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Recent submissions

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[16753] viXra:1612.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 13:55:48

Qubit Lifetime for Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

An international team of scientists has succeeded in making further improvements to the lifetime of superconducting quantum circuits. [17] A Yale-led group of researchers has derived a formula for understanding where quantum objects land when they are transmitted. [16] The scheme is based on the ideas of physicist David J. Thouless, who won half the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on topological effects in materials. Topological effects are to do with geometry, and their use in quantum computing can help protect fragile quantum states during processing. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16752] viXra:1612.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 15:52:25

Two Conjectures Involving Harshad Numbers, Primes and Powers of 2

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following two conjectures: (I) For any prime p, p > 5, there exist n positive integer such that the sum of the digits of the number p*2^n is divisible by p; (II) For any prime p, p > 5, there exist an infinity of positive integers m such that the sum of the digits of the number p*2^m is prime.
Category: Number Theory

[16751] viXra:1612.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 10:17:21

Alzheimer's Puzzle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

A breakdown of memory processes in humans can lead to conditions such as Alzheimer's and dementia. By looking at the simpler brain of a honeybee, new research published in Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, moves us a step towards understanding the different processes behind long-term memory formation. [10], has shown that it is possible for some information to be inherited biologically through chemical changes that occur in DNA. During the tests they learned that that mice can pass on learned information about traumatic or stressful experiences – in this case a fear of the smell of cherry blossom – to subsequent generations. [9] A new way of thinking about consciousness is sweeping through science like wildfire. Now physicists are using it to formulate the problem of consciousness in concrete mathematical terms for the first time. Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[16750] viXra:1612.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 10:37:43

Deep-Brain Imaging

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

The ability to stimulate neural circuits with very high precision light to control cells—optogenetics—is key to exciting advances in the study and mapping of the living brain. [11] A breakdown of memory processes in humans can lead to conditions such as Alzheimer's and dementia. By looking at the simpler brain of a honeybee, new research published in Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, moves us a step towards understanding the different processes behind long-term memory formation. [10], has shown that it is possible for some information to be inherited biologically through chemical changes that occur in DNA. During the tests they learned that that mice can pass on learned information about traumatic or stressful experiences – in this case a fear of the smell of cherry blossom – to subsequent generations. [9] A new way of thinking about consciousness is sweeping through science like wildfire. Now physicists are using it to formulate the problem of consciousness in concrete mathematical terms for the first time. Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Mind Science

[16749] viXra:1612.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 10:57:55

Super-Resolution Microscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also.
Category: Condensed Matter

[16748] viXra:1612.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 11:28:40

Archimedean Tilings

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Particles self-assemble into these networks, which produce Archimedean tilings when lines are drawn between the particle centers. [25] Multiple theoretical models have been developed to explain the relaxation dynamics of materials that form glasses. One such model is the dynamic facilitation theory, which predicts that the dynamics of systems are heterogeneous and relaxation displays parabolic behavior. [24] A glass is a curious material in between liquid and solid states of matter, but eventually glass always yields to its solid proclivity by settling into the ordered patterns of a crystal. Or so it was thought. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible.
Category: Condensed Matter

[16747] viXra:1612.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 11:51:54

Notes About Genetic Code, Note 2: the Relations Between Four Diversity Types of Protein Amino Acids

Authors: Miloje M. Rakocevic
Comments: 5 Pages.

This Note follows from Note 1(viXra:1612.0127, submitted on 2016-12-08 07:01:10) and it shows further distinctions and splittings within four diversity types of protein amino acids (AAs). First type as in Note 1 (G, P) and second one, also as in Note 1 (A, L; V, I). Within third type there is a chemicaly directed splitting into 4 + 2 AAs [(F, Y, H, W) + (C, M)]. Forth type consists of two halves in form of 4 + 4 AAs; four AAs with nitrogen, and four without: [(N, Q; K, R) + ( S, T, D, E)]. All these distinctions are followed through specific arithmetical regularities.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[16746] viXra:1612.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 12:10:50

Getting from the Vacuum a Hidden Secret

Authors: Roald C. Maximo
Comments: 04 Pages.

It seems to me already sufficiently proven that light is a wave phenomenon. Only the excuse that a wave phenomenon could not propagate through a vacuum (through nothing) would justify the ballistic interpretation of the phenomenon. However, with the publication of “A Dynamic Theory of the Electromagnetic Field”, as early as 1865, Maxwell made it established that electric and magnetic fields travel through space like waves moving at the speed of light. Maxwell proposed that light is a wave in the same medium that is the cause of electric and magnetic phenomena. Later on, Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (February 22 1857 1 January 1894) a German physicist who first proved conclusively the existence of the electromagnetic waves as theorized by the electromagnetic theory of James Clerk Maxwell. Hertz proved the theory through engineering instruments to transmit and receive radio pulses using experimental procedures to exclude the possibility of all other hypothetical wireless transmission means. That said, it is clear that the so-called vacuum has, necessarily, some physical attributes essential for these phenomena to occur. Two of these attributes, Permittivity and Permeability will be be the main characters in this script and, once rewritten in a fundamental form, will expose the the energy therein contained
Category: Quantum Physics

[16745] viXra:1612.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 05:02:58

Prime Metric Basis Change Theorem

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about 'Prime Metric Basis Change Theorem'.
Category: General Mathematics

[16744] viXra:1612.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 05:48:31

Machine Learning of 2-D Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Machine learning, a field focused on training computers to recognize patterns in data and make new predictions, is helping doctors more accurately diagnose diseases and stock analysts forecast the rise and fall of financial markets. And now materials scientists have pioneered another important application for machine learning—helping to accelerate the discovery and development of new materials. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[16743] viXra:1612.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 06:40:27

Catalytic Nanoparticles in 3-D

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Catalysts are at the heart of fuel cells-devices that convert hydrogen and oxygen to water and enough electricity to power vehicles for hundreds of miles. But finding effective, inexpensive catalysts has been a key challenge to getting more of these hydrogen-powered, emission-free vehicles out on the road. [25] Multiple theoretical models have been developed to explain the relaxation dynamics of materials that form glasses. One such model is the dynamic facilitation theory, which predicts that the dynamics of systems are heterogeneous and relaxation displays parabolic behavior. [24] A glass is a curious material in between liquid and solid states of matter, but eventually glass always yields to its solid proclivity by settling into the ordered patterns of a crystal. Or so it was thought. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16]
Category: Condensed Matter

[16742] viXra:1612.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 06:41:02

Experiment on the (Inverted) Fractal Demonstrating Micro Quantum and Macro Astronomical Observations and Conjectures

Authors: Blair D. Macdonald
Comments: 47 Pages.

Continuing the debate on whether the universe is fractal by nature: an experiment was undertaken on the ‘simple’ Koch Snowflake fractal to test whether it matches observations and conjectures. The snowflake was inverted to model observations from a static or ‘measured’ position – within an iterating fractal set. Converse to the classical fractal snowflake emergence, new triangles sizes were held constant and earlier triangles in the set expanded as the set iterated. Kinematic velocities and accelerations were calculated for both the area of the total fractal, and the distance between points within the fractal set. The inverted fractal was also tested for the Hubble's Law. It was discovered that the area(s) expanded exponentially; and as a consequence, the distances between points – from any location within the set – receded away from the ‘observer’ at increasing velocities and accelerations. The model was consistent with the standard ΛCDM model of cosmology and demonstrated a singularity ‘Big Bang’ beginning; homogeneous isotropic expansion consistent with the CMB; Hubble's Law expansion – with a Hubble diagram and Hubble's constant; and accelerating expansion with a ‘cosmological’ constant an expansion rate consistent with, and capable of explaining the conjecture of early inflation epoch of the universe. The model predicts and matches current galaxy distribution observation – clustered nearby and smooth on large scales – and thus is inconsistence with the cosmological principle. The mechanism of expansion is consistent with quantum mechanical descriptions: the vacuum catastrophe is addressed. It was concluded that the universe behaves as a general as a fractal object, where we are observing inside it.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[16741] viXra:1612.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 07:01:10

Notes about Genetic Code, Note 1: Four Diversity Types of Protein Amino Acids

Authors: Miloje M. Rakocevic
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this Note is presented the existence of four diversity types of protein amino acids (AAs). Fist type with two AAs (G; P); second with four AAs (A, L; V, I); third with six AAs (F, Y, H, W; C, M); and fourth type with eight AAs (S, T, D, E; N, Q; K, R).
Category: Quantitative Biology

[16740] viXra:1612.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 06:58:44

Examples of Gravitational Polarization of Objects of the Universe Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Gravitational Polarization is Inherent in All Objects of the Universe

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Gravitational polarization is inherent in all objects of the Universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[16739] viXra:1612.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 14:17:46

Deep-Frozen Helium Molecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Helium atoms are loners. Only if they are cooled down to an extremely low temperature do they form a very weakly bound molecule. In so doing, they can keep a tremendous distance from each other thanks to the quantum-mechanical tunnel effect. [14] Inside a new exotic crystal, physicist Martin Mourigal has observed strong indications of "spooky" action, and lots of it. The results of his experiments, if corroborated over time, would mean that the type of crystal is a rare new material that can house a quantum spin liquid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Condensed Matter

[16738] viXra:1612.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 14:49:20

Proton-Electron Geomeric Model

Authors: Harry Watson
Comments: 5 Pages.

A Geometric Model A family of models in Euclidean space is developed from the following approximation. m_p/m_e = 4pi(4pi- 1\pi)(4pi-2/pi) = 1836.15 (1) where (m_p) and (m_e) are the numeric values for the mass of the proton and the mass of electron, respectively. In particular, we will develop models (1) that agree with the recommended value of the mass ratio of the proton to the electron to six significant figures, (2) that explain the “shape-shifting” behavior of the proton, and (3) that are formed concisely from the sole transcendental number pi. This model is solely geometric, relying on volume as the measure of mass. Claim that inclusion of quantum/relativistic properties enhance the accuracy of the model. The goal is to express the ratio of the proton mass to the electron mass in terms of (1) pure mathematical constants and (2) a quantum corrective factor. harry.watson@att.net
Category: Mathematical Physics

[16737] viXra:1612.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 17:18:40

Proposol to Disidentify 7

Authors: Soerivhe Iriene
Comments: 1 Page.

"Number" of 7 is unnatural and should be removed. Series numbers is 1,2,3,4,5,6,8,9,10…
Category: General Mathematics

[16736] viXra:1612.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 02:14:53

Muon-Neutron and Tauon-Neutron Mass ratio Prediction

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 8 Pages.

What determines the mass of particles like the muon and tauon? No, reasonable, mainstream model, has been predictive the mass of particles. Michael John Sarnowski’s empirical equations for the proton and electron use an equation that shows that a resonant frequency created by a resonance between bremsstrahlung and Cherenkov like radiation and the ratio of orbital energy ratios.(1) In those two papers the masses of the electron and proton are due one of the solutions the resonances. In addition a small fraction of the proton mass is due to relativistic effects of most of the electron, a small fraction of the electron is due to relativistic effects of the second solution to the mass equation of the proton. In “Evidence for Granular Granulated Spacetime it is shown that charge is directly dependent on the mass ratio of the electron to neutron and the proton to the neutron(2). These empirical equations are accurate to the CODATA values for the mass ratios of the electron to the neutron and the proton to the neutron. Also this equations are also predictive for the value for elementary charge. The following paper shows that the mass ratios of the muon to the neutron and the tauon to the neutron can be calculated from both solutions to resonant equation of a Cherenkov like radiation and Bremsstrahlung type radiation. These mass ratios are also accurate to the CODATA values for these two particles and are likely predictive of more accurate measurements of these particles in the future. What is unique for the muon-neutron and tauon-neutron is that the mass ratios of the use the same resonance and use one of the solutions for the resonance of the proton to the neutron mass ratio. The consistent use of resonances, consistent use of mass ratios to the neutron, and consistent interdependence of the mass ratios of particles indicates that the developing model is consistent and hints at underlying structure to space-time. When a charged particle travels faster than light, it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung. Inside an electron are the many configurations of the constituent particles. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the electron or other particles. It is proposed that the ratios of the masses of particles to the mass of the neutron is related to ratio of the Bremsstrahlung to the Bremsstrahlung where velocity is parallel to acceleration. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of both the muon and tauon to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from 0 to pi/2 angles, assuming an ideal case of a non-dispersive medium (where phase and group velocity are the same(4), and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This is a continuation of Sarnowski’s Sphere Theory for the construction of the universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16735] viXra:1612.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 03:22:08

On the Identical Simulation of the Entire Universe

Authors: Mesut Kavak
Comments: 9 Pages.

A short time ago, I published an article about deceleration of the universe. It was especially based on entropy, and it explains how does matter work, produce free energy by using its own creation motion without external energy; also is about instant communication and jumping interstellar by imitating starting condition of matter called as big-bang as a side effect on itself that the same with faster than light expansion as creation motion and outer space motion are accepted together. In this work, it was performed some analysis of the some specific subjects such as deceleration, uncertainty, particle formation, black hole, gravitation, energy, mass and light speed for identical simulation computations of the entire universe as the most sensitive as possible being related that article. There are some informations about escaping from black holes, event horizon lengths, viscosity of free space, re-derivation of Planck constants and infrastructure of some basic laws of existence mathematically as matter is directly dependent of geometric rules. Also, some elements were given for the readers to solve some required constants as the most sensitive manner. As the constants are not enough in the name of engineering, also finally I found a working algorithm which reduces process number of the power series to process number of the quadratic equations like calculating a root of an integer as an irrational number by solving equation; so also it can be used to calculate trigonometric values in the best manner for simulations of the entire universe besides physical constants as irrational values. Also there are new informations about the pioneer anomaly, gamma ray burst and unobservational universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[16734] viXra:1612.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:28:49

Operations on Interval Valued Neutrosophic Graphs

Authors: Broumi, S., Smarandache, F., Talea, M. Bakali
Comments: 24 Pages.

Combining the single valued neutrosophic set with graph theory, a new graph model emerges, called single valued neutrosophic graph. This model allows attaching the truth-membership (t), indeterminacy–membership (i) and falsity- membership degrees (f) both to vertices and edges. Combining the interval valued neutrosophic set with graph theory, a new graph model emerges, called interval valued neutrosophic graph. This model generalizes the fuzzy graph, intuitionistic fuzzy graph and single valued neutrosophic graph. In this paper, the authors define operations of Cartesian product, composition, union and join on interval valued neutrosophic graphs, and investigate some of their properties, with proofs and examples.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[16733] viXra:1612.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:28:01

Night-Vision Specs

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Scientists at The Australian National University (ANU) have designed a nano crystal around 500 times smaller than a human hair that turns darkness into visible light and can be used to create lightweight night-vision glasses. [17] Magnets instead of antibiotics could provide a possible new treatment method for blood infection. [16] One of the biggest challenges in cognitive or rehabilitation neurosciences is the ability to design a functional hybrid system that can connect and exchange information between biological systems, like neurons in the brain, and human-made electronic devices. [15] Wearable terahertz scanning device for inspection of medical equipment and the human body. [14] Optical microscopy experts at Colorado State University are once again pushing the envelope of biological imaging. [13] Researchers at the University of Melbourne have developed a way to radically miniaturise a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machine using atomic-scale quantum computer technology. [12] With one in two Australian children reported to have tooth decay in their permanent teeth by age 12, researchers from the University of Sydney believe they have identified some nanoscale elements that govern the behaviour of our teeth. [11] When cryoEM images are obtained from protein nanocrystals the images themselves can appear to be devoid of any contrast. A group of scientists from the Netherlands have now demonstrated that lattice information can be revealed and enhanced by a specialized filter. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[16732] viXra:1612.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:29:50

Role of Neutrosophic Logic in Data Mining

Authors: Kalyan Mondal, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper presents a data mining process of single valued neutrosophic information. This approach gives a presentation of data analysis common to all applications. Data mining depends on two main elements, namely the concept of similarity and the machine learning framework. It describes a lot of real world applications for the domains namely mathematical, medical, educational, chemical, multimedia etc.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[16731] viXra:1612.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:30:49

Selection of Automated Guided Vehicle using Single Valued Neutrosophic Entropy Based Novel Multi Attribute Decision Making Technique

Authors: Nital P. Nirmal, Mangal G. Bhatt
Comments: 10 Pages.

Selection of material handling equipment for typical conditions and handling environment is one of the multi attribute decision making problem. The objective of the research paper is to implement and validate multi attribute selection of automated guided vehicle for material handling purpose. The present paper proposes a single valued neutrosophic set with entropy weight based multi attribute decision making technique. A proposed technique also works with more uncertainty, imprecise, indeterminate and inconsistent information. The proposed methodology follows with the example for selection and ranking of automated guided vehicle and in validation and sensitivity analysis of the novel multi attribute decision making technique carried out. The result of the study builds assurance in suitability of single valued neutrosophic set entropy based novel multi attribute decision making for selection of automated guided vehicle alternatives.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[16730] viXra:1612.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:31:57

Several Trigonometric Hamming Similarity Measures of Rough Neutrosophic Sets and their Applications in Decision Making

Authors: Kalyan Mondal, Surapati Pramanik, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 11 Pages.

In 2014, Broumi et al. (S. Broumi, F. Smarandache, M. Dhar, Rough neutrosophic sets, Italian Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, 32 (2014), 493-502.) introduced the notion of rough neutrosophic set by combining neutrosophic sets and rough sets, which has been a mathematical tool to deal with problems involving indeterminacy and incompleteness. The real world is full of indeterminacy. Naturally, real world decision making problem involves indeterminacy. Rough neutrosophic set is capable of describing and handling imprecise, indeterminate and inconsistent and incomplete information. This paper is devoted to propose several new similarity measures based on trigonometric hamming similarity operators of rough neutrosophic sets and their applications in decision making. We prove the required properties of the proposed similarity measures. To illustrate the applicability of the proposed similarity measures in decision making, an illustrative problem is solved.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[16729] viXra:1612.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:33:45

Smooth Neutrosophic Preuniform Spaces

Authors: M. K. El Gayyar
Comments: 13 Pages.

As a new branch of philosophy, the neutrosophy was presented by Smarandache in 1998. It was presented as the study of origin, nature, and scope of neutralities; as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra. The aim of this paper is to introduce the concepts of smooth neutrosophic preuniform space, smooth neutrosophic preuniform subspace, and smooth neutrosophic preuniform mappings. Furthermore, some properties of these concepts will be investigated.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[16728] viXra:1612.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:34:46

Some Distance Measures of Single Valued Neutrosophic Hesitant Fuzzy Sets and Their Applications to Multiple Attribute Decision Making

Authors: Pranab Biswas, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 8 Pages.

Single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set is a merged form of single-valued neutrosophic sets and hesitant fuzzy sets. This set is a useful tool to handle imprecise, incomplete and inconsistent information existing in multi-attribute decision making problems. In multi-attribute decision making, distance measures play an important role to take a decision regarding alternatives. In this paper we propose a variety of distance measures for single valued neutrosophic sets. Furthermore, we apply these measures to multi-attribute decision making problem with singlevalued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set environment to find out the best alternative. We provide an illustrative example to validate and to show fruitfulness of the proposed approach. Finally, we compare the proposed approach with other existing methods for solving multi-attribute decision making problems
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[16727] viXra:1612.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:38:11

The Alexandrov-Urysohn Compactness On Single Valued Neutrosophic S∗Centered Systems

Authors: Saeid Jafari, I. Arockiarani, J. Martina Jency
Comments: 17 Pages.

In this paper we present the notion of the single valued neutrosophic S∗ maximal compact extension in single valued neutrosophic S∗ centered system. Moreover, the concept of single valued neutrosophic S∗ absolute is applied to establish the Alexandrov -Urysohn compactness criterion. Some of the basic properties are characterized.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[16726] viXra:1612.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:39:19

TOPSIS Approach for Multi Attribute Group Decision Making in Refined Neutrosophic Environment

Authors: Surapati Pramanik, Durga Banerjee, B. C. Giri
Comments: 13 Pages.

This paper presents TOPSIS approach for multi attribute decision making in refined neutrosophic environment. The weights of each decision makers are considered as a single valued neutrosophic numbers. The attribute weights for every decision maker are also considered as a neutrosophic numbers. Aggregation operator is used to combine all decision makers’ opinion into a single opinion for rating between attributes and alternatives. Euclidean distances from positive ideal solution and negative ideal solution are calculated to construct relative closeness coefficients. Lastly, an illustrative example of tablet selection is provided to show the applicability of the proposed TOPSIS approach.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[16725] viXra:1612.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:40:29

TOPSIS for Solving Multi-Attribute Decision Making Problems under Bi-Polar Neutrosophic Environment

Authors: Partha Pratim Dey, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 13 Pages.

The paper investigates a technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method to solve multi-attribute decision making problems with bipolar neutrosophic information. We define Hamming distance function and Euclidean distance function to determine the distance between bipolar neutrosophic numbers. In the decision making situation, the rating of performance values of the alternatives with respect to the attributes are provided by the decision maker in terms of bipolar neutrosophic numbers. The weights of the attributes are determined using maximizing deviation method. We define bipolar neutrosophic relative positive ideal solution (BNRPIS) and bipolar neutrosophic relative negative ideal solution (BNRNIS). Then, the ranking order of the alternatives is obtained by TOPSIS method and most desirable alternative is selected. Finally, a numerical example for car selection is solved to demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed approach and comparison with other existing method is also provided.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[16724] viXra:1612.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:49:28

Dynamic Facilitation Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Multiple theoretical models have been developed to explain the relaxation dynamics of materials that form glasses. One such model is the dynamic facilitation theory, which predicts that the dynamics of systems are heterogeneous and relaxation displays parabolic behavior. [24] A glass is a curious material in between liquid and solid states of matter, but eventually glass always yields to its solid proclivity by settling into the ordered patterns of a crystal. Or so it was thought. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible.
Category: Condensed Matter

[16723] viXra:1612.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 11:05:09

Explosive Immunisation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Aberdeen have developed a mathematical method to prevent epidemics by vaccinating fewer people than ever before. They have hailed the method – known as 'explosive immunisation'-as the fastest and most efficient way to prevent the spread of disease. [24] A glass is a curious material in between liquid and solid states of matter, but eventually glass always yields to its solid proclivity by settling into the ordered patterns of a crystal. Or so it was thought. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible.
Category: Physics of Biology

[16722] viXra:1612.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 11:18:19

Conjecture Involving Harshad Numbers and Sexy Primes

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper I conjecture that for any pair of sexy primes (p, p + 6) there exist a prime q = p + 6*n, where n > 1, such that the number p*(p + 6)*(p + 6*n) is a Harshad number.
Category: Number Theory

[16721] viXra:1612.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 11:32:26

Radiation Knocks Electrons Out

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Researchers are investigating novel ways by which electrons are knocked out of matter. Their research could have implications for radiation therapy. [14] Now researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology use dendrimers that mimic the electron valency of atoms and link them into arrays using molecules that coordinate with the dendrimer as they would form a covalent electron pair in their valence shell-"electron pair mimicry". [13] In an electron microscope, electrons are emitted by pointy metal tips, so they can be steered and controlled with high precision. Recently, such metal tips have also been used as high precision electron sources for generating X-rays. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[16720] viXra:1612.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 11:51:06

Smoother Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Analysis of a giant new galaxy survey, made with ESO's VLT Survey Telescope in Chile, suggests that dark matter may be less dense and more smoothly distributed throughout space than previously thought. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[16719] viXra:1612.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 13:15:44

Photonic Crystal Microscope

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Professor Brian Cunningham's Nano Sensors group has invented a novel live-cell imaging method that could someday help biologists better understand how stem cells transform into specialized cells and how diseases like cancer spread. [14] Inside a new exotic crystal, physicist Martin Mourigal has observed strong indications of "spooky" action, and lots of it. The results of his experiments, if corroborated over time, would mean that the type of crystal is a rare new material that can house a quantum spin liquid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Condensed Matter

[16718] viXra:1612.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:09:57

A New Order Relation on the Set of Neutrosophic Truth Values

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Huda E. Khalid, Ahmed K. Essa
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this article, we discuss all possible cases to construct an atom of matter, antimatter, or unmatter, and also the cases of contradiction (i.e. impossible case).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[16717] viXra:1612.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:11:06

Applications of Neutrosophic Sets in Medical Image Denoising and Segmentation

Authors: Deepika Koundal, Savita Gupta, Sukhwinder Singh
Comments: 19 Pages.

In medical science, diagnosis and prognosis is one of the most difficult and challenging task because of restricted subjectivity of the experts and presence of fuzziness in medical images. In observing the severity of several diseases, different professional experts may result in wrong diagnosis. In order to perform diagnosis intuitively in the medical images, different image processing methods have been explored in terms of neutrosophic theory to interpret the inherent uncertainty, ambiguity and vagueness. This paper demonstrates the use of neutrosophic theory in medical image denoising and segmentation where the performance is observed to be much better.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[16716] viXra:1612.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:12:17

Distance and Similarity Measures for Multiple Attribute Decision Making with Single-Valued Neutrosophic Hesitant Fuzzy Information

Authors: Ridvan Şahin, Peide Liu
Comments: 20 Pages.

With respect to a combination of hesitant sets, and single-valued neutrosophic sets which are a special case of neutrosophic sets, the single valued neutrosophic hesitant sets (SVNHFS) have been proposed as a new theory set that allows the truth-membership degree, indeterminacy membership degree and falsity-membership degree including a collection of crisp values between zero and one, respectively. There is no consensus on the best way to determine the order of a sequence of singlevalued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy elements. In this paper, we first develop an axiomatic system of distance and similarity measures between single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy sets and also propose a class of distance and similarity measures based on three basic forms such that the geometric distance model, the set-theoretic approach, and the matching functions. Then we utilize the distance measure between each alternative and ideal alternative to establish a multiple attribute decision making method under single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy environment. Finally, a numerical example of investment alternatives is provided to show the effectiveness and usefulness of the proposed approach. The advantages of the proposed distance measure over existing measures have been discussed.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[16715] viXra:1612.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:13:33

Magnets Instead of Antibiotics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Magnets instead of antibiotics could provide a possible new treatment method for blood infection. [16] One of the biggest challenges in cognitive or rehabilitation neurosciences is the ability to design a functional hybrid system that can connect and exchange information between biological systems, like neurons in the brain, and human-made electronic devices. [15] Wearable terahertz scanning device for inspection of medical equipment and the human body. [14] Optical microscopy experts at Colorado State University are once again pushing the envelope of biological imaging. [13] Researchers at the University of Melbourne have developed a way to radically miniaturise a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machine using atomic-scale quantum computer technology. [12] With one in two Australian children reported to have tooth decay in their permanent teeth by age 12, researchers from the University of Sydney believe they have identified some nanoscale elements that govern the behaviour of our teeth. [11] When cryoEM images are obtained from protein nanocrystals the images themselves can appear to be devoid of any contrast. A group of scientists from the Netherlands have now demonstrated that lattice information can be revealed and enhanced by a specialized filter. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[16714] viXra:1612.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:15:01

Extended Projection Based Models for Solving Multiple Attribute Decision Making Problems with Interval Valued Neutrosophic Information

Authors: Partha Pratim Dey, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 14 Pages.

The paper develops two new methods for solving multiple attribute decision making problems with interval – valued neutrosophic assessments. In the decision making situation, the rating of alternatives with respect to the predefined attributes is described by linguistic variables, which can be represented by interval - valued neutrosophic sets. We assume that the weight of the attributes are not equal in the decision making process and they are obtained by using maximizing deviation method. We define weighted projection measure and propose a method to rank the alternatives. Furthermore, we also develop an alternative method to solve multiple attribute decision making problems based on the combination of angle cosine and projection method. Finally, an illustrative numerical example in Khadi institution is solved to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[16713] viXra:1612.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:17:03

From Linked Data Fuzzy to Neutrosophic Data Set Decision Making in Games vs. Real Life

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Mirela Teodorescu
Comments: 11 Pages.

In our lives, reality becomes a game, and in the same way, the game becomes reality, the game is an exercise, simulation of real life on a smaller scale, then it extends itself into reality. This article aims to make a connection between decision making in game which comprises all the issues that intervene in the process and further making a connection with real life. The method for identification involved, detected or induced uncertainties is a jointing process from linked data fuzzy to neutrosophic data set on a case study, EVE Online game. This analysis is useful for psychologists, sociologists, economic analysis, process management, business area, also for researchers of games domain.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[16712] viXra:1612.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:18:08

GRA Method of Multiple Attribute Decision Making with Single Valued Neutrosophic Hesitant Fuzzy Set Information

Authors: Pranab Biswas, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 9 Pages.

Single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set has three independent parts, namely the truth membership hesitancy function, indeterminacy membership hesitancy function, and falsity membership hesitancy function, which are in the form of sets that assume values in the unit interval [0, 1]. Single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set is considered as a powerful tool to express uncertain, incomplete, indeterminate and inconsistent information in the process of multi attribute decision making problems. In this paper we study multi attribute decision making problems in which the rating values are expressed with single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set information.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[16711] viXra:1612.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:19:00

Hausdorff Extensions in Single Valued Neutrosophic S∗ Centered Systems

Authors: J. Martina Jency, I. Arockiarani
Comments: 18 Pages.

This paper explores the concept of single valued neutrosophic S∗ open sets in single valued neutrosophic S∗ centered system. Also the characterization of Hausdorff extensions of spaces in single valued neutrosophic S∗ centered systems are established.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[16710] viXra:1612.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:20:11

Logistics Center Location Selection Approach Based on Neutrosophic Multi-Criteria Decision Making

Authors: Surapati Pramanik, Shyamal Dalapati, Tapan Kumar Roy
Comments: 14 Pages.

As an important and interesting topic in supply chain management, the concept of fuzzy set theory has been widely used in logistics center location in order to improve the reliability and suitability of the logistics center location with respect to the impacts of both qualitative and quantitative factor. However fuzzy set cannot deal with the indeterminacy involving with the problem. So the concept of single – valued neutrosophic set due to Wang et al. (2010) is very helpful to deal with the problem. A neutrosophic approach is a more general and suitable approach in order to deal with neutrosophic information than fuzzy set. Logistics center location selection is a multi-criteria decision making process involving subjectivity, impresion and fuzziness that can be easily represented by single-valued neutrosophic sets. In this paper, we use the score and accuracy function and hybrid score accuracy function of single- valued neutrosophic number and ranking method for single- valued neutrosophic numbers to model logistics center location problem. Finally, a numerical example has been presented to illustrate the proposed approach.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[16709] viXra:1612.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:21:05

Multi Criteria Decision Making Method in Neutrosophic Environment Using a New Aggregation Operator, Score and Certainty Function

Authors: Kanika Mandal, Kajla Basu
Comments: 20 Pages.

Neutrosophic sets, being generalization of classic sets, fuzzy sets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets, can simultaneously represent uncertain, imprecise, incomplete, and inconsistent information existing in the real world. Neutrosophic theory has been developed in twenty first century and not much of arithmetic has been developed for this set. To solve any problem using neutrosophic data, it is desirable to have suitable operators, score function etc. Some operators like single valued neutrosophic weighted averaging (SVNWA) operator, single valued neutrosophic weighted geometric (SVNWG) operator are already defined in neutrosophic set (NS). In this paper an improved weighted average geometric (IWAG) operator which produces more meaningful results has been introduced to aggregate some real numbers and the same has been extended in neutrosophic environment. We further generalize this to include a wide range of aggregation operators for both real numbers and neutrosophic numbers. A new score function and certainty function have been defined which have some benefit compared to the existing ones. Further comparative study highlighting the benefit of this new approach of ranking in neutrosophic set has been presented. A multiple-attribute decision-making method is established on the basis of the proposed operator and newly defined score function.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[16708] viXra:1612.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:21:59

Neutrosophic Applications in E-learning: Outcomes, Challenges and Trends

Authors: Nouran M. Radwan
Comments: 8 Pages.

There has been a sudden increase in the usage of elearning to support learner's learning process in higher education. Educational institutions are working in an increasingly competitive environment as many studies in elearning are implemented under complete information, while in the real world many uncertainty aspects do exist. This has resulted in emerging various approaches to handle uncertainty. Neutrosophic logic has been used to overcome the uncertainty of concepts that are associated with human expert judgments. This paper presents current trends to enhance elearning process by using neutrosophic to extract useful knowledge for selecting, evaluating, personalizing, and adapting elearning process.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[16707] viXra:1612.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:25:24

On a Model of Love Dynamics: a Neutrosophic Analysis

Authors: Santanu Ku. Patro
Comments: 9 Pages.

This study is an application of neutrosophy to the dynamics of love, the most interesting social phenomena. The love dynamics were studied earlier by Strogatz (Strogatz, 1994), Radzicki (Radzicki, 1993), Rapport (Rapport, 1960), etc. Although Strogatz’s model (Strogatz, 1994) was originally intended only to motivate students, it makes several interesting and plausible predictions, and suggests extensions that produce even wider range of behavior. This paper has been written in the Strogatz’s spirit, and it has extended Romeo & Juliet model (Sprott, 2004) to the neutrosophic domain. A love impact factor (LIF) has been proposed, and analyzed using neutrosophic logic.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[16706] viXra:1612.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:27:25

On Neutrosophic Sets and Topology

Authors: Francisco Gallego LupiaÑez
Comments: 9 Pages.

Recently, F.Smarandache generalized the Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy sets and other kinds of sets to neutrosophic sets. Also, this author defined the notion of neutrosophic topology on the non-standard interval. One can expect some relation between the intuitionistic fuzzy topology on an IFS and the neutrosophic topology. We show in this work that this is false.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[16705] viXra:1612.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-06 17:35:29

Integer Factorization Implemented in Time Polynomial

Authors: Yuly Shipilevsky
Comments: 9 Pages. This is a new paper and I changed the title. Thanks.

A polynomial-time algorithm for integer factorization, wherein integer factorization reduced to a polynomial-time integer minimization problem over the integer points in a two-dimensional polyhedron.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[16704] viXra:1612.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 04:09:38

Transistor Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

In 2004, electrical engineering pioneers Nick Holonyak, Jr. and Milton Feng at the University of Illinois invented the transistor laser—a three-port device that incorporated quantum-wells in the base and an optical cavity—increasing its capacity to transmit data one hundred-fold. [15] The propagating optical signals along the silver nanowire can be also transformed and detected as electrical signals by an optical signal detector. [14] Now researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology use dendrimers that mimic the electron valency of atoms and link them into arrays using molecules that coordinate with the dendrimer as they would form a covalent electron pair in their valence shell-"electron pair mimicry". [13] In an electron microscope, electrons are emitted by pointy metal tips, so they can be steered and controlled with high precision. Recently, such metal tips have also been used as high precision electron sources for generating X-rays. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[16703] viXra:1612.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 04:34:53

Universes In Parallel Of A Given Aspect Primality Of Concern

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about 'Universes In Parallel Of A Given Aspect Primality Of Concern'.
Category: General Mathematics

[16702] viXra:1612.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 04:39:17

Definitions Of True Life And True Redundancy Values Of A Given Aspect Primality Of Concern.

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about 'Definitions Of True Life And True Redundancy Values Of A Given Aspect Primality Of Concern'.
Category: General Mathematics

[16701] viXra:1612.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 05:28:06

On One Information-Wave Therapy Metod \\ Об одном методе информационно-волновой терапии

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 2 Pages. in Russian

The article describes one and effective method of the information-wave therapy. The method is available for any reader. \\ В статье описан простой эффективный метод информационно-волновой терапии. Метод доступен для любого читателя.
Category: Physics of Biology

[16700] viXra:1612.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 05:29:52

To Stop the Alzheimer's Disease \\ Остановить болезнь Альцгеймера

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 5 Pages. in Russian

The article deals with the results of research of the Alzheimer’s Disease causes from the perspective of the information-wave medicine. The reasons for neuron death have been introduced. The diagnostic and treatment methods have been proposed. \\ В статье приведены результаты исследования причин возникновения блени Альцгеймера с позиции информационно-волновой медицины. Выявлены причины гибели нейронов. Предложены методы диагностики и лечения этого заболевания.
Category: Physics of Biology

[16699] viXra:1612.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 05:32:03

What is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Adhd) \\ Что такое син-дром дефицита внимания и гиперактивности (СДВГ)

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 3 Pages. in Russian

The article examines the ALS etiology and pathogenesis from the perspective of the infor-mation-wave medicine. The diagnostic and treatment methods have been proposed for this “incurable” disease. \\ В статье рассмотрены этиология и патогенез БАС с позиции информационно-волновой медцины. Предложены пути диагностики и лечения этой «неизлечимой» болезни.
Category: Physics of Biology

[16698] viXra:1612.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 05:45:46

Conjecture Involving Harshad Numbers and Primes of the Form 6k+1

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I conjecture that for any prime p of the form 6*k + 1 there exist an infinity of Harshad numbers of the form p*q1*q2, where q1 and q2 are distinct primes, q1 = p + 6*m and q2 = p + 6*n.
Category: Number Theory

[16697] viXra:1612.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-06 13:59:21

Unified Physics and Properties of Elementary Particles

Authors: Ulrich E. Bruchholz, Horst Eckardt
Comments: Pages.

It is demonstrated how to unify all physics on the basis of general relativity. Electrodynamics is revealed to be part of general relativity, as already seen by Rainich. The properties of elementary particles follow from the equations of the unified theory. The way of calculating these properties is indicated, and successful applications of this method are referenced. These insights and results have inevitably to be joined with a criticism of contemporary physics.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[16696] viXra:1612.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-06 07:24:24

SUSY-Like Electrostatic Background Fields in Metaspace

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 1 Page.

Demonstration of SUSY [super-symmetry]-like electrostatic backgrounds fields of quantum differential topological K-theory.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[16695] viXra:1612.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-06 07:37:04

Hypersphere Mechanics

Authors: Peter J Carroll.
Comments: 3 Pages.

Abstract. This paper discusses the idea that fundamental quanta may consist not of ‘point particles’ but of sub-Planck scale hyperspheres (3-balls or 4-spheres) in their particle-like manifestations, and that the Uncertainty Principle constrains them to have wavelengths and frequencies above the Planck scale in their wave-like manifestations. This paper then conjectures that some form of ‘hypersphere mechanics’ may form yet another possible interpretation of quantum physics, which may eventually yield novel testable predictions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16694] viXra:1612.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-05 17:31:41

An Electro Magnetic Resonance in 9 Dimensions that gives Mass Ratio of Electron to Neutron

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 8 Pages.

When a charged particle travels faster than light, it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung. Inside an electron are the many configurations of the constituent particles. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the electron or other particles. It is proposed that the ratios of the masses of particles to the mass of the neutron is related to ratio of the Bremsstrahlung to the Bremsstrahlung where velocity is parallel to acceleration. In the case of the mass ratio of the electron to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the electron to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the electron to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from 0 to pi/2 angles, assuming an ideal case of a non-dispersive medium (where phase and group velocity are the same(14), and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the constituent particles that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles, which is further proposed to be a function of an orbital type structure of the inner electron. This resonance is potentially demonstrated for an electron. This is a continuation of Sarnowski’s Sphere Theory for the construction of the universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16693] viXra:1612.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-06 01:51:28

Theory of Nothing is Everything

Authors: S Hussainsha
Comments: 26 Pages. Entanglement is Physical singularity

The principal objective of this paper is to construct the new theory to bring General Relativity and Quantum mechanics on one stage. General Relativity and Quantum mechanics play fundamental roles while developing this theory. This theory unlocks the deeper connection between the physical singularity predicted by General Relativity and Quantum Entanglement. This theory solves some of the problems of physics like Dark matter, Expanding Universe, Causality violation, and unification of General Relativity with Quantum mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16692] viXra:1612.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-06 04:33:31

Microworld_ 34. Nuclear Fusion

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 23 Pages. English and russian texts.

“Hot” nuclear fusion. “Cold” nuclear fusion.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[16691] viXra:1612.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-06 05:11:35

Universal Filed Theory New

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about 'Universal Field Theory'.
Category: General Mathematics

[16690] viXra:1612.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-06 06:38:50

The Quintic :Z^5+z^4+z-1=0

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 12 Pages.

The quintic : p(z)=z^5+z^4+z-1=0,the number pi, and fractals.
Category: General Mathematics

[16689] viXra:1612.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-05 14:09:38

Co-Decaying Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

There isn't as much dark matter around today as there used to be. According to one of the most popular models of dark matter, the universe contained much more dark matter early on when the temperature was hotter. As the universe cooled, the dark matter annihilated away, at least up until a point when thermal equilibrium was reached and the annihilations ceased, resulting in the number of dark matter particles in the universe "freezing out" and remaining roughly constant. [21] Much of the universe is made of matter that we can't see. [20] An overview of the NA64 experimental setup at CERN. NA64 hunts down dark photons, hypothetic dark matter particles. [19] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[16688] viXra:1612.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-05 14:21:42

Anti-gravity

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 84 Pages.

In this dissertation, we will describe the phenomenon of anti-gravity in the framework of general relativity, and we will give examples of its use, such as black holes and a new model of the universe. Gravity and anti-gravity has layer-like nature. Our Universe can be treated as a gigantic homogeneous black hole. It is isolated from the rest of universe with an area of spacetime where anti-gravity occurres.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[16687] viXra:1612.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-05 10:25:41

Quantum Dot Antenna

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Scientists from Russia and the U.K. have developed an antenna that can aid in reducing sources of terahertz radiation down to the size of a fingertip. The antenna is a "sandwich" of semiconductor layers combined with quantum dots. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16686] viXra:1612.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-05 12:24:08

Spooky Quantum Spin Liquid

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Inside a new exotic crystal, physicist Martin Mourigal has observed strong indications of "spooky" action, and lots of it. The results of his experiments, if corroborated over time, would mean that the type of crystal is a rare new material that can house a quantum spin liquid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16685] viXra:1612.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-05 07:58:35

Universal Field Theory. {Rendition To Completion}.

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about 'The Universal Field Theory'.
Category: General Mathematics

[16684] viXra:1612.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-05 08:39:43

An Experiment Does not Support the Notion that the Magnetism is a Relativistic Effect of Electrostatics

Authors: Yannan Yang
Comments: 4 Pages.

In order to prove if the magnetism is a relativistic side effect of the electrostatics, an experiment was designed and performed. The experimental result does not support the notion that the magnetism is a relativistic side effect of Electrostatics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[16683] viXra:1612.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-05 08:41:42

Explanation of the Eclipse Effect by Electro Anti Gravity

Authors: Mohsen Lutephy
Comments: 7 Pages. this is answer for pendulums mysteries

The explanation of the eclipse effect by reality that the pendulums are electrified in the eclipse time and affected by sun electric charge in agreement with Nipher experiments and Erwin Saxl experiments and flying saucers mysterious anti gravity.
Category: Classical Physics

[16682] viXra:1612.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-05 08:49:11

The Derivation of Quantum Gravity

Authors: René Friedrich
Comments: 7 Pages.

The well-proven principles of general relativity are permitting the derivation of the answer to the eighty-year-old question how general relativity may harmonize with quantum mechanics. The key to the solution is a retrieval of the twofold nature of time, that is an absolute time concept on the one hand which is underlying the relative, observer-dependent concept of spacetime on the other hand. The attempts to quantize spacetime revealed to imply big difficulties. We will show that the reason for these problems is the structure of space and time, and that quantum gravity must happen on particle level.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16681] viXra:1612.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-05 08:58:15

Worldwide Quantum Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

On November 30th, for the first time, participants around the world took part in a unique worldwide experiment with the aim of testing the laws of quantum physics. [15] Many self-organized systems in nature exploit a sophisticated blend of deterministic and random processes. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16680] viXra:1612.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-05 05:04:49

How the Mechanical Clock Slows Down in High Velocity

Authors: Yannan Yang
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper, the slowdown mechanism of the moving mechanical clock is derived. The whole deductive process is based on velocity transformation and length contraction of the special relativity. The result shows that when in moving the mechanical clock runs slower in the exactly same proportion as the light clock does.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[16679] viXra:1612.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-05 05:57:21

Magnetic Fields Stellarator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Physicist Sam Lazerson of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) has teamed with German scientists to confirm that the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) fusion energy device called a stellarator in Greifswald, Germany, produces high-quality magnetic fields that are consistent with their complex design. [13] Scientists have developed a highly sensitive sensor to detect tiny changes in strong magnetic fields. The sensor may find widespread use in medicine and other areas. [12] Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and Princeton University have proposed a groundbreaking solution to a mystery that has puzzled physicists for decades. At issue is how magnetic reconnection, a universal process that sets off solar flares, northern lights and cosmic gamma-ray bursts, occurs so much faster than theory says should be possible. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16678] viXra:1612.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-05 06:05:58

Does the Strength of a Substance Increase with Its Speed?

Authors: Yannan Yang
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, a paradox resulted from the mass increasing with speed is presented. In this paradox, the same system appears two different conflict states. The system is stay in good order for an observer who is moving together with the system, but it is damaged for an observer who is at rest. To avoid this contradiction while leaving relativity intact, we have to introduce the assumption that the strength of a substance will increase with its speed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[16677] viXra:1612.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-05 07:24:45

The Solutions of the 7 Millenium Problems, the Calculation of Two Primes of More Than One Hundred Millions and One Billion Igits: 19TH and 21ST Mills' Primes

Authors: Thomas Pierre Nicolas Jean Brouard
Comments: 1 Page. NO COMMENT

NO ABSTRACT.
Category: General Mathematics

[16676] viXra:1612.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-04 23:04:13

TRL Universal Recursion Scheme of Perception Or Time. (Universal Engineering Series)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about 'Universal Recursion Scheme of Perception Or Time'.
Category: General Mathematics

[16675] viXra:1612.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-04 23:32:12

UNiversal Communication TEchnologies. {Rendition To Completion}.

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about ''Universal Communication Technologies.
Category: General Mathematics

[16674] viXra:1612.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-05 01:42:43

Macroscopic Quantum Effects

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Experiments using laser light and pieces of gray material the size of fingernail clippings may offer clues to a fundamental scientific riddle: what is the relationship between the everyday world of classical physics and the hidden quantum realm that obeys entirely different rules? [19] A University of California, Riverside assistant professor has combined photosynthesis and physics to make a key discovery that could help make solar cells more efficient. [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[16673] viXra:1612.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-04 07:47:50

Why Black Holes and Galaxies Cannot Grow Infinite (Draft)

Authors: Tamas Lajtner
Comments: 9 Pages.

Nowadays black holes in physics are considered real objects; supermassive black holes exist in the centers of most (all?) galaxies. The creation of black holes is a theory based on space-time. A new theory called space-matter theory has another explanation. The action-reaction phenomenon between space and matter causes that space waves. Masses decrease the energy of the space wave increasing its wavelengths. Lots of masses set up this effect causing very long waves. Black hole is made in a galaxy if the masses of celestial bodies are big "enough". Space regions can be depleted, where the density of the space wave is so small that space as space ceases to exist. This "lack of space" is replaced with space we don't know or with matter we can't find in our physics books.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[16672] viXra:1612.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-03 23:58:49

Method of Organizing Occ Wireless Computer Network

Authors: Andrey I. Bodrenko
Comments: 4 Pages.

Method of organizing OCC (Optical Camera Communications) wireless computer network is considered.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[16671] viXra:1612.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-04 00:33:11

TRL Universal Communication Technologies. (Universal Engineering SEries).

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about 'Universal Communication Technologies'.
Category: General Mathematics

[16670] viXra:1612.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-04 05:02:34

A Wave Pattern Appears on a Spectrum When a Paper Slit is Placed Across the Spectroscope Slit

Authors: H.S. Dhaliwal
Comments: 4 Pages.

I used a spectroscope box with a slit, a cd and a viewing hole. I placed varying sized paper slits across the spectroscope slit at varying angles, this produced a wave pattern across the spectrum. I refer to this as the spectral wave. The spectral wave across the emission lines are seen in a certain way (top to bottom) and the spectral waves across the absorption lines usually are the opposite way (bottom to top). I included pictures of when I had the paper slit parallel to the spectroscope slit (interesting results with a line in each emission line) and at 90 degrees to the spectroscope slit, which showed no spectral wave at these positions. Pictures with multiple spectral waves have more than one paper slit on the spectroscope slit with one paper slit inverted to the other. Perhaps you may think this is diffraction, but the odd thing is that the spectral wave does not appear on a continuous spectrum which may be evidence this phenomenon is not diffraction because if it was, it should also be seen on the continuous (daylight) spectrum. The following images are from a light source that creates a non-continuous spectrum.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16669] viXra:1612.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-03 10:39:18

Optical Transistors and Multiplexors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

The propagating optical signals along the silver nanowire can be also transformed and detected as electrical signals by an optical signal detector. [14] Now researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology use dendrimers that mimic the electron valency of atoms and link them into arrays using molecules that coordinate with the dendrimer as they would form a covalent electron pair in their valence shell-"electron pair mimicry". [13] In an electron microscope, electrons are emitted by pointy metal tips, so they can be steered and controlled with high precision. Recently, such metal tips have also been used as high precision electron sources for generating X-rays. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[16668] viXra:1612.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-03 10:57:30

Proof of Twin Prime Conjecture

Authors: Safaa Abdallah Moallim
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper we prove that there exist infinitely many twin prime numbers by studying n when 6n±1 are primes. By studying n we show that for every n that generates a twin prime number, there has to be m>n that generates a twin prime number too.
Category: Number Theory

[16667] viXra:1612.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-03 11:06:38

Weighing Atoms with Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

In the new study, led by Jani Kotakoski, the University of Vienna researchers used the advanced scanning transmission electron microscope Nion UltraSTEM100 to measure isotopes in nanometer-sized areas of a graphene sample. [14] Now researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology use dendrimers that mimic the electron valency of atoms and link them into arrays using molecules that coordinate with the dendrimer as they would form a covalent electron pair in their valence shell-"electron pair mimicry". [13] In an electron microscope, electrons are emitted by pointy metal tips, so they can be steered and controlled with high precision. Recently, such metal tips have also been used as high precision electron sources for generating X-rays. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16666] viXra:1612.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-03 11:19:08

Ether

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 3 Pages.

ABSTRACT Physicists claim that ether doesn't exist but that is a fallacy, the Michelson/Morley experiment proved that there was no ether wind but that doesn't mean that ether doesn't exist. There are 4 obvious clues that ether exists, frame dragging, the whirlpool properties of galaxies, time dilation and a property of light. Ether exists, Einstein was wrong. 
Category: Quantum Physics

[16665] viXra:1612.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-03 07:44:56

Inertia. Calculation on the "General Theory of Relativity."

Authors: Elkin Igor Vladimirovich
Comments: 6 Pages. -

With the help of the general theory of relativity and the principle of least action, we get the formula of interaction of two charged particles. The strength of the interaction on the particle repulsion (Identically charged) is less than the force attracted exactly the same particles (Charged differently). The bodies are made up of such particles and, therefore, are always attracted, according to the theory of relativity and the principle of least action.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[16664] viXra:1612.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-03 07:47:59

Quantum Photosynthesis

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

A University of California, Riverside assistant professor has combined photosynthesis and physics to make a key discovery that could help make solar cells more efficient. [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10]
Category: Quantum Physics

[16663] viXra:1612.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-03 08:17:53

Quantum Nano-MRI Images

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

The proposed nano-MRI setup consists of an atomic qubit positioned 2-4 nm below a surface holding a molecule. The qubit acts as both the sensor and source of the magnetic field for encoding the nuclear spins of the molecule. The nuclear density data is then used to generate a 3D image of the molecular structure with angstrom-level resolution. [13] Researchers at the University of Melbourne have developed a way to radically miniaturise a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machine using atomic-scale quantum computer technology. [12] With one in two Australian children reported to have tooth decay in their permanent teeth by age 12, researchers from the University of Sydney believe they have identified some nanoscale elements that govern the behaviour of our teeth. [11] When cryoEM images are obtained from protein nanocrystals the images themselves can appear to be devoid of any contrast. A group of scientists from the Netherlands have now demonstrated that lattice information can be revealed and enhanced by a specialized filter. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[16662] viXra:1612.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-03 09:10:23

Electron Pair Mimicry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Now researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology use dendrimers that mimic the electron valency of atoms and link them into arrays using molecules that coordinate with the dendrimer as they would form a covalent electron pair in their valence shell-"electron pair mimicry". [13] In an electron microscope, electrons are emitted by pointy metal tips, so they can be steered and controlled with high precision. Recently, such metal tips have also been used as high precision electron sources for generating X-rays. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16661] viXra:1612.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-03 09:22:10

Object Moving Towards the Observer Might Appear to Have Infinite Velocity and Hit Without Giving Any Warning.

Authors: Jayaram A S
Comments: 4 Pages. apparent velocities might be faster than light

The apparent velocity of an object moving towards or away from the observer will be different from its actual velocity. To get the apparent velocity, actual velocity will have to be multiplied by a factor called scale factor. For an object moving away from an observer at considerable speed compared to that of light, scale factor is given by1/1+z, where z = v/c, v= velocity of the moving object and c = velocity of light in vacuum. So, apparent velocity = Actual velocity/(1+z).But when the object is moving towards an observer, it appears to move faster than actual velocity. This is because Scale factor for objects approaching the observer=1/ (1-z). Most important thing is that the velocity of the object appears to be faster than the velocity of light in vacuum, for all values of z > 0.5.Also, it appears to be approaching at infinite speed for z =1.
Category: Astrophysics

[16660] viXra:1612.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-03 09:41:38

Randomness Adaptive Evolution

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Many self-organized systems in nature exploit a sophisticated blend of deterministic and random processes. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[16659] viXra:1612.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-02 19:09:43

Critical Loss Factor in 2-Dof in-Series System with Hysteretic Friction and Its Use for Vibration Control

Authors: Roman Vinokur
Comments: 17 Pages.

Although the classical theory of lumped mechanical systems employs the viscous friction mechanisms (dashpots), the loss factors of most solid structures are largely controlled by hysteresis. This paper presents new relationships for the dynamics of 2-DOF in-series systems with hysteresis damping. The most important among them is a close-form equation for the critical loss factor that was derived as the marginal condition for the degenerate case where the higher-frequency resonance peak fully vanishes in the vibration spectrum of the second mass. The critical loss factor can take values between 0 and 2-3/2 ≈ 0.354 and depends on the ratio of the natural frequencies of 2-DOF system: the closer the undamped natural frequencies, the lower the critical loss factor. The equation may help to interpret the vibration spectra for the second mass in the real 2-DOF systems, in particular on sweep-sine shaker tests. The single resonance peak in the degenerate case for a 2-DOF grows up notably as the natural frequencies get close to each other. By a formal analogy with 1-DOF systems, the peak magnitude can be reduced by increasing the loss factor. But in 2-DOF systems, the vibration can be effectively attenuated for the same loss factor by making the natural frequencies more different from each other (in particular, via increasing the stiffness of the second spring).
Category: Classical Physics

[16658] viXra:1612.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-02 22:08:15

TRL Universal Recursive Scale Shifting Based Collective Parameter Re-Assignment Scheme. (Universal Engineering Series).

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about 'Universal Recursive Scale Shifting Based Collective Parameter Re-Assignment Scheme'.
Category: General Mathematics

[16657] viXra:1612.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-02 10:17:02

Magnetic Field Sensing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Scientists have developed a highly sensitive sensor to detect tiny changes in strong magnetic fields. The sensor may find widespread use in medicine and other areas. [12] Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and Princeton University have proposed a groundbreaking solution to a mystery that has puzzled physicists for decades. At issue is how magnetic reconnection, a universal process that sets off solar flares, northern lights and cosmic gamma-ray bursts, occurs so much faster than theory says should be possible. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16656] viXra:1612.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-02 12:28:36

Machine Learning Breakthroughs

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

Machine Learning Breakthroughs As machine learning breakthroughs abound, researchers look to democratize benefits. [27] Machine-learning system spontaneously reproduces aspects of human neurology. [26] Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[16655] viXra:1612.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-02 08:18:55

Bismuth Superconductivity Jeopardizes Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A team of researchers at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in India has found that cooling a sample of bismuth to 0.00053 Kelvin caused the material to become a superconductor, putting at risk a decades-old theory regarding how superconductivity works. [32] Researchers from Brown University have demonstrated an unusual method of putting the brakes on superconductivity, the ability of a material to conduct an electrical current with zero resistance. [31] Superconductivity is a state in a material in which there is no resistance to electric current and all magnetic fields are expelled. This behavior arises from a so-called "macroscopic quantum state" where all the electrons in a material act in concert to move cooperatively through the material without energy loss. [30] Harvard researchers found a way to transmit spin information through superconducting materials. [29] Researchers at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, in collaboration with researchers at the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation and the Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute have discovered qualitatively new states of a superconducting artificial atom dressed with virtual photons. [28] A group of scientists from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and from the Moscow State University has developed a fundamentally new type of memory cell based on superconductors – this type of memory works hundreds of times faster than the memory devices commonly used today, according to an article published in the journal Applied Physics Letters. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16654] viXra:1612.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-02 09:03:28

Absorption Photon's Shape

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

National University of Singapore have just shown that a photon's shape also affects how it is absorbed by a single atom. [9] A team of physicists at ANU have used a technique known as 'ghost imaging' to create an image of an object from atoms that never interact with it. [8] For centuries, scientists believed that light, like all waves, couldn't be focused down smaller than its wavelength, just under a millionth of a metre. Now, researchers led by the University of Cambridge have created the world's smallest magnifying glass, which focuses light a billion times more tightly, down to the scale of single atoms. [7] A Purdue University physicist has observed a butterfly Rydberg molecule, a weak pairing of two highly excitable atoms that he predicted would exist more than a decade ago. [6] In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16653] viXra:1612.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-02 09:56:16

Enormously Large Velocity and Insignificant Mass;

Authors: Grisha Filippov
Comments: Pages.

The non-relativistic regime of quantum gravity, as shown in this paper, can be found in the assumption of the existence of Fundamental length L. See Page 14 IN THIS PAPER.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16652] viXra:1612.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-02 05:00:50

Democratic Free Will and Telepathy in the Instant Entangled Multiverse.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 16 Pages.

Benjamin Libet measured the so called electric Readiness Potential (RP) time to perform a volitional act, in the brains of his students and the time of conscious awareness (TCA) of that act, which appeared to come 500 m.sec behind the RP. The “volitional act” was in principle based on the free choice to press an electric switch button. The results of this experiment gives still an ongoing debate in the broad layers of the scientific community, because the results are still (also in recent experiments) in firm contrast with the expected idea of Free Will and causality. However I would propose the absurd but constructive possibility that we are not alone for decision making in a multiverse as an individual person. Even Max Tegmark suggested already about the multiverse: “Is there a copy of you reading this article?” We could be instant entangled with at least one instant entangled anti-copy person living inside a Charge and Parity symmetric copy Universe. In that case we could construct a causal explanation for Libet’s strange results. New statistical difference research on RPI and RPII of repeated Libet experiments described here could support these ideas. Wikipedia says: “Democracy is a form of government in which all eligible citizens participate equally”. Free will in a multiverse seems to be based on: all instant entangled ideas of copy persons living in all CP symmetric copy universes, have the same possibility to Veto an act and participate equally. If I are able to “Tap into” those instant entanglement connections” sent out by other people, then even telepathic effects (mind reading) could be explained.
Category: Astrophysics

[16651] viXra:1612.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-02 05:09:11

Algebraic Approach to the Derivative and Continuity

Authors: Thomas Colignatus
Comments: 14 Pages.

Continuity is relevant for the real numbers and functions, namely to understand singularities and jumps. The standard approach first defines the notion of a limit and then defines continuity using limits. Surprisingly, Vredenduin (1969), Van der Blij (1970) and Van Dormolen (1970), in main Dutch texts about didactics of mathematics (journal Euclides and Wansink (1970, volume III)), work reversely for highschool students: they assume continuity and define the limit in terms of the notion of continuity. Vredenduin (1969) also prefers to set the value at the limit point (x = a) instead of getting close to it (x → a). Their approach fits the algebraic approach to the derivative, presented since 2007. Conclusions are: (1) The didactic discussions by Vredenduin (1969), Van der Blij (1970) and Van Dormolen (1970) provide support for the algebraic approach to the derivative. (2) For education, it is best and feasible to start with continuity, first for the reals, and then show how this transfers to functions. (3) The notion of a limit can be defined using continuity. The main reason to mention the notion of a limit at all is to link up with the discussion about limits elsewhere (say on the internet). Later, students may see the standard approach. (4) Education has not much use for limits since one will look at continuity. The relevant use of limits is for infinity.
Category: Education and Didactics

[16650] viXra:1612.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-02 05:48:14

Photons of Two Colours

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Individual photons have been put into a quantum superposition of two different colours by a team of physicists in the US and Germany. Such photons could be useful for connecting different parts of quantum-information networks that operate using differently coloured light. [19] Researchers at FOM institute AMOLF and the University of Texas at Austin have created a compact one-way street for light. [18] Any number can, in theory, be written as the product of prime numbers. For small numbers, this is easy (for example, the prime factors of 12 are 2, 2, and 3), but for large numbers, prime factorization becomes extremely difficult—so difficult that many of today's cryptography algorithms rely on the complexity of the prime factorization of numbers with hundreds of digits to keep private information secure. [17] How can quantum information be stored as long as possible? An important step forward in the development of quantum memories has been achieved by a research team of TU Wien. [16] Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16649] viXra:1612.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-02 06:57:58

Water Molecule Conductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Scientists have taken spectroscopic snapshots of nature's most mysterious relay race: the passage of extra protons from one water molecule to another during conductivity. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[16648] viXra:1612.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-02 07:17:06

Machine-Learning and Human Neurology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Machine-learning system spontaneously reproduces aspects of human neurology. [26] Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[16647] viXra:1612.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 13:35:25

Creative Behavior

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Creative achievement can provide a buffer against being anxious about death, research from psychologists at the University of Kent shows. [12] A new study reveals how two populations of neurons in the brain contribute to the brain's inability to correctly assign emotional associations to events. Learning how this information is routed and misrouted could shed light on mental illnesses including depression, addiction, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. [11] In dynamic neuronal networks, pervasive oscillatory activity is usually explained by pointing to pacemaking elements that synchronize and drive the network. Recently, however, scientists at The Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel studied synchronized periodic bursting that emerged spontaneously in a network of in vitro rat hippocampus and cortex neurons, finding that roughly 60% of all active neurons were self-sustained oscillators when disconnected from the network – and that each neuron oscillated at its own frequency, which is controlled by the neuron's excitability. [10] Most biology students will be able to tell you that neural signals are sent via mechanisms such as synaptic transmission, gap junctions, and diffusion processes, but a new study suggests there's another way that our brains transmit information from one place to another. [9] Physicists are expected to play a vital role in this research, and already have an impressive record of developing new tools for neuroscience. From two-photon microscopy to magneto-encephalography, we can now record activity from individual synapses to entire brains in unprecedented detail. But physicists can do more than simply provide tools for data collection. [8] Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[16646] viXra:1612.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 14:59:01

Special Relativity: Understanding the Wave-Particle Duality

Authors: René Friedrich
Comments: 7 Pages.

How can interfering light waves transport particle characteristics? Up to now it was supposed that wave-particle duality was a quantum mechanical phenomenon which was not accessible to any classical explanation. The present article is disproving this assumption, by showing o n e single case which is entirely subject to a classical explanation: Photons in vacuum. The suggested classical explanation of wave-particle duality is simple, and it is deriving directly from special relativity: The particle characteristics are transported directly from A to B, without any intermediate of spacetime, because the interval is zero. The observed wave is a sort of placeholder in our spacetime.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[16645] viXra:1612.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 18:07:05

The Explanation of the Michelson-Morley Experiment Results by Means of the Theory of Ether

Authors: Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman
Comments: 11 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether

It is commonly thought that the Michelson-Morley experiment from 1887 and Kennedy-Thorndike experiment from 1932 demonstrated that the ether does not exist and that the velocity of light in vacuum is absolutely constant. The analysis of this experiment led to the creation of the Special Theory of Relativity (STR). In this article, a different transformation of time and position than the Lorentz transformation is derived on the basis of the geometric analysis of the Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike experiments. The transformation is derived based on the assumption that the universal frame of reference, called the ether, exists. Our concept states that the ether is not a substance with physical properties, as it was understood in the past, but a frame of reference in which the velocity of light is constant in every direction. In inertial frames of reference moving in the ether, the velocity of light may be different. The obtained transformations are transformations from the ether to the inertial frame and from the inertial frame to the ether. The article explains why Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike experiments could not detect the ether. Based on the new transformation, the Special Theory of Ether (STE) was created [3], [4], [5], [6].
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[16644] viXra:1612.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 18:42:37

Theory of Three-Electron Bond in the Four Works with Brief Comments (Review).

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych.
Comments: Pages.

Using the concept of three-electron bond we can represent the actual electron structure of benzene and other molecules, explain specificity of the aromatic bond and calculate the delocalization energy. Gives theoretical justification and experimental confirmation of existence of the three-electron bond. It was shown, that functional relation y = a + b/x + c/x^2 fully describes dependence of energy and multiplicity of chemical bond from bond distance.
Category: Chemistry

[16643] viXra:1612.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 21:18:06

Predicting Melting point and Viscosity of Ionic Liquids Using New Quantum Chemistry Descriptors

Authors: A. Mehrkesh, A. T. Karunanithi
Comments: 19 Pages. Mehrkesh, A., & Karunanithi, A. T. (2016). New quantum chemistry-based descriptors for better prediction of melting point and viscosity of ionic liquids. Fluid Phase Equilibria, 427, 498-503.

Ionic liquids (ILs) are an emerging group of chemical compounds which possess promising properties such as having negligible vapor pressure. These so called designer solvents have the potential to replace volatile organic compounds in industrial applications. A large number of ILs, through the combination of different cations and anions, can potentially be synthesized. In this context, it will be useful to intelligently design customized ILs through computer-aided methods. Practical limitations dictate that any successful attempt to design new ILs for industrial applications requires the ability to accurately predict their melting point and viscosity as experimental data will not be available for designed structures. In this paper, we present two new correlation equations towards the more precise prediction of melting point and viscosity of ILs solely based on the inputs from quantum chemistry calculations (no experimental data or simulation results are needed). To develop these correlations we utilized data related to size, shape, and electrostatic properties of cations and anions that constitutes ILs. In this work, new descriptors such as dielectric energy of cations and anions as well as the values predicted by an ‘ad-hoc’ model for the radii of cations and anions (instead of their van der waals radii) were used. An enormous form of correlation equations constituent of all different combinations of descriptors (as the inputs to the model) were tested. The average relative errors were measured to be 3.16% and 6.45% for the melting point, Tm, and ln(vis), respectively.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16642] viXra:1612.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 22:03:14

TRL Normalization Of Any Given Aspect Primality Of Concern. {REndition To Completion}. (Universal Engineering Series).

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about 'Normalization Of Any Given Aspect Primality Of Concern'.
Category: General Mathematics

[16641] viXra:1612.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-02 00:12:06

TRL Stable Configuration Engineering Of Any Aspect Primality Of Concern. (Universal Engineering Series).

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has detailed about the Scheme of Slating Any Aspect Primality of concern in Stable Spatial Configuration.
Category: General Mathematics

[16640] viXra:1612.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 10:18:23

Geopathic Zones as Enemy No. 1 \\ ГЕОПАТОГЕННЫЕ ЗОНЫ КАК ВРАГ НОМЕР ОДИН

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 6 Pages. in Russian

The article contains data on geopathic zones obtained by the author as the result of many years' research. \\ В статье приведены сведения о геопатогенных зонах, полученные автором в результате многолетних исследований.
Category: Physics of Biology

[16639] viXra:1612.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 10:21:32

When ef Fails \\ Если ЭКО даёт сбой

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 2 Pages. in Russian

The article describes one of the pathology types leading to extracorporal fertilization failure. A method to eliminate this pathology has been provided which is unknown to classic medi-cine. \\ В статье описан один из видов патологии, приводящей к сбою экстракорпорального оплодотворения (ЭКО). Приведен метод устранения этой патологии, неизвестный классической медицине.
Category: Physics of Biology

[16638] viXra:1612.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 10:24:09

Another Nature’s Puzzle \\ Еще одна загадка природы

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 2 Pages. in Russian

The article provides the results of the research of a “mysterious” zone in the radio-wave range of electromagnetic radiation. \\ В статье приведены результаты исследования «загадочного» участка в радиоволновом диапазоне электромагнитных излучений.
Category: Physics of Biology

[16637] viXra:1612.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 11:01:55

Atom-Surface Quantum Friction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Systems out of thermodynamic equilibrium are very common in nature. In recent years they have attracted constantly growing attention because of their relevance for fundamental physics as well as for modern nanotechnology. [9] A team of physicists at ANU have used a technique known as 'ghost imaging' to create an image of an object from atoms that never interact with it. [8] For centuries, scientists believed that light, like all waves, couldn't be focused down smaller than its wavelength, just under a millionth of a metre. Now, researchers led by the University of Cambridge have created the world's smallest magnifying glass, which focuses light a billion times more tightly, down to the scale of single atoms. [7] A Purdue University physicist has observed a butterfly Rydberg molecule, a weak pairing of two highly excitable atoms that he predicted would exist more than a decade ago. [6] In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16636] viXra:1612.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 12:44:05

Computer Learns by Watching Video

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

In recent years, computers have gotten remarkably good at recognizing speech and images: Think of the dictation software on most cellphones, or the algorithms that automatically identify people in photos posted to Facebook. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[16635] viXra:1612.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 08:15:48

Optical Storage Technology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

According to current estimates, dozens of zettabytes of information will be stored electronically by 2020, which will rely on physical principles that facilitate the use of single atoms or molecules as basic memory cells. [17] EPFL scientists have developed a new perovskite material with unique properties that can be used to build next-generation hard drives. [16] Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16634] viXra:1612.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 08:21:12

Spacetime Discreteness .A Brief Look .

Authors: Alberto Coe
Comments: 8 Pages.

Will analyze some physical concepts only using natural numbers. We assume a space discrete Physical variables such speed or momentum are considered as result of the sum of discrete contributions .Such discrete contributions can be calculated with natural numbers only . Elementary algebra is used in the analysis of physical subjects .
Category: Classical Physics

[16633] viXra:1612.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 09:53:30

Majorana Fermions for Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Majorana fermions are particles that could potentially be used as information units for a quantum computer. [18] According to current estimates, dozens of zettabytes of information will be stored electronically by 2020, which will rely on physical principles that facilitate the use of single atoms or molecules as basic memory cells. [17] EPFL scientists have developed a new perovskite material with unique properties that can be used to build next-generation hard drives. [16] Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16632] viXra:1612.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 04:23:32

Quantum Property of Empty Space

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

By studying the light emitted from an extraordinarily dense and strongly magnetized neutron star using ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers may have found the first observational indications of a strange quantum effect, first predicted in the 1930s. The polarization of the observed light suggests that the empty space around the neutron star is subject to a quantum effect known as vacuum birefringence. [7] The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[16631] viXra:1612.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 06:39:24

A New Model of Ether Reproducing Electromagnetic Phenomena, Including Gravity

Authors: Ioan Has1, 2, Simona Miclaus1 1Land Forces Academy, st. Revolutiei. 3-5, 550170 Sibiu, Romania, email: simo.miclaus@gmail.com 2 st. Rapsodiei 6B, bl. Sof 1, sc. B, Ap. 9, 240240 Rm. Valcea, Romania, Email: Ioan.has@gmail.com
Comments: 30 Pages. -

This paper is based on the results obtained in our previous articles where an error has been found in Michelson’s analysis of his interferometer experiment, even though Einstein relied on it, while developing the Special Relativity Theory, in which he eliminated ether from physics. Our own results imply that ether can exist. We have also validated the hypothesis that Coulomb’s law would better describe the complex reality, including ether, by adding other terms to the actual term in r-2. As such, the force that exists between two distant dipoles, when computed with a modified version Coulomb’s law, depends on r-2, as in Newton’s law. Numerically, the two forces were practically equal given that the gravitation consists of electromagnetic interactions. For ether’s composition, we proposed the HM16 model, in which the constituents etherons α and β are placed in the nodes of a crystalline network with a cell of approximately 10-27m, then subject to manifesting forces of mutual attraction/rejection. Ether behaves as an ideal mechanism in the form of a perpetuum mobile. The microparticles MPs consisted of local zones of ether where an energy intake induced a state of vibrating or vortex motion. The vibrant MPs, having electrical charges, will transmit fundamental vibrations FV in ether around the MPs, which have a finite velocity cF. Stationary FV vibrations do not transmit energy in the continuous infinite ether, but they do create interaction forces between MPs of an electric (modified Coulomb forces) and magnetic nature. A MP passing through two energetic levels will expel (or absorb) a special MP, namely, the F photon, which moves through the ether at the speed of light c, which is a property granted by the ether, and forms electromagnetic EM waves that transmit energy in ether. The F photon can be constituted similar to an MP, which creates its own FV vibrations in ether. It is likely that the two velocities cF and c will not be equal. As we consider that cF > c, velocity cF corresponds to the “gravitational” waves resulting from the interaction between the electric dipoles produced by the completed Coulomb’s law. The HM16 model of ether can explain the nature of an electric field in terms of volumetric ε strains of ether, while the nature of the magnetic field can be explained by distortional γ strains of ether. The HM16 model can also explain the various interactions between EM waves and MPs, as well as collisions between MPs.
Category: Classical Physics

[16630] viXra:1612.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 06:48:44

The Main Absurd Ideas That Destroy Theoretical Physics

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

I assume that the readers of this article have read the Wikipedia article entitled “Aether theories”: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aether¬_theories. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we derived the speed of light in “vacuum” c and speed of quantum entanglement from the beginning (ab initio). The derivation shows that the mainstream interpretation of the invariant c is incomplete and that the Michelson-Morley experiment cannot be considered to be the first strong evidence against the aether theory. We still cannot calculate the half-integral spin of proton within the 3-valence-quarks model - it is the “proton spin crisis”. Experiments suggest that the total proton spin carried by quarks can be consistent with almost zero. Is the quark model of proton partially incorrect? Here we show the origin of the spin asymmetry in deep inelastic muon-proton scattering that leads to the proton spin crisis. SST shows that inside baryons there are produced the quark-antiquark pairs but there are not single valence quarks because contrary to the electric charges of proton and electron, the electric charges of quarks are highly unstable. SST shows that spin of proton is carried by orbital angular momentums of the carriers of gluons. The third main absurd idea is that pure/massless energy (for example vibrations) can propagate without some aether composed of physical/non-zero-volume particles. In reality, elementary energies are carried by the components of the Planck scale and by the components of the two scales below it.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16629] viXra:1612.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 07:19:35

Ghost Imaging with Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

A team of physicists at ANU have used a technique known as 'ghost imaging' to create an image of an object from atoms that never interact with it. [8] For centuries, scientists believed that light, like all waves, couldn't be focused down smaller than its wavelength, just under a millionth of a metre. Now, researchers led by the University of Cambridge have created the world's smallest magnifying glass, which focuses light a billion times more tightly, down to the scale of single atoms. [7] A Purdue University physicist has observed a butterfly Rydberg molecule, a weak pairing of two highly excitable atoms that he predicted would exist more than a decade ago. [6] In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16628] viXra:1612.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 03:46:44

Generalizations of Schwarzschild and (Anti) de Sitter Metrics in Clifford Spaces

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 13 Pages. Submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

After a very brief introduction to generalized gravity in Clifford spaces ($C$-spaces), generalized metric solutions to the $C$-space gravitational field equations are found, and inspired from the (Anti) de Sitter metric solutions to Einstein's field equations with a cosmological constant in ordinary spacetimes. $C$-space analogs of static spherically symmetric metrics solutions are constructed. Concluding remarks are devoted to a thorough discussion about Areal metrics, Kawaguchi-Finsler Geometry, Strings, and plausible novel physical implications of $C$-space Relativity theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16627] viXra:1611.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 16:52:52

Propositional Logic: An Extension Nary Anthropic

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 6 Pages. new foundations

The proposed extension of propositional logic exhibits a striking similarity to generalized games with a chance player while pointing to accidental applications in quantum computing.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[16626] viXra:1611.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 20:49:24

Establishing The Second Task of PHPR

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 10 Pages.

Problems, objectives, and resolution.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[16625] viXra:1611.0412 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 07:08:07

Quantum Obstacle Changes Superconductor to Insulator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Researchers from Brown University have demonstrated an unusual method of putting the brakes on superconductivity, the ability of a material to conduct an electrical current with zero resistance. [31] Superconductivity is a state in a material in which there is no resistance to electric current and all magnetic fields are expelled. This behavior arises from a so-called "macroscopic quantum state" where all the electrons in a material act in concert to move cooperatively through the material without energy loss. [30] Harvard researchers found a way to transmit spin information through superconducting materials. [29] Researchers at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, in collaboration with researchers at the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation and the Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute have discovered qualitatively new states of a superconducting artificial atom dressed with virtual photons. [28] A group of scientists from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and from the Moscow State University has developed a fundamentally new type of memory cell based on superconductors – this type of memory works hundreds of times faster than the memory devices commonly used today, according to an article published in the journal Applied Physics Letters. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16624] viXra:1611.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 07:42:40

TRL Universal Truth Distillation Engineering. Rig-True Engineering (Universal Engineering Series).

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about 'Universal Truth Distillation Engineering, i.e., Rig-True Engineering'.
Category: General Mathematics

[16623] viXra:1611.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 07:48:39

The ABC Conjecture Does Not Hold Water ( Revised Version )

Authors: Zhang Tianshu
Comments: 18 Pages.

The ABC conjecture seemingly is difficult to carry conviction in the face of satisfactory many primes and satisfactory many odd numbers of 6K±1 from operational results of computer programs. So we select and adopt a specific equality 1+2N(2N-2)=(2N-1)2 with N≥2 satisfying 2N-1>(Rad(2N-2))1+ ε. Then, proceed from the analysis of the limits of values of ε to find its certain particular values, thereby finally negate the ABC conjecture once and for all.
Category: Number Theory

[16622] viXra:1611.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 07:58:45

Unknown Source of Positrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

A team of researchers known as the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Collaboration has found evidence of a possible unknown source of positrons making their way through the universe to Earth. [9] Roughly once a year, the smallest Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiment, LHC-forward (LHCf), is taken out of its dedicated storage on the site near the ATLAS experiment, reinstalled in the LHC tunnel, and put to use investigating high-energy cosmic rays. [8] An international team of astrophysicists including Russian scientists from the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), MIPT, and Pulkovo Observatory of RAS has detected an abrupt decrease of pulsar luminosity following giant outbursts. The phenomenon is associated with the so-called "propeller effect," which was predicted more than 40 years ago. [7] New observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile have revealed alignments over the largest structures ever discovered in the Universe. A European research team has found that the rotation axes of the central supermassive black holes in a sample of quasars are parallel to each other over distances of billions of light-years. The team has also found that the rotation axes of these quasars tend to be aligned with the vast structures in the cosmic web in which they reside. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. [6] The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[16621] viXra:1611.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 08:27:51

Walking Proteins in Soft Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Tiny "walking" proteins could be used to investigate mechanical deformations in soft materials according to Hokkaido University researchers. [25] Water has profound implications in our world. From its known, yet not fully understood role in mediating protein folding dynamics and proton transport in membranes, water is a key player, influencing the mechanics of many biological and synthetic processes. [24] A team of mechanical engineers at the University of California San Diego has successfully used acoustic waves to move fluids through small channels at the nanoscale. [23] Research Triangle engineers have developed a simple, energy-efficient way to create three-dimensional acoustic holograms. The technique could revolutionize applications ranging from home stereo systems to medical ultrasound devices. [22] Researchers have used the pressure of light—also called optical forces or sometimes "tractor beams"—to create a new type of rewritable, dynamic 3D holographic material. Unlike other 3D holographic materials, the new material can be rapidly written and erased many times, and can also store information without using any external energy. The new material has potential applications in 3D holographic displays, large-scale volumetric data storage devices, biosensors, tunable lasers, optical lenses, and metamaterials. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: Condensed Matter

[16620] viXra:1611.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 12:05:38

Vector Lorentz Transformations

Authors: A. Blato
Comments: 3 Pages. In Spanish.

This article presents the vector Lorentz transformations of time, space, velocity and acceleration.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[16619] viXra:1611.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 12:57:34

Gravitation Explained

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 48 Pages. © 2016 Adrian Ferent

“To oscillate photons need energy, that is why they emit Gravitons with negative energy and negative impulse.” Adrian Ferent From Newton, Maxwell, Einstein…you learned that light, photons are perpetual motion machines, are in perpetual motion. “My Nobel Prize - Discovery: the Photon – Graviton pair (coupled) has the same speed and frequency, and the photon energy divided by the graviton energy, is the electromagnetic energy divided by the gravitational energy, the electromagnetic force divided by the gravitational force” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f + a × f ” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for photon – graviton interaction: E = h × f + a × f - a × ν “ Adrian Ferent The most important properties in my view of the Gravitons: 1.Gravitons help photons (and all the particles) to oscillate. 2.Gravitons collapse matter, bring everything together. 3.Gravitons transfer energy, transfer mass. The Higgs boson is not involved. Because of these properties the Graviton is the most important particle, is the God particle; not the Higgs boson.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16618] viXra:1611.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-29 22:40:10

Universal Consciousness Intelligence

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about 'Universal Consciousness Intelligence'.
Category: General Mathematics

[16617] viXra:1611.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 01:09:05

Fluorescence for Experimental Biology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[16616] viXra:1611.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 04:59:17

Water-Wave Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Technion researchers have demonstrated, for the first time, that laser emissions can be created through the interaction of light and water waves. This "water-wave laser" could someday be used in tiny sensors that combine light waves, sound and water waves, or as a feature on microfluidic "lab-on-a-chip" devices used to study cell biology and to test new drug therapies. [18] Researchers led by EPFL have built ultra-high quality optical cavities for the elusive mid-infrared spectral region, paving the way for new chemical and biological sensors, as well as promising technologies. [17] The research team led by Professor Hele Savin has developed a new light detector that can capture more than 96 percent of the photons covering visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths. [16] A promising route to smaller, powerful cameras built into smartphones and other devices is to design optical elements that manipulate light by diffraction-the bending of light around obstacles or through small gaps-instead of refraction. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12]
Category: Condensed Matter

[16615] viXra:1611.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 07:04:27

So Feynman Was Right

Authors: Bernard Riley
Comments: 4 Pages.

The curious relationship between the Planck Length and the Bohr Radius enables one to write down the mass of the electron in terms of the Planck Mass, the fine structure constant and pi. Building on the relationship between the GUT scale and the mass of the electron, the fine structure constant is shown to be related to both pi and e, as Richard Feynman surmised.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16614] viXra:1611.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-29 13:25:47

Pioneer Anomaly Re-visited

Authors: Robert T. Longo
Comments: 7 Pages.

This mysterious effect has been given considerable thought as to its nature. Some have thought that the effect is due to unknown spacecraft effects, such as gas leaks or anisotropic thermal radiation. Others hold out for some fundamental physics that might alter the theory of gravitation. Recently, a complete analysis of rediscovered spacecraft data provides a credible story for spacecraft engineering being the cause. However, more fundamental physics has not been absolutely ruled out. This paper will relook at the anomaly from a fundamental perspective by applying a recently published physical theory to the Pioneer anomaly, and will show that a new theory can explain the effect.
Category: Astrophysics

[16613] viXra:1611.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-29 14:02:24

Existence of Polarons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Many people picture electrical conductivity as the flow of charged particles (mainly electrons) without really thinking about the atomic structure of the material through which those charges are moving. But scientists who study "strongly correlated electron" materials such as high-temperature superconductors and those with strong responses to magnetism know that picture is far too simplistic. [13] In an electron microscope, electrons are emitted by pointy metal tips, so they can be steered and controlled with high precision. Recently, such metal tips have also been used as high precision electron sources for generating X-rays. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[16612] viXra:1611.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-29 14:29:22

Making a Crystal Lattice

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

The treatment, described this week in Applied Physics Letters, creates the effect known as piezoelectricity, where electricity results from mechanical stress, in the material which did not originally see piezoelectric effects. [14] Many people picture electrical conductivity as the flow of charged particles (mainly electrons) without really thinking about the atomic structure of the material through which those charges are moving. But scientists who study "strongly correlated electron" materials such as high-temperature superconductors and those with strong responses to magnetism know that picture is far too simplistic. [13] In an electron microscope, electrons are emitted by pointy metal tips, so they can be steered and controlled with high precision. Recently, such metal tips have also been used as high precision electron sources for generating X-rays. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[16611] viXra:1611.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-29 14:48:51

Rorschach Ink-Blots Are Multifractals and a Corresponding Multifractal Strucure is Realized in Humans During Their Perception as Measured by the GSR (Galvanic Skin Response) Neurological and Psycho-Pysiological Signal

Authors: Leonardo Mendolicchio, Ferda Kaleagasioglu, Fang Wang, Rich Norman, Francesco Casciaro Losito, Anna Maria Losito, Elio Conte, Franco Orsucci
Comments: 21 Pages.

We demonstrate that the Rorschach ink-blots are multifractals. Normal subjects submitted to their perception for two minutes have been studied recording their GSR neurological and psychophysiological signal during the observation of the ink blots. It has resulted that also the induced perceptive dynamics in the subject is a multifractal. In the framework of the theory of complexity we elaborate that the intrinsic complexity of the ink-blots induces in the subjects an emotive and cognitive condition of profound inner conflict that may be estimated by the generalized Hurst exponent of the subject as arising from the GSR recording. We expect that the results are important not only in the theory of complexity but also in the clinical study of cases of neurological, psychological and psychiatric interest.
Category: Mind Science

[16610] viXra:1611.0395 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-29 13:00:16

On Scale Invariance and Particle Localization in Quantum Field Theory

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 4 Pages.

It is known that microcausality is a cornerstone principle of relativistic Quantum Field Theory (QFT). It requires commutativity of local fields defined at space-like separations and prohibits physical effects to propagate at superluminal speeds. However, it is also known that exact localizability of quantum fields fails to apply to quantum particles, which behave as non-local entities (the Reeh-Schlieder and Malamert theorems). Over the years, challenges associated with the point-wise description of quantum particles have inspired many attempts to revisit the particle interpretation of QFT. All these proposals suffer from specific limitations and have not gained universal acceptance. Here we suggest that a field theory approaching scale invariance near the fixed points of the Renormalization Group flow blurs the distinction between locality and non-locality. In particular, self-similarity resolves the issue of particle localizability in QFT, reinforcing microcausality by default.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[16609] viXra:1611.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-29 07:00:01

TRL Normalization Of Any Given Aspect Primality Of Concern. (Universal Engineering Series).

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed all about 'Normalization Of Any Given Aspect Primality Of Concern'.
Category: General Mathematics

[16608] viXra:1611.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-29 07:27:34

One-Way Street for Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Researchers at FOM institute AMOLF and the University of Texas at Austin have created a compact one-way street for light. [18] Any number can, in theory, be written as the product of prime numbers. For small numbers, this is easy (for example, the prime factors of 12 are 2, 2, and 3), but for large numbers, prime factorization becomes extremely difficult—so difficult that many of today's cryptography algorithms rely on the complexity of the prime factorization of numbers with hundreds of digits to keep private information secure. [17] How can quantum information be stored as long as possible? An important step forward in the development of quantum memories has been achieved by a research team of TU Wien. [16] Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16607] viXra:1611.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-29 07:36:23

Cutting-Off Einstein’s Special Relativity Theory by Occam’s Sickle (How the Mountain (Large Hadron Collider) Has Brought Forth a Mouse)

Authors: Mamaev A.V.
Comments: 22 Pages.

In this paper it is shown that Einstein’s special relativity theory is a self- contradictory theory. The contradiction between two Einstein’s postulates is eliminated by refusal from the Einstein’s second postulate, basing upon the Occam’s advice to decrease the quantity of basic postulates to a single one. From this single postulate a law of dependence of the speed of light propagation in vacuum on the speed of light source motion was derived. Then a new transformation without invariance of light speed and without prohibition of superlight speeds is derived instead of Lorentz’s transformation followed by discovery of particle electric charge dependence upon speed of a particle motion. Dissimilarities between the new space-time theory and Einstein’s Special Relativity theory are considered. They are the following: 1) speed of light in vacuum dependence in a moving inertial reference frame on the speed of moving inertial reference frame motion; 2|) absence of superlight speeds prohibition; 3|) absence of time dilation; 4) availability of a particle electric charge dependence on the particle motion speed. Then the formulas of new particle dynamics are derived from new theory transformation. The experiment by Neddermeyer and Anderson in 1938 is interpreted as a confirmation of superlight speeds and dependence of electric charge upon particles speed existence in nature. It is shown that according to the NRSTT accelerated protons in the Large Hadron Collider have the energy below 400 MeV.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[16606] viXra:1611.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-29 04:23:49

PAN-Theory

Authors: Carmine D'Errico
Comments: 11 Pages.

A unified theory of fundamental interactions represents today one of the most advanced research sectors. To it are linked the expectations about new worldviews and new implications on the technological and industrial processes for the evolution of the human species. At this unification process, it is assigned a general understanding of phenomena. In this article, we present an alternative theory we call PAN-Theory. The PAN-Theory provides a simple mechanical-algebraic model that proves to be exactly the Coulomb's interaction; therefore we demonstrate the elementary charge e and Planck's constant h to be expression of other constants with negligible errors. By the definition of a mass–time relation the presented Theory obtains and interprets in a new way the fine-structure constant \alpha and estimates the proton radius in an agreed extent with the most complex and current models. By the use of PAN-Theory a relativistic mass-energy relation is demonstrate and the wave-particle duality is presented in a new aesthetic. The final product of the presented theory is the expression of Newtonian gravity model as isomorphism of Coulomb model with negligible errors. In appendix a short demonstration for Doppler effect and for quantum entanglement is gave.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[16605] viXra:1611.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-29 03:29:40

Proof of Bunyakovsky's Conjecture

Authors: Robert Deloin
Comments: 13 Pages.

Bunyakovsky's conjecture states that under special conditions, polynomial integer functions of degree greater than one generate infinitely many primes. The main contribution of this paper is to introduce a new approach that enables to prove Bunyakovsky's conjecture. The key idea of this new approach is that there exists a general method to solve this problem by using only arithmetic progressions and congruences. As consequences of Bunyakovsky's proven conjecture, three Landau's problems are resolved: the n^2+1 problem, the twin primes conjecture and the binary Goldbach conjecture. The method is also used to prove that there are infinitely many primorial and factorial primes.
Category: Number Theory

[16604] viXra:1611.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-28 17:30:03

Hawking Radiation Addition to Theory Seeing Within the Electron-Positron & Proton-Antiproton Event Horizons

Authors: S.C. Gaudie
Comments: 3 pages; A4 paper; portrait orientation; mostly font 12; UK English; Freelance scientist.

_ABSTRACT_ __Hawking Radiation -Addition to theory__ http://education.jlab.org/qa/electron_01.html Electrons in atoms move at 1% of the speed of light. Electrons are in the “e.m. energy wave state” [moving at c.] 1% of the time. Electrons are in the “mass state” 99% of the time. In everyday language: (a) [A sphere is SOMETIMES squashed at the poles & a sphere is SOMETIMES stretched at the poles]{mutually exclusive, sequential actions of the 2 properties} NOT (b) [ALWAYS black & ALWAYS a ball] {no interaction of the 2 properties} i. e. an electron’s “e.m. energy wave state” & “mass state” properties are SEQUENTIAL. The “Schrodinger’s cat, thought experiment where the cat is alive OR dead, but the experimenter does not know until the experimenter “observes” the cat, DOES APPLY! The “Schrodinger’s cat, thought experiment where the cat is alive AND dead DOES NOT APPLY! The “e.m. energy wave state” can easily escape at a shallow angle from between the electron - positron event horizon & the e. m. radiation event horizon. As well as the “standard Hawking radiation” [in the “mass state”] , there would also be “sub-electron-positron event horizon, Hawking radiation” [in the “e.m. energy wave state”; taking the “mass” away from the black hole in the form of energy!], from the [1%] electrons in the “e.m. energy wave state”, from the region between the electron-positron event horizon & the e.m. event horizon. The “e.m. energy wave” would normally “escape” this region before flipping back to the “mass state”. Electrons, positrons, protons & antiprotons will be accelerated towards the black hole, at high speeds by the very high gravity forces, before they flip to the “e.m. energy wave state” and then “escape" / are “emitted” from the black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[16603] viXra:1611.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-28 18:25:17

History of Electricity

Authors: Rochelle Forrester
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper was written in order to examine the order of discovery of significant developments in the history of electricity. The history of electricity reveals a series of discoveries with the simplest discoveries being made first and more complex discoveries being made later. Some discoveries could not be made without certain prior discoveries having been made. The earliest forms of electricity to be experienced by people were those that occur naturally such as lightning and those resulting from simple activities like rubbing an object which causes electricity by means of friction. Systematic experimentation concerning electricity began after the scientific revolution with scientists constructing simple machines to create electricity and conducting simple experiments that showed electric charges could be positive or negative and that insulating material could stop an electric charge being lost from a charged object. Current electricity required the prior discovery of a battery such as the voltaic pile, and only when current electricity could be made, was it possible to discover the connection between electricity and magnetism. Once current electricity was produced, it was soon discovered that an electric current affected the behavior of a compass needle, leading to the invention of the electromagnet and eventually to Faraday’s invention of the electric motor and the electric generator. When practical electric generators and motors were invented, and the generation of electricity became economic, helped considerably by the invention of the electric light, the use of electricity began to spread throughout the first world and eventually the rest of the world. The order in which these discoveries were made was inevitable and given how valuable electricity is to human beings, it was also inevitable, that sooner or later in some society open to new ideas and technology, that electricity would be used to meet human needs. The order of discovery was inevitable and is an example of how social and cultural history has to follow a particular course determined by the structure of the world around us.
Category: Social Science

[16602] viXra:1611.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-28 19:56:37

The Discovery of Steam Power

Authors: Rochelle Forrester
Comments: 7 Pages.

This paper was written in order to examine the conditions needed, and the order of the discoveries made, for the invention of the steam engine. There were a number of conditions necessary for the invention of the steam engine. A vital one was the presence of a need, initially that of how to get water out of mines and later how to drive the new machinery that was being produced as part of the industrial revolution. But needs are common and they are not always met. The reasons why those needs were met was due to the scientific progress that was going on in 16th and 17th century Europe concerning the knowledge of atmospheric pressure, how to create vacuums and of the properties of gases. Allied to this scientific progress was a belief in Europe at the time that progress could be made and problems could be solved. The inventors at the time applied scientific knowledge to solving the problems that existed and after long periods of trial and error, including the development of new and better materials, were able to produce a working steam engine. Crucial to the progress made by the inventors was the diffusion of scientific and engineering knowledge which enabled them to build on each other’s work. The earlier development of printing was important to the diffusion process and the role of organizations such as the Royal Society was also important.
Category: Social Science

[16601] viXra:1611.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-28 13:44:27

Quantum Number Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Any number can, in theory, be written as the product of prime numbers. For small numbers, this is easy (for example, the prime factors of 12 are 2, 2, and 3), but for large numbers, prime factorization becomes extremely difficult—so difficult that many of today's cryptography algorithms rely on the complexity of the prime factorization of numbers with hundreds of digits to keep private information secure. [17] How can quantum information be stored as long as possible? An important step forward in the development of quantum memories has been achieved by a research team of TU Wien. [16] Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16600] viXra:1611.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-28 14:44:16

New Lower Bounds for Van Der Waerden Numbers Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Komkov Alexey
Comments: 108 Pages.

Genetic algorithm is a good tool for finding the global minimum in many discrete problems. In particular, it has proven itself in problems where there is no any apriori information about the possibilities of narrowing the search, or the specifics of the problem do not involve such. This work describes the procedure of using a genetic algorithm as applied to the search of van der Waerden numbers. Some new lower bounds of van der Waerden numbers were found using this procedure.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[16599] viXra:1611.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-28 10:29:05

Mystery of Glass

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

A glass is a curious material in between liquid and solid states of matter, but eventually glass always yields to its solid proclivity by settling into the ordered patterns of a crystal. Or so it was thought. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost “valence” electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A ‘nonlinear’ effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC’s LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom - for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Condensed Matter

[16598] viXra:1611.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-28 12:45:40

Dual Atomic Clock

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have combined two experimental atomic clocks based on ytterbium atoms to set yet another world record for clock stability. [24] JILA physicists have demonstrated a novel laser design based on synchronized emissions of light from the same type of atoms used in advanced atomic clocks. The laser could be stable enough to improve atomic clock performance a hundredfold and even serve as a clock itself, while also advancing other scientific quests such as making accurate "rulers" for measuring astronomical distances.[23] A newly developed laser pulse synthesizer that generates femtosecond pulses at mid-infrared (IR) wavelengths promises to provide scientists with a better view of the inner workings of atoms, molecules and solids. [22] An optically-driven mechanical oscillator fabricated using a plasmomechanical metamaterial. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16597] viXra:1611.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-28 09:46:12

Single-Photon Converter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

A Polish-British team of physicists has constructed and tested a compact, efficient converter capable of modifying the quantum properties of individual photons. The new device should facilitate the construction of complex quantum computers, and in the future may become an important element in global quantum networks, the successors of today's Internet. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16596] viXra:1611.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-28 06:43:11

TRL Calculation Of Centroid And Rate Of Change Of Centrois Of Any Primality Of Concern. (Universal Engineering Series). ISSN 1751-3030.

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this research investigation the author has detailed about 'Calculation Of Centroid And Rate Of Change Of Centrois Of Any Primality Of Concern'. Also, the author has slated the definition of the Life Coefficient of Any Aspect Primality of concern.
Category: General Mathematics

[16595] viXra:1611.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-27 20:36:11

Gravitational Redshift Explained

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 46 Pages. © 2016 Adrian Ferent

“I am the first who explained the Gravitational redshift” Adrian Ferent I discovered the equation for photon – graviton interaction: E = h × f + a × f - a × ν All physicists were not capable to explain Gravitational time dilation, gravitational redshift. Time dilation in Special theory of relativity is caused by positive energy. “Gravitational time dilatation is caused by negative energy” Adrian Ferent Only my Gravitation theory explains the gravitational redshift.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16594] viXra:1611.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-27 22:59:01

A Conformal Preon Model

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: 7 Pages.

I consider a preon model for quarks and leptons based on massless constituents having spin 1/2 and charge 1/3 or 0. The color and weak interaction gauge structures can be deduced from the three preon states. Argument is given for unified field theory being based on gravitational and electromagnetic interactions only. Conformal symmetry is introduced in the action of gravity with the Weyl tensor. Electromagnetism is geometrized to conform with gravity. Baryon number non-conservation mechanism is obtained.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16593] viXra:1611.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-27 23:26:36

TRL Least Count Of Non-Measurability Potential Of Any Aspect Primality Of Concern. (Universal Engineering Series).

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about 'Least Count Of Non-Measurability Potential Of Any Aspect Primality Of Concern'.
Category: General Mathematics

[16592] viXra:1611.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-27 23:28:59

Truth. (Universal Engineering Series).

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed an important Notion about 'Truth'.
Category: General Mathematics

[16591] viXra:1611.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-28 01:23:10

Mathematical Proof of a Feasible Warp Drive and Time Travel Mechanism

Authors: Dr Gautam Narayan Baruah
Comments: 8 Pages.

When a body say a toy car slides down an inclined plane with angle of inclination less than 45 degree the downward and forward motion of the toy car can be restricted by a thread or support perfectly parallel to the horizontal.It can mathematically proved based on the law of conservation of energy that a portion of the weight of the toy car is unsupported even at the position of rest and sinks down in the same relative space causing compression of spacetime below the toy car.This is a mathematical proof of a plane solid surface where an object can rest with part of it's weight not supported even at the position og rest enabling a novel warp drive and time travel mechanism that can work without causing any physical harm to human subjects.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[16590] viXra:1611.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-27 11:37:49

Dark Force of the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Invisible Dark Force of the Universe --"CERN's NA64 Zeroing in on Evidence of Its Existence" [19] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they’re not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[16589] viXra:1611.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-27 07:54:18

High-Energy Cosmic Rays

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Roughly once a year, the smallest Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiment, LHC-forward (LHCf), is taken out of its dedicated storage on the site near the ATLAS experiment, reinstalled in the LHC tunnel, and put to use investigating high-energy cosmic rays. [8] An international team of astrophysicists including Russian scientists from the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), MIPT, and Pulkovo Observatory of RAS has detected an abrupt decrease of pulsar luminosity following giant outbursts. The phenomenon is associated with the so-called "propeller effect," which was predicted more than 40 years ago. [7] New observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile have revealed alignments over the largest structures ever discovered in the Universe. A European research team has found that the rotation axes of the central supermassive black holes in a sample of quasars are parallel to each other over distances of billions of light-years. The team has also found that the rotation axes of these quasars tend to be aligned with the vast structures in the cosmic web in which they reside. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. [6] The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[16588] viXra:1611.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-27 08:39:53

Nonlinear Curve as Proof of Fermat’s Last Theorem: a Graphical Method

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 4 Pages. This paper will be submitted to Annals of Mathematics

In this paper we will give an outline of proof of Fermat’s Last Theorem using a graphical method. Although an exact proof can be given using differential calculus, we choose to use a more intuitive graphical method.
Category: Number Theory

[16587] viXra:1611.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-27 08:42:07

Capillarity Effects in Ideal Gases

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

A Mathematician from the University of Leicester, Alexander Gorban, along with a physicist from ETH Zürich, Ilya Karlin, have challenged traditional concepts of micro and macro worlds and demonstrated how ideal gas unexpectedly exhibits capillarity properties. [13] Post-doctoral researchers, Karim Essafi, Owen Benton and Ludovic Jaubert in the Theory of Quantum Matter Unit at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) are on a quest to find out as much as they can about unusual states of matter called spin liquids and if these spin liquids could generate advances in the field of physics. The results could lead to the development of quantum computing, which require an exploration of new materials to become a reality. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[16586] viXra:1611.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-27 05:34:14

Challenges Einstein's Physics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

Scientists behind a theory that the speed of light is variable-and not constant as Einstein suggested-have made a prediction that could be tested. [5] Physicists' greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought " theory of everything. " This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4] The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[16585] viXra:1611.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-27 06:35:11

Universal Con-Volution Intelligence. {Rendition To Completeness}.

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed all about 'Universal Con-Volution Intelligence'.
Category: General Mathematics

[16584] viXra:1611.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 17:26:04

Hydrogenation During Stellar Evolution/Planet Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis it is theorized that star evolution is planet formation itself. This being said, much of the hydrogen of the star combines with other elements and molecules. This can happen even more effectively through hydrogenation.
Category: Chemistry

[16583] viXra:1611.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 20:05:27

Infinite Product Representations for Gamma Function and Binomial Coefficient

Authors: Edigles Guedes
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper, I demonstrate one new infinite product for binomial coefficient and news Euler's and Weierstrass's infinite product for Gamma function among other things.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[16582] viXra:1611.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 20:58:07

The Basic Base Foundational Theory Of Everything ©

Authors: Jason Robert Lewis Sentinella
Comments: 3 Pages. The files associated with this dataset are licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported licence.

•MRF – means, Magnetic Resonance Field (Dark Energy/Matter) created from previous resonance times by 2 •fg– means, an external MRF equal to the same base equations divided by 2 (resonance = 1,079,252,849) •f – means, Forces’ and represents the MRF (resonance = 2,158,505,698) •fh– means, an external MRF equal to the same base equations time by 2 (resonance = 4,317,011,395) •b – means, Black holes •c – means, the speed of light •d – means, time •da– means, Distance within light •e – means, Energy •r – means, rotation •m – means, Matter •g – means, Gravity •u – means, universe equilibrium •dm- means, Dark Matter f = c2 b=c(e-f)c c= f/2 d=(da/c)/2 da= dc2 e= f(dc2) r= (ef)/(f(dc2) m= r/((ef)( f(dc2)) g=r/m u=c(b-e)/c dm=(rg)/m MRF=MRF2 As photons move at the speed of light(c) the Magnetic Resonance Fields’ (MRF also known as f in the equations) moves at the same rate times 2 but reduce by 2 equal (b/r)(f/2). Photons are created at the point of the beginning which is an inconsistent resonance to the MRF resonance created by the collision of two MRF mats which created a different resonance at the beginning which created the photon which is the first confused multiple resonance which can alternate between matter and resonance/MRF which produce the Higgs Boson when other photon collisions happen a very short time after the beginning. The MRF is the base foundation for non-rotational matter and light and consist of many multiple layers of 2 dimensional mats which stack 360o in all directions to create a 2-dimentional stack and within the 2-dimentional stack now exists a 3-dimentional universe. Therefore, the universe runs and is full of many, two dimensional MRF mats which is what we call as Zero Point Energy or the Higgs Field or Dark Energy or Dark Matter which is the first force created which is non-changing, every expanding and creating. Therefore, the MRF’s will remain constant with the speed of light from the force of fg consistent with (b/e)fg2. With multiple collisions between photons and MRF’s, the first component of the Higgs is created which is first creation of matter (m) from the change in the resonance which creates a domino effect for matter itself. As matter begins to form, mass is created therefore slows down at the rate of the mass created. e=mc2 is not correct as energy already exists from the MRF’s created from a singularity therefore, e=f(dc2) which is a result of the previous MRF2. mc2 is an atomic calculation consistent with the speed of light squared.   Matter/Mass is the incredible absorption of energy (e) captured and created at the point of slowing down from the speed of light at the time of transformation from a resonance to matter which in turn creates and draws in gravity. As matter cannot maintain the velocity of the speed of light, in which the force from the MRF is trying to push matter to the speed of light matter absorbs the energy trying to push it to the speed of light and now rotation (r) is created (which is quantum gravity), therefore matter and gravity follow resulting in r=(ef)/(f(dc2) “then” m=r/(ef)(f(dc2) “now” g=r/m. As the building blocks of matter begin the process of increasing matter/mass, the mass of each building block of matter reduces its velocity and increase’s its mass equal to the matter created from r/(ef)(f(dc2), therefore r/(ef)(f(dc2) reoccurring to the maximum different reoccurring resonance governed by the maximum reoccurring r/m equivalent to r/((ef)f(dc2)). So “e” is already applied to m= r/(ef)(f(dc2) and already exists from the MRF therefore e=f(dc2). The Higgs Field is the MRF’s which is the constant 2-dimensional resonance contained within the physics it created from the preceding MRF but is not a Higgs Boson itself as the Higgs Boson is matter not the MRF derived from the previous MRF2. Matter is a complex combination of many resonance which create our Standard Model yet our Standard Model does not go as deep as resonance therefore our Standard Model is incomplete. There is no outer membrane of our universe to create any sort of opposite force on our expanding universe, therefore, the shell around the outer most limits of our expanding universe is the laws of physics itself created from the beginning and therefore gave our universe the laws in which it abides and the MRF in which all our universe is contained and expanding. When the energy released from the previous MRF, it created our MRF2 in which at the same time of the release from the previous MRF, the photon was recreated from our MRF. The photon reduces back into the MRF at entry into the Black Hole inline with b=c(e-f)c as light cannot increase inline with the rate required to enter the Black Hole therefore reduces back to its foundation which is the MRF. Therefore, light is part MRF and part matter which is then the ultimate perfect imbalance between a two dimensional and three-dimensional universe which now allows the beginning for (ef)/(f(dc2) and r/((ef)( f(dc2)) and r/m. Our universe with the increased energy physics created from the previous MRF now creates its own sustainable energy input and output which in turn is the process of MRF2. This is the process of sustainable multi universal physics. Everything is maybe within a 1 dimension infinite entity (Creation itself) which is the real unknow singularity. All dimensions/MRF2 maybe within this 1 dimensional singularity. This singularity has no area, all area is contained within it which allows multi dimensions/universes which are derived by MRF’s at a different energy level. Any conceived space between universes is not an area of space, it is this 1 dimensional singularity. All Universes are connected through the many Black Holes it creates. Once the new energy level stabilises to that universe equilibrium, the Black Hole will close off with a burst of energy back through the Black Hole equal to the previous universes MRF. These bursts are predicated in my equations with a fluctuation in energy and then stabilised back to it's equilibrium with the creation of another Black Hole. Each universe creates more energy than it can hold, therefore, there is many other universes with the same physics as ours. Dark Matter is the MRF’s but a distorted portion of The MRF’s closest to the matter that is creating the distortion. Dark Energy is also the MRF’s it is just the undistorted portion that is further away from the matter. The area of the MRF’s closest to the mass of matter (galaxy) assists gravity to keep the mass in equilibrium with itself. The indented distortion of the MRF’s (also known as Dark Matter) is now the distorted/indent within the MRF’s required to keep matter together. Therefore (rg)/m is Dark Matter which is equal to the MRF. The distortion (Dark Matter) in the MRF’s is approximately 200% more distortion (Dark Matter) than there is matter. Dark Energy is equal to f which again, is the MRF. Dark Energy is equal to MRF which again, is the MRF’s. This paper shows the universe is expanding and the energy within it increases. This theory brings together general relativity and quantum theory, it also proves string theory. Matter is moving within the MRF’s but does not increase in velocity it is contained within r/((ef)( f(dc2), however, it is the area of the universe that is increasing in area therefore the distance between matter increases. Matter never increases outside of the universe equilibrium, matter is formed equal to the universe equilibrium. Therefore, the equations of (ef)/(f(dc2) and r/(ef)(f(dc2) and r/m remain the same but in equilibrium with f(dc2) and c(e-f)c = c(b-e)/c. A black hole is like a drain to reduce the incredible build-up of f(dc2), therefore we get c(e-f)c resulting in c(b-e)/c. After our universe reached its equilibrium c(b-e)/c approximately 946 years after exiting the previous Black Hole from the previous MRF, our universe equalised. The new physical laws created now would not protect us from amalgamation with other universes of the same physical laws. If our universe was to combine with another universe with the same laws, it would be like what we see with merging galaxies. The indication that our universe is merging with another would be a rush of matter in our universe towards the mass in which the collision/merger will take place, therefore, would merely be a merger of equal MRF’s. At the time of exiting the previous MRF, the universe was organising itself within the new physical laws it created. Around 943 years after the exit, the universe began to stabilise as a result of f(dc2) and c(e-f)c. at around 946 years after the exit, the universe reached its equilibrium c(b-e)/c and continues in line with the physics described in this paper. The energy in the universe has stabilised as per c(b-e)/c, this is the basic base foundational theory of everything. Fig1 – 3 multiverses of different energy
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[16581] viXra:1611.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-27 01:48:10

Prediction for the Sommerfeld Fine-Structure Constant and Mass Ratio of Electron and Proton to Neutron

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

The following paper is a prediction for a more precise value for the Sommerfeld Fine-Structure Constant, of 137.035999117, and the mass ratios of the Electron and Proton to the Neutron. In the following papers by Michael John Sarnowski , “Serendipitous Hints at Shape of Electron and Electron/Neutron Mass Ratio” @ http://vixra.org/pdf/1508.0027v4.pdf and “Evidence for Granulated, Granular Topological Spacetime” @ http://vixra.org/pdf/1601.0234v2.pdf and “An Electro Magnetic Resonance in 9 Dimensions that gives Mass Ratio of Proton to Neutron” @ http://vixra.org/pdf/1611.0183v1.pdf . He has worked to develop a model for the structure of the universe. This model is developed empirically from the fundamental constants and the laws of force of physics. It is a model that tries to be the start of a Theory of Everything that proposes a granular space-time that is almost discrete and almost continuous. Gravity and Charge are united under one structure. Elementary charge is determine to be a function of the fundamental constants and the ratios of the proton mass to the neutron mass and the electron to the neutron mass. This paper takes the theories of Michael John Sarnowski and proposes a mass ratio of the proton to the neutron and proposes a value for the fine structure constant that is more accurate than the current values. This prediction, will eventually be able to be tested, possibly by 2030 as the mass ratios are known more accurately and the Sommerfeld Fine-Structure constant is known more accurately.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16580] viXra:1611.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-27 03:32:42

Quantum Cryptography

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 4 pages. Copyright © 2016 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. PUBLISHED BY: ...

The culmination of quantum entanglement, which can be measured, transformed, and purified, a lively and speculative domain of research, may serve as the foundation of the information-processing capabilities of quantum systems and provide one pillar of quantum information theory. A quantum information channel can be used to perform computational and cryptographic tasks. What is extraordinary about this phenomenon is that a possible alteration of the properties of a distant system (receiver, instantaneously or the probabilities of these properties) by acting on a local system (sender) should be impossible.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16579] viXra:1611.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 08:27:40

Formulation of Energy Momentum Tensor for Generalized Fields of Dyons

Authors: Gaurav Karnatak, P. S. Bisht, O. P. S. Negi
Comments: 12 Pages. Vixra is very good journal of Physics.

The energy momentum tensor of generalized fields of dyons and energy momentum conservation laws of dyons has been developed in simple, compact and consistent manner. We have obtained the Maxwell’s field theory of energy momentum tensor of dyons (electric and magnetic) of electromagnetic field, Poynting vector and Poynting theorem for generalized fields of dyons in a simple, unique and consistent way.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[16578] viXra:1611.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 08:14:32

Graphene Textiles for Wearable Electronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[16577] viXra:1611.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-25 16:24:49

The 1600 Kelvin Gap in Astrophysics

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 screenshots

In the accepted astronomy literature, and collected, publicly disbursed data there is a large temperature gap in the young stars which host older stars. It is apparent that specific data is ignored so that accepted models and theories do not receive unwanted attention by critical eyes. A prediction is therefore made concerning the presence of evolved stars (planets/exoplanets) around younger stars between the temperature range 540 – 2100 Kelvin, of which no public exoplanet data exists.
Category: Astrophysics

[16576] viXra:1611.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-25 16:55:08

16 Psyche in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

The asteroid 16 Psyche is claimed to be a protoplanet that did not continue its formation process in the “early solar system”. This is false. The asteroid is a piece of the core of a dead star according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[16575] viXra:1611.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-25 22:32:55

Continuous Production of Matter Instead of Big Bang

Authors: Evgeny A. Novikov
Comments: 4 Pages.

New exact analytical solutions of Einstein and Qmoger (quantum modification of general relativity) equations are obtained in the context of an alternative to the Big Bang theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16574] viXra:1611.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 01:27:50

Integer, Fractional, and Anomalous Quantum Hall Effect Explained with Eyring's Rate Process Theory and Free Volume Concept

Authors: Tian Hao
Comments: 16 pages

The Hall effect, especially integer, fractional and anomalous quantum Hall effect, has been addressed with the Eyring's rate process theory and free volume concept. The basic assumptions are that the conduction process is a common rate controlled "reaction" process that can be described with Eyring's absolute rate process theory; the mobility of electrons should be dependent on the free volume available for conduction electrons. The obtained Hall conductivity is clearly quantized as e^2/h with prefactors related to both the magnetic flux quantum number and the magnetic quantum number via azimuthal quantum number, with and without an externally applied magnetic field. This article focuses on two dimensional (2D) systems, but the approaches developed in this article can be extended to 3D systems
Category: Condensed Matter

[16573] viXra:1611.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 02:40:38

TRL Natural Converses Of Any Order Of Any Given Aspect Primality Of Concern. {Rendition To Completeness}. (Universal Engineering Series).

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed all about 'Natural Converses Of Any Order Of Any Given Aspect Primality Of Concern'.
Category: General Mathematics

[16572] viXra:1611.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 03:03:28

Null and Zero: What Does Algebra Tell us About Physics, the Universe, and Everything?

Authors: Alexander Balatsky
Comments: 33 Pages.

The universe is considered to be a logical system amenable to description in terms of dimensionless physically meaningful quantities united by common algebraic relationships. This insight allows us to reveal that: (i) time and space are interrelated via a certain causal order; (ii) this order arises via self-organization of void underlying the quantum structure of time-space; (iii) the corresponding symmetry and conservation law are manifest in the principles of causality, least time and least action; (iv) the causal relationship between void, time and space is amenable to analytical description in terms of a basic scale invariance of the universe.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[16571] viXra:1611.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 03:10:04

Universal Con-Volution Intelligence

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed all about 'Universal Con-Volution Intelligence'.
Category: General Mathematics

[16570] viXra:1611.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 04:52:17

Photonic Crystals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13]
Category: Condensed Matter

[16569] viXra:1611.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 05:11:34

Proof of Collatz' Conjecture

Authors: Robert Deloin
Comments: 16 Pages.

Collatz' conjecture (stated in 1937 by Collatz and also named Thwaites conjecture, or Syracuse, 3n+1 or oneness problem) can be described as follows: Take any positive whole number N. If N is even, divide it by 2. If it is odd, multiply it by 3 and add 1. Repeat this process to the result over and over again. Collatz' conjecture is the supposition that for any positive integer N, the sequence will invariably reach the value 1. The main contribution of this paper is to present a new approach to Collatz' conjecture. The key idea of this new approach is to clearly differentiate the role of the division by two and the role of what we will name here the jump: a = 3n + 1. With this approach, the proof of the conjecture is given as well as generalizations for jumps of the form qn + r and for jumps being polynomials of degree m >1.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[16568] viXra:1611.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 06:26:29

Rest of the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Much of the universe is made of of matter that we can't see. [20] An overview of the NA64 experimental setup at CERN. NA64 hunts down dark photons, hypothetic dark matter particles. [19] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[7239] viXra:1612.0121 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-08 04:52:05

On the Identical Simulation of the Entire Universe

Authors: Mesut Kavak
Comments: 9 Pages.

A short time ago, I published an article about deceleration of the universe. It was especially based on entropy, and it explains how does matter work, produce free energy by using its own creation motion without external energy; also is about instant communication and jumping interstellar by imitating starting condition of matter called as big-bang as a side effect on itself that the same with faster than light expansion as creation motion and outer space motion are accepted together. In this work, it was performed some analysis of the some specific subjects such as deceleration, uncertainty, particle formation, black hole, gravitation, energy, mass and light speed for identical simulation computations of the entire universe as the most sensitive as possible being related that article. There are some informations about escaping from black holes, event horizon lengths, viscosity of free space, re-derivation of Planck constants and infrastructure of some basic laws of existence mathematically as matter is directly dependent of geometric rules. Also, some elements were given for the readers to solve some required constants as the most sensitive manner. As the constants are not enough in the name of engineering, also finally I found a working algorithm which reduces process number of the power series to process number of the quadratic equations like calculating a root of an integer as an irrational number by solving equation; so also it can be used to calculate trigonometric values in the best manner for simulations of the entire universe besides physical constants as irrational values. Also there are new informations about the pioneer anomaly, gamma ray burst and non-observational universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7238] viXra:1612.0052 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-07 19:40:36

Does the Strength of a Substance Increase with Its Speed?

Authors: Yannan Yang
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, a paradox resulted from the mass increasing with speed is presented. In this paradox, the same system appears two conflict states. The system is stay in good order for an observer who is moving together with the system, but it is damaged for an observer who is at rest. To avoid this contradiction while leaving relativity intact, we have to introduce the assumption that the strength of a substance will increase with its speed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7237] viXra:1612.0051 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-05 09:08:42

The Solutions of the 7 Millenium Problems, the Calculation of Two Primes of More Than One Hundred Millions and One Billion Digits: 19TH and 21ST MILLS’ Primes

Authors: Thomas Pierre Nicolas Jean Brouard
Comments: 1 Page.

NO ABSTRACT.
Category: Mind Science

[7236] viXra:1612.0040 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-07 18:20:16

Ether

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 3 Pages.

Theoretical physicists claim that ether doesn't exist but that is a fallacy, the Michelson/Morley experiment proved that there was no ether wind but that doesn't mean that ether doesn't exist. There are 4 obvious clues that ether exists, frame dragging, the whirlpool properties of galaxies, time dilation and a property of light. Ether exists, Einstein was wrong. 
Category: Quantum Physics

[7235] viXra:1612.0040 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-04 07:21:17

Ether

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 3 Pages.

Theoretical physicists claim that ether doesn't exist but that is a fallacy, the Michelson/Morley experiment proved that there was no ether wind but that doesn't mean that ether doesn't exist. There are 4 obvious clues that ether exists, frame dragging, the whirlpool properties of galaxies, time dilation and a property of light. Ether exists, Einstein was wrong. 
Category: Quantum Physics

[7234] viXra:1612.0018 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-06 19:32:49

Theory of Three-Electron Bond in the Four Works with Brief Comments (Review).

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych.
Comments: 93 Pages.

Using the concept of three-electron bond we can represent the actual electron structure of benzene and other molecules, explain specificity of the aromatic bond and calculate the delocalization energy. Gives theoretical justification and experimental confirmation of existence of the three-electron bond. It was shown, that functional relation y = a + b/x + c/x^2 fully describes dependence of energy and multiplicity of chemical bond from bond distance.
Category: Chemistry

[7233] viXra:1612.0001 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-03 01:36:05

Generalizations of Schwarzschild and (Anti) de Sitter Metrics in Clifford Spaces

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 13 Pages. Submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

After a very brief introduction to generalized gravity in Clifford spaces ($C$-spaces), generalized metric solutions to the $C$-space gravitational field equations are found, and inspired from the (Anti) de Sitter metric solutions to Einstein's field equations with a cosmological constant in ordinary spacetimes. $C$-space analogs of static spherically symmetric metrics solutions are constructed. Concluding remarks are devoted to a thorough discussion about Areal metrics, Kawaguchi-Finsler Geometry, Strings, and plausible novel physical implications of $C$-space Relativity theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7232] viXra:1611.0406 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-03 09:23:52

Vector Lorentz Transformations

Authors: A. Blato
Comments: 3 Pages. Version 2 in English.

This article presents the vector Lorentz transformations of time, space, velocity and acceleration.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7231] viXra:1611.0395 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-30 10:18:43

On Scale Invariance and Particle Localization in Quantum Field Theory

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 4 Pages.

It is known that microcausality is a cornerstone principle of relativistic Quantum Field Theory (QFT). It requires commutativity of local fields defined at space-like separations and prohibits physical effects to propagate at superluminal speeds. However, it is also known that the exact localization of quantum fields fails to apply to quantum particles, which behave as non-local entities (the Reeh-Schlieder and Malamert theorems). Over the years, challenges associated with the point-wise description of quantum particles have inspired many attempts to revisit the particle interpretation of QFT. All these proposals suffer from specific limitations and have not gained universal acceptance. Here we suggest that a field theory approaching scale invariance near the fixed points of the Renormalization Group flow blurs the distinction between locality and non-locality. In particular, self-similarity resolves the issue of particle localization in QFT, while reinforcing microcausality by default.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[7230] viXra:1611.0391 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-29 08:19:39

PAN-Theory

Authors: Carmine D'Errico
Comments: 11 Pages.

A unified theory of fundamental interactions represents today one of the most advanced research sectors. To it are linked the expectations about new worldviews and new implications on the technological and industrial processes for the evolution of the human species. At this unification process, it is assigned a general understanding of phenomena. In this article, we present an alternative theory we call PAN-Theory. The PAN-Theory provides a simple mechanical-algebraic model that proves to be exactly the Coulomb's interaction; therefore we demonstrate the elementary charge e and Planck's constant h to be expression of other constants with negligible errors. By the definition of a mass–time relation the presented Theory obtains and interprets in a new way the fine-structure constant \alpha and predicts the proton radius in an agreed extent with the most complex and current models. By the use of PAN-Theory a relativistic mass–energy relation is demonstrate and the wave-particle duality is presented in a new aesthetic. The final product of the presented theory is the expression of Newtonian gravity model as isomorphism of Coulomb model with negligible errors. In appendix a short demonstration for Doppler effect and for quantum entanglement is given.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[7229] viXra:1611.0390 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-08 03:13:44

Proof of Bunyakovsky's Conjecture

Authors: Robert Deloin
Comments: 10 Pages. This is version 2 with important changes.

Bunyakovsky's conjecture states that under special conditions, polynomial integer functions of degree greater than one generate innitely many primes. The main contribution of this paper is to introduce a new approach that enables to prove Bunyakovsky's conjecture. The key idea of this new approach is that there exists a general method to solve this problem by using only arithmetic progressions and congruences. As consequences of Bunyakovsky's proven conjecture, three Landau's problems are resolved: the n^2+1 problem, the twin primes conjecture and the binary Goldbach conjecture. The method is also used to prove that there are infinitely many primorial and factorial primes.
Category: Number Theory

[7228] viXra:1611.0389 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-30 18:14:53

Hawking Radiation, Addition to Theory, Seeing Within the Electron-Positron & Proton-Antiproton Event Horizons

Authors: S.C. Gaudie
Comments: 2 pages; A4 paper; portrait orientation; mostly font 12 UK English; Freelance scientist;;tetrahedron_1_3_6@aim.com

Hawking Radiation, Addition to Theory, Seeing Within the Electron-positron & Proton-antiproton Event Horizons.. http://education.jlab.org/qa/electron_01.html Electrons in atoms move at 1% of the speed of light. Electrons are in the “e.m. energy wave state” [moving at c.] 1% of the time. Electrons are in the “mass state” 99% of the time. In everyday language: (a) [A sphere is SOMETIMES squashed at the poles & a sphere is SOMETIMES stretched at the poles]{mutually exclusive, sequential actions of the 2 properties} NOT (b) [ALWAYS black & ALWAYS a ball] {no interaction of the 2 properties} i. e. an electron’s “e.m. energy wave state” & “mass state” properties are SEQUENTIAL. The “Schrodinger’s cat, thought experiment where the cat is alive OR dead, but the experimenter does not know until the experimenter “observes” the cat, DOES APPLY! The “Schrodinger’s cat, thought experiment where the cat is alive AND dead DOES NOT APPLY! The “e.m. energy wave state” can easily escape at a shallow angle from between the electron - positron event horizon & the e. m. radiation event horizon. As well as the “standard Hawking radiation” [in the “mass state”] , there would also be “sub-electron-positron event horizon, Hawking radiation” [in the “e.m. energy wave state”; taking the “mass” away from the black hole in the form of energy!], from the [1%] electrons in the “e.m. energy wave state”, from the region between the electron-positron event horizon & the e.m. event horizon. The “e.m. energy wave” would normally “escape” this region before flipping back to the “mass state”. Electrons, positrons, protons & antiprotons will be accelerated towards the black hole, at high speeds by the very high gravity forces, before they flip to the “e.m. energy wave state” and then “escape" / are “emitted” from the black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[7227] viXra:1611.0389 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-28 18:36:58

Hawking Radiation, Addition to Theory, Seeing Within the Electron-Positron & Proton-Antiproton Event Horizons

Authors: S.C. Gaudie
Comments: 3 pages; A4 paper; portrait orientation; mostly font 12 UK English; Freelance scientist;;tetrahedron_1_3_6@aim.com

Hawking Radiation, Addition to theory, Seeing within the electron-positron & proton-antiproton event horizons.. http://education.jlab.org/qa/electron_01.html Electrons in atoms move at 1% of the speed of light. Electrons are in the “e.m. energy wave state” [moving at c.] 1% of the time. Electrons are in the “mass state” 99% of the time. In everyday language: (a) [A sphere is SOMETIMES squashed at the poles & a sphere is SOMETIMES stretched at the poles]{mutually exclusive, sequential actions of the 2 properties} NOT (b) [ALWAYS black & ALWAYS a ball] {no interaction of the 2 properties} i. e. an electron’s “e.m. energy wave state” & “mass state” properties are SEQUENTIAL. The “Schrodinger’s cat, thought experiment where the cat is alive OR dead, but the experimenter does not know until the experimenter “observes” the cat, DOES APPLY! The “Schrodinger’s cat, thought experiment where the cat is alive AND dead DOES NOT APPLY! The “e.m. energy wave state” can easily escape at a shallow angle from between the electron - positron event horizon & the e. m. radiation event horizon. As well as the “standard Hawking radiation” [in the “mass state”] , there would also be “sub-electron-positron event horizon, Hawking radiation” [in the “e.m. energy wave state”; taking the “mass” away from the black hole in the form of energy!], from the [1%] electrons in the “e.m. energy wave state”, from the region between the electron-positron event horizon & the e.m. event horizon. The “e.m. energy wave” would normally “escape” this region before flipping back to the “mass state”. Electrons, positrons, protons & antiprotons will be accelerated towards the black hole, at high speeds by the very high gravity forces, before they flip to the “e.m. energy wave state” and then “escape" / are “emitted” from the black hole.
Category: Astrophysics