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2016 - 1601(352) - 1602(140)

Any replacements are listed further down

[13211] **viXra:1602.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-12 19:49:07*

**Authors:** Leonardo Pedro

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

One common way to define spontaneous symmetry breaking involves necessarily explicit symmetry breaking. Thus, how could we have spontaneous without explicit symmetry breaking? We study the concept of Hidden symmetries, which are not necessarily spontaneously broken, and its real representations on Higgs fields.
Given $G_p$ is a normal subgroup of $G_a$ (compact group), we proved for a multi-Higgs-doublet model that:
1) if we impose a symmetry $G_p$ to the Higgs potential and no term exists violating $G_a$, then there is no spontaneous breaking of $G_a$.
2) if explicit symmetry breaking of $G_a$ is allowed while $G_p$ is conserved, then $G_a$ is allowed to break spontaneously;
Using this theorem we explain a recent and related conjecture related with the CP symmetry.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[13210] **viXra:1602.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-12 22:09:57*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We introduce a new concept of truth in empirical theories based on the experience in the study of quantum mechanics. In this concept a statement can be true, false or undecidable.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[13209] **viXra:1602.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-13 00:27:20*

**Authors:** Valentin Danci

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A recent 3D computer simulation demonstrated that two inertial reference frames (IRFs) show the same count of time units by employing various methods of time sharing. This article explains those methods, the underlying concepts, and the conclusions on the common nature of time across IRFs. Multiple clocks of two different IRFs can be made to mark and count the same time units, concluding that measuring time across different IRFs is technically possible and it proves that Einstein’s Special Relativity theory is wrong in its claims about a dilation of time in frames which are equivalent to each other. The Einsteinian relativistic application of the Lorentz time transformations is hence proved wrong and useless.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13208] **viXra:1602.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-12 12:07:56*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

I presented my hypothesis, in 1980.
I announced at the physical society of Japan of Fukushima University.
Dark energy discovery 18 years ago, I announced the pulsation principle of particle hypothesis JPs annual meeting was held in Fukushima University in 1980, no dark energy term,. The concept of rarefied energy rallied and even to each other, was named energy atmospheric in the hypothesis space to meet the equivalent as the dark energy was named after.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[13207] **viXra:1602.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-12 12:36:14*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[13206] **viXra:1602.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-12 07:43:05*

**Authors:** Sudhanva Joshi

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

For many centuries now, scientists have been trying to find the origin of time.Perhaps,on more deeper thoughts what is TIME itself? Some think it as some sort of cymatic matter,some think that it is the result of uniform flow of space-time continuum while others think it as quantitative term for ‘existence’. But nobody knows till now what exactly is time?what does it stand for?will it ever end? Etc.In this paper,I have simply tried some tricks with Einsteins field equations to get an exact low energy solution for possible physical properties of TIME.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13205] **viXra:1602.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-12 08:58:32*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It is claimed that the LIGO and LISA projects will detect Einstein's gravitational waves. The existence of these waves is entirely theoretical. Over the past forty years or so no Einstein gravitational waves have been detected. How long must the search go on, at great expense to the public purse, before the astrophysical scientists admit that their search is fruitless and a waste of vast sums of public money? The fact is, from day one, the search for these elusive waves has been destined to detect nothing. Here are some reasons why.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13204] **viXra:1602.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-12 04:52:12*

**Authors:** Valeriy B. Smolenskii

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

В статье представлены теоретическое обоснование и экспериментальные подтверждения обнаруженного автором свойства нейтрона – наличие у него двух разных времён жизни. Приведено аналитическое выражение для определения времени жизни нейтрона находящегося в долгоживущем nL и короткоживущем nS состояниях. Приведено сравнение результатов теоретических расчётов с данными, представленными в открытом доступе во всемирной сети Интернет.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[13203] **viXra:1602.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-12 05:41:47*

**Authors:** Antonio A. Colella

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Two opposing Theory of Everything (TOE) visions are, a Two-Step Integrated TOE consisting of a fundamental physics step followed by a mathematics step, and the prevailing Stephen Hawking’s single mathematics step. The essence of the Two-Step Integrated TOE’s fundamental physics step is the intimate relationships between 20 existing theories. Currently, these 20 theories are independent of each other because physicists in one theory worked independently of physicists in the 19 other theories. Intimate relationships between 7 of the 20 theories (e.g., string, particle creation, inflation, Higgs forces, spontaneous symmetry breaking, dark energy, and dark matter) follow.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[13202] **viXra:1602.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-12 06:09:50*

**Authors:** Sergej Plotkin

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the paper we propose another way in contacting other civilizations. We give an explanation why Fermi paradox exists ie we explain the Great Silence.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[13201] **viXra:1602.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-12 06:32:08*

**Authors:** Reuven Tint

**Comments:** 30 Pages. Original written Russian

Received and given the unique invariant identity on a set of arbitrary numerical systems,super concise proof of Fermat's Last Theorem, another version of the Beal Conjecture solution.

**Category:** Number Theory

[13200] **viXra:1602.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-11 21:56:29*

**Authors:** G.L.W.A Jayathilaka

**Comments:** 1 Page. This is the first real proof for beal conjecture.K can be there for any right angle triangle due to proportionality.

This is the proof of beal conjecture done by G.L.W.A Jayathilaka from Srilanka. See that K should be there for any right angle triangle due to proportionality.

**Category:** Number Theory

[13199] **viXra:1602.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-11 22:21:28*

**Authors:** Jonathan Tooker

**Comments:** 13 Pages. 3 figures, 2 tables

The purpose of this report is to debunk Darwin's theory of evolution and any variant theory that relies on the natural rate of mutation to explain the origin of new genes. We construct a model of DNA and show that the minimum rate of mutation needed to produce humans within the geological age of the Earth is too high. It is much higher than any realistic model of random mutations. The calculation presented here should end the evolution debate, at least in its Darwinian limit. Other problems with evolution are discussed.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[13198] **viXra:1602.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-11 10:03:59*

**Authors:** Imrich Krištof

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This article says about new perspective of Modern Physics of Elementary Particles, called
neutrinos. This omnipresent particles probably could be have eminent role in birth of new
technical and theoretical branches of new physical science called NEUTRINIC΄S or
NEUTRINICA. This new established science discipline will be touched many human
activities from noninvasive medicinal diagnostics and operations to neutrino pulse-canal
communication. About importance of this phenomenon is evident many large Projects all
over the world and last Nobel Prize for Physics 2015, which was awarded to Takaaki Kajita
from Super-Kamiokande Collaboration, University of Tokyo, Japan and Arthur B. McDonald
from Sudbury Neutrino Observatory Collaboration, Queen΄s University, Kingston, Canada,
“for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows, that neutrinos have mass”. These
realities can prove new horizons to our view of the whole Universe.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[13197] **viXra:1602.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-11 11:26:19*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13196] **viXra:1602.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-11 11:56:16*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 04 pages, 09 references, short note

The holographic principle is applied to the weak interactions as a means of estimating the zero-point energy of a gas of degenerate neutrinos filling the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13195] **viXra:1602.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-10 18:25:02*

**Authors:** Jerry L. Decker

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Continuation Of Series On Polarizable Vacuum At High Speed

Lorentz Transformations of flat space were found to be inappropriate at high speed in deep space transport. Curvature of vacuum stress energy was predicted to accumulate from prolonged acceleration boosting of a space vehicle. Support was found for previous work on modifications of Polarizable Vacuum theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13194] **viXra:1602.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-11 01:31:25*

**Authors:** Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Mercury – a comet nucleus

**Category:** Astrophysics

[13193] **viXra:1602.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-10 13:32:50*

**Authors:** Ivan Gudkov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We give the explanation how modern economics works in the reality. It is a circular economics that is rotating counter clock-wise direction pumping money-goods in order to squeeze more money. It is rotating because there is a delta in information known to someone who rotates it.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[13192] **viXra:1602.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-10 14:22:49*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Pulsating hypothesis reveals Higgs mechanism.
* Photons are pulsating and getting forward. In the 4-dimensional space
* Zigzag progress of photons is same as the Higgs mechanism. Particle acquires mass.
* Dark energy is equivalent to the Higgs field and the mass of small amplitude of the zig-zag.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[13191] **viXra:1602.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-10 14:23:03*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is apparent that assumptions were falsely applied to the stars and their evolutionary paths. A simplified step by step realization is outlined concerning the downfall of common sense in the astrophysical sciences.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[13190] **viXra:1602.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-10 15:47:26*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A simple mathematical proof reveals that time-inversion symmetry and reversibility are different concepts, which also resolves the
Loschmidt paradox.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[13189] **viXra:1602.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-10 11:59:09*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Mohamed Talea, Assia Bakali, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 33 pages

The notion of interval valued neutrosophic sets is a generalization of fuzzy sets, intuitionistic fuzzy sets, interval valued fuzzy sets, interval valued intuitionstic fuzzy sets and single valued neutrosophic sets. We apply for the first time the concept of interval valued neutrosophic sets, an instance of neutrosophic sets, to graph theory. We introduce certain types of interval valued neutrosophc graphs (IVNG) and investigate some of their properties with proofs and examples.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[13188] **viXra:1602.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-10 12:02:44*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Mohamed Talea, Assia Bakali, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 21 pages

In this paper, we discuss a subclass of interval valued neutrosophic graphs called strong interval valued neutrosophic graphs which were introduced by Broumi et al [41]. The operations of Cartesian product, composition, union and join of two strong interval valued neutrosophic graphs are defined. Some propositions involving strong interval valued neutrosophic graphs are stated and proved.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[13187] **viXra:1602.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-10 04:27:28*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

I give my opinion on the relativity, cosmological redshift, Big Bang, gravity, quantum mechanics and field theory.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[13186] **viXra:1602.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-10 04:52:26*

**Authors:** Nikolai V. Volkov

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

If we introduce a virtual proper time in the space-time metric, then any physical field is complemented by its own virtual field. This virtual field has an energy-momentum and a massive in the presence of field sources. In this article we consider the above phenomenon for the electromagnetic (Maxwell`s) field whose own virtual field is scalar-electric. This virtual scalar-electric field is massive in the presence of electric charges and currents. In the case of gravitational field its massive virtual field has an energy-momentum and manifests itself in gravitational interactions. Such massive virtual field could explain the origin of dark matter and dark energy.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[13185] **viXra:1602.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-10 06:26:54*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Mohamed Talea, Assia Bakali, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 16 pages

The notion of single valued neutrosophic sets is a generalization of fuzzy sets, intuitionistic fuzzy sets. We apply the concept of single valued neutrosophic sets, an instance of neutrosophic sets, to graphs. We introduce certain types of single valued neutrosophic graphs (SVNG) and investigate some of their properties with proofs and examples.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[13184] **viXra:1602.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-10 08:44:03*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Researchers have recreated the universe's primordial soup in miniature format by colliding lead atoms with extremely high energy in the 27 km long particle accelerator, the LHC at CERN in Geneva. The primordial soup is a so-called quark-gluon plasma and researchers from the Niels Bohr Institute, among others, have measured its liquid properties with great accuracy at the LHC's top energy. [7] The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[13183] **viXra:1602.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-10 01:21:40*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

To address this problem, physicists are working on developing ever more sensitive dark matter detectors. In a new paper, researchers have proposed a new type of dark matter detector made of superconductors—materials that conduct electricity with zero resistance at ultracold temperatures—that may offer the highest sensitivity yet for detecting "superlight" dark matter. Superlight dark matter has a mass at the low end of the range of 1 keV (1000 electron volts) to 10 GeV, or in other words, up to a million times lighter than the proton. [17] Physicists believe that such dark matter is composed of (as yet undefined) elementary particles that stick together thanks to gravitational force. In a study recently published in EPJ C, scientists from the CRESST-II research project use the so-called phonon-light technique to detect dark matter. [16] A team of researchers at MIT has succeeded in creating a double film coating that is able to convert infrared light at modest intensities into visible light. In their paper published in the journal Nature Photonics, the team describes their film, how well it works and the possible uses for it. [15] Before the Hawaii-bound storm Julio strengthened into a hurricane, a NASA satellite spotted a high-energy flash of "dark lightning" coming from the swirling clouds. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[13182] **viXra:1602.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 13:34:59*

**Authors:** Robert B. Easter

**Comments:** 87 Pages.

This paper introduces the G(4,8) Double Conformal Space-Time Algebra (DCSTA). G(4,8) DCSTA is a straightforward extension of the G(8,2) Double Conformal / Darboux Cyclide Geometric Algebra (DCGA). G(4,8) DCSTA extends G(8,2) DCGA with spacetime boost operations and differential operators for differentiation with respect to the time-like w=c t direction and time t. The spacetime boost operation can implement anisotropic dilation (directed non-uniform scaling) of quadric surface entities. Quadric surface entities can be boosted into moving surfaces with constant velocities that display the length contraction effect of special relativity. To demonstrate G(4,8) DCSTA as concrete mathematics with possible applications, this paper includes sample code and example calculations using the symbolic computer algebra system SymPy.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[13181] **viXra:1602.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 14:39:35*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In quantum entanglement, two particles are correlated in such a way that any action on one of them affects the other even when they are far apart. The traditional methods of measuring the degree of quantum entanglement were originally developed for nonidentical particles, such as between an electron and a proton, or two atoms of different types. [7] For the first time, scientists have entangled four photons in their orbital angular momentum. Leiden physicists sent a laser through a crystal, thereby creating four photons with coupled 'rotation'. So far this has only been achieved with two photons. The discovery makes uncrackable secret communication of complex information possible between multiple parties. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[13180] **viXra:1602.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 14:48:10*

**Authors:** L. Martino, V. Elvira, F. Louzada

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

The Effective Sample Size (ESS) is an important measure of efficiency of Monte Carlo methods such as Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and Importance Sampling (IS) techniques. In IS context, an approximation of the theoretical ESS definition is widely applied, $\widehat{ESS}$, involving the sum of the squares of the normalized importance weights. This formula $\widehat{ESS}$ has become an essential piece within Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) methods using adaptive resampling procedures. The expression $\widehat{ESS}$ is related to the Euclidean distance between the probability mass described by the normalized weights and the discrete uniform probability mass function (pmf). In this work, we derive other possible ESS functions based on different discrepancy measures between these pmfs. Several examples are provided involving, for instance, the geometric and harmonic means of the weights, the discrete entropy (including the perplexity measure, already proposed in literature) and the Gini coefficient. We list five requirements which a generic ESS function should satisfy, allowing us to classify different ESS measures. We also compare the most promising ones by means of numerical simulations.

**Category:** Statistics

[13179] **viXra:1602.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 15:22:03*

**Authors:** Jason cole

**Comments:** Pages.

One of the biggest mysteries in cosmology is why do we see only matter and no antimatter. Staying with Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity this paper explores other pair productions models beside matter-antimatter to explains why we see no antimatter. The type of energy that made the matter universe is unknown and there is no scientific explanation as why we only see matter and no antimatter. Rather than proposing a symmetry breaking between matter and antimatter the other solution is that Einstein’s mass-energy equation can produce different pair productions outside of matter-antimatter when imaginary mass is introduced into his equations. By modeling the big bang as a slower than light matter and FTL Tachyon matter pair production (for example) rather than matter-antimatter doesn't violate Special Relativity as long as the Tachyons created never slow down to the speed of light. The principle idea is that Einstein’s mass-energy equation can come in 3 different flavors coinciding to the three different space curve geometries. In which pair production is not limited to matter-antimatter pairs but can also be expressed as Tachyon-anti tachyon pairs and a hybrid pair of slower than light matter-Tachyon pairs. In doing so it will allow Einstein’s mass-energy equation to produce different pair production partners. The reason why we have no antimatter is that the pair production was matter-antimatter but Tardon matter-Tachyon matter based on one of the 3 flavors of Einstein's mass-energy equation. This expansion of pair productions also expands the pressure states of General Relativity. Based on this new cosmological model, positive, negative and neutral pressure work together to explain the flat rotational curve of galaxies and the expansion/acceleration of our universe. This new cosmological model that explains the missing antimatter and explain the flat rotational curve of galaxies and the expansion/acceleration of our universe is called Modified Einsteinian Dynamics (MOED) Cosmology. It is a unique theory that explains the missing the missing antimatter and explain Dark Matter without needing Dark Matter or MOND(Modified Newtonian Dynamics).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13178] **viXra:1602.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 12:07:16*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Four-page letter

Until the perfect connection between gravitational and electric forces in known, it is advisable to pay attention to various coincidences and clues. With this philosophy in mind this letter points out some interesting correlations among cosmological parameters, like Hubble’s constant H0, radius of the universe R0 and total-mass of the universe M0 which may be a clue to deeper understanding of the gravitational and electric forces. Earlier, this writer had presented some expressions of gravity without the gravitational constant big G [1]. This letter reports some further thinking in this direction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13177] **viXra:1602.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 12:15:09*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas related to the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[13176] **viXra:1602.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 12:18:08*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas related to the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[13175] **viXra:1602.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 04:41:29*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Scientists are set to make a major announcement Thursday on efforts to pinpoint the existence of gravitational waves, or ripples of space and time that transport energy across the universe. [6] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13174] **viXra:1602.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 06:13:48*

**Authors:** Ahab bahlool

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

answer for the question: what is dark matter?

**Category:** Astrophysics

[13173] **viXra:1602.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 07:25:32*

**Authors:** Antonio A. Colella

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

An integrated Higgs force theory was primarily based on Higgs force requirements amplifications. Two key amplifications were a matter particle/Higgs force were one and inseparable and a matter particle/Higgs force bidirectionally condensed and evaporated from and to the super force. These amplifications were the basis of matter creation, baryogenesis, superpartner and Standard Model (SM) decays, spontaneous symmetry breaking, and stellar black hole evaporation. Additional Higgs amplifications included: our universe’s 129 matter and force particles contained 64 supersymmetric Higgs particles; nine transient matter particles/Higgs forces decayed to eight permanent matter particles/Higgs forces; the Higgs force was a residual super force; and mass was given to a matter particle by its Higgs force and gravitons. The sum of eight Higgs forces associated with eight permanent matter particles was dark energy.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[13172] **viXra:1602.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 07:45:55*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

An alternative worldview of Earth's history is presented to replace outdated uniformitarianism philosophy.

**Category:** Geophysics

[13171] **viXra:1602.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 08:28:11*

**Authors:** Jason cole

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

MOED (Modified Einsteinian Dynamics) is the first theory to only use General Relativity to explain the flat rotational curve of galaxies. Rather than adding Dark matter or changing gravity as in MOND (Modified Newtonian Dynamics) this paper only use General Relativity to explain the flat rotational curve of galaxies. MOED is based on the concept of using all 3 pressures states of General Relativity while staying consist with the Special Theory of Relativity. Extending GR rather than trying add different theories to it can fully explain the flat rotational curve and expansion/acceleration of our universe. The paper first explores different big bang pair production models within the Special theory of Relativity. No one can explain the missing antimatter in the universe. It leads to the idea that Einstein’s mass energy equation can produce different pair productions rather than matter-antimatter. It was discovered that Einstein’s E-mc2 can produce 3 different types of pair productions coinciding with the 3 basic space curve geometries (-,0.+). Based on this expansion of the mass-energy equation (3 different type of possible pair productions) the pressure states of GR can also be expanded to coincide with the 3 possible pair production configuration of Einstein’s mass energy equation. All 3 pressure states of GR work together to explain the flat rotational curve of galaxies and the expansion and acceleration of the universe. This expanded or Modified Einsteinian Dynamics (MOED) can be tested in particle accelerators, observations and computer experiments. The paper gives methods to prove the MOED theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13170] **viXra:1602.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-08 17:56:09*

**Authors:** Deniz Akdemir, Julio Isidro Sanchez

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Many breeders use selection as a first step for improvement of complex traits. The theory of selection is well studied in the genetics literature. In this article, we propose a new approach to breeding which focuses on mating instead of selection, we refer it to as genomic mating. We believe breeding by genomic mating uses the genomic information better than a recently proposed method of breeding methodologies like genomic selection. We used concepts of risk and diversification from the economics for formulating the optimum mating theory. The results from our simulations point to the efficiency of our method to selection based breeding.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[13169] **viXra:1602.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 02:55:37*

**Authors:** Nikolaj Sporysh

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This paper shows another way in analyzing economical crisis utilizing existing theory from physics.
The economics consists of number of players (people), environment (media, personal contacts, resources, money, land and etc) and some mechanisms (government, business, organizations and etc).
Black hole is a player or mechanism that consumes more energy than gives and smashes players by increasing the environmental pressure P.
White hole is a player or mechanism that gives more energy than consumes and never smashes any player.
We prove that any Computer Company is a Black hole.
We show why Economical crisis exists – there are Black holes and the number of rules in any organization grows.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[13168] **viXra:1602.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 03:46:24*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Catalogue
Theoretical physics.
Chapter1. Current conditionsand issues.
Chapter 2 principle of particle oscillation
Chapter 3 principle of pulsating for dark energy
Chapter 4 4-dimensional space found
Chapter 5. Solve the mystery of the dark matter discovered
Chapter 6. Solve the mystery of the double slit experiment

**Category:** Number Theory

[13167] **viXra:1602.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-08 13:12:24*

**Authors:** Frank H. Makinson

**Comments:** 6 Pages. The effects created by the electromagnetic signatures produced by earthquakes need extensive additional study.

For centuries, there was no reliable way to know whether an earthquake was eminent, even though strange animal behavior and odd lights in the sky had been observed before earthquakes. It was noted that long range radio skip was interrupted before the 1960 Valdavia, Chile earthquake and the same interruption occurred before the 1964 Alaska earthquake. Scientists took notice, primarily outside of the seismology community, and began inquiring what mechanism could cause such an interruption. In the 1960s, it was already known that certain types of sunspot activity could cause the same type of radio skip alteration. It is now known there is a prodigious amount of electromagnetic activity proceeding and during an earthquake. It has been demonstrated in the laboratory that certain types of rock act like semiconductors when subjected to stress and produce an electric current that fluctuates. It is not known how many other earthquake related issues remain outside of our knowledge, especially the odd coincidence of human health problems just before and coincident to an earthquake.

**Category:** Geophysics

[13166] **viXra:1602.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-08 14:36:14*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Scientists have created a crystal structure that boosts the interaction between tiny bursts of light and individual electrons, an advance that could be a significant step toward establishing quantum networks in the future. [10] Researchers from Stanford have advanced a long-standing problem in quantum physics – how to send "entangled" particles over long distances. [9] Scientists at the University of York's Centre for Quantum Technology have made an important step in establishing scalable and secure high rate quantum networks. [8] As do all advancing technologies, they will also create new nightmares. The most worrisome development will be in cryptography. Developing new standards for protecting data won't be easy. The RSA standards that are in common use each took five years to develop. Ralph Merkle, a pioneer of public-key cryptography, points out that the technology of public-key systems, because it is less well-known, will take longer to update than these — optimistically, ten years. And then there is a matter of implementation so that computer systems worldwide are protected. Without a particular sense of urgency or shortcuts, Merkle says, it could easily be 20 years before we've replaced all of the Internet's present security-critical infrastructure. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[13165] **viXra:1602.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-08 11:06:40*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Brook University have discovered a new way to generate very low-resistance electric current in a new class of materials. The discovery, which relies on the separation of right-and left-"handed" particles, points to a range of potential applications in energy, quantum computing, and medical imaging, and possibly even a new mechanism for inducing superconductivity—the ability of some materials to carry current with no energy loss. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[13164] **viXra:1602.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-08 12:01:30*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Dark energy hypothesis proves the Riemann hypothesis.
[1]. And math's biggest challenge, prove the Riemann hypothesis.
[2]. Tackle the difficult Riemann hypothesis have been rejecting geniuses challenge for 150 years.
[3]. The biggest challenge Prime mystery, history of mathematics, Riemann proved challenging.
[4]. A new interpretation of the Riemann hypothesis. Zero point is all crosses the line.
[5]. Elementary pulsation principle opens the doors of Lehman expected certification.

**Category:** Number Theory

[13163] **viXra:1602.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-08 12:08:17*

**Authors:** Branko Zivlak

**Comments:** 4 Pages. 12 formulas

After examining the relationships in the universe, is determined a hypothetical quantum temperature and then obtained temperature of cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB). It is rejected an explanation of that temperature as a result of the relic radiation from the Big Bang.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[13162] **viXra:1602.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-08 09:23:21*

**Authors:** Fernando Sánchez-Escribano

**Comments:** 8 Pages. I think that the present text can change the course of history, if understood enough. Until then, it should not be forgotten.

Distinction is made between those concepts the confusion of which has lead official theories to postulate against the dictates of intuition

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[13161] **viXra:1602.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-08 06:39:29*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The gravitational force would be transmitted through a polarization of the vacuum.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[13160] **viXra:1602.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-08 06:44:42*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this note, it is shown that the black holes can exist but also can lose mass and stop being it.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[13159] **viXra:1602.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-08 08:26:14*

**Authors:** Raji Heyrovska

**Comments:** 5 pages, 3 Figures

Diborane is an unusual molecule with two boron atoms bonded to four terminal hydrogen atoms and two bridging hydrogen atoms. This has puzzled many scientists and gave rise to many theories, with no final definitive explanation. This article brings a simple explanation of the bond lengths and angles in diborane, based on the additivity of atomic and Golden ratio based ionic radii, which was found applicable for many other bonds in small as well as small molecules.

**Category:** Chemistry

[13158] **viXra:1602.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-08 02:36:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A team of physicists suggested that the fundamental building unit proton can alter its structure under certain circumstances. Scientists are now performing experiments to show that the structure of protons can change inside the nucleus under certain conditions. [10] Exotic Mesons and Hadrons are high energy states of Quark oscillations. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[13157] **viXra:1602.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-07 14:53:01*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[13156] **viXra:1602.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-07 07:48:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Does entanglement have a weight? A positive answer to this question would have far reaching consequences, since entanglement is the core resource of some of the most exciting applications of the field of quantum information. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13155] **viXra:1602.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 16:42:53*

**Authors:** Bernardo Sotomayor Valdivia

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This monograph reexamines the basics on the motional properties of light and of material particles in an attempt to resolve as many of the questions and paradoxes posed by the different interpretational scenarios of Special Relativity (SR). The observational process is clarified and defined in terms of measurements by the use of standard rulers. Motion invariant rulers vs. motion variant rulers are considered under different interpretational scenarios of SR. The isotropy of the speed of light and particle trajectories in general are then considered under the different interpretational scenarios of SR to clarify their implications together with the behavior of de Broglie matter-waves, in reference to their motional geometry. In conclusion, a 3D spherical manifold (S3 hypersurface) is proposed for the motional geometry of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13154] **viXra:1602.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-07 04:51:04*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** Pages.

A new solution of Maxwell equations for vacuum is presented. First it must be noted that the proof of the solution's uniqueness is based on the Law of energy conservation which is not observed (for instantaneous values) in the known solution. The presented solution does not violate the Law of energy conservation. Besides, in this solution the electrical and magnetic components of intensity are shifted in phase. A detailed proof is given for interested readers.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[13153] **viXra:1602.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-07 05:06:13*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[13152] **viXra:1602.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-07 06:24:26*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** Pages.

Newton's gravitational constant Big G, appearing in both Newton's law of gravity and Einstein's general relativity, is essential for our todays understanding of gravity. Thus far, despite of the very long history of measurements of Newton's gravitational constant Big G, a definite value is still not in sight. Surprisingly, the results of different experiments have varied by much more than would be expected due to systematic or random errors. Why do measurements of Newton's gravitational constant Big G vary so much? It is the purpose of this publication is to provide a logically and mathematically self-consistent theoretical proof that Newton's gravitational constant Big G is not a constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13151] **viXra:1602.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 14:06:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Although in theory it may seem possible to divide time up into infinitely tiny intervals, the smallest physically meaningful interval of time is widely considered to be the Planck time, which is approximately 10-43 seconds. This ultimate limit means that it is not possible for two events to be separated by a time smaller than this. [14] A team of researchers working at Stanford University has extended the record for quantum superposition at the macroscopic level, from 1 to 54 centimeters. [13] Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12] A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11] Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[13150] **viXra:1602.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 10:04:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Bright Light on Dark Matter Physicists believe that such dark matter is composed of (as yet undefined) elementary particles that stick together thanks to gravitational force. In a study recently published in EPJ C, scientists from the CRESST-II research project use the so-called phonon-light technique to detect dark matter. [18] The XENON1T Experiment hopes to finally detect and prove the existence of dark matter particles with the help of much, much more sensitive equipment. [17] Dark matter has never been seen directly, but scientists know that something massive is out there due to its gravitational effects on visible matter. One explanation for how such a large amount of mass appears to be right in front of our eyes yet completely invisible by conventional means is that the dark matter is hiding in the centers of stars. [16] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Preliminary evidence of solar axions in XMM-Newton observations has quite recently been published by Fraser et al. These authors also estimate the axion mass to be m = 2.3 * 10-6 eV. Since an axion with this mass behaves as a cold dark matter particle, the considered preliminary detection directly concerns cold dark matter as well. So, it would be a revolutionary discovery if confirmed. Unfortunately, we have identified three distinct flaws in the analysis by Fraser et al. which ultimately make it totally irrelevant both for axions and for cold dark matter. [15] Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[13149] **viXra:1602.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 10:52:52*

**Authors:** Sami Drăghici, Constantin Coandă, Ionuț Ivănescu, Gheorghe Duță, Florentin Smarandache, Gheorghe Drăgan, Lucian Tuțescu, Jean Ilie

**Comments:** 340 Pages.

The present book tries to offer students and teachers knowledge evaluation tools for all the chapters from the current Romanian mathematics syllabi for grades V-VIII students.
In the evolution of teenagers, the phase of admission in high schools mobilizes particular efforts and emotions. The present workbook aims to be a permanent advisor in the agitated period starting with the capacity examination and leading to the admittance to high school.
The tests included in this workbook have a complementary character as opposed to the many materials written with the purpose to support all those who prepare for such examinations and they refer to the entire subject matter included in the analytical mathematics syllabus of arithmetic in Romania, algebra and geometry from the lower secondary grades.
These tests have been elaborated with the intention to offer proper support to those who use the workbook, assuring them the success and extra preparation for future exams.
Translated From Romanian into English by Florentin Smarandache, 2016.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[13148] **viXra:1602.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 10:55:41*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 134 Pages.

Photo album of antarctic images.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[13147] **viXra:1602.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 10:58:18*

**Authors:** Many Authors

**Comments:** 141 Pages.

Papers on neutrosophic set and logic

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[13146] **viXra:1602.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 11:00:18*

**Authors:** Many Authors

**Comments:** 145 Pages.

Collection of papers on combinatorics.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[13145] **viXra:1602.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 11:02:58*

**Authors:** Many Authors

**Comments:** 107 Pages.

Collection of papers on neutrosophics.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[13144] **viXra:1602.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 11:14:56*

**Authors:** editor Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 156 Pages.

In the new Techno-Art of Selariu SuperMathematics Functions ALBUM (the second book of Selariu SuperMathematics Functions), one contemplates a unique COMPOSITION, INTER-, INTRA- and TRANS-DISCIPLINARY. A comprehensive and savant INTRODUCTION explains the genesis of the inserted "figures", the addressees being, without discriminating criteria, equally engineers, mathematicians, artists, graphic designers, architects, and all lovers of beauty – as the love of beauty is the supreme form of love. If I should put a label on the "content" of this ALBUM, I would concoct the word NEO-BEAUTY!
The new complements of mathematics, reunited under the name of ex-centric mathematics (EM), extend (theoretically, endless) their scope; in this respect, Selariu SuperMathematics Functions are undeniable arguments! The author has labored (especially in the last three decades) extensively and fruitfully in the elitist field of the domain.
To mention some 'milestones' in this ALBUM, I choose specific mathematical elements, supermatematically hybridated: quadrilobic cubes, sphericubes, conopyramids, ex-centric spirals, severed toroids. There are also those that would qualify as "utilitarian": clepsydras, vases, baskets, lampions, or those suggestively “baptized” (by the author): butterflies, octopuses, flying saucers, jellies, roundabouts, ribands, and so on – all superlatively designed in shapes and colors! Striking phrases, such as “staggering multiplication of the dimensions of the Universe”, “integration through differential division” etc., become plausible (and explained) by replacing the time (of Einstein's four-dimensional space) with ex-centricity. Consequently, classical geometrical bodies (for e=0): the sphere, the cylinder, the cone, undergo metamorphosis (for e = +/-1), respectively into a cube, a prism, a pyramid. Inevitably and invariably, it is confirmed again that science is a finite space that grows in the infinite space; each new "expansion" does include a new area of unknown, but the unknown is inexhaustible...
Just browsing the ALBUM pages, you feel induced by the sensation of pleasure, of love at first sight; the variety of "exhibits", most of them unusual, the elegance, the symmetry of the layout, the chromatic, and so one, delight the eye, but equally incites to catchy intellectual exploration.

**Category:** Geometry

[13143] **viXra:1602.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 12:01:59*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Catalogue。
Introduction。
Theoretical physics, Chapter 1: current conditionsand issues
[1] modern physics in the challenge
[2] elementary pulsation principle and dark energy pulsating principle
[3] Einstein kept looking for 4-dimensional space
[4]The geometry of the universe
[5] all equations, quantum gravity theory

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13142] **viXra:1602.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 06:53:37*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas related to the number Pi and the Lerch transcendent function

**Category:** General Mathematics

[13141] **viXra:1602.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 06:57:02*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas related to the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[13140] **viXra:1602.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 06:42:34*

**Authors:** Mahdie Rezvani

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Fear of crime in public places is a social issue that reduces access to the public places and limits the interactions with these places. Fear has significantly affected the city appearance, civil design and spatial distribution of the residences. The conception of security in urban spaces is on one hand related to the crime and on the other hand to the concept of facing the crime (victimization) and fear of crime encountering. The research method is surveying and the information collection technique is through questionnaire. Probable span sampling (PPS) method is used. Sample population was 200 household which were selected randomly in five categorical clusters from Mashhad city. In addition to investigating structural factors, the purpose of the research is studying reactive components affecting fear of crime among people in public places inside and outside the neighborhood.
Independent variable of the research includes two general classes of reactive and structural factors and the interaction between them which reactive factors consist of:
Vulnerability, victimization, gender ratio of the place, age ratio of the place, mental image of the place, activity in the place, cumulative effectiveness, and residency duration in the place and perceiving the risk of the crime. Structural factors include: visual penetration of the place, variation of place usage, non-defensed areas and place rank. The interaction between subjective and structural factors is considered as independent variable which includes: disorder and effectiveness, gender ratio and vulnerability, age ratio and vulnerability, place rank and vulnerability.
Place rank among all other structural factors has the greatest effect on the fear of crime in public places outside the neighborhood. It means that by increasing place's rank of people residential area their fear of crime is decreased. The presence of non-defended areas (as one of the structural characteristics of the place), the sense of the place (one of the mental images of the people from the place) and activity and participation of the individuals in the place are three basic factors forming the concept of a place which have significant effect on the fear of crime within the neighborhoods. The effect of social capital (trust and support) as another effective structural factor on fear of crime in public area within the neighborhoods is approved. Victimization experience is also recognized as a predictor of fear of crime in multi variable analysis of public places inside and outside the neighborhood. Spatial factor's effects on fear of crime in public places inside and outside the neighborhoods show that structural and spatial characteristics of the residence area also affect fear of crime significantly. There is a relation between fear of crime and spatial view and fear of crime is also affected by spatial configuration. Variable of spatial legibility has reductive effect on fear of crime in public places within the neighborhood. Visual accessibility and public place lighting for the people also reduce fear of crime among the people within the neighborhoods. The relation between the movement and the presence of people in the place with the fear of crime outside the neighborhoods is approved. Among social factors, economic-social position of the people has reverse relation with fear of crime. Among reactive factors, the more is the understanding of the people from the crime occurrence in their neighborhoods, the more is the fear of crime in public places outside the neighborhood.
Variables of victimization, local legibility, social capital of the neighborhood, informal social control and gender ratio of the place among other reactive factors and variables of usage variation of the place, visual penetration of the place among other structural factors in the model of fear of crime in public places within the neighborhood have significant relation with fear of cri, in public places within the neighborhoods. Also the interaction between variables of vulnerability and gender ration of the place, of disorder and informal social control and of disorder and social capital of the neighborhood has no effect on fear of crime in public places within the neighborhoods.
Finally, those variables of structural and reactive classes which are effective and significant are supported to reduce fear of crime.

**Category:** Social Science

[13139] **viXra:1602.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 22:00:34*

**Authors:** Jose P Koshy

**Comments:** 13 Pages. The fourteenth paper based on Reality.

The galaxy-clusters move outwards in a synchronous manner, their speeds increasing at the expense of their internal energies; the process is self-limiting and reversible, and this puts the universe in an infinite-loop of pulsations. The model is based on the hypothesis that motion at speed 'c' is the fundamental property of matter, and hence the clusters can move at very high speeds. The model is complete in all respects, is in agreement with observational evidences, does not require any dark matter or dark energy, and predicts the Earth-moon distance correctly. Based on these, I claim that the proposed model is better than the existing LCDM model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13138] **viXra:1602.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 22:49:33*

**Authors:** Temur Z. Kalanov

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The biographical sketch describes the creative development of the theoretical physicist, mathematician, logician, and philosopher Temur Z. Kalanov. It is shown that scientific creativity is a manifestation of congenital quality of personality, a manifestation of loss of faith in scientific authorities, a manifestation of one's “Ego”. The found “Ego” and faith in oneself are the impossible without awareness and recognition of the existence of the Supreme Intellect and of God. Faith in oneself and in the existence of the Absolute Truth are starting point of correct cognition. It is proved within the correct methodological basis – the unity of formal logic and of rational dialectics – that works of classics of sciences contain errors. The errors are an inalienable and essential part of modern sciences and characterize the inductive method of cognition.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[13137] **viXra:1602.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 02:37:55*

**Authors:** Pierre-Yves Gaillard

**Comments:** 191 Pages.

The purpose of this text is to make a few comments about the book "Categories and Sheaves" by Kashiwara and Schapira, Springer 2006.

**Category:** Algebra

[13136] **viXra:1602.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 13:54:42*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Give formal definition of SUPREME and explain it's implications.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[13135] **viXra:1602.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 14:44:44*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In my previous paper “Bold conjecture on Fermat pseudoprimes” I stated that there exist a method to place almost any Fermat pseudoprime to base two (Poulet number) in an infinite subsequence of such numbers, defined by a quadratic polynomial, as a further term or as a starting term of such a sequence. In this paper I conjecture that there is yet another way to place a Poulet number in such a sequence defined by a polynomial, this time not necessarily quadratic.

**Category:** Number Theory

[13134] **viXra:1602.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 10:58:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Physicists in England claim they have discovered how to create matter from light, by smashing together individual massless photons– a feat that was first theorized back in 1934, and has been considered practically impossible until now. If this new discovery pans out, the final piece of the physics jigsaw puzzle that describes how light and matter interact would be complete. No one's quite sure of the repercussions if matter can indeed be produced from photon-photon collision, but I'm sure something awesomely scientific will emerge before long. [4] This paper explains the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13133] **viXra:1602.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 12:07:58*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas related to the number Pi and the Riemann zeta function

**Category:** General Mathematics

[13132] **viXra:1602.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 12:31:12*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

[1] modern physics goals, Super grand unified theory hypothesis
[2] in 1980, elementary pulsation principle announced in Japan physical society
an announcement in the Japan physical society in 1980 [3] cinii National Institute of Infomatics to be stored.
[4] on the Internet Encyclopaedia Wikipedia articles
An illustrated guide [5] nuclear forces, gravity, electromagnetic force
[6] elementary pulsation principle forces, gravity, electromagnetic force of unity
[7] pulsation principle model for finite nuclei structure.
Front and back of the same photon's [8] photons and quantum gravity

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13131] **viXra:1602.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 07:11:57*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[13130] **viXra:1602.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 07:11:51*

**Authors:** Han Geurdes

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Na

Inthis paper, random dynamic systems theory is applied to time series ($\Delta t=5$ minutes) of measurement of water level, $W$, temperature, $T$, and barometric pressure, $P$, in sea dikes. The time series were obtained from DDSC and are part of DMC systems dike maintenance program of the Ommelanderzeedijk in northern Netherlands. The result of numerical analysis of dike $(W,T,P)$ time series is that after the onset of a more or less monotone increase in barometric pressure, an unexpected relatively sharp increase or decrease in water level can occur. The direction of change is related to random factors shortly before the onset of the increase. From numerical study of the time series, we found that $\Delta W_{max}\approx \pm 0.5$ mNAP\footnote{NAP indicates New Amsterdam water level which is a zero determining water level well known in the Netherlands.}. The randomness in the direction of change is most likely explained by the random outcome of two competitive processes shortly before the onset of a continuous barometric pressure increase. The two processes are pore pressure compaction and expulsion of water by air molecules. An important cause of growing barometric pressure increase can be found in pressure subsidence following a decrease in atmospheric temperature. In addition, there is a diurnal atmospheric tide caused by UV radiation fluctuations. This can give an additional $\Delta P_{tide}\approx\pm 0.1$ kPa barometric fluctuation\footnote{1Pa=1Pascal=$1Nm^{-2} \approx 10kg s^{-2}m^{-1}$.} in the mid latitudes ($30^{\circ}N-60^{\circ}N$).

**Category:** Geophysics

[13129] **viXra:1602.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 08:34:28*

**Authors:** Kirana Kumara P

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Accepted for presentation at National Conference on "Advances in Mechanical Engineering and Applied Sciences (AMEAS-2016)", to be held on 19th - 20th February 2016, at Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Bengaluru, India.

The simple beam theory can predict the deflection of beams that are fixed at both the ends, with a high level of accuracy if the length-to-diameter ratios for the beams are high. Hence the readily available formula (which is based on the simple beam theory) for beams may be used with confidence when the length-to-diameter ratios are high. However, studies on the accuracy of the results predicted by the simple beam theory are not common when the length-to-diameter ratios are small. Hence the present work compares the results obtained through the use of the well- known formula (based on the simple bending theory) with the results obtained by making use of the well-known commercial finite element software ANSYS, for beams of different length-to-diameter ratios and circular and square cross section, in order to get an idea of the accuracy of the results that are obtained by making use of the well-known formula. All these results are tabulated. The present study is restricted to beams that are fixed at both the ends and only those cases where a single concentrated load is applied at the midpoint between the two ends. The present study would be of use to designers who are concerned over the accuracy of the results that are obtained through the use of the well-known analytical formula. The present study is a continuation of the work presented in the author's earlier work "Kirana Kumara P, Studies on the Accuracy of the Results Predicted by the Simple Beam Theory in the case of Short Cantilever Beams, National Conference on: Role of Mechanical Engineering and Computational Science for a Sustainable Future (NCAME-2015), September 25th & 26th, 2015, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering,
Bengaluru, India", and hence the present work -- wherever useful -- borrows ideas and sentences from the said reference.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[13128] **viXra:1602.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 08:43:58*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In many of my previous papers I showed various methods, formulas and polynomials designed to generate sequences, possible infinite, of Poulet numbers or Carmichael numbers. In this paper I state that there exist a method to place almost any Fermat pseudoprime to base two (Poulet number) in such a sequence, as a further term or as a starting term.

**Category:** Number Theory

[13127] **viXra:1602.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-04 17:49:32*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We prove that the Bell’s theorem and the nonlocality of quantum mechanics are scientifically unfounded statements.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[13126] **viXra:1602.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-04 19:46:01*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

E8 Physics AQFT is constructed from an E8 Physics Lagrangian (viXra 1508.0157) by embedding E8 into the Real Clifford Algebra Cl(16) = Cl(8)xCl(8) and taking the completion of the union of all tensor products of copies of Cl(16) which forms a generalized hyperfinite II1 von Neumann factor algebra AQFT
(Algebraic Quantum Field Theory) that by Periodicity retains underlying E8 symmetry. The World-Line of a Particle in E8 Physics is a String connecting the Cl(16) copies that make up points / events in the History of the Particle. Interaction among those History World-Line Strings by String Theory produces a Force / Potential that is similar to Gravity but the Local Lagrangian of E8 Physics in each copy of Cl(16) in the AQFT
already contains Gravity (as well as the Standard Model).
The purpose of this paper is to describe the Physical Interpretation of the E8 AQFT String Gravity-like Force / Potential as the Sarfatti-Bohm Quantum Potential with Back-Reaction that permits Free Will and is the fundamental Force of Quantum Consciousness that is described as Gravity by Penrose and Hameroff (Physics of Life Reviews 11 (March 2014) 39-78).
The Quantum Potential of this paper is a Bohm internal energy of a quantum system whose total force does not fall off with distance since it depends on the form of the quantum state rather than its magnitude. The form is described in terms of Cl(16) which is related (see viXra 1512.0300) to the Tensor Product Quantum Reed-Muller code [[ 256 , 0 , 24 ]] x [[ 256 , 0 , 24 ]] and which contains not only 248-dim E8 but a total of 65,536 elements.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[13125] **viXra:1602.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-04 21:28:46*

**Authors:** Marcelo Carvalho

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

We give a categorical interpretation for a model we have previously developed,
which combines aspects of the Galilei and the special relativity and that is based
on a broad class of transformations - the Generalized
Lorentz transformation. Particularly, we show how the standard Lorentz
transformation of the special relativity satisfies a kind of universal property
factoring out the Generalized Lorentz transformation through a certain redefinition
of velocity. We also show how the Galilei transformation and the Generalized Lorentz
transformation are related in terms of a multi-valued natural transformation that
in some sense unify both relativities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13124] **viXra:1602.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 02:15:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

New findings from an international collaboration led by Canadian scientists may eventually lead to a theory of how superconductivity initiates at the atomic level, a key step in understanding how to harness the potential of materials that could provide lossless energy storage, levitating trains and ultra-fast supercomputers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5949] **viXra:1602.0122 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-12 14:46:47*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Orthographic corrections; polished some sentences; in case someone really asks whether symmetries are meant to be global or local: they are meant to be global! and I attributed that specially in the text.

A simple mathematical proof reveals that time-inversion symmetry and reversibility are different concepts, which also resolves the Loschmidt paradox.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[5948] **viXra:1602.0112 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-10 07:48:50*

**Authors:** L. Martino, V. Elvira, F. Louzada

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

The Effective Sample Size (ESS) is an important measure of efficiency of Monte Carlo methods such as Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and Importance Sampling (IS) techniques. In IS context, an approximation of the theoretical ESS definition is widely applied, $\widehat{ESS}$, involving the sum of the squares of the normalized importance weights. This formula $\widehat{ESS}$ has become an essential piece within Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) methods using adaptive resampling procedures. The expression $\widehat{ESS}$ is related to the Euclidean distance between the probability mass described by the normalized weights and the discrete uniform probability mass function (pmf). In this work, we derive other possible ESS functions based on different discrepancy measures between these pmfs. Several examples are provided involving, for instance, the geometric and harmonic means of the weights, the discrete entropy (including the perplexity measure, already proposed in literature) and the Gini coefficient. We list five requirements which a generic ESS function should satisfy, allowing us to classify different ESS measures. We also compare the most promising ones by means of numerical simulations.

**Category:** Statistics

[5947] **viXra:1602.0111 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-10 15:33:30*

**Authors:** Jason cole

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

One of the biggest mysteries in cosmology is why do we see only matter and no antimatter. This paper solves the mystery of missing antimatter, and doing so explains the flat rotational curve of galaxies. Staying with Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity this paper explores other pair productions models beside matter-antimatter to explains why we see no antimatter. Different pair productions explains the flat rotational curve of galaxies. The type of energy that made the matter universe is unknown and there is no scientific explanation as why we only see matter and no antimatter. Rather than proposing a symmetry breaking between matter and antimatter the other solution is that Einstein’s mass-energy equation can produce different pair productions outside of matter-antimatter when imaginary mass is introduced into his equations. By modeling the big bang as a slower than light matter and FTL Tachyon matter pair production (for example) rather than matter-antimatter doesn't violate Special Relativity as long as the Tachyons created never slow down to the speed of light. The principle idea is that Einstein’s mass-energy equation can come in 3 different flavors coinciding to the three different space curve geometries. In which pair production is not limited to matter-antimatter pairs but can also be expressed as Tachyon-anti tachyon pairs and a hybrid pair of slower than light matter-Tachyon pairs. In doing so it will allow Einstein’s mass-energy equation to produce different pair production partners. The reason why we have no antimatter is that the pair production was matter-antimatter but Tardon matter-Tachyon matter based on one of the 3 flavors of Einstein's mass-energy equation. This expansion of pair productions also expands the pressure states of General Relativity. Based on this new cosmological model, positive, negative and neutral pressure work together to explain the flat rotational curve of galaxies and the expansion/acceleration of our universe. This new cosmological model that explains the missing antimatter and explain the flat rotational curve of galaxies and the expansion/acceleration of our universe is called Modified Einsteinian Dynamics (MOED) Cosmology. It is a unique theory that explains the missing the missing antimatter and explain Dark Matter without needing Dark Matter or MOND(Modified Newtonian Dynamics).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5946] **viXra:1602.0057 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-11 18:00:09*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We prove that the Bell’s theorem and the nonlocality of quantum mechanics are scientifically unfounded statements.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5945] **viXra:1602.0057 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-06 05:19:30*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We prove that the Bell’s theorem and the nonlocality of quantum mechanics are scientifically unfounded statements.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5944] **viXra:1602.0053 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-05 08:42:31*

**Authors:** Jason Lind

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Added preliminary calculations for correcting non-normal distribution

Defines a rated set and uses it to calculated a weight directly from the statistics that enabled broad unified interpretation of data.

**Category:** Statistics