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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[8325] viXra:1407.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-30 07:47:46

Pioneer Anomaly May be Gravitational, not Thermal

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 5 Pages.

The question and answer about spacecraft flybys (Astronomy magazine’s “AskAstro” section - August 2014) got me thinking about the Pioneer anomaly - a slight slowdown in the predicted positions of the Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 spacecraft noticed when they entered the outer solar system. After their billions of miles of travel, the Pioneer spacecraft are some 3,000 miles short of their predicted locations. If they were now carrying an infinitesimal extra mass due to m=E/c^2, this could account for the shortfall. I propose electromagnetic energy from the RTG (radioisotope thermo-electric generator) powering each craft is insufficient to be relativistically converted into enough mass, and suggest energy in the form of gravitational waves that are diverted towards the Sun's mass would convert into the mass causing the Pioneer anomaly. As the end of this short article states, “Though it’s possible that high-frequency electromagnetic waves like X-rays or gamma rays, as well as the subatomic particles in cosmic rays, might contribute to Pioneer’s extra mass; a gravitational cause is not invalidated since both matter and electromagnetism have their origins in gravitation“ (this is explained).
Category: Astrophysics

[8324] viXra:1407.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-30 04:39:11

The Origin of the UV-Photon Underproduction Crisis

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory i.e. the Everlasting Theory, I described the origin of the UV-photon underproduction crisis. The observational facts lead to conclusion that the value of the metagalactic photoionization rate for the low-redshift Lyman-alpha forest should be larger than the predicted value. The Everlasting Theory shows that it is directly associated with evolution of the dark matter at the beginning of expansion of the Universe and with the ratio of the present-day radius of the Universe and its initial radius.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8323] viXra:1407.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-29 23:15:32

Internal Symmetries Of Sets Co-prime To A Random Product Of Prime Numbers

Authors: Russell Letkeman
Comments: 7 Pages.

We show every set modulo the product of a random collection of unique prime numbers has a palindrome in its gaps of length the minimum set minus 1. There is one more gap which is always a twin. Together the count of the gaps equals the count of the minimum modular set. This symmetry not only forces all constellations of gaps to have mirror images existing at exactly the same counts, but it also precisely identifies the center of mass (counts) of the set.
Category: Number Theory

[8322] viXra:1407.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-30 01:12:26

Primality Tests for Specific Classes of Numbers of the Form Kb^n+1

Authors: Predrag Terzic
Comments: 2 Pages.

Conjectured primality criteria for specific classes of numbers of the form kb^n+1 are introduced .
Category: Number Theory

[8321] viXra:1407.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-29 15:46:10

A Most Elegant Philosophy About the Theory of Everything

Authors: Harry Theunissen
Comments: 7 Pages.

Given a simple set of assumptions, this paper gives an elegant explanation how ElectroMagnetism, the Stong nuclear force, the Weak nuclear force, Gravity, Inertia, matter and Time all could “emerge” from a single “fundamental” force.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8320] viXra:1407.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-29 14:03:32

ATLAS, CMS Higgs Boson Data May Already Contain Clues for Solving Decay Rate Puzzle

Authors: Lamont Williams
Comments: 9 Pages.

ATLAS and CMS, the two principal laboratories operating at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, have made great strides in clarifying the properties of the newly discovered Higgs boson. In particular, they have tested how the particle decays to other particles, namely photons, Z bosons, W bosons, tau particles, and bottom quarks. Although the decay rates of these particles have been compatible with those determined through the Standard Model, they have not been an exact match. This report shows how data from ATLAS and CMS may already be solving the puzzle of the incongruent decay rate values, while also revealing a potential, and currently unrecognized, proportional relationship at work in the decay mechanisms of the Higgs particle.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[8319] viXra:1407.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-29 09:10:03

Higgs Field and Quantum Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 8 Pages.

The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[8318] viXra:1407.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-29 02:38:15

Fermat Primes to Become Criterion for the Constructibility of Regular 2^k-Sided Polygons

Authors: Pingyuan Zhou
Comments: 9 Pages. Author gives an argument for indirect connections between Fermat primes and regular 2^k-sided polygons to make Gauss-Wantzel theorem have general sense in implying connections between Fermat primes and all constructible polygons.

Abstract: Gauss-Wantzel theorem shows that regular n-sided polygons, whose number of sides contains a(distrinct) Fermat prime(s) as odd prime factor(s) of n or number of sides is power of 2, are all constructible with compass and straightedge. But of these caces, the constructibility of all regular 2^k-sided polygons is not related to Fermat primes. We discover the number of so-called root Mersenne primes Mp for p4 ( though there are no known Fermat primes Fk for k>4 ) then the constructibility of all regular 2^k-sided polygons can be indirectly explained by Fermat primes as criterion. Thus there exist direct or indirect connections between Fermat primes and all constructible regular polygons according to the theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[8317] viXra:1407.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-28 19:59:44

Normalization of Some Holographic Dark Energy Models

Authors: Yong Bao
Comments: 4 Pages.

We propose the normalization of some holographic dark energy (HDE) models. Applying the normalization method, we derive the general equation of normalization of initial HDE model and General HDE (GHDE) model; obtain that the coefficient w_de is inversely proportional to the square of the parameter c_L which is variable; get the normalized equations of initial HDE model, GHDE model, agegraphic dark energy (ADE) model and New HDE (NHDE) model; obtain n = 2.894 which is in good agreement with n = 〖2.886〗_(-0.163)^(+0.169) in ADE model and c_Ln= 3 which agrees well with 1.41 < c < 3.09 in NHDE model; and interpret the physical meaning of the ratio f_de and its average value by dimensional analysis. We suggest that the normalization of some HDE models is interesting and significant.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8316] viXra:1407.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-28 14:01:13

Recap of the Theory of the Extended Electron

Authors: Hoa Van Nguyen
Comments: 21 Pages. 21 figures

This article is the recap of the theory of the extended electron which has been published online on website: www.vixra.org/author/hoa_van_nguyen. The theory presents three novel concepts : the variability of the electric charge and the mechanisms of the processes of spin and radiation of the electron by external fields .
Category: Classical Physics

[8315] viXra:1407.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-28 04:51:35

Unified Field Theory in a Nutshell (Ellicit Dreams of a Final Theory)

Authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Comments: 28 Pages. Comments are Welcome. Paper to be sent to a Peer-Review Journal.

The present reading is part of our on-going attempt at the foremost endeavour of physics since man began to comprehend the heavens and the earth. We present a much more improved unified field theory of all the Forces of Nature i.e. the gravitational, the electromagnetic, the weak and the strong nuclear forces. The proposed theory is a radical improvement of Professor Herman Weyl's supposed failed attempt at a unified theory of gravitation and electromagnetism. As is the case with Professor Weyl's theory, unit vectors in the resulting/proposed theory vary from one point to the next, albeit, in a manner such that they are compelled to yield tensorial affinities. In a separate reading, the Dirac equation is shown to emerge as part of the description of the these variable unit vectors. The nuclear force fields -- i.e., electromagnetic, weak and the strong -- together with the gravitational force field are seen to be described by a four vector field, which forms part of the body of the variable unit vectors and hence the metric of spacetime. The resulting theory very strongly appears to be a logically consistent and coherent unification of classical and quantum physics and at the same time a grand unity of all the forces of Nature. Unlike most unification theories, the present proposal is unique in that it achieves unification on a four dimensional continuum of spacetime without the need for extra-dimensions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8314] viXra:1407.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-27 17:21:20

An Application of Hardy-Littlewood Conjecture

Authors: JinHua Fei
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper, we assume that weaker Hardy-Littlewood Conjecture, we got a better upper bound of the exceptional real zero for a class of prime number module.
Category: Number Theory

[8313] viXra:1407.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-27 17:56:38

Gravitational Tunneling Machine

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 7 Pages.

A new tunneling machine is described in this article. It works based on the gravity-control technology, and can reach high velocities through rocky means; possibly few tens of meters per hour, moreover it can move itself in any directions below the ground. This machine can be highly useful for urban tunneling, drainage, exploration, water supply, water diversion and accessing the mines of diamonds, coal, oil, and several others types of minerals existent in the Earth’s crust.
Category: Classical Physics

[8312] viXra:1407.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-27 20:37:59

Conjecture's Legendre

Authors: Réjean Labrie
Comments: 7 Pages.

This article is a demonstration of the existence of at least one prime number between two consecutive squares.
Category: Number Theory

[8311] viXra:1407.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-27 08:45:11

Decât Repede şi Bine, Mai Degrabă încet şi Prost, Folclor Umoristic Internetist (Ix),

Authors: editor Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 642 Pages.

Bancuri, folclor in general, imagini.
Category: Linguistics

[8310] viXra:1407.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-27 03:06:26

Counting The Prime

Authors: T.Nakashima
Comments: 1 Page.

This Paper is the result Counting the Prime Numbers by using Mathematica 9.
Category: Number Theory

[8309] viXra:1407.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-27 03:35:43

Transversal Fizeau Effect and the GRT

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 12 Pages. slide presentation

This presentation explains in detail that when studying the effects of rotation on the motion of bodies or light, it is necessary to use the metric of a curved spacetime. Furthermore, it is shown that the relativistic addition of velocities in such systems is not valid and that the classical velocity addition must be used instead. It thus becomes clear that most of the Special Relativity Theory effects are nullified in such systems by the centripetal force of rotation and that the Special Relativity is thus strictly valid only in inertial systems. Finally it is confirmed that the inertial mass depends on velocity differently than the gravitational mass.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8308] viXra:1407.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-26 09:46:00

Stellar Metamorphosis Versus Establishment Dogma: Stellar Isochrones and the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 diagrams

In astrophysics an unnecessary concept was invented to try and explain what happens to stars as they evolve. These are known as stellar isochrones. Isochrones are rooted in the false notion that stars do not lose mass as they evolve. A corrective understanding is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[8307] viXra:1407.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-25 22:09:36

Launching the Chaotic Realm of Iso-Fractals: a Short Remark

Authors: Nathan O. Schmidt, Reza Katebi, Christian Corda
Comments: 5 pages, 1 figure, accepted in the AIP Conference Proceedings of ICNAAM 2014

In this brief note, we introduce the new, emerging sub-discipline of iso-fractals by highlighting and discussing the preliminary results of recent works. First, we note the abundance of fractal, chaotic, non-linear, and self-similar structures in nature while emphasizing the importance of studying such systems because fractal geometry is the language of chaos. Second, we outline the iso-fractal generalization of the Mandelbrot set to exemplify the newly generated Mandelbrot iso-sets. Third, we present the cutting-edge notion of dynamic iso-spaces and explain how a mathematical space can be iso-topically lifted with iso-unit functions that (continuously or discretely) change; in the discrete case examples, we mention that iteratively generated sequences like Fibonacci's numbers and (the complex moduli of) Mandelbrot's numbers can supply a deterministic chain of iso-units to construct an ordered series of (magnified and/or de-magnified) iso-spaces that are locally iso-morphic. Fourth, we consider the initiation of iso-fractals with Inopin's holographic ring (IHR) topology and fractional statistics for 2D and 3D iso-spaces. In total, the reviewed iso-fractal results are a significant improvement over traditional fractals because the application of Santilli's iso-mathematics arms us an extra degree of freedom for attacking problems in chaos. Finally, we conclude by proposing some questions and ideas for future research work.
Category: Geometry

[8306] viXra:1407.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-26 02:24:42

Gravitational Binding Energy in Charged Cylindrical Symmetry

Authors: M. Sharif, M. Zaeem Ul Haq Bhatti
Comments: 09 Pages. Can. J. Phys. 90(2012)1233

We consider static cylindrically symmetric charged gravitating object with perfect fluid and investigate the gravitational binding energy. It is found that only the localized part of the mass function provides the gravitational binding energy, whereas the non-localized part generated by the electric coupling does not contribute for such energy.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8305] viXra:1407.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-26 02:35:06

Cylindrical Thin-Shell Wormholes in $f(R)$ Gravity

Authors: M. Sharif, Z. Yousaf
Comments: 20 Pages. Astrophys. Space Sci. 351(2014)351.

In this paper, we employ cut and paste scheme to construct thin-shell wormhole of a charged black string with $f(R)$ terms. We consider $f(R)$ model as an exotic matter source at wormhole throat. The stability of the respective solutions are analyzed under radial perturbations in the context of $R+{\delta}R^2$ model. It is concluded that both stable as well as unstable solutions do exist for different values of $\delta$. In the limit $\delta{\rightarrow}0$, all our results reduce to general relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8304] viXra:1407.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-25 12:33:21

Eleventh International Anthology on Paradoxism

Authors: editor Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 159 Pages.

Contributors by country: From Romania: Adrian Botez, G. Calefariu, Ionuţ Caragea, Marius Coman, George Drăghescu, Eugen Evu, Liviu-Florian Jianu, Adrian Lesenciuc, Ioan Marinescu-Puiu, Janet Nică, Nicolae Nicoară-Horia, Gheorghe Niculescu, Mircea Oprea, Andrei Radu, Elena Adriana Răducan, Mircea Eugen Şelariu, Ion Urda; From India: B. Venkateswara Rao; From U.S.A.: Florentin Smarandache, Connor Wood; From Serbia: Ioan Baba.
Category: Linguistics

[8303] viXra:1407.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-25 12:49:44

Quantum Trajectories Approach and Schrödinger's Cat Paradox.

Authors: J.Foukzon, A.A.Potapov, S.A. Podosenov
Comments: 57 Pages.

Possible solution of the Schrödinger's cat paradox is considered.
Category: Quantum Physics

[8302] viXra:1407.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-25 10:25:35

Primality Test for Fermat Numbers Using Quartic Recurrence Equation

Authors: Predrag Terzic
Comments: 5 Pages.

We present deterministic primality test for Fermat numbers , Fn = 2^2^n+ 1 , where n > 1 . Essentially this test is similar to the Lucas-Lehmer primality test for Mersenne numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[8301] viXra:1407.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-25 08:26:45

A Unificação Eletrogravitacional do Ponto de Vista Clássico

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 10 Pages. Artigo originalmente publicado no Boletim do Instituto de Matemática e Física da Universidade Federal de Goiás, nº 15, ano 7, novembro/1992. Hoje já não sei se acredito integralmente nesta teoria, mas gostaria de deixá-lo registrado aqui.

Expõe-se uma teoria simples, clássica, a fim de resolver o problema da unificação eletrogravitacional, baseada em se admitir valores distintos para os módulos das cargas do elétron e do próton, dentro da precisão experimental atual. A teoria prediz que a gravidade não pode ser sempre atrativa, e sugere novas interpretações para alguns fenômenos. Sua comprovação necessitará de medidas de G em função do material e tamanho de corpos em interação.
Category: Classical Physics

[8300] viXra:1407.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-25 09:00:22

Quantum Teleportation and Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[8299] viXra:1407.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-25 04:54:53

There Wasn’t Big Bang.

Authors: Vyacheslav Telnin
Comments: 7 Pages.

Two ideas gave birth to this paper : The law of the galaxies scattering and the existence of the infinitely large and infinitely small numbers.
Category: Astrophysics

[8298] viXra:1407.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-25 00:44:10

Twin Primes

Authors: Ouannas Moussa
Comments: 03 Pages.

Basing on my study, "Distribution of primes"viXra:1407.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-21 I've shown that we can determine the distribution of prime numbers while remaining within the set of natural numbers; However, I present in this paper the numbers which are susceptible to be twins
Category: Algebra

[8297] viXra:1407.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-25 02:10:38

Primality Criteria for Numbers of the Form 2^n-5 and 2^n+5

Authors: Predrag Terzic
Comments: 2 Pages.

Conjectured primality criteria for numbers of the form 2^n-5 and 2^n+5 are introduced .
Category: Number Theory

[8296] viXra:1407.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-24 09:57:18

On Cosmology, Time and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

Authors: Gene H. Barbee
Comments: 12 Pages. Please contact Gene Barbee at genebarbee@msn.com with comments

The first law of thermodynamics is fairly straightforward. It states that energy can be converted from one form into another but not created or destroyed. The author’s work on the subject indicates that net energy is zero [6][7][13] but separated into two different types of energy that balance one another. The second law is not as straightforward. A quantity called entropy describes the probability of energy states for systems with many particles. The second law states that more probable energy states become filled over time and energy differences that can be used to carry out work become less available. How everything achieved a high state that can continually “run down” has been somewhat of an enigma. There is a strange situation in fundamental physics regarding time. Well respected physicists [Julian Barbour for example] point out that all quantum mechanical equations are cyclical with time. Common sense tells us that time advances and tension exists between fundamentals and what we observe. This situation extends to fundamentals of space as well as fundamentals of time. Special relativity and curvature of space time is known to be the source of gravity at the large scale but efforts to understand quantum gravity encounter significant theoretical difficulties. The author uses a cellular model that describes gravity, space, time, expansion, kinetic and potential energy at the quantum level [6][7]. Using cosmology as a platform, the present paper explores time and the second law. It concludes that time advances because expansion converts kinetic energy to potential energy. Further, the gravitational coupling constant appears to convert quantum behavior to large scale behavior. Although pressure expands the universe, gravitational accumulation begins to dominate locally. The improbable expanded state and the many states available related to gravitational accumulation explain how everything can “run down” as time progresses.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8295] viXra:1407.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-24 10:23:58

Mechanism of Renormalization Can Predict Particle Masses

Authors: Nigel B. Cook
Comments: 16 Pages.

An improved mechanism for understanding the quantum field theory of fundamental particle masses is presented. Yoichiro Nambu, founder of QCD color charge, in 1952 argued in his paper "An Empirical Mass Spectrum of Elementary Particles" (Progress in Theoretical Physics, v7, 1952, pp. 595-6): "It seems to be a general conviction of current physicists that the theory of elementary particles in its ultimate form could or should give the mass spectrum of these particles just in the same way as quantum mechanics has succeeded in accounting for the regularity of atomic spectra. ... it may perhaps be too ambitious and rather unsound to look for an empirical ‘Balmer’s law’. Nevertheless we should like here to present one such attempt because it happens to be extremely simple ..." Virtual fermions are radially polarized (driven further apart) by the electric field in which they formed. This polarization supplies the virtual fermions energy, at the expense of electric field, which is thus partly “screened.” The energy supplied to virtual fermions by their radial polarization extends their lifetime beyond Heisenberg’s h/E. This supply of extra energy moves “virtual” fermions towards the real mass shell, so they briefly obey Pauli’s principle. The absorbed extra energy increases the virtual fermion pair survival time towards that of onshell particles, so the Pauli exclusion principle begins to apply to those virtual fermions, structuring the vacuum virtual fermions into “shells” by analogy to electron orbits, giving a simple pattern of discrete masses. Different isomers are possible explaining the generations and allowing a variety of weak decay routes, a mechanism for the CKM matrix and neutrino flavor oscillations. Because neutrinos only have weak charges (not electromagnetic charge or color charge), they have weak fields, producing on average little mass due to very occasional pair production, so they weakly interact with gravity (gravity’s charge is mass), thus explaining why neutrinos have so little mass.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[8294] viXra:1407.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-24 11:56:31

Quantum Biology and Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[8293] viXra:1407.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-24 06:51:12

How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

This theory proposes a theory of why the Universe and particles can be modeled as a hollow spheres but still not be a hollow sphere, but rather a sphere with very few discontinuities in relation to the spheres overall size. It also proposes why a diameter can be different when calculation a charge radius or energy radius or mass radius and why the spheres in this theory must be rotating.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8292] viXra:1407.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-24 09:14:21

Understanding Special Relativity

Authors: Glenn A. Baxter
Comments: FIVE PAGES

A Special Relativity practical illustration is given below where, a light pulse on a train (frame 1), the train moving with uniform motion relative to the ground (frame 2) is compared with another light pulse from an overpass (frame 2) as the pulse moves from the front to the back of the moving train itself, all in frame 1. An observer on the train (frame 1) measuring both pulse velocities in the frame of the train, measues both pulses going at the constant speed of light, c, from the front of the train car to the back of the car. However, the observer on the train car in frame 1 looking at the light pulse in frame 2, coming from frame 2, sees the pulse from frame 2 as blue shifted, and measures its relative speed of light, c’, as appearing greater than the constant speed of light, c, as measured before while looking at both pulses moving in frame 1. The pulse of light ITSELF from frame 2 is not affected whatsoever by the uniform motion. The pulse of light originated and observed on the train in frame 1 is not affected OR blue/red shifted by the uniform motion relative to the ground or any other uniform motion . This is Dr. Einstein’s Relativity Principle, which says that physics is the same INSIDE all frames, regardless of their uniform relative motion.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8291] viXra:1407.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-24 05:23:44

Analytical Evaluation of Energy and Electron Concentrations in Quantum Wells of the High Electron Mobility Transistors

Authors: Salih Saygi
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this letter we propose analytical evaluation method for the electron density and the energy density in multi-layered high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). The algorithm is used to simulate the variation of the electron density and the energy density against temperature of heterojunction AlGaN/GaN. The proposed procedure guaranties the reliable application of the contribution of multi-layered HEMTs structure. In conclusion, the obtained results are estimated and discussed.
Category: Condensed Matter

[8290] viXra:1407.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-23 16:21:50

Jet Electric Generator

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 14 Pages.

Author offers and develops the theory of a new simple cheap efficient electric (electron) generator. This generator can convert pressure or kinetic energy of any non-conductive flow (gas, liquid) into direct current (DC). The generator can convert the mechanical energy of any engine into high voltage DC. One can covert the wind and water energy into electricity without turbine. One can convert the rest energy of an internal combustion engine or turbojet engine in electricity and increase its efficiency. ------------------------------------------------- Key words: Jet Electric Generator, Electron generator, AB generator, Wind electric generator, Water electric generator, DC generator, High voltage generator.
Category: Classical Physics

[8289] viXra:1407.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-23 19:48:25

Is Bayesian Epistemology a Better Alternative to Popperian Falsifiability?

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 10 Pages. This article has not been published in any journal.

According to a site (see http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/falsifiability), there are many people who reject Popperian falsifiability, such as Paul Feyerabend and Alan Sokal. There is another two-fold critique on falsificationism by Shockley, see http://pk.b5z.net/i/u/2167316/i/A_Critique_of_Falsificationism_by_Karl_Popper.pdf
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[8288] viXra:1407.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-23 19:49:45

Who Can Explain the Process of Scientific Change Better: Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos, or Feyerabend?

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 2 Pages. This article has not been published in any journal.

As we know, for Popper scientific change can be explained rationally. For Kuhn, scientific change is caused by psychology of discovery which sometimes it cannot be explained rationally. For Lakatos, most scientific endeavors nowadays are governed by research programs, which cannot be falsified. See for example: http://www.inf.fu-berlin.de/lehre/pmo/eng/Lakatos-Falsification.pdf And for Feyerabend, there is no specific method which can be used to explain scientific change. Anything is possible. They are four leading philosophers who seem to me represent major ideas on modern scientific change. So, who can explain the process of scientific change better among them?
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[8287] viXra:1407.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-23 19:51:05

Are there Favorite Foods that May Cause Cancer?

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 3 Pages. This article has not been published in any journal.

Acording to an article, there are some favorite foods that may cause cancer, including but not limited to: burgers, steak, fried chicken, french fries, bacon, canned foods, etc. See for instance: http://www.healthyyounaturally.com/edu/top10foodhazards.htm Some of these harmful effects come from acrylamide, a substance that is formed during high-temperature processing of foods. According to Mathilda Bongers etc. at PlosOne journal (2012), acrylamide has correlation with cancer. So do you think, that we should take radical shifts towards avoiding these favorite foods that may cause cancer? And why are they not prohibited from our food list?
Category: Physics of Biology

[8286] viXra:1407.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-23 13:34:50

The Lorentz Transformations and the Scale Principle

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 12 Pages.

Earlier this year I wrote a paper entitled Scale Factors and the Scale Principle. In this paper I formulated a Meta Law (Scale Principle or Scale Law) which describes a number of fundamental laws. This paper provides the derivation of the Lorentz transformations and shows that these transformations obey the Scale Law.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8285] viXra:1407.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-23 10:52:03

Arguments for the Magneto-Genesis at the Origin and Evolution of Universe

Authors: Stefan Mehedinteanu1
Comments: 22 Pages. -

In present work , is established a correlation with Inflation Dynamics, especially at the reheating era, when the Inflaton field is sufficiently strong, and the energy of the vacuum can be lowered, in order to create by Schwinger effect pairs, of quarks , gluons, bosons ( ), gluons (monopoles) , the magnetic monopoles themselves (of spin 1). Also, in the work is calculated the Inflation Dynamics putting in evidence all the epochs (quarks, hadrons, leptons). That ours permitting to observe that the potential nears the end of reheating (at quarks epoch) is very much reduced, thus, at , the potential becomes ; when, the mass of monopoles off-diagonal nonabelian component (for ) ; and the quarks pairs created by Schwinger effect, which get string strength of , both remaining locked at theses values till confinement ( ; ) and today. Therefore, apparently, is not any trace of an external residual field like of Higgs field. In others words, the Inflation can not explains the Higgs field, only, if we consider that the top ( ) and antitop ( ) quarks pairs also, produced by Schwinger effect, they form a bound state, that is a composite Higgs boson field as in the frame of Topcolor model. This is a model of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking in which the top quark and anti-top quark form a top quark condensate and act effectively like the Higgs boson. This is analogous to the phenomenon of superconductivity. These theories will ultimately be tested at the LHC in its Run-II commencing in 2015 In our present model, the things are similarly, an equivalence of my model with that of the Standard Model, is given in previously author’ works. Thus, in my model the Inflaton potential, by Schwinger effect during the reheating period, generates all kinds of particles: gluons , magnetic monopoles themselves, and fermions (quarks, top quarks). In the model, theses gluon-gluon interactions constrain color fields to string-like objects called "flux tubes", which exert constant force when stretched. The difference with Standard Model, is that it results a probability ( or a continuously production rates) for gluons, and a number of quarks. Finally, at all the gluons are being captured by all generated by quarks ( ) pairs, together forming nucleons of an incredibly exactly number , which is the known number of particles in Universe. Since, the reheating potential continues to diminish, at approximately -that corresponding to confinement, the production of gluons (monopoles) quarks stops. But, a near field it was created inside nucleons , as was found in previously author’s works. This field makes possible the beta decay of free neutrons, and later of isotopes. Also, this field creates a Lorenz force between quarks flux tube and gluons (in structures of gauge monopoles type current), that is found to explain the gravity of nucleons (mass). Also, there are found the number and mass of top quarks pairs locked in Higgs field and its decay. And more, is discovered the exact origin of primordial magnetic field ( ), namely, the electromagnetic fields ( ) generated by a primordial charged blackhole, which can B-imprints . A clear relationship it was established between and the Hubble length. Thus, at the end of time , all ( ) of magnetic monopoles pairs produced are already bounded in strings, and the light of type imprinted is due of residual , , either as itself, or by Faraday rotation as resulting of that gives , for a frequency of . Therefore, the monopoles pairs suppression by bounding its in strings, that explains the magnetic monopoles absence mentioned in Iflation works. Also, the PMF easy “passes” the plasma period as to be formed by particles, , , till , in the same way as the gravitational field, which it is not affected by this plasma. The main conclusion of the work is that the energy density equally with magnetic flux ( ) from Einstein equations is the fundamental stone of Universe origin and its evolution.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8284] viXra:1407.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-22 16:24:56

Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight (v.3)

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 368 Pages.

At present, rockets are used for launches and flights into space. They have been intensively developed since World War II when the German engineer F. Von Braun designed the first long distance rocket FAU-2. In the subsequent 60 years liquid and solid rockets reached the peak of their development. Their main shortcomings are (1) very high cost of space launching $20,000 – 50,000/kg; (2) large fuel consumption; (3) fuel storage problems because the oxidizer and fuel (for example; oxygen and hydrogen) require cryogenic temperatures, or they are poisonous substances (for example; nitric acid, N2O3). In the past years the author and other scientists have published a series of new methods which promise to revolutionize space launching and flight. These include the cable accelerator, circle launcher and space keeper, space elevator transport system, space towers, kinetic towers, the gas-tube method, sling rotary method, asteroid employment, electromagnetic accelerator, tether system, Sun and magnetic sails, solar wind sail, radioisotope sail, electrostatic space sail, laser beam, kinetic anti-gravitator (repulsitor), Earth–Moon or Earth–Mars non-rocket transport system, multi-reflective beam propulsion system, electrostatic levitation, etc. There are new ideas in aviation which can be useful for flights in planet atmosphere. Some of these have the potential to decrease launch costs thousands of times, other allow the speed and direction of space apparatus to be changed without the spending of fuel. The author summarizes some revolutionary methods for scientists, engineers, students, and the public. He seeks attention from the public, engineers, inventors, scientists for these innovations and he hopes the media, government and the large aerospace companies will increase research and development activity in these areas.
Category: Classical Physics

[8283] viXra:1407.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-22 19:30:34

Calculating Parameter on Hde and Ghde Model

Authors: Yong Bao
Comments: 4 Pages.

We calculate the parameter c_L on holographic dark energy (HDE) model and the series c_L (z_i) on generalized holographic dark energy (GHDE) model. Applying the normalization method, we find the normalized equation; get c_L= 0.535 which is very close to the upper limit of c = 0.495 ± 0.039 obtained from Planck+WP+BAO+HST+lensing; find the normalized equation of redshift z; obtain c_L (z_i) = 0.471 when Ω_de (z_i ) = 0.683 by the same method, which is in good agreement with c; have the same solution by the iteration method. We suggest that the HDE model and the GHDE model are competitive and promising.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8282] viXra:1407.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-22 07:41:31

Gravitomagnetism a Fatal Problem for the General Relativity Theory and the Accompanied Analysis of the Gravity Probe B Experiment

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 24 Pages. slide presentation

This presentation shows that there cannot be any Gravito-Electro-Magnetic (GEM) field contrary to a popular belief of its existence and contrary to many claims of its existence found in the reputable publications. This is shown using a simple thought experiment of two massive parallel plates that are moving in a direction parallel to the plates’ surfaces and in a direction perpendicular to the plates’ surfaces. It is found that the field energy is not conserved for these two directions if the GEM field existence is postulated as derived from the Einstein’s field equations for the weak gravitational field and as claimed that it has been detected by the Gravity Probe B. In the second portion of the presentation the Gravity Probe B results are analyzed in a greater detail and it is found that this experiment does not prove the correctness of Einstein General Relativity Theory (GRT) as is enthusiastically claimed. It is clearly shown that an error exists in the GRT geodetic precession formula derivation and that the experiment actually proves the correctness of a different metric rather than the Schwarzschild metric of the celebrated GRT theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8281] viXra:1407.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-22 09:07:50

Flattening of Earth's Poles

Authors: Nainan K. Varghese
Comments: 3 Pages.

Abstract: Flattening of earth’s Polar Regions and bulging of its equatorial region are usually attributed to ‘centrifugal force’ due to earth’s spin motion. ‘Centrifugal force’ is fictitious, yet it is assumed to physically affect earth’s shape. Earth’s spin motion is apparent only with respect to its own north-south central (spin) axis. With respect to absolute space, every point on earth continuously moves in same (mean) direction as the direction of sun’s linear motion, at slightly different linear speeds. Very small centrifugal action (due to differences in linear speeds of its constituent matter-particles) on earth is not sufficient to produce the observed magnitudes of equatorial bulge and flattening of its polar regions. This article intends to describe an alternative mechanism that causes observed physical deformation of earth.
Category: Geophysics

[8280] viXra:1407.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-21 15:55:09

New Developments in Clifford Fourier Transforms

Authors: Eckhard Hitzer
Comments: 7 Pages. in N. E. Mastorakis, P. M. Pardalos, R. P. Agarwal, L. Kocinac (eds.), Adv. in Appl. and Pure Math., Proc. of the 2014 Int. Conf. on Pure Math., Appl. Math., Comp. Methods (PMAMCM 2014), Santorini, Greece, July 2014, Math. & Comp. in Sci. & Eng., Vol. 29.

We show how real and complex Fourier transforms are extended to W.R. Hamilton's algebra of quaternions and to W.K. Clifford’s geometric algebras. This was initially motivated by applications in nuclear magnetic resonance and electric engineering. Followed by an ever wider range of applications in color image and signal processing. Clifford's geometric algebras are complete algebras, algebraically encoding a vector space and all its subspace elements. Applications include electromagnetism, and the processing of images, color images, vector field and climate data. Further developments of Clifford Fourier Transforms include operator exponential representations, and extensions to wider classes of integral transforms, like Clifford algebra versions of linear canonical transforms and wavelets.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[8279] viXra:1407.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-21 15:57:04

The Universe Contracted Rapidly During the Epoch When E8 Was an Unbroken Symmetry Before the Big Bang

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 2 Pages.

In the epoch prior to the big bang E8 was an unbroken symmetry (see viXra 1405.0210) and both positive and negative intrinsic energy (mc^2) boson particles could be formed and combined with positive intrinsic energy leptons, hadrons and strong force particles to form zero intrinsic energy fermibosonic entities which could carry matter from the previous universe without violating flatness requirements. Two new gauge bosons were needed (along with a third to enable the big bang) and these gauge bosons could produce attractive forces much stronger than the weaker force of our broken symmetry force of gravity. The period of time that the universe had unbroken symmetry could thus be relatively short compared to our epoch of broken E8 symmetry.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8278] viXra:1407.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-21 16:17:56

Distribution of Prime Numbers

Authors: Ouannas Moussa
Comments: 08 Pages.

In this paper I present the distribution of prime numbers which was treated in many researches by studying the function of Riemann; because it has a remarkable property; its non trivial zeros are prime numbers; but in this work I will show that we can find the distribution of prime numbers on remaining in natural numbers only.
Category: Algebra

[8277] viXra:1407.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-21 18:58:13

The Surface Contains Zeros

Authors: Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution
Comments: 7 Pages.

The critical line lies on a surface. And the critical line inherits the characteristics from this surface. Then, the location of the critical line can be determined.
Category: Number Theory

[8276] viXra:1407.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-21 20:11:29

Beyond the Speed of Light and New Quantum Mechanics

Authors: DaeHyeon KANG
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper,I introduce the virtual velocity of the particle. It is from the spetial theory of relativity, because of the velocity of the particles or Dirac equation be not able to explaine hydrogen atom phenamina. In the spetial theory of relativity, time dilatation and lenth constraction are related by the equation (1). I get from the above relation, the vitual velocity of a particle and the virtual speed of a particle can be beyond the speed of light. I think the virtual velocity and potential have nonlocality in physics, and wave function may exists there before we observe the particle's position. New quantum machanics is similar to Shrodinger equation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[8275] viXra:1407.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-22 01:26:41

Two Sequences of Primes Whose Formulas Contain the Powers of the Number 2

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I present two possible infinite sequences of primes, having in common the fact that their formulas contain the powers of the number 2.
Category: Number Theory

[8274] viXra:1407.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-21 13:47:46

Moments Defined by Subdivision Curves

Authors: Jan Hakenberg, Ulrich Reif, Scott Schaefer, Joe Warren
Comments: 19 Pages.

We derive the (d+2)-linear forms that compute the moment of degree d of the area enclosed by a subdivision curve in the plane. We circumvent the need to solve integrals involving the basis function by exploiting a recursive relation and calibration that establishes the coefficients of the form within the nullspace of a matrix. For demonstration, we apply the technique to the dual three-point scheme, the interpolatory C1 four-point scheme, and the dual C2 four-point scheme.
Category: Geometry

[8273] viXra:1407.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-21 09:47:43

First Order Analysis of Eye Imaging

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 5 Pages.

We discuss a first-order analysis of eye imaging for digital retinal cameras.
Category: Classical Physics

[8272] viXra:1407.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-21 08:01:56

Enhancing a Hypothesis About the Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 4 Pages. Will be in Portuguese and English

With the hypothesis of the solar wind to explain the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, we find that this implies a decrease in mass of the Sun, and the consequent increase in the ratio of the mass of the planets of the solar system relative to the mass of the Sun This would tend to increase the value of precession calculated by Newtonian mechanics and then could be a reasonable explanation of the advance of the perihelion of the planets.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8271] viXra:1407.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-21 04:04:27

A Bold Conjecture About a Way in Which Any Prime Can be Written

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper I make a conjecture which states that any prime greater than or equal to 5 can be written in a certain way, in other words that any such prime can be expressed using just two other primes and a power of the number 2.
Category: Number Theory

[8270] viXra:1407.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-21 04:47:52

Conjectures About a Way to Express a Prime as a Sum of Three Other Primes of a Certain Type

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 3 Pages.

These conjectures state that any prime p greater than 60 can be written as a sum of three primes of a certain type from the following four ones: 10k + 1, 10k + 3, 10k + 7 and 10k + 9.
Category: Number Theory

[8269] viXra:1407.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-21 05:43:31

Two Sequences of Primes Whose Formulas Contain the Number 360

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper I present two possible infinite sequences of primes, having in common the fact that their formulas contain the number 360.
Category: Number Theory

[8268] viXra:1407.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-20 18:47:09

Modified Unruh Temperature, Entropy and Entropic Force on Schwarzschild Black Hole

Authors: Yong Bao
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Unruh temperature, entropy and entropic force on the Schwarzschild black hole (S BH) can be modified. The general modified equipartition law of energy (ELOE) is proposed by unification, the modified Unruh temperature on event horizon and it quantization are obtained by quantization method. And the modified entropy and entropic force are derived. These are significant to solve the black hole modified question.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8267] viXra:1407.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-20 20:21:51

Cyclic Nature of Energy-Conserving "Gravitational Collapse"

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 5 Pages.

The "collapse" of a solely gravitationally interacting, energy-conserving dynamical system necessarily involves the time-evolution of a bound state of that system. An archetypal feature of energy-conserving bound state time evolution is its cyclicity, its predilection to forever revisit the parts of phase space it has previously touched. Thus it isn't surprising that the energy-conserving position-independent dust-density gravitational model of Oppenheimer and Snyder produces a Robertson-Walker metric that is time-periodic, specifically time-cycloidal. In fact a mere pair of Newtonian point masses, starting from relative rest at nonzero separation, also execute a specifically time-cycloidal linear gravitational trajectory. Relativistic upgrade of that model causes the two particles to respect a minimum mutual separation and thus a speed limit of 0.866c, subtly changing shape details of the basic Newtonian cycloid in time. But no credible evidence is found that energy-conserving "gravitational collapse" can be other than cyclic in character: Oppenheimer and Snyder erroneously scuppered their time-cycloidal Robertson-Walker metric by forgetting that dust of position-independent density is necessarily present in all of space, which leaves no physical scope for their "application" of the Birkhoff theorem.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8266] viXra:1407.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-20 23:20:01

The Strong Finiteness of Double Mersenne Primes and the Infinity of Root Mersenne Primes and Near-square Primes of Mersenne Primes

Authors: Pingyuan Zhou
Comments: 14 Pages. Author presents the strong finiteness of double Mersenne primes and the infinity of root Mersenne primes and near-square primes of Mersenne primes by generalizing conjecture about primality of Mersenne number.

Abstract: In this paper we present the strong finiteness of double Mersenne primes to be a subset of Mersenne primes, the infinity of so-called root Mersenne primes to be also a subset of Mersenne primes and the infinity of so-called near-square primes of Mersenne primes by generalizing our previous conjecture about primality of Mersenne number. These results and our previous results about the strong finiteness of Fermat, double Fermat and Catalan-type Fermat primes [1] give an elementary but complete understanding for the infinity or the strong finiteness of some prime number sequences of the form 2^x±1, which all have a corresponding original continuous natural ( prime ) number sequence. It is interesting that the generalization to near-square primes of Mersenne primes Wp=2(Mp)^2-1 has brought us positive result.
Category: Number Theory

[8265] viXra:1407.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-21 02:26:52

Ten Conjectures on Primes Based on the Study of Carmichael Numbers, Involving the Multiples of 30

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper are stated ten conjectures on primes, more precisely on the infinity of some types of triplets and quadruplets of primes, all of them using the multiples of the number 30 and also all of them met on the study of Carmichael numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[8264] viXra:1407.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-21 02:50:07

Prime Number Sieve Using LCM Function

Authors: Predrag Terzic
Comments: 2 Pages.

Prime number sieve using LCM function is introduced .
Category: Number Theory

[8263] viXra:1407.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-21 03:00:29

Six Conjectures on Primes Based on the Study of 3-Carmichael Numbers and a Question About Primes

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper are stated six conjectures on primes, more precisely on the infinity of some types of pairs of primes, all of them met in the study of 3-Carmichael numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[8262] viXra:1407.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-20 13:26:47

El Fenómeno “The Wall”, la Moda Y la Cultura de “El Aguante”

Authors: Adriano Israel Vismara
Comments: 8 Pages.

Veremos como la situación del mundo, el acontecer de sus pesares, sus mecanismos alienantes, nobles acusaciones y perjurios, nos ha desvirtuado el juicio a tal punto que lo bello es escasamente un producto de mercado, un nombre, una situación pasajera, carente de sustancia. Una síntesis mefistofélica de lo superficial, sin adentrarse en lo profundo del espíritu del hombre, de donde ha emergido para convertirse en las artes y las ciencias que se han desarrollado en los pocos milenios que estamos en la tierra.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[8261] viXra:1407.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-20 09:17:20

Calculation of the Planck Constant

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

The calculation of the Planck constant has been elusive. Here it is shown, thanks to the Rydberg constant and the equation for force of charge. The equation shows that the fundamental constants are likely from a very complex yet consistent action of the aether.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8260] viXra:1407.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-20 09:33:23

Bimodal Quantum Theory

Authors: Saurav Dwivedi
Comments: 18 Pages. Keywords: Pragmatism; Bimodal Logic; Probability.

Some variants of quantum theory theorize dogmatic “unimodal” states-of-being, and are based on hodge-podge classical-quantum language. They are based on ontic syntax, but pragmatic semantics. This error was termed semantic inconsistency [1]. Measurement seems to be central problem of these theories, and widely discussed in their interpretation. Copenhagen theory deviates from this prescription, which is modeled on experience. A complete quantum experiment is “bimodal”. An experimenter creates the system-under-study in initial mode of experiment, and annihilates it in the final. The experimental intervention lies beyond the theory. I theorize most rudimentary bimodal quantum experiments studied by Finkelstein [2], and deduce “bimodal probability density” π = |ψin>⊗<φfin| to represent complete quantum experiments. It resembles core insights of the Copenhagen theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[8259] viXra:1407.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-20 07:22:18

Invertibility Principle in Faraday Unipolar Machines

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 7 Pages.

It is shown that the existence of electromagnetic momentum flow and from the law of angular momentum conservation gives an explanation of the action principle of Faraday generator.
Category: Classical Physics

[8258] viXra:1407.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-20 07:24:53

Invertibility Principle in Faraday Unipolar Machines \\ Принцип обратимости в униполярных машинах Фарадея

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 8 Pages. in Russian

It is shown that the existence of electromagnetic momentum flow and from the law of angular momentum conservation gives an explanation of the action principle of Faraday generator. \\ Показано, что из существования потока электромагнитного импульса и закона сохранения импульса следует объяснение принципа действия генератора Фарадея.
Category: Classical Physics

[8257] viXra:1407.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-20 01:04:15

Wave-Theoretical Insight into the Relativistic Length-Contraction and Time-Dilation of Super Nova Light Curves

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Six page paper

Einstein’s Relativity-theories predict: length-contraction, time-dilation, transverse-Doppler-shift, gravitational-spectral-shifts, expansion-of-space, time-dilation-of-super-nova-light-curves...etc. This letter attempts to gain some insight into two of them in terms of wave-theory. For example, the observations of time-dilation of ‘super-nova-light-curves’ are currently considered as a confirmative-test of expansion-of-time; whereas it is shown here that the super-nova-light-curve can be viewed as a ‘gate-function’ in the ‘time-domain’; and it can be Fourier-transformed into frequency-domain; and it is this wide band of waves which travels in space and reaches us after millions of years. During its travel, when this wide-band of waves gets red-shifted due to any mechanism, including the tired-light-interpretation of the ‘cosmological-red-shift’, then its band-width shrinks in the frequency-domain; so when it is transformed back into time-domain we find that the duration of the curve has got increased. Thus, time-dilation of super-nova-light-curves is not an independent observation from the observations of the ‘cosmological-red-shift’ due to any mechanism. Similarly, the relativistic length-contraction with speed is also explained in terms of waves, with the help of Fourier-transform.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8256] viXra:1407.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-19 16:20:26

Odd Perfect Number is 36k+9

Authors: Isaac Mor
Comments: 3 Pages.

Odd Perfect Number = 36k+9 In 1953, Jacques Touchard proved that an odd perfect number must be of the form 12k + 1 or 36k + 9. (Judy A. Holdener discovered a simpler proof of the theorem of Touchard in 2002) if I am right then I (isaac mor lol) just showed that an odd perfect number must be of the form 36k+9 (19 july 2014)
Category: Number Theory

[8255] viXra:1407.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-19 07:42:43

Explanation of the Huber Effect \\ Объяснение эффекта Губера

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: Pages.

Here we prove the validity of the assumptions Huber that Huber force has electrodynamic of nature. \\ Доказывается справедливость предположения Губера о том, что сила Губера имеет электродинамическую природу.
Category: Classical Physics

[8254] viXra:1407.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-19 04:53:00

Microwold 19. Ether and Universe

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 7 pages. English and russian texts

The red shift of remote sources radiation spectra may result from increase in ether density in the peripheral part of our Universe caused by the external matter drawn therein.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[8253] viXra:1407.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-18 16:01:15

Cine-I Harnic şi Munceşte Are Tot ce Vrea, Cine-I Leneş şi Chiuleşte Are Tot Aşa! (Folclor Umoristic Internetist, Vol. Viii)

Authors: editor Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 720 Pages.

Bancuri, folclor in general, imagini.
Category: Linguistics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[3674] viXra:1407.0204 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-29 18:09:23

Gravitational Tunneling Machine

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 7 Pages.

A new tunneling machine is described in this article. It works based on the gravity-control technology, and can reach high velocities through rocky means; possibly few tens of meters per hour, moreover it can move itself in any directions below the ground. This machine can be highly useful for urban tunneling, drainage, exploration, water supply, water diversion and accessing the mines of diamonds, coal, oil, and several others types of minerals existent in the Earth’s crust.
Category: Classical Physics

[3673] viXra:1407.0192 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-27 09:37:05

A Unificação Eletrogravitacional do Ponto de Vista Clássico

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 10 Pages. Artigo originalmente publicado no Boletim do Instituto de Matemática e Física da Universidade Federal de Goiás, nº 15, ano 7, novembro/1992. Hoje já não sei se acredito integralmente nesta teoria, mas gostaria de deixá-lo registrado aqui.

Expõe-se uma teoria simples, clássica, a fim de resolver o problema da unificação eletrogravitacional, baseada em se admitir valores distintos para os módulos das cargas do elétron e do próton, dentro da precisão experimental atual. A teoria prediz que a gravidade não pode ser sempre atrativa, e sugere novas interpretações para alguns fenômenos. Sua comprovação necessitará de medidas de G em função do material e tamanho de corpos em interação.
Category: Classical Physics

[3672] viXra:1407.0183 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-27 17:21:36

How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

This theory proposes a theory of why the Universe and particles can be modeled as a hollow spheres but still not be a hollow sphere, but rather a sphere with very few discontinuities in relation to the spheres overall size. It also proposes why a diameter can be different when calculation a charge radius or energy radius or mass radius and why the spheres in this theory must be rotating. Further, it paints a picture of the structure of the levels of the Universe and its properties.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3671] viXra:1407.0182 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-26 09:43:28

Understanding Special Relativity

Authors: Glenn A. Baxter
Comments: FIVE PAGES

A Special Relativity practical illustration is given below where, a light pulse on a train (frame 1), the train moving with uniform motion relative to the ground (frame 2) is compared with another light pulse from an overpass (frame 2) as the pulse moves from the front to the back of the moving train itself, all in frame 1. An observer on the train (frame 1) measuring both pulse velocities in the frame of the train, measures both pulses going at the constant speed of light, c, from the front of the train car to the back of the car. However, the observer on the train car in frame 1 looking at the light pulse in frame 2, coming from frame 2, sees the pulse from frame 2 as blue shifted, and measures its relative speed of light, c’, as appearing greater than the constant speed of light, c, as measured before while looking at both pulses moving in frame 1. The pulse of light ITSELF from frame 2 is not affected whatsoever by the uniform motion. The pulse of light originated and observed on the train in frame 1 is not affected OR blue/red shifted by the uniform motion relative to the ground or any other uniform motion . This is Dr. Einstein’s Relativity Principle, which says that physics is the same INSIDE all frames, regardless of their uniform relative motion.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3670] viXra:1407.0182 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-26 08:08:02

Understanding Special Relativity

Authors: Glenn A. Baxter
Comments: FIVE PAGES

A Special Relativity practical illustration is given below where, a light pulse on a train (frame 1), the train moving with uniform motion relative to the ground (frame 2) is compared with another light pulse from an overpass (frame 2) as the pulse moves from the front to the back of the moving train itself, all in frame 1. An observer on the train (frame 1) measuring both pulse velocities in the frame of the train, measures both pulses going at the constant speed of light, c, from the front of the train car to the back of the car. However, the observer on the train car in frame 1 looking at the light pulse in frame 2, coming from frame 2, sees the pulse from frame 2 as blue shifted, and measures its relative speed of light, c’, as appearing greater than the constant speed of light, c, as measured before while looking at both pulses moving in frame 1. The pulse of light ITSELF from frame 2 is not affected whatsoever by the uniform motion. The pulse of light originated and observed on the train in frame 1 is not affected OR blue/red shifted by the uniform motion relative to the ground or any other uniform motion . This is Dr. Einstein’s Relativity Principle, which says that physics is the same INSIDE all frames, regardless of their uniform relative motion.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3669] viXra:1407.0172 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-27 02:05:09

Calculating Parameters in HDE Model and Its Series in GHDE Model by Normalization Method

Authors: Yong Bao
Comments: 4 Pages.

We calculate the parameter c_L in holographic dark energy (HDE) model and the series c_L (z_i) in generalized holographic dark energy (GHDE) model. Applying the normalization method, we find the normalized equation; get c_L= 0.535 which is very close to the upper limit of c = 0.495 ± 0.039 obtained from Planck+WP+BAO+HST+lensing; find the normalized equation of redshift z; obtain c_L (z_i) = 0.471 when Ω_de (z_i ) = 0.683 by the same method, which is in good agreement with c; have the same solution by the iteration method. We suggest that the HDE model and the GHDE model are competitive and promising.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3668] viXra:1407.0166 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-27 13:08:59

The Surface Contains Zeros

Authors: Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution
Comments: 7 Pages.

The critical line lies on a surface. And the critical line inherits the characteristics from this surface. Then, the location of the critical line can be determined.
Category: Number Theory

[3667] viXra:1407.0160 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-28 06:17:08

Solar Wind: Refining a Hypothesis About the Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 5 Pages.

With the hypothesis of the solar wind to explain the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, we find that this implies a decrease in mass of the Sun, and the consequent increase in the ratio of the mass of the planets of the solar system relative to the mass of the Sun. This would tend to increase the value of precession calculated by Newtonian mechanics and then could be a reasonable explanation of the advance of the perihelion of the planets.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3666] viXra:1407.0160 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-23 12:12:28

Solar Wind: Refining a Hypothesis About the Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 5 Pages. Portuguese language.

With the hypothesis of the solar wind to explain the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, we find that this implies a decrease in mass of the Sun, and the consequent increase in the ratio of the mass of the planets of the solar system relative to the mass of the Sun. This would tend to increase the value of precession calculated by Newtonian mechanics and then could be a reasonable explanation of the advance of the perihelion of the planets.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3665] viXra:1407.0160 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-23 06:11:33

Solar Wind: Refining a Hypothesis About the Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 5 Pages. Portuguese language.

With the hypothesis of the solar wind to explain the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, we find that this implies a decrease in mass of the Sun, and the consequent increase in the ratio of the mass of the planets of the solar system relative to the mass of the Sun. This would tend to increase the value of precession calculated by Newtonian mechanics and then could be a reasonable explanation of the advance of the perihelion of the planets.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3664] viXra:1407.0155 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-28 19:37:53

Cyclic Nature of Energy-Conserving "Gravitational Collapse"

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 5 Pages.

The "collapse" of a solely gravitationally-interacting, energy-conserving dynamical system necessarily involves the time evolution of a bound state of that system. An archetypal feature of energy-conserving bound state time evolution is its cyclicity, its predilection to forever revisit the parts of phase space it has previously touched. Thus it isn't surprising that the energy-conserving position-independent dust density gravitational model of Oppenheimer and Snyder produces a Robertson-Walker metric that is time-periodic, specifically time-cycloidal. In fact a mere pair of Newtonian point masses, starting from relative rest at nonzero separation, also executes a specifically time-cycloidal degenerate gravitational trajectory. Relativistic upgrade of that model causes the two particles to respect a minimum mutual separation and thus a speed limit of 0.866c, subtly changing shape details of the basic Newtonian cycloid in time. But no credible evidence is found that energy-conserving "gravitational collapse" can be other than cyclic in character: Oppenheimer and Snyder erroneously disrupted their time-cycloidal Robertson-Walker metric by forgetting that dust of position-independent energy density is necessarily present in all of space, which leaves no physical scope for their "application" of the Birkhoff theorem. Oppenheimer-Snyder dust of position-independent energy density is furthermore highly unphysical: its infinite dust energy causes the Oppenheimer-Snyder metric to violate the Principle of Equivalence. So for spatially localized dust only numerical computations are inherently credible.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3663] viXra:1407.0155 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-22 20:48:27

Cyclic Nature of Energy-Conserving "Gravitational Collapse"

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 5 Pages.

The "collapse" of a solely gravitationally-interacting, energy-conserving dynamical system necessarily involves the time evolution of a bound state of that system. An archetypal feature of energy-conserving bound state time evolution is its cyclicity, its predilection to forever revisit the parts of phase space it has previously touched. Thus it isn't surprising that the energy-conserving position-independent dust density gravitational model of Oppenheimer and Snyder produces a Robertson-Walker metric that is time-periodic, specifically time-cycloidal. In fact a mere pair of Newtonian point masses, starting from relative rest at nonzero separation, also execute a specifically time-cycloidal linear gravitational trajectory. Relativistic upgrade of that model causes the two particles to respect a minimum mutual separation and thus a speed limit of 0.866c, subtly changing shape details of the basic Newtonian cycloid in time. But no credible evidence is found that energy-conserving "gravitational collapse" can be other than cyclic in character: Oppenheimer and Snyder erroneously scuppered their time-cycloidal Robertson-Walker metric by forgetting that dust of position-independent density is necessarily present in all of space, which leaves no physical scope for their "application" of the Birkhoff theorem.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3662] viXra:1407.0154 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-28 12:10:31

The Laws of Thermochemistry

Authors: Daniel Cordero Grau
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we give the Laws of Thermochemistry which generalize the Laws of Thermodynamics and Chemistry and prove the Climate Equations
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[3661] viXra:1407.0154 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-23 16:20:17

The Laws of Thermochemistry

Authors: Daniel Cordero Grau
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we give the Laws of Thermochemistry which generalize the Laws of Thermodynamics and the ideal gas law postulated by Lavoisier, and prove the Climate Equations
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[3660] viXra:1407.0154 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-23 12:32:14

The Laws of Thermochemistry

Authors: Daniel Cordero Grau
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we give the Laws of Thermochemistry which generalize the Laws of Thermodynamics and the ideal gas law postulated by Lavoisier, and prove the Climate Equations
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[3659] viXra:1407.0154 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-23 10:23:40

The Laws of Thermochemistry

Authors: Daniel Cordero Grau
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we give the Laws of Thermochemistry which generalize the Laws of Thermodynamics and the ideal gas law postulated by Lavoisier, and prove the Climate Equations
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[3658] viXra:1407.0154 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-22 18:35:41

The Laws of Thermochemistry

Authors: Daniel Cordero Grau
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we give the Laws of Thermochemistry which generalize the Laws of Thermodynamics and the ideal gas law postulated by Lavoisier, and prove the Climate Equations
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[3657] viXra:1407.0154 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-21 20:06:47

The Laws of Thermochemistry

Authors: Daniel Cordero Grau
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we give the Laws of Thermochemistry which generalize the ideal gas law postulated by Lavoisier and prove the Climate Equations
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[3656] viXra:1407.0154 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-21 14:24:35

The Laws of Thermochemistry

Authors: Daniel Cordero Grau
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we give the Laws of Thermochemistry which generalize the ideal gas law postulated by Lavoisier and prove the Climate Equations
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[3655] viXra:1407.0154 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-21 11:27:15

The Laws of Thermochemistry

Authors: Daniel Cordero Grau
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we give the Laws of Thermochemistry which generalize the ideal gas law postulated by Lavoisier and prove the Climate Equations
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[3654] viXra:1407.0148 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-21 08:53:03

Calculation of the Planck Constant

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

The calculation of the Planck constant has been elusive. Here it is shown, thanks to the Rydberg constant and the equation for force of charge. The equation shows that the fundamental constants are likely from a very complex yet consistent action of the aether.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3653] viXra:1407.0139 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-27 02:02:51

What Nedds to be Known About the Collapse of Quantum Mechanical Wave Function

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: A seven-page paper

Quantum mechanical wave function predicts probabilities of finding a ‘particle’ at different points in space, but at the time of detection a particle is detected only at one place. The question is: how this place gets decided, and can be predicted. To seek answer to this, we assume here that a ‘particle’ has some “diameter”, in stead of being a ‘point-particle’ of mathematical zero dimension; and depending upon the relative velocity between this particle and observer, its “diameter” experiences ‘Relativistic length-contraction’. Then we Fourier-transform this ‘length-contraction’ in ‘space-domain’ into ‘spectral-expansion’ ∆ω in ‘frequency-domain’, and find that momentum of a particle can be expressed as: m v = h ∆ω / 2 π c, and de Broglie’s wavelength, λB = 2 π c /∆ω ; as was derived in [ref.1 and 2. In the ref-2 it was shown that: in fact it is the ‘expansion of spectrum’ in the frequency-domain, which is the physical-cause for the Relativistic length-contraction.] Then we notice that the frequency-domain translation of the particle’s length in space-domain has a continuous spectrum; i.e. it contains a set of frequencies ranging from ωmax to ωmin . Therefore, as we found in ref. [3], this wide set of waves coherently add only at discrete points in space, and mutually nullify their amplitudes at rest of the places. And the place at which all the spectral-components of the wide band of waves will add constructively, will depend on the relative phase of all the spectral components. It is proposed here, that we need to know the relative phase angles of every spectral-component contained in the wide set of waves contained in the expanded wide band, for predicting the exact place of detection of the ‘particle’.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3652] viXra:1407.0139 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-24 01:55:36

What Needs to be Known About the ‘Collapse’ of Quantum Mechanical Wave Function

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: A five-page letter

Quantum mechanical wave function predicts probabilities of finding a ‘particle’ at different points in space, but at the time of detection a particle is detected only at one place. The question is: how this place gets decided, and can be predicted. To seek answer to this, we assume here that a ‘particle’ has a ‘diameter’ equal to its ‘Compton-wavelength’, and depending upon the relative velocity between this particle and observer, its Compton-wavelength experiences ‘Relativistic length-contraction’. Then we Fourier-transform this ‘length-contraction’ in ‘space-domain’ into ‘spectral-expansion’ ∆ω in ‘frequency-domain’, and find that momentum of a particle can be expressed as: m v = h ∆ω / 2 π c, and de Broglie’s wavelength, λB = 2 π c / ∆ω ; as was derived in [ref.1 and 2. In the ref-2 it was shown that: in fact it is the expansion of spectrum in the frequency-domain, which is the physical-cause for the Relativistic length-contraction]. Then we notice that the frequency-domain translation of the particle’s length in space-domain has a continuous spectrum; i.e. it contains a set of frequencies ranging from ωmax to ωmin . Therefore, as we found in my previous paper [3], this wide set of waves coherently add only at discrete points in space, and mutually nullify their amplitudes at rest of the places; and the place at which all the spectral-components of the wide set of waves, contained in the expanded band ∆ω, will add constructively, will depend on the relative phase of all the spectral components. It is proposed here, that we need to know the relative phase angles of every spectral-component contained in the wide set of waves contained in the expanded band by ∆ω, for predicting the exact place of detection of the ‘particle’.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3651] viXra:1407.0139 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-21 01:33:25

What Needs to be Known About the ‘Collapse’ of Quantum Mechanical 'wave Function'

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: A Single-page Note

Quantum mechanical wave function predicts probabilities of finding a ‘particle’ at different points in space, but at the time of detection a particle is detected only at one place. The question is: how this place gets decided, and can be predicted. To seek answer to this, we assume here that a ‘particle’ has a ‘diameter’ equal to its ‘Compton-wavelength’, and depending upon the relative velocity between this particle and observer, its Compton-wavelength experiences ‘Relativistic length-contraction’. Then we Fourier-transform this ‘length-contraction’ in ‘space-domain’ into ‘spectral-expansion’ ∆ω in ‘frequency-domain’, and find that momentum of a particle can be expressed as: m v = h ∆ω / 2 π c, and de Broglie’s wavelength, λB = 2 π c / ∆ω ; as was derived in [ref.1 and 2. In the ref-2 it was shown that: in fact it is the expansion of spectrum in the frequency-domain, which is the physical-cause for the Relativistic length-contraction]. Then we notice that the frequency-domain translation of the particle’s length in space-domain has a continuous spectrum; i.e. it contains a set of frequencies ranging from ωmax to ωmin . Therefore, as we found in my previous paper [3], this wide set of waves coherently add only at discrete points in space, and mutually nullify their amplitudes at rest of the places; and the place at which all the spectral-components of the wide set of waves, contained in the expanded band ∆ω, will add constructively, will depend on the relative phase of all the spectral components. It is proposed here, that we need to know the relative phase angles of every spectral-component contained in the wide set of waves contained in the expanded band by ∆ω, for predicting the exact place of detection of the ‘particle'.
Category: Quantum Physics