**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(59) - 0703(51) - 0704(5) - 0705(1) - 0706(8) - 0707(2) - 0708(3) - 0709(3) - 0710(2) - 0711(6) - 0712(3)

2008 - 0801(4) - 0802(4) - 0803(2) - 0804(9) - 0805(4) - 0806(1) - 0807(12) - 0808(6) - 0809(3) - 0810(16) - 0811(5) - 0812(9)

2009 - 0901(3) - 0902(7) - 0903(6) - 0904(5) - 0907(50) - 0908(109) - 0909(61) - 0910(66) - 0911(64) - 0912(54)

2010 - 1001(46) - 1002(51) - 1003(265) - 1004(139) - 1005(110) - 1006(68) - 1007(55) - 1008(91) - 1009(71) - 1010(62) - 1011(76) - 1012(52)

2011 - 1101(102) - 1102(55) - 1103(122) - 1104(83) - 1105(41) - 1106(61) - 1107(53) - 1108(49) - 1109(60) - 1110(73) - 1111(114) - 1112(87)

2012 - 1201(119) - 1202(85) - 1203(93) - 1204(96) - 1205(112) - 1206(91) - 1207(102) - 1208(224) - 1209(97) - 1210(164) - 1211(137) - 1212(143)

2013 - 1301(175) - 1302(157) - 1303(198) - 1304(154) - 1305(184) - 1306(211) - 1307(155) - 1308(143) - 1309(194) - 1310(246) - 1311(183) - 1312(216)

2014 - 1401(193) - 1402(154) - 1403(853) - 1404(267) - 1405(340) - 1406(182) - 1407(210) - 1408(128)

Any replacements are listed further down

[8450] **viXra:1408.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-21 07:02:48*

**Authors:** Mark M. Grinshtein

**Comments:** 10 Pages. in Russian

The present article reviews modern hypotheses for cancer cells division and provides author’s empirical data on cancer etiology detection and the mechanism of cancer cells division from the viewpoint of the information-wave medicine. \\ В статье рассмотрены современные гипотезы по механизму деления раковых клеток и приведены результаты исследований автора по выявлению этиологии рака, а так же по механизму деления раковых клеток с позиции информационно-волновой медицины.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[8449] **viXra:1408.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-21 07:30:15*

**Authors:** Herbert Weidner

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Combining formulas of quantum mechanics (QM) and the wave theory defines the diameter of a wave packet of circularly polarized light. This allows the calculation of the energy loss (red shift), if light traverses a thin plasma. In contrast to the Doppler effect, the total energy is conserved, also basic emission- and absorption-line physics is preserved.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[8448] **viXra:1408.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-21 04:22:02*

**Authors:** Wanchung Hu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

There is a great analogy between thermodynamics and economics. Here, I will use the laws of thermodynamics to describe the laws of macroeconomics. The first law of thermodynamics explains the conservation of energy. Thus, the internal demand and external trade will contribute to citizens’ income. The second law of thermodynamics says that entropy will always be enlarged. Thus, developed nations will have larger entropy compared to developing or non-developing nations. The third law of thermodynamics also reaches because there is no perfect monopoly.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[8447] **viXra:1408.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-20 15:08:44*

**Authors:** Dmitri Rabounski, Larissa Borissova

**Comments:** 44 Pages.

This outline speaks about Geopathogenic Radiations, which are the basic radiations of the planet Earth. Thanks to modern research outcomes in the fields of mathematics, materials science, architecture, geology, biology, astronomy, linguistics etc., we have an opportunity to create the Fundamental Theory of Geopathogenic Radiations. This theory helps us to see anew the theory of catastrophes. This will enable us to attain a deeper understanding of the development of natural protective features on the planet (including man), because of the approaching "aggressive" new Time.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[8446] **viXra:1408.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-20 15:11:21*

**Authors:** Dmitriy Rabunskiy, Larissa Borissova

**Comments:** 44 Pages.

This outline speaks about Geopathogenic Radiations, which are the basic radiations of the planet Earth. Thanks to modern research outcomes in the fields of mathematics, materials science, architecture, geology, biology, astronomy, linguistics etc., we have an opportunity to create the Fundamental Theory of Geopathogenic Radiations. This theory helps us to see anew the theory of catastrophes. This will enable us to attain a deeper understanding of the development of natural protective features on the planet (including man), because of the approaching "aggressive" new Time.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[8445] **viXra:1408.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-20 09:52:18*

**Authors:** Pan Zhang

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The objective of this paper is to present a new Riemannian obstruction to minimal isometric immersions into Euclidean spaces, as an another answer to a question raised by S.S. Chern concerning the existence of minimal isometric immersions into Euclidean spaces.

**Category:** Geometry

[8444] **viXra:1408.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-20 08:04:44*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Conjectured polynomial time primality and compositeness tests for numbers of special forms are introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[8443] **viXra:1408.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-20 05:06:15*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Speaking the language of QM or QCHD "elementary particles and their decay modes " are in fact losing speed real stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α)

Speaking the language of QM or QCHD "elementary particles and their decay modes "
are in fact losing speed real stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α)
Stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α) moving with speeds ( 0,3 c – 0,99 c ) creates baryons and mesons.
Stable electrons moving with speeds ( 0,99 c – c ) creates leptons (μ−, τ−), neutrinos (νe, νμ, ντ) and bosons W +, W-, Z.
Speeds of electrons and protons in atoms are smaller. For example: An electron moving at a speed ve= 0,003c creates spectral line Hα.
Weak interactions are caused with stable electrons, which creates leptons, neutrinos and bosons W +, W-, Z.
The strong interactions are caused with stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α ), which creates baryons and mesons. Therefore creation and annihilation operators in physics are irrelevant.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8442] **viXra:1408.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-20 05:53:16*

**Authors:** Bernhard Riemann

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

N/A (This is the LaTeXed version of Riemann's 1851 thesis, which lied the foundation of an aspect of complex analysis.--Typesetter)

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[8441] **viXra:1408.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-19 22:00:09*

**Authors:** Fu-sui Liu

**Comments:** 16 Pages. This paper has been accepted as an invited talk by The 3rd Global conference on material science and engineering. Oct. 20th-23th 2014 Shanghai. The PPT might be obtained from this conference.

This paper proposes a new Hamiltonian for manganites, and demonstrates
quantitatively that the pseudogap and colossal magnetoresistance of manganites come from Cooper pairs, consisting of two oxygen 2p holes in MnO2

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[8440] **viXra:1408.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-19 16:11:09*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 6 Pages. In Russian

It is shown that the energy is the most general function of the state, which characterizes the ability of the system to make any (ordered and disorder) work. This is achieved by generalisation of concept of work and refusal from division of energy exchange on heat exchange and work.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[8439] **viXra:1408.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-19 07:39:37*

**Authors:** Cheng Tianren

**Comments:** 200 Pages.

This is a paper which selected more than 50 ACM contest questions. You can also see a complete solution to these questions nextly, and all these programs are correctable compiled from C++. The essence part of our paper is the remarks after every exercises. In this remarks, we not only give a reasonable explanation to every question and its solution, but also give a challenging problem for every of them, which are related with the most essential and most important topics in computer algorithms. So do not easily make a conclusion to any of these open problems, carefully consideration and researches are necessary .
Since all the remarks in our paper are written in Chinese, so we hope there will appear an enthusiastic person, who can help us translate them into English. For which they can be reading by our friends all around the world in most convenient way.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[8438] **viXra:1408.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-19 05:07:11*

**Authors:** Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We use the positivity axiom of inner product spaces to prove the equivalent statement of the Riemann hypothesis.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8437] **viXra:1408.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 23:50:28*

**Authors:** Wanchung Hu

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

There is an analogy between physics and economics. Here, I will use Newton’s mechanics to describe and deduct the principle of macroeconomics. Economics force is defined as F=dMV/dt=dPG/dt. The link between inflation rate, interest rate, growth rate, and money acceleration rate will also be defined. Principles of least action will be applied to the economics principle. Thus, we have new potent tools to analyze economics activities.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[8436] **viXra:1408.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 15:16:53*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Conjectured polynomial time primality tests for specific classes of numbers of the form kb^n-1 are introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[8435] **viXra:1408.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 15:49:57*

**Authors:** Zafar Turakulov

**Comments:** 10 Pages. The work is completed with use of exterior calculus.

The phenomenon of reflection from conducting surface is considered in terms of exact solutions of Maxwell equations. Matching of waves and current density at the plane is completed. Amplitudes of reflected and transmitted waves are found as functions of incident wave and conductivity of the plane. This work is completed also for conducting plane lying between two distinct media. It is shown that in case of conducting interface waves with some certain parameters (polarization, incidence angle and frequency) and transform completely into waves of current density whereas amplitude of the reflected wave is equal to zero that is equivalent to total absorption.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[8434] **viXra:1408.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 12:19:02*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 206 Pages.

Here for the first time we introduce the semi open square using modulo integers. This square under addition modulo ‘n’ is a group, and however under product ‘x’ this semi open square is only a semigroup as under ‘x’ the square has infinite number of zero divisors.
We define the new type of rings called pseudo rings.
Several open problems are suggested.

**Category:** Algebra

[8433] **viXra:1408.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 13:06:44*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Derek Abbott, Claes-Goran Granqvist, He Wen

**Comments:** 4 Pages. In: Proceedings of the first conference on Hot Topics in Physical Informatics (HoTPI, 2013 November). Paper is in press at International Journal of Modern Physics: Conference Series (2014).

This paper deals with the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical statistical physical key exchange method and surveys criticism - often stemming from a lack of understanding of its underlying premises or from other errors - and our related responses against these, often unphysical, claims. Some of the attacks are valid, however, an extended KLJN system remains protected against all of them, implying that its unconditional security is not impacted.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[8432] **viXra:1408.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 13:10:12*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist, Tamas Horvath, Andreas Klappenecker, He Wen, Sergey M. Bezrukov

**Comments:** 5 Pages. In: Proceedings of the first conference on Hot Topics in Physical Informatics (HoTPI, 2013 November). Paper is in press at International Journal of Modern Physics: Conference Series (2014).

Noise-based logic is a practically deterministic logic scheme inspired by the randomness of neural spikes and uses a system of uncorrelated stochastic processes and their superposition to represent the logic state. We briefly discuss various questions such as (i) What does practical determinism mean? (ii) Is noise-based logic a Turing machine? (iii) Is there hope to beat (the dreams of) quantum computation by a classical physical noise-based processor, and what are the minimum hardware requirements for that? Finally, (iv) we address the problem of random number generators and show that the common belief that quantum number generators are superior to classical (thermal) noise-based generators is nothing but a myth.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[8431] **viXra:1408.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 13:12:46*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist, Sergey M. Bezrukov, Tamas Horvath

**Comments:** 4 Pages. In press at: Advances in Cognitive Neurodynamics Vol. 4 - Proc. 4th International Conference on Cognitive Neurodynamics (Springer, 2014)

Neural spikes in the brain form stochastic sequences, i.e., belong to the class of pulse noises. This stochasticity is a counterintuitive feature because extracting information - such as the commonly supposed neural information of mean spike frequency - requires long times for reasonably low error probability. The mystery could be solved by noise-based logic, wherein randomness has an important function and allows large speed enhancements for special-purpose tasks, and the same mechanism is at work for the brain logic version of this concept.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[8430] **viXra:1408.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 13:15:22*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Claes-Goran Granqvist, Sunil Khatri, He Wen

**Comments:** 6 Pages. In: Proceedings of the first conference on Hot Topics in Physical Informatics (HoTPI, 2013 November). Paper is in press at International Journal of Modern Physics: Conference Series (2014).

This talk addressed the following questions in the public debate at HoTPI: (i) energy dissipation limits of switches, memories and control; (ii) whether reversible computers are possible, or does their concept violate thermodynamics; (iii) Szilard’s engine, Maxwell’s demon and Landauer’s principle: corrections to their exposition in the literature; (iv) whether Landauer’s erasure–dissipation principle is valid, if the same energy dissipation holds for writing information, or if it is invalid; and (v) whether (non-secure) erasure of memories, or the writing of the same amount of information, dissipates most heat.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[8429] **viXra:1408.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 09:49:52*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Conjectured polynomial time primality test for specific class of numbers of the form 9b^n-1 is introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[8428] **viXra:1408.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 12:16:59*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 235 Pages.

In this book the authors introduce the notion of finite complex modulo integer intervals. Finite complex modulo integers were introduced by the authors in 2011. Now, using this finite complex modulo integer intervals several algebraic structures are built. Open problems are suggested.

**Category:** Algebra

[8427] **viXra:1408.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 07:00:33*

**Authors:** Jan Helm

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

We discuss the Oppenheimer-Snyder-Datt (OSD) solution from a new perspective, introduce a completely new formulation of the problem exclusively in external Schwarzschild space-time (ESM) and present a new treatment of the singularities in this new formulation. We also give a new Newtonian approximation of the problem. Furthermore, we present new numerical solutions of the modified OSD-model and of the ball-to-ball-collapse with 4 different numerical methods.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8426] **viXra:1408.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 07:12:19*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I described the origin of the quantum entanglement. It appeared due to a collapse of the front of the expanding Einstein spacetime at the very end of the inflation. The Principle-of-Equivalence Einstein spacetime has sufficient mass density to produce matter and virtual electron-positron pairs but without the exchanged entanglons it is impossible. The dark energy consists of the additional free E-spacetime components so superluminal entanglons escaping from our Universe could solve the problem why expansion of our Universe accelerates.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8425] **viXra:1408.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 09:00:15*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 09 paged, 18 references

We use a Dirac-like equation with a linear potential in order to evaluate the energy levels of the excited states of the Y-shaped color-electric flux tubes, describing the quarks interactions inside the nucleon. We have neglected the bare-masses of the quarks, and the obtained results reproduce the energy of the centroid of the excited states of the nucleon as well as the possible creation of nucleon-antinucleon pairs.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8424] **viXra:1408.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 06:11:05*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make five conjectures about the primes r, t and the square of prime p^2, which appears as solutions in the diophantine equation 120*n*q*r + 1 = p^2, where n is non-null positive integer.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8423] **viXra:1408.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 06:13:57*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 3 Pages. In portuguese.

Give an example of how it is possible that a limitation in determining the value of daily precession of the perihelion of Mercury explain this when designed for a century.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8422] **viXra:1408.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 02:11:31*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make two conjectures abut the pairs of primes [p1, q1], where the difference between p1 and q1 is a certain even number d. I state that any such pair has at least one other corresponding, in a specified manner, pair of primes [p2, q2], such that the difference between p2 and q2 is also equal to d.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8421] **viXra:1408.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-18 00:02:36*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make a conjecture which states that any odd prime can be written in a certain way, in other words that any such prime can be expressed using just another prime and the powers of the numbers 2, 3 and 5. I also make a related conjecture about twin primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8420] **viXra:1408.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-17 18:41:10*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The absence of impedances from the Standard Model is most remarkable. Impedance is a fundamental concept, of universal validity. Impedances govern the flow of energy. In particular, the coupling of the photon to matter happens in the near field. The absence of the photon near-field impedance in photon-electron interactions is the most basic and profound example of this remarkable circumstance, sitting unnoticed in the foundation of quantum electrodynamics. One cannot obtain a complete understanding of such interactions without examining the role of impedances. How this essential principle escaped notice in the development of quantum field theory is outlined,
and consequences of its inclusion in our present understanding are explored.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8419] **viXra:1408.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-17 12:29:35*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, we review the derivation of the equation of thrust of Shawyer’s thruster, by obtaining a new expression, which includes the indexes of refraction of the two parallel plates in the tapered waveguide. This new expression shows that, by strongly increasing the index of refraction of the plate with the largest area, the value of the thrust can be strongly increased.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[8418] **viXra:1408.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-17 14:33:45*

**Authors:** Redouane BOUHENNACHE

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

Since the beginning of the quest of hypercomplex numbers in the late eighteenth century, many hypercomplex number systems have been proposed but none of them succeeded in extending the concept of complex numbers to higher dimensions. This paper provides a definitive solution to this problem by defining the truly hypercomplex numbers of dimension N ≥ 3. The secret lies in the definition of the multiplicative law and its properties. This law is based on spherical and hyperspherical coordinates. These numbers which I call spherical and hyperspherical hypercomplex numbers define Abelian groups over addition and multiplication. Nevertheless, the multiplicative law generally does not distribute over addition, thus the set of these numbers equipped with addition and multiplication does not form a mathematical field. However, such numbers are expected to have a tremendous utility in mathematics and in science in general.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[8417] **viXra:1408.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-17 10:00:26*

**Authors:** Dmitriy Skripachov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The observed absence of a cuspy halo in the centers of galaxies implies a certain mechanism, which scatter DM. As this mechanism is considered annihilation of galactic antineutrino DM and neutrino DM of stellar origin. Annihilation intensity increases towards the center with increasing concentration of stars and density of DM, however, the scattering effect of annihilation begins to manifest mainly in the bulge. Based on such a hysteresis of scattering effect, we make up a two-level mass model of the Milky Way, where the mass distribution is regulated at two levels of concentration by one and the same law of decreasing density, inversely proportional to the distance from the center of power of 2.5. The first level starts from the surface of the central neutron collapsar and ends at the border of the bulge, and the second level extends from the bulge to the edge of the Galaxy.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[8416] **viXra:1408.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-17 11:22:39*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

put a outline for the reconstruction of atomic and nuclear physics

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[8415] **viXra:1408.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-17 11:42:09*

**Authors:** Joseph I. Thomas

**Comments:** 194 Pages. Under Review since 12 March 2014

Polychronous Wavefront Computation is the name given to a recently proposed geometric approach on how the brain can be modeled to perform computations. It departs from the conventional use of artificial neural networks involving synapses for systems modeling.
This paper, written as a mathematical sequel to the original work on the subject, builds two closely related Neurocomputational Models that together furnishes a plausible mechanism grounded in geometry, for sensory representation of motion, shape and time in the brain.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[8414] **viXra:1408.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-17 07:24:10*

**Authors:** M. Hafidouni

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The negative binomial distribution is derived as a solution of a linear recurrence equation with an appropriate set of constraints

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8413] **viXra:1408.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-17 00:14:22*

**Authors:** John Malcolm Newell

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

Part two of a collection of articles published by the South Australian Astronomical Society, these from 2013 to 2014, along with an updated chart of nearby stars, some discussion concerning inertia and comments on the nature of complex time.
Support for Roger Shawyers work on the emdrive at Space Propulsion Research Ltd. is intended to encourage consideration of his results in the hope that they will be put to test and to use. The philosophical consequences of his findings are far reaching and will be invaluable to physics if they are properly understood. The practical application of his work may yet constitute a milestone in the evolution of humanity.
The articles are included as sent for consideration, the format being adjusted for consistency. Please enjoy the contradictions and forgive the inclusion of a little casual mathematics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8412] **viXra:1408.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-16 10:46:16*

**Authors:** Herbert Weidner

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

After the spin-flip a Hydrogen atom emits a photon, but radio astronomers measure electromagnetic waves at 1420 MHz. How and where is the photon converted into an electromagnetic wave? Do photons really exist? This question is discussed in great detail with reference to the differences between energy measurement and amplitude measurement. The combination of formulas of Quantum mechanics and the wave theory gives the diameter of a wave packet of circularly polarized light. This allows the calculation of the energy loss during the traversal of a thin plasma.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[8411] **viXra:1408.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-16 11:20:05*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Planck CMB data lead to conclusion that there should be about two times more galaxy clusters than we observe. Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I show that the discrepancy follows from the collisions/mergers of protogalaxy clusters at the beginning of the expansion of the Universe. The time distance to most distant galaxies is 13.4 gigayears but they are 7.5 gigayears old so we cannot see the collisions of protogalaxy clusters. It is a wrong assumption that creation of galaxies can last a few hundred years only. For 4 times more spiral galaxies than elliptical galaxies, we obtain that there should be observed 2.4 times less galaxy clusters than it follows from the Planck CMB data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8410] **viXra:1408.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-16 08:37:00*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Compositeness criteria for specific classes of numbers of the form b^n+b+1 and b^n-b-1 are introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[8409] **viXra:1408.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-16 03:21:28*

**Authors:** Danny Kirmse

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The following paper aims for a new more efficient design of the discharge chamber of a Radio-Frequency Ion-Thruster (RIT). The discharge chamber contains plasma, which provides the charged particles for thrust-generation. The plasma is produced by ionization of gas. The ionizing discharge has to occur in the whole chamber; in the whole chamber energy needs to be expended to produce plasma. On the other hand, as shown in [3], only charged particles out of a small layer direct close to the plasma-grid are used to become accelerated for the generation of thrust. In order to achieve energy costs as efficient as possible; plasma should be produced only in this small layer, optimally. In the following an option is presented to reduce the length of the discharge chamber of a RIT. This is achieved by coupling in the ionizing electric eddy-fields from the top-end of the discharge chamber, no longer from the sides of the chamber. For this kind of field-coupling a new induction system is needed, where the induction coil is placed inside a ferrite pot-core. Within this paper a qualitative testing of the proposed new induction system is described.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[8408] **viXra:1408.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-16 03:26:53*

**Authors:** Danny Kirmse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper contains the description of two concepts for plasma-propulsion engines for application as main thruster units for exploration missions in the solar system. Current space policy increasingly focuses on exploration missions to the earth’s next planets. This includes for instance also manned missions to the Mars. Most efficient for this type of mission would be a propulsion system that provides adjustable continuous thrust over long time-periods. Beyond that, a thrust level as high as possible should be realized due to the reduction of the travel time. The two propulsion concepts (named “Helios-1” and “Helios-2”) presented in this paper are designed to fulfill the thrust requirements mentioned above. Both concepts base on the intention to ionize a gas under high-pressure condition, in order to produce sufficient numbers of charged particles that are able to generate high thrust by coupling of electric and magnetic fields. The ionization proceeds in two stages (pre- and main-ionization). The task of the pre-ionization is to generate the initial conditions to enable ionization of high-pressure gas at all. “Helios-1” is a pure electric propulsion system that uses the principle of a Tesla-transformer to achieve sufficient electric field strength for pre-ionization. “Helios-2” is a hybrid propulsion system consisting of a chemical pre-stage and an electrical main-stage. A Redox-reaction produces electrons that improve the conditions for ionization of high-pressure gas. Additionally, the thrust producing extraction mechanism is described in the paper. The intention to extract large numbers of charged particles requires a design of the thrusters as plasma-propulsion engines. The extraction of plasma instead of ions prevents the formation of space charges that limit the extractable current of thrust producing charged particles.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[8407] **viXra:1408.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-16 05:39:21*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Conjectured polynomial time primality test for specific class of numbers of the form 3b^n-1 is introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[8406] **viXra:1408.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-15 15:30:45*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Work in progress.

Charged Dirac propagators in the deep infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) sectors of particle physics no longer follow the prescription of perturbative quantum field theory (QFT). On sufficiently short distance scales, they acquire a fractal structure from radiative corrections contributed by gauge bosons. Here we show how fractal propagators in QFT may be analyzed using fractional field theory on space-times having minimal deviations from four-dimensionality. An intriguing consequence of this approach is the emergence of classical gravity as long-range and ultra-weak excitation of the Higgs condensate.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8405] **viXra:1408.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-15 13:09:48*

**Authors:** Rajib Chakraborty

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We correct the solution of Poisson-Boltzmann equation regarding charge distribution in an electrolytic solution bounded by walls. Considering charge conservation principle properly, we show that the gradient of electrostatic potential at different walls are strictly related, and cannot be assigned independent values, unlike old theory. It clarifies some cause and effect ideas: distribution turns out to be independent of the initial polarity of walls; the accumulated charges in liquid usually induce opposite polarity on the wall surface, forms `Electric Double Layer' (EDL), contrary to the common belief that a charged wall attracts counter-ions to form EDL. Distribution depends only on the potential difference between walls and the net charge present in the solution, apart from Debye length.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[8404] **viXra:1408.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-15 07:15:07*

**Authors:** I.I.Guseinov

**Comments:** 26 pages, 6 tables

Using condition of relativistic covariance, group theory and Clifford algebra the -component Lorentz invariance generalized relativistic wave equation for a particle with arbitrary mass and spin is suggested, where and It is shown that the charged scalar ( ) and noncharged scalar ( ) particles with are described by two-component relativistic equations. Accordingly, the noncharged scalar fermi particles ( ) can be used as an elementary particle of the Standard Model of particle physics. In the case of arbitrary integral spin , the relativistic equation for leads to the equation of massless boson particles. For the solution of presented in this work generalized relativistic equation in the linear combination of atomic orbitals approximation, the 2(2s+1)-component orthogonal basis sets of spinor functions for the arbitrary mass and spin are suggested in position, momentum and four-dimensional spaces.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8403] **viXra:1408.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-15 06:09:06*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 8 Pages. In portuguese.

Abandon the hypothesis of the solar wind and obtain a new value for the anomaly of the secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury. The theoretical value of the total secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury, according to the work of Le Verrier 1859, is only about 8'' unless the observed value quoted by Weinberg (in reference to Duncombe and Clemence). The hypothesis of the influence of the satellites in the calculation of precession, previously abandoned, should return, since 1'' is not so insignificant compared to 8''.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8402] **viXra:1408.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-14 19:22:15*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper is concerned with the discovery of a new theoretical equation for the mass of the proton. Since the equation depends, among other things, on the gravitational constant G, I found that the formula produces the correct value of the proton mass if and only if we use the latest experimental limits (due to the experimental error of 150 ppm) for this constant. The latest and most accurate value of G obtained so far comes from atomic interferometry. This new and revolutionary experimental method was devised by an Italian team of scientists and the results were published earlier this year in Nature. Due to the previous lack of accuracy and large discrepancies in the measurement of G, this experimental result is a scientific breakthrough that allow us and shall allow us to confirm, among other things, the validity of equations for the mass of particles, the latest fundamental particle formulations and cosmological theories.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8401] **viXra:1408.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-14 11:08:01*

**Authors:** E.Koorambas

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We will study the gravitational forces acting between static massive sources generated by exchange of massless gravitons within the framework of Quantum Gauge Theory Gravity .The gravitational force will be determined via Wilson loops and Polyakov loop correlation functions. This method will enable us to separate the contribution of the quantum mechanical transverse graviton from that of the classical longitudinal field. It will be the method of choice if one attempts to determine the gravitational static force in simulations of Quantum Gauge Theory Gravity on a Rindler space lattice.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8400] **viXra:1408.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-14 11:36:12*

**Authors:** Robert E S Watson

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Kaluza’s 1921 theory of gravity and electromagnetism using a fifth
wrapped-up spatial dimension is inspiration for many modern attempts
to develop new physical theories. For a number of reasons the theory
is incomplete and often considered untenable. An alternative approach
is presented that includes torsion, unifying gravity and electromagnetism
in a Kaluza-Cartan theory. Emphasis is placed on admitting important
electromagnetic fields not present in Kaluza’s original theory, and on a
Lorentz force law. This is investigated via a non-Maxwellian kinetic def-
inition of charge related to Maxwellian charge and 5D momentum. Two
connections are used. General covariance and global properties are inves-
tigated via a reduced non-maximal atlas. Conserved super-energy is used
in place of the energy conditions for 5D causality. Explanatory relation-
ships between matter, charge and spin are present.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8399] **viXra:1408.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-14 07:34:55*

**Authors:** William Maclachlan

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The aim of my "experiment" was to gather some curious information about the understanding of primes- to my understanding I seemed to have created a system that can find primes considerably quicker in contrast to merely searching through all the given number's factors.
I am not a professional, but it would be nice if I could get some form of a reply from someone with experience to explain the irrelevancy of my findings.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8398] **viXra:1408.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-14 08:48:18*

**Authors:** Ernst Fischer

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Essay written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2014

According to general relativity the geometry of space depends on the distribution of matter or energy fields. The relation between the locally defined geometry parameters and the volume elements depends on curvature. Thus integration of local properties like energy density, defined in the Euclidean tangent space, does not lead to correct integral data like total energy. To obtain
integral conservation, a correction term must be added to account for the curvature of space. This correction term is the equivalent of potential energy in Newtonian gravitation. With this correction the formation of singularities by gravitational collapse does no longer occur and the so called dark energy finds its natural
explanation as potential energy of matter itself.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8397] **viXra:1408.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-14 03:16:30*

**Authors:** Pingyuan Zhou

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Author gives an argument for the infinity of primes of the form 2x^2-1 by the infinity of near-square primes of Mersenne primes to arise from a corresponding Fermat prime criterion.

Abstract: In this paper we consider primes of the form 2x^2-1 and discover there is a very great probability for appearing of such primes, and give an argument for the infinity of primes of the form 2x^2-1 by the infinity of near-square primes of Mersenne primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8396] **viXra:1408.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-14 05:38:48*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Cauchy Theory is applied and extended to n-dimensional functions in Clifford algebras, showing the existence of integrals that do not exist in Euclidean spaces. It celebrates the depth of Cauchy's lecture, held on the 22nd of August, 1814, so 200 years ago, in times of bitter warfare. (I should like to recommend reading about his life, e.g. in Wikipedia.)

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[8395] **viXra:1408.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-14 00:17:08*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Conjectured polynomial time primality test for specific class of numbers of the form k6^n-1 is introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[8394] **viXra:1408.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-14 02:56:43*

**Authors:** Seenu Reddi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Caratheodory's theorem about semi-definite Toeplitz matrices states that for a semi-definite Toeplitz matrix with a unique eigenvalue of zero, the polynomial formed from the elements of the null eigenvector will have zeros on the unit circle. This fact has often been used in spectral analysis to characterize covariance matrices in signal processing and deduce spectrality underlying a given time series. We show that it is possible to form two semi-definite Toeplitz matrices with the kind of property Caratheodory suggests and caution that a careful analysis should be performed before reaching conclusions on the spectrality of the underlying covariance matrix. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the concepts.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[8393] **viXra:1408.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-13 15:39:49*

**Authors:** Alessio Mangoni

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We show that a class C-infinite real function can be written as an n-summation of terms involving its derivative. For many functions, under certain conditions, this summation can become a particular series expansion.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[8392] **viXra:1408.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-13 14:42:57*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 10 Pages. In Russian

It is shown, that universal definition of forces as the gradient of the corresponding kind of
energy applies to the ether waves. Distinction of reaction of substance on influences different frequency is proved. Thereby the unity of the nature of interaction between ether and substance is justified. The ether - soliton concepts of a structure of substance is discussed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[8391] **viXra:1408.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-13 07:26:37*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Conjectured polynomial time compositeness tests for numbers of the form k2^n-c and k2^n+c are introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[8390] **viXra:1408.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-13 01:11:05*

**Authors:** Rasjid Chan Kah Chew

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity fails to explain the cosmic muon decay phenomenon. The “dilated time” of special relativity has no physical interpretation as time as interpreted in physics; therefore, the extended lifetime of the muon, arrived at through the used of time dilation, cannot be used in the simple formula : distance=speed\times time. So far, no one seems to have pointed to this simple fact. An invalid argument has been repeated and propagated for decades that purportedly resolves the cosmic muon decay phenomenon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8389] **viXra:1408.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-12 15:39:22*

**Authors:** Rasjid Chan Kah Chew

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity falls by the Lorentz transformation, the very foundation on which the theory rests. The application of the Lorentz transformation does not naturally give rise to projections in spacetime where the space coordinates still retain any relevance to the usual physical real length; the dilated time too may have no relevance to real time. The conclusion is that the Special Theory of Relativity is just an abstract mathematical model and not a theory in physics; it has no relevance to our physical world. As such, all empirical and experimental evidence that purportedly validate the theory become void and meaningless.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8388] **viXra:1408.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-12 16:44:44*

**Authors:** Ricardo Alvira

**Comments:** 49 slides [aprox 10 pages DINA4]

It proposes a definition of simple and complex terms to help formulate a Unified Theory of Complexity, based on etymology of the two terms

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[8387] **viXra:1408.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-12 12:21:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8386] **viXra:1408.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-12 14:27:08*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 3 Pages. This is a submission to Annals of Physics

It is shown that, in defiance of the conventional point of view, circularly polarized light causes shear stress

**Category:** Classical Physics

[8385] **viXra:1408.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-12 14:37:04*

**Authors:** Pierre Maurice Marie Duhem

**Comments:** 212 Pages. French

re-typeset edition of:

Duhem, Pierre Maurice Marie. *Les théories électriques de J. Clerk Maxwell: Étude historique et critique*. Paris: A. Hermann, 1902. https://archive.org/details/lesthoriesle00duheuoft .

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[8384] **viXra:1408.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-12 02:52:56*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Conjectured polynomial time primality test for specific class of generalized Fermat numbers is introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[8383] **viXra:1408.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-11 13:11:29*

**Authors:** Jan Hakenberg, Ulrich Reif, Scott Schaefer, Joe Warren

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

The volume enclosed by subdivision surfaces, such as Doo-Sabin, Catmull-Clark, and Loop has recently been derived. Moments of higher degree d are more challenging because of the growing number of coefficients in the (d+3)-linear forms. We derive the intrinsic symmetries of the tensors, and thereby reduce the complexity of the problem.
Our framework allows to compute the 4-linear forms that determine the centroid defined by Doo-Sabin, and Loop surfaces, including Loop with sharp creases. For Doo-Sabin surfaces, we also establish the tensors of rank 5 that determine the inertia for valences 3, and 4. When the subdivision weights are rational, the centroid, and inertia are obtained in exact, symbolic form. In practice, the formulas are restricted to meshes with a certain maximum valence of a vertex.

**Category:** Geometry

[8382] **viXra:1408.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-11 10:15:02*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Conjectured polynomial time compositeness tests for numbers of the form k2^n-1 and k2^n+1 are introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[8381] **viXra:1408.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-11 11:45:00*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In our epoch E8 symmetry exists and is the governing symmetry of the universe although it is a broken symmetry (see viXra 1405.0210) responsible for our feeble gravity. Studies of existing lepton, hadron, meson, and QCD particles indicate that there are 12 lepton, 100 baryon, 100 meson and 14 QCD species here at present, or 226 in all. Adding the 22 new particles required to implement E8 symmetry yields a total of 248 different particles and Antiparticles required for our universe to have E8 symmetry, and these have all been found.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8380] **viXra:1408.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-11 08:56:21*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 1 Page. In portuguese.

Encontrei um valor teórico muito próximo dos 5600’’ observados do movimento secular da longitude do periélio de Mercúrio, no famoso “Tratado do Movimento de Mercúrio”, de Le Verrier. Mais exatamente existem ainda 8’’ ou 10’’ de diferença para um século de observações, mas creditaria esta diferença aos satélites (mais que ao vento solar) e às conhecidas limitações dos cálculos numéricos.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8379] **viXra:1408.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-11 03:44:27*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Formulae for the electron's charge, electron's mass, fine structure constant, proton's radius, proton's mass, gravitational coupling constant and proton-to-electron mass ratio

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8378] **viXra:1408.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-10 18:32:22*

**Authors:** Richard J. Mathar

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We reduce two-electron 4-center products of Cartesian Gaussian Type Orbitals
with Boys' contraction to 2-center products of the form psi_alpha(r_i-A)
psi_beta(r_j-B),
and compute the 6-dimensional integral over d^3r_i d^3r_j over these
with the effective potential
V_{ij} = (r_i-r_j). r_j/|r_i-r_j|^3.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[8377] **viXra:1408.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-10 18:30:59*

**Authors:** Justin Lee

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Justifying a local hidden variable theory requires an explanation of Bell's inequality violation. Ever since Bell derived the inequality to test the classical prediction on the correlation of two spin-1/2 particles, many experiments have observed the violation, and thus concluded against the local realism, while validating the non-locality of quantum entanglement. Still, many scientists remain unconvinced of quantum entanglement because the experiments have loopholes that could potentially allow a local realistic explanation. Upholding the local realism, this paper introduces how a precession of the spin would produce a cosine-like correlation function, and furthermore how it would also contribute to a fair sampling loophole. Simulating the precession in Monte Carlo method reveals that it can explain the observed Bell's violation using only classical mechanics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8376] **viXra:1408.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-10 10:17:37*

**Authors:** Ichiro Nakayama

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

A possible basic perspective common to four fundamental forces, strong interaction, weak interaction, electromagnetic interaction, gravitational interaction, and plus dark energy was found. That is different from gauge theory. This text shows that a theory for everything is realized by new perspective named energy body. The concept of energy body theory is that the whole universe including fundamental particles is made of the only one raw material. In other words, space and elementary particles are both energy body. And then energy body vibrates by the medium of energy cell bodies. And all forces work with the difference of energy level between energy body systems. Energy body is divided into two systems that are static energy body of space and kinetic energy bodies of elementary particles. As a result, the insight showed that gravity and dark energy are simultaneously generated by static energy body's (space) collapse and change into fundamental particles, in the process of fundamental particles' concentration. At the time, the two kinds of different energy level are caused in the space. One is in the direction of a star's center. That is gravity which is generated by compression of energy body (space). The other is in the direction of the verge of the universe. That is dark energy which is generated by the diffusion of energy body (space). Also, it was found out that there is a large scale of convection of space and fundamental particles. Therefore the universe inflation is not caused by big ban.
The other three forces, strong interaction, weak interaction, electromagnetic interaction are explained by the shape of kinetic energy bodies (fundamental particles). Kinetic energy bodies have a character of waves that rotates on their own axes and a spherical shape in the central part. The closer the wave is to the axis, the higher the energy state, the shorter the wavelength, conversely, the father it moves away, the energy level decreases. Because of that, individual kinetic energy body behaves independently each other. Also, the shape beautifully explains interference fringes of electron, electron transition, and occurrence of magnetic field. Interaction of kinetic energy bodies is decided by the direction of the reciprocal waves. When they are the same at the place where two systems meet, it works as attractive force, when they are the opposite, repulsive force. Because, there is a rise of energy level or a fall. Outside of an atomic nucleus, weak wave of kinetic energy body works as electromagnetic force. When fundamental particles move, the tilt of it plays important roles. Inside of an atomic nucleus, strong wave of kinetic energy body works as nucleus force,
At the time, small kinetic energy bodies mediate.
More, there are some cases of synthesis or separation of kinetic energy bodies, because they are the waves of same material. Energy is the vibration of energy body. By this concept, the simplest principle is gotten that all forces work by the energy level difference of each energy body system at the place where each system meets.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8375] **viXra:1408.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-10 06:44:20*

**Authors:** Zafar Turakulov

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The phenomenon of total internal reflection is considered in terms of exact solutions of Maxwell equations. Matching of plane and evanescent waves at the interface is completed. It is shown that amplitude of the reflected wave cannot be obtained from the matching alone. Since it can differ from that of incident wave due to possible energy loss which may occur in the evanescent wave zone if there is another layer of optically dense medium, this loss is to be specified via amplitude of the reflected wave. Besides, reflected wave potential has phase shift which also depends on this specification.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[3731] **viXra:1408.0127 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-19 03:10:57*

**Authors:** Wanchung Hu

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

There is an analogy between physics and economics. Here, I will use Newton’s mechanics to describe and deduct the principle of macroeconomics. Economics force is defined as F=dMV/dt=dPG/dt. The link between inflation rate, interest rate, growth rate, and money acceleration rate will also be defined. Principles of least action will be applied to the economics principle. Thus, we have new potent tools to analyze economics activities.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[3730] **viXra:1408.0113 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-18 06:42:15*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make five conjectures about the primes q, r and the square of prime p^2, which appears as solutions in the diophantine equation 120*n*q*r + 1 = p^2, where n is non-null positive integer.

**Category:** Number Theory

[3729] **viXra:1408.0112 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-19 06:00:47*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

An example is given of how it is possible that a limitation in determining the value of daily precession of the perihelion of Mercury explain this precession when designed for a century.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3728] **viXra:1408.0109 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-19 22:28:47*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 9 Pages. fixed more broken links in the references

The absence of impedances from the Standard Model is most remarkable. Impedance is a fundamental concept, of universal validity. Impedances govern the flow of energy. In particular, the coupling of the photon to matter happens in the near field. The absence of the photon near-field impedance in photon-electron interactions is the most basic and profound example of this remarkable circumstance, sitting unnoticed in the foundation of quantum electrodynamics. One cannot obtain a complete understanding of such interactions without examining the role of impedances. How this essential principle escaped notice in the development of quantum field theory is outlined,
and consequences of its inclusion in our present understanding are explored.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[3727] **viXra:1408.0109 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-19 15:41:34*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 9 Pages. fixed broken references (thanks Ralph), other minor changes

The absence of impedances from the Standard Model is most remarkable. Impedance is a fundamental concept, of universal validity. Impedances govern the flow of energy. In particular, the coupling of the photon to matter happens in the near field. The absence of the photon near-field impedance in photon-electron interactions is the most basic and profound example of this remarkable circumstance, sitting unnoticed in the foundation of quantum electrodynamics. One cannot obtain a complete understanding of such interactions without examining the role of impedances. How this essential principle escaped notice in the development of quantum field theory is outlined,
and consequences of its inclusion in our present understanding are explored.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[3726] **viXra:1408.0107 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-18 07:38:10*

**Authors:** Redouane BOUHENNACHE

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

Since the beginning of the quest of hypercomplex numbers in the late eighteenth century, many hypercomplex number systems have been proposed but none of them succeeded in extending the concept of complex numbers to higher dimensions. This paper provides a definitive solution to this problem by defining the truly hypercomplex numbers of dimension N ≥ 3. The secret lies in the definition of the multiplicative law and its properties. This law is based on spherical and hyperspherical coordinates. These numbers which I call spherical and hyperspherical hypercomplex numbers define Abelian groups over addition and multiplication. Nevertheless, the multiplicative law generally does not distribute over addition, thus the set of these numbers equipped with addition and multiplication does not form a mathematical field. However, such numbers are expected to have a tremendous utility in mathematics and in science in general.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[3725] **viXra:1408.0099 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-19 07:21:08*

**Authors:** Alberto Coe

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper will describe a geometric way to relate on the one hand the gravitational potential energy between two masses separated by the distance light travels in one second and on the other hand the physical action developed by one photon at a particular frequency

**Category:** Classical Physics

[3724] **viXra:1408.0099 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-17 08:09:30*

**Authors:** Alberto Coe

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper will describe a geometric way to relate on the one hand the gravitational potential energy between two masses separated by the distance light travels in one second and on the other hand the physical action developed by one photon at a particular frequency .

**Category:** Classical Physics

[3723] **viXra:1408.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-19 09:50:07*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Work in progress.

Propagators for charged fermions do not follow the prescription of perturbative quantum field theory (QFT) in the far infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) sectors of particle physics. They acquire a fractal structure from radiative corrections contributed by gauge bosons. Here we show how fractal propagators in QFT may be analyzed using fractional field theory on space-times having minimal deviations from four-dimensionality. An intriguing consequence of this approach is the emergence of classical gravity as long-range and ultra-weak excitation of the Higgs condensate.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[3722] **viXra:1408.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-16 20:04:12*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Work in progress.

In the deep infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) sectors of particle physics, propagators for charged fermions no longer follow the prescription of perturbative quantum field theory (QFT). They acquire a fractal structure from radiative corrections contributed by gauge bosons. Here we show how fractal propagators in QFT may be analyzed using fractional field theory on space-times having minimal deviations from four-dimensionality. An intriguing consequence of this approach is the emergence of classical gravity as long-range and ultra-weak excitation of the Higgs condensate.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[3721] **viXra:1408.0091 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-18 04:59:21*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Abandon the hypothesis of the solar wind and obtain a new value for the anomaly of the secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury. The theoretical value of the total secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury, according to the work of Le Verrier 1859, is only about 8'' unless the observed value quoted by Weinberg (in reference to Duncombe and Clemence). The hypothesis of the influence of the satellites in the calculation of precession, previously abandoned, should return, since 1'' is not so insignificant compared to 8''.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3720] **viXra:1408.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-21 06:48:24*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 9 Pages. minor corrections

Cauchy Theory is applied and extended to n-dimensional functions in Clifford algebras, showing the existence of integrals that do not exist in Euclidean spaces. It celebrates the depth of Cauchy's lecture, held on the 22nd of August, 1814, so 200 years ago, in times of bitter warfare. (I should like to recommend reading about his life, e.g. in Wikipedia.)

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[3719] **viXra:1408.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-15 05:53:17*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 9 Pages. The inroductory Clifford algebra proposition was hopelessly misspelled. Sorry. I hope you got its meaning still.

Cauchy Theory is applied and extended to n-dimensional functions in Clifford algebras, showing the existence of integrals that do not exist in Euclidean spaces. It celebrates the depth of Cauchy's lecture, held on the 22nd of August, 1814, so 200 years ago, in times of bitter warfare. (I should like to recommend reading about his life, e.g. in Wikipedia.)

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[3718] **viXra:1408.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-16 15:01:48*

**Authors:** Zhang yunfan

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

This paper established a physical axiom system. By the axiom system we can derive important physical laws such as momentum conservation law, Newton's second law, Newton's law of gravity, Schrodinger equation and Maxwell's equations, simplified existing physical theories and explain some physical phenomenons those unresolved by traditional physical theories. We can also derive Schwarzschild solution of external spherically symmetric gravitational field, gravitational red shift equation, proved that if in large-scale distance, Newton's law of gravity and red shift equation must be corrected, the data by corrected formulas meet the astronomical observed results well.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[3717] **viXra:1408.0068 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-12 06:36:01*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Conjectured polynomial time compositeness tests for numbers of the form k2^n-1 and k2^n+1 are introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[3716] **viXra:1408.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-12 10:54:48*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Encontrei um valor teórico muito próximo dos 5600’’ observados do movimento secular da longitude do periélio de Mercúrio, no famoso “Tratado do Movimento de Mercúrio”, de Le Verrier. Mais exatamente existem ainda 8’’ ou 10’’ de diferença para um século de observações, mas creditaria esta diferença aos satélites (mais que ao vento solar), às imprecisões das massas dos planetas, em especial Mercúrio, e às conhecidas limitações dos cálculos numéricos.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3715] **viXra:1408.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-11 14:04:57*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 2 Pages. In portuguese.

Encontrei um valor teórico muito próximo dos 5600’’ observados do movimento secular da longitude do periélio de Mercúrio, no famoso “Tratado do Movimento de Mercúrio”, de Le Verrier. Mais exatamente existem ainda 8’’ ou 10’’ de diferença para um século de observações, mas creditaria esta diferença aos satélites (mais que ao vento solar), às imprecisões das massas dos planetas, em especial Mercúrio, e às conhecidas limitações dos cálculos numéricos.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology