved here.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[6889] viXra:1608.0358 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-27 10:43:56

Natural Non-Godel Definitions of Incompleteness

Authors: Vatolin Dm.
Comments: 7 Pages. Russian

Here are definitions of «completeness» and «incompleteness» for math-ematical theories. These definitions are different from those that gave Godel. Сontradictions of the Godel's arguments have been eliminated. Found are theo-rems that put everything in its place.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[6888] viXra:1608.0329 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-25 08:42:40

God Seems to Play Dice with Dual Entangled Pinball Machines in a Supersymmetric (Susy) Multiverse

Authors: ir. Leo Vuyk
Comments: 7 Pages. 7

In a SUSY (Supersymmetric ) multiverse, God seems to play dice with dual entangled distant Quantum pinball machines to let the quantum world and intelligent species like us humans make decisions. Intelligent beings are lucky to became more time ( 0.5 sec.) to veto actions initiated by one of the other universes. As a result: The creation of a "democratic veto related free will" of each individual human! In Quantum FFF Theory it is assumed that each quantum is instant entangled with one or more dual Charge Parity (anti) symmetric copy particles present in opposing multiverse bubbles embedded in the so called raspberry shaped multiverse. Benjamin Libet measured the so called electric Readiness Potential (RP) time to perform a volitional act, in the brains of his students and the time of conscious awareness (TCA) of that act, which appeared to come 500 m.sec behind the RP. In addition, I found recently support for a multiverse related quantum experiment done by Giulia Rubino and Philip Walther of Institute for Quantum Optics Vienna as a strong indication, that not only for humans but also for “ dead” quanta a possible multiverse relation could be postulated. As a result we may say, that God seems to play dice with dual entangled distant Quantum pinball machines (universal bubbles like ours) to let the quantum world and intelligent species like us make more or less conscious decisions.
Category: Astrophysics

[6887] viXra:1608.0317 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-25 22:30:14

Poly-Complex Clifford Algebra and Grand Unification

Authors: Robert G Wallace
Comments: 9 Pages.

An algebra for unit multivector components for a manifold of five poly-complex dimensions is presented. The algebra has many properties that suggest it may provide a basis for a grand unification theory.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[6886] viXra:1608.0301 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-24 19:42:27

The Hydrogen Balloon Rocket with Laser Power or Solar Power

Authors: Zhixian Lin
Comments: 6 Pages.

Laser propulsion is not a new conception, but by now still no one can launch a spacecraft into space with laser propulsion. To launch a spacecraft with laser propulsion, high-power laser beams need to focus on the spacecraft, but high-power laser beams will destroy the spacecraft. This paper describes a hydrogen balloon rocket with laser power or solar power which allow high-power laser beams or sunlight focus on it. It is reusable and is much effective than chemical rockets. It makes laser propulsion or solar propulsion feasible and has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of space launches.
Category: Astrophysics