**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(58) - 0703(50) - 0704(5) - 0705(1) - 0706(8) - 0707(2) - 0708(3) - 0709(3) - 0710(1) - 0711(6) - 0712(3)

2008 - 0801(4) - 0802(4) - 0803(2) - 0804(9) - 0805(4) - 0806(1) - 0807(12) - 0808(6) - 0809(3) - 0810(16) - 0811(5) - 0812(9)

2009 - 0901(3) - 0902(7) - 0903(6) - 0904(5) - 0907(48) - 0908(110) - 0909(61) - 0910(66) - 0911(64) - 0912(52)

2010 - 1001(46) - 1002(52) - 1003(264) - 1004(138) - 1005(110) - 1006(67) - 1007(55) - 1008(91) - 1009(71) - 1010(61) - 1011(76) - 1012(52)

2011 - 1101(100) - 1102(55) - 1103(119) - 1104(82) - 1105(40) - 1106(59) - 1107(52) - 1108(48) - 1109(57) - 1110(69) - 1111(110) - 1112(84)

2012 - 1201(97) - 1202(77) - 1203(89) - 1204(92) - 1205(106) - 1206(89) - 1207(97) - 1208(221) - 1209(95) - 1210(156) - 1211(136) - 1212(138)

2013 - 1301(170) - 1302(143) - 1303(194) - 1304(147) - 1305(181) - 1306(203) - 1307(149) - 1308(138) - 1309(186) - 1310(238) - 1311(160) - 1312(197)

2014 - 1401(181) - 1402(139) - 1403(840) - 1404(246) - 1405(322) - 1406(172) - 1407(202) - 1408(214) - 1409(217) - 1410(182) - 1411(463) - 1412(236)

2015 - 1501(224) - 1502(212) - 1503(238) - 1504(209) - 1505(210) - 1506(200) - 1507(197) - 1508(346) - 1509(255) - 1510(448) - 1511(270) - 1512(429)

2016 - 1601(343) - 1602(337) - 1603(358) - 1604(321) - 1605(284) - 1606(305) - 1607(472) - 1608(398) - 1609(383) - 1610(357) - 1611(391) - 1612(392)

2017 - 1701(538) - 1702(302) - 1703(297) - 1704(369) - 1705(402) - 1706(414) - 1707(402) - 1708(461) - 1709(400) - 1710(310) - 1711(325)

Any replacements are listed further down

[21028] **viXra:1711.0378 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-20 08:04:42*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We evaluate Chaitin's incompleteness theorem of 1974. Martin Davis described it as “a dramatic extension of Gödel’s incompleteness theorem” in 1978.
We find the approach of the conjecture is moot, refute Chaitin's theorem of incompleteness, and remark that Chaitin's constant is suspicious.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[21027] **viXra:1711.0377 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-20 10:14:31*

**Authors:** A.V. Antipin

**Comments:** 4 Pages. ЭТО СТАТЬЯ НА РУССКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ.

Замечания к идее ВАРП двигателя. А.Антипин a1_mail@inbox.ru
В работе приведены общие соображения, которые показывают, что ВАРП устройства не смогут обеспечить ожидаемой сверхсветовой скорости перемещения объектов. Реальная скорость перемещения объектов с помощью ВАРП не превысит (с/2), т.е. ПОЛОВИНЫ скорости света.
=========
Comments to the idea of a WARP drive Antipin Alexandr Veniaminovich a1_mail@inbox.ru
The paper presents general considerations, that show that the WARP devices will not be able to provide the expected superluminal velocity of moving objects. The actual speed of the moving objects using WARP will not exceed (c/2), i.e. HALF the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21026] **viXra:1711.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-20 10:34:35*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is shown that a precise characterization of the class of pfs is out of grasp. Moreover, the problem is totally useless physically.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21025] **viXra:1711.0374 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-20 12:19:23*

**Authors:** Antoine Balan

**Comments:** 2 pages, written in french

Here, the generalized KdV equations are solved. An example is given, linking the solutions to elliptic curves.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[21024] **viXra:1711.0370 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-20 22:14:32*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel scheme of finding the next term of any given sequence.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[21023] **viXra:1711.0369 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-21 00:02:21*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A woman's writer writer.

**Category:** Social Science

[21022] **viXra:1711.0368 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-20 23:52:24*

**Authors:** Robert Stach

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Aufgezeigt wird die Möglichkeit der Wechselwirkung zwischen der Rotationsenergie der Erde und ihrer Gravitationskraft zur Energieumwandlung ihrer Rotationsenergie in mechanische / elektrische Energie. Gezeigt wird eine technische Anwendung, bei der sich die Kreisel nicht tangential, sondern senktrecht von der Erde entfernen können. Hinweise zum Michelson-Experiment (richtige Wahl der Bezugssysteme), zur Konstanz der Lichtgeschwindigkeit und zur "Dunklen Energie" als elektromagnetische Strahlung

**Category:** Astrophysics

[21021] **viXra:1711.0367 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-21 00:18:32*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed the Theory Of One Step Evolution Of Any Real Positive Number.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[21020] **viXra:1711.0366 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-21 01:10:20*

**Authors:** Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Асимметрия всего – вот главное условие существования Вселенной, а значит не существует абсолютной окружности и, как следствие этого, числа Пи.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[21019] **viXra:1711.0365 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-21 01:59:25*

**Authors:** Giuliano Bettini

**Comments:** 19 Pages. in Italian

Starting from the 32 crystal classes, we find a complete classification scheme of the same with only 5 bits, and at least in part the meaning of the various bits.
There is no inverse demonstration, ie only 5 bits must generate all 32 crystalline classes in nature.
However, the proposed classification seems to invoke a logical process of formation of the various classes, doing this way:
the matter first aggregates without any symmetry, then it adopts various rotation symmetries (no symmetry, binary, ternary, etc., simple or composite) and then adds to each symmetry of rotation the additional symmetries c (center), m (planes) or c + m together

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[21018] **viXra:1711.0364 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 10:38:24*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 2 Pages. © Copyright 2017 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

Our example in the positive and contra example show the shortest known definitive refutation for Gödel's incompleteness theorem.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[21017] **viXra:1711.0363 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 12:35:51*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this short note we are looking into a few interesting details about relativistic kinetic energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21016] **viXra:1711.0362 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 17:33:57*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the theory "The Proton Charge radius of Muonic-Hydrogen (Vixra:1711.0229;Author: Piscedda Giampaolo; Category: Relativity and Cosmology) we have deduced the existence of ether and explaining why Michelson-Morley's experiment failed. So, the concept of ether allows us to calculate the Proton Charge radius of Muonic-Hydrogen: 0,840935•10^(-15) meters (Vixra:1711.0229) and the Charge radius of Muonic-Deuterium:2.12567•10^(-15)meters (Vixra:1711.0333; Author: Piscedda Giampaolo; Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21015] **viXra:1711.0361 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-20 02:12:39*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel scheme of finding the next term of any given sequence.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[21014] **viXra:1711.0360 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-20 02:43:10*

**Authors:** Frank Schröder

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Ontologies are a powerfull alternative to reinforcement learning. They store knowledge in a domain-specific language. The best-practice for implementing ontologies is a distributed version control system which is filled manually by programmers.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[21013] **viXra:1711.0359 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-20 05:21:55*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel scheme of finding the next term of any given sequence.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[21012] **viXra:1711.0357 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-18 08:01:42*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2017 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

We evaluate two of the simpler equations for tautology which relate to Grilliot's trick and the standard extensionality trick via effective implication.
Eqs., as rendered, are not tautologous.
According to variant sysem VŁ4, this means Grilliot's trick, effective implication, and the subsequent non standard extensionality trick are not bivalent, but rather are a vector space.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[21011] **viXra:1711.0356 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-18 15:54:02*

**Authors:** Matanari Shimoinuda

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The group X, which is proposed by A.Connes, is an interesting thing for number theory. Let's think of the trace of a regular representation U on X of the idele class. However it is hard to compute it since X is non-compact. In this article, we try to show that the trace is computable.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[21010] **viXra:1711.0355 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 00:11:03*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 9 Pages. FFP 15 talk, half an hour, November 30, 11-11:30 AM

** NOTE, this is a “30 minute” Communications talk approved by Jesus, of FFP15
For November 30, 2017. Presumably for the conference proceedings**
We are looking at comparison of two action integrals and we identify the Lagrangian multiplier as setting up a constraint equation (on cosmological expansion). Two action integrals, one which is connected with quantum gravity is called equivalent to another action integral, and the 2nd action integral has a Lagrangian multiplier in it. Using the idea of a Lagrangian multiplier as a constraint equation, we draw our conclusions in a 1 to 1 and onto assumed equivalence between the two action integrals. The viability of the 1 to 1 and onto linkage between the two action integrals is open to question, but if this procedure is legitimate , the conclusions so assumed are fundamentally important. We also state this procedure should be streamed toward giving substance to the paper entitled “Fast optimization algorithms and the cosmological constant”, by Ning Bao, et.al.2017 , as a way to find conditions for restricting the size of the cosmological constant to be of 10^ - 120 for reasons we discuss as a future works project. We come up with relic GW which are after 65 e folds of inflationary expansion leading to 10 ^ 36 GHz high frequency GW being possible at the site of formation of the 10^-120 sized cosmological constant, for 10 GHz HFGW today. After 65 e folds of inflationary expansion
Key words, Ricci Scalar, inflaton physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[21009] **viXra:1711.0354 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 03:04:27*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Two inertial reference frames moving at identical velocity can be
seperated if one of them
is put under acceleration for a duration. The coordinates of both
inertial reference frames are
related by this acceleration and its duration. An immediate property of
such coordinate transformation is the conservation of distance and length across reference frames. Therefore, the concept of
length contraction from Special Relativity is impossible in
reality and physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21008] **viXra:1711.0353 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 03:41:41*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following conjecture: Any square of a prime p^2, where p > 3, can be written as p + q + (n*q – n + 1) or as p + q + (n*q - n – 1), where q and n*q – n + 1 respectively n*q - n – 1 are primes and n positive integer. Examples: 11^2 = 121 = 11 + 37 + (2*37 – 1), where 37 and 2*37 – 1 = 73 are primes; 13^2 = 169 = 13 + 53 + (2*53 – 3), where 53 and 2*53 – 3 = 103 are primes. An equivalent formulation of the conjecture is that for any prime p, p > 3, there exist n positive integer such that one of the numbers q = (p^2 – p + n – 1)/(n + 1) or q = p^2 – p + n + 1)/(n + 1) is prime satisfying also the condition that p^2 – p – q is prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[21007] **viXra:1711.0352 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 04:22:17*

**Authors:** Radi Khrapko

**Comments:** 7 Pages. ICGRG 2018 : 20th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation

It is shown that the energy-momentum pseudotensors of the gravitation field, which were proposed by Einstein or Landau and Lifshitz, give a positive contribution to the expression of the total four-momentum for a gravitation field plus the matter located in it in the case of a quasi-static isolated system. However, as is well known, mass-energy of the gravitation field is negative. So, the pseudotensors incorrectly represent the gravitational field at least in this case.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21006] **viXra:1711.0351 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 06:12:38*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Having shown in our previous works that the real-valued Schrödinger wave equation can be used to find mathematical functions to construct spacetime structures of quantum particles, in this work, we will discuss the possibility to formulate a real-valued Dirac equation in which all physical objects and all differential operators that are used to describe the dynamics of a particle are real quantities and, furthermore, since solutions to the Dirac equation are wavefunctions that have four components, it is possible to suggest that solutions to the real-valued Dirac equation should be interpreted as a parameterisation of 3-dimensional differentiable manifolds which are embedded submanifolds of the Euclidean space R^4.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[21005] **viXra:1711.0350 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 07:15:39*

**Authors:** Alama Ekabal Ansari

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Time dilation is a well-known phenomenon for special theory of relativity and general relativity theory.
The present technology is not advanced enough to implement these theories practically.
Time dilation is a difference of elapsed time between two events as measured by observers either moving relative to each other or differently situated from a gravitational mass. The time dilation is caused by differences in either gravity or relative speed. The time dilation is explained by working of two clocks reporting different times for different speed According to Einstein relativity (E=mc2), we know that an object with a non- zero rest mass cannot achieve the speed of light. According to relativistic theory, as the speed of the object increases, effective mass of the object also increases. The increase in effective mass makes more difficult to accelerate the object. Hence, more energy is required to increase the speed of the object.
Achieving the speed of light for the object, the effective mass become almost infinite. Hence, lot of energy is required to accelerate the object with the speed of light.
There is no such technology developed as on date through which speed of light can be achieved without consuming humongous energy.
Therefore, there is a need to provide a system which can overcome the limitation of existing technology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21004] **viXra:1711.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-17 10:47:28*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We derive the element of spatial distance in terms
of the time coordinate and a new tensor related to the Kronecker delta.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21003] **viXra:1711.0348 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-17 14:12:41*

**Authors:** Gary D. Simpson

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This essay discusses the meaning and role of the term “fundamental” as it applies to Math and Physics. The importance of Lagrange’s Four Squares Theorem is also discussed. It is argued that the vacuum is a 5-D Quantum-Space-Time and that the vacuum is fundamental.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[21002] **viXra:1711.0347 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-17 15:50:05*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A diagram is presented to show the differences between establishment dogma, electric universe and stellar metamorphosis (GTSM). Additions will be made at a later date for further clarification.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[21001] **viXra:1711.0346 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-17 20:07:54*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 1 Page.

If you know and understand the way everything truly works -- with slight adjustments everything becomes completely compatible.

● Newton's gravitational force.

● Tesla's energy from the environment.

● Einstein's curved space-time.

● Heisenberg's probability and uncertainty.

They fit together like a glove.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[21000] **viXra:1711.0345 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-17 21:40:18*

**Authors:** Capt. Joseph H. Forrington

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

General Relativity is solely dependent on the apparent difference in the rate of time between frames. This theory therefore attempts to explain what we are seeing in the universe through relativistic effects in time rather than through the Big Bang, Dark Energy and Dark Matter. Properly understood, Einstein’s field equations can explain the rotational velocities within flattened spiral galaxies. To that end, this paper clarifies how General Relativity describes the evolution of events and spaces within the continuum, rather than the movement of particles through pre-existing, static, spaces. Gravitational fields, (dilation gradients), have different shapes around different shaped masses. Stellar systems are spherical and events appear to evolve forward at an increasingly accelerated rate as the dilation gradient deepens approaching the center of the system. In flattened spiral galaxies, the gradients act across the broad flat surface of the disk from above and below, evolving objects forward at the same rate and hence the same velocity. IBEX failing to find a shock wave at the edge of the heliopause as expected is a proof of the concepts regarding the evolution and nature of the continuum explained here, as also might be the “dead zone” discovered by Pioneer 1. This theory also describes the dynamics in time by which the CMB is generated, accelerated, and concentrated, converting the potential energy of the spacetime continuum into real energy and mass. A proof of the dynamic developed here is LIGO’S Sept. 14, 2015 detection of a “gravity wave”; a distortion in the rate of time, an acceleration in the rate, travelling at c through space and distorting space in the physical form of the antenna. The theory also explains black holes and why our limits of perception within a black hole, and at ~ 13.8 Gly, are due to the limit of relativity, where our perception transitions from time-like to space-like. This is where ∆D, the difference in the rate of time between frames, = 1 s/s, which occurs both at the event horizon of a black hole and looking outward to the limits of perception. It occurs looking outward because events are being constantly accelerated in the rate of time, giving older frames progressively slower rates the older they are. This creates a time dilation gradient and the Hubble shift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20999] **viXra:1711.0344 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-18 00:38:43*

**Authors:** John E.Miller

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Physics has been static for the last '400' years, hidebound by Newton's hypothesis of gravitational attraction between heavenly bodies. Such hypothesis is not proven, by existing published data. This paper will derive a solution that complies with published data and the correct application of mathematical laws by analyzing the orbiting, Pluto-Charon circular waltz. The ultimate pointer, to the failure of Newtonian theory and a correction to Kepler's laws.
A previous paper "NEWTON CORRECTED", the theory of galaxy energy spheres will be applied to explain the complete mechanics for Pluto-Charon orbits and spins. The Universe is a mass packed solid, as is an ocean of water, when something moves everything else responds.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[20998] **viXra:1711.0343 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-18 03:29:59*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Playing with Carmichael numbers, a set of numbers I’ve always been fond of (I’ve “discovered” Fermat’s “Little” Theorem and the first few Carmichael numbers before I know they had already been discovered), I noticed that the formula C + 81*2^(4*d), where C is a Carmichael number and d one of its prime factors, gives often primes or products of very few primes. For instance, for C = 1493812621027441 are obtained in this manner three primes: 2918779690625137, 6729216728661136606577017055290271857 and 644530914387083488233375393598279808770191171433362641802841314053534708129737067311868017 (a 90-digit prime!), respectively for d = 11, d = 29 and d = 73.

**Category:** Number Theory

[20997] **viXra:1711.0342 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-18 03:41:43*

**Authors:** Nikitan V.N.

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Жизнь на Земле возникла благодаря аномальному строению Солнечной системы

**Category:** Astrophysics

[20996] **viXra:1711.0341 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-18 03:44:10*

**Authors:** Nikitin V.N.

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Климат Солнечной системы предсказуем и всецело определяется энергетическим состоянием космического пространства.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[20995] **viXra:1711.0340 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-18 03:59:09*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Otto Stern and Walter Gerlach demonstrated in 1922 experimentally the “existence of space quantization in a magnetic field”, using their own words. The result of this experiment is later on used to introduce the so-called intrinsic spin angular moment of elementary and other particles. This article describes what went wrong in the applied argumentation. In 1896 Zeeman and Lorentz showed experimentally and theoretically that atoms emit ‘shifted’ frequencies when exposed to an external magnetic field. This phenomenon has been used to demonstrate the existence of spinning electrons. However, it is shown that this demonstration is not convincing at all.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[20994] **viXra:1711.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-18 05:44:37*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** Pages.

Objective: Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer in females worldwide. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is regarded as the main risk factor of cervical cancer. Our objective was to conduct a qualitative systematic review of some case-control studies to examine the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the development of human cervical cancer beyond any reasonable doubt.
Methods: We conducted a systematic review and re-analysis of some impressive key studies aimed to answer the following question. Is there a cause effect relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer? The method of the conditio sine qua non relationship was used to proof the hypothesis whether the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) guarantees the presence of cervical carcinoma. In other words, if human papillomavirus (HPV) is present, then cervical carcinoma is present too. The mathematical formula of the causal relationship k was used to proof the hypothesis, whether there is a cause effect relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical carcinoma. Significance was indicated by a p-value of less than 0.05.
Result: One study was able to provide strict evidence that human papillomavirus (HPV) is a conditio sine qua non (a necessary condition) of cervical carcinoma while the other studies analyzed failed on this point. The studies analyzed provide impressive evidence of a cause-effect relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical carcinoma.
Conclusion: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the cause of cervical carcinoma.

**Category:** Statistics

[20993] **viXra:1711.0338 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-16 08:05:05*

**Authors:** Nathan Hamaoui

**Comments:** 9 Pages. an original theory of everything, copyrighted in referenced book by same author

This paper presents a unique ‘Theory of Everything’ that starts from the bottom up – building the universe from almost scratch. It then proceeds to define and map basic physical concepts including time and space. Viewed from this theory’s perspective, many currently axiomatic and paradoxical phenomena make natural sense.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20992] **viXra:1711.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-16 12:53:45*

**Authors:** Imrich Krištof

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This an expert text is focused on still unknown questions and answers of physics of elementary particles, elementary fields and its entangled particles. The text is built on new concept of theory of elementary particles in Standard Model, namely interactions of gauge bosons, hypothetically neutrinic gaugino – between lepton–neutrino and w (boson) wion and Z boson zion, and among vector bosons and scalar bosons, Higgs boson or graviton, gravitino and photino. Quantum theoretical particle Polyhedronic quantum prisma is possibly called Quantum Polyhedronic Soliton, and may lead to new point of view on TWISTOR THEORY, SUPERTWISTORS, TWISTOR STRING THEORY, GAUGE THEORY. Ending part of this text is dedicated to a Model situation of quantum gravity tunneling and entanglement of graviton and gravitinos. In this text is re–discovered scientifical work of scientists like Sir Roger Penrose, Cornelius Lanczos, Alan Faber, Kenneth G. Wilson, Alexander Polyakov.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[20991] **viXra:1711.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-16 13:47:53*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Brannen circulants extend Koide’s rule for the charged leptons to the neutrinos. Assuming Koide’s rule is correct, we look at the deviation from 2/9 in the lepton phase, noting a striking correspondence with the CKM Euler angles. An estimate for the fine structure constant is included.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20990] **viXra:1711.0334 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-16 17:15:46*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

An explanation.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[20989] **viXra:1711.0333 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-16 18:36:24*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In the theory "The Proton Charge of Muonic-Hydrogen" (Vixra: 1711.0229, Author: Piscedda Giampaolo) it is proved that the mass of a particle in the space cause the rotation of a volume portion, along X4 axis, then the existence of ether is deduced, and the theory concludes explaining why Michelson-Morley's experiment failed. In theory (1711.0229) we get the formula for the decrease of the charge radius of the muonic-hydrogen. From this formula we get now the charge radius of muonic-deuterium.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[20988] **viXra:1711.0332 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-17 01:18:35*

**Authors:** HaiYing Shen

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The bioelectric excitation of action potential is the essential character of the living state of eukaryotic organisms, and it is the principal groundwork of physiology. The science and technology are advancing with the progress of the times, however, the principle on action potential remain stalled at the apparent cognition of last century due to the restriction of that era. Based on the highly developed molecular cell biology researches, this work brings insight into the endogenous mechanism of action potential, detects the every detail of this dynamic system: the physical and chemical attributes of each participant and the prerequisites of layout; and especially, focuses on the intrinsic relation and interaction in it. It gives the bran-new presentation on action potential mechanism and its physical and chemical regulation, and importantly, investigates the in-depth insight on the principle of dynamic homeostasis performed by action potential.
The optimal way to operate action potential dynamic system is in the way of electromagnetic interaction: the action potential is the electric current formed by the motion of mobile charged ions, and the electromagnetic field that drives the motion of electric charges is the interaction between the gridding ground substance meshwork of cell and the mobile ions. Since the description of Maxwell's electromagnetic equations, it is first time that clearly illustrates the practical model for understanding the operation of the interaction between magnetism and electricity. It is the bioelectromagnetic mechanism created by the nature that highlights the prospect of practicable technology on the development of bioenergy resource.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[20987] **viXra:1711.0331 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-17 01:31:44*

**Authors:** HaiYing Shen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This paper is the satellite paper of The Eukaryotic Mechanism Directed by Bioelectricity: Creation and Enlightenment (I)

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[20986] **viXra:1711.0330 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-17 01:34:01*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following conjecture on Poulet numbers: There exist an infinity of Poulet numbers P2 obtained from Poulet numbers P1 in the following way: let d1 and dn be the least respectively the largest prime factors of the number P1, where P1 is a Poulet number; than there exist an infinity of Poulet numbers P2 of the form P1 + |P1 – dn^2|*d1, where |P1 – dn^2| is the absolute value of P1 – dn^2. Example: for Poulet number P1 = 1729 = 7*13*19 is obtained through this operation Poulet number P2 = 11305 (1729 – 19^2 = 1368 and 1729 + 1368*7 = 11305). Note that from 11 from the first 30 Poulet numbers (P1) were obtained through this method Poulet numbers (P2).

**Category:** Number Theory

[20985] **viXra:1711.0329 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-17 01:34:00*

**Authors:** Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The steady growth of the number of arcanas of the mysterious universe is a sign of imperfection of existing theories and ideas about the surrounding world, which contributes to the creation of radically new alternative ideas and theories. New ideas should be piercing and understandable to everyone, to promote an adequate perception of reality and to be as much as possible interconnected with each other and with existing scientific knowledge. In this case, alternative ideas will inevitably become punchy! The results of long-term theoretical studies of abnormal physical phenomena of the processes of the origin and evolution of the universe are embodied in the exclusive hypotheses of the creative collective "NIKI" and are set forth here in a logical sequence, from the moment the Universe emerged to its transformation into "nothing."

**Category:** Astrophysics

[20984] **viXra:1711.0328 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-17 04:36:51*

**Authors:** Zhixian Lin

**Comments:** 4 Pages. "Choose File" option is not working.

For beginners, the traditional explanation of a Transistor is not easy to understand. The traditional explanation can not explain why a slightly change of IB will create a significant change of IC clearly. This paper proposed the Distance Principle which can clearly and easily explain why a Transistor can work. Make beginners easier to understand the physical mechanism of a Transistor.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[20983] **viXra:1711.0327 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 07:17:40*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, it is assumed that the Galaxy formation process starts with the dual pairing process of so called dark matter black hole splinters created by the Big Bang nucleus explosion..
Galaxy stability is assumed to be based on the external (new physics) dual dark matter black hole configurations with a growing spiral shaped star and Super Nova black hole population in between, perpendicular to the dual Black Hole axis..
As a consequence, all spiral galaxies should show to the edge-on observer, a quadruple configuration of dark matter postulated to be the origin of the Einstein Cross effect.
The successive central dark matter black hole, is supposed to be growing by smaller super nova black hole mergers, created inside the spiral galaxy plane.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[20982] **viXra:1711.0326 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 10:17:45*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel definition of Standard Deviation.

**Category:** Statistics

[20981] **viXra:1711.0325 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 11:04:24*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Abstract: Using simple methods of analysis I conclude that our present broken E8 symmetry epoch without antimatter means that Majorana neutrinos cannot exist: this results, however, in neutrinos having masses and small electric charges of 3 different amounts. The charges probably aid in neutrino detection. Masses of the leptons are derived.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20980] **viXra:1711.0324 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 13:57:25*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Theories of gravity are incomplete when we neglect quantum phenomena and the internal structure of spacetime described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). SST shows that the grainy two-component spacetime is a mix of non-locality and locality that leads to a conceptual error about gravitational waves, to different theories of gravitation and to the matter-antimatter asymmetry. Within the General Theory of Relativity (GR) we can not justify whether the metric is local or non-local. Here we described a conceptual error in obtaining the local (speed = c = 299,792,458 m/s) wave-like solutions by solving the non-local/superluminal vacuum field equations of general relativity - we express the opinion that non-locality cannot lead directly to locality. SST, which is the lacking fundamental part of Theory of Everything, shows that spacetime is a mixture of two fields i.e. of the Higgs field (it is non-gravitating, imaginary, non-local and geodesic/metric) and of the Einstein spacetime (it is gravitating, real, local, dynamical and practically-flat/non-geodesic i.e. the total energy-momentum crossing the hypersurface vanishes). Such structure of spacetime causes that there are different theories of gravitation, for example, the GR, which binds the curvature of the non-local Higgs field with the local energy-momentum tensor, the YARK theory, which binds the local Einstein spacetime (ES) with the energy-momentum tensor or the SST which shows the origin of gravitation. Within GR it is easier to describe the non-local phenomena in spacetime (for example, the Kasner solutions describe such phenomena) whereas within YARK theory it is easier to describe the local phenomena in spacetime such as dark energy or “gravitational waves” discovered by LIGO-Virgo Collaborations (which, in reality, are the flows in ES) or the observed energy dependence of gravitational bending which is incomprehensible within the framework of GR. SST shows that we should observe the same speed of propagation of both the “gravitational waves” and electromagnetic waves - there should be high correlation between their intensity for active binary systems of neutron stars or neutron “black holes”. The matter-antimatter asymmetry follows from infinitesimal imaginary spin of the Higgs-field components so we must use SST to solve the problem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20979] **viXra:1711.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 14:07:02*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2017 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

We test a theorem and two properties from above.
Eqs. 1.1, 5.2, and 6.1 should be tautologous, but are not.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[20978] **viXra:1711.0322 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 15:23:21*

**Authors:** Guido F. Nelissen

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In my paper Part 1 on the physical nature of “Linear Momentum”, I have demonstrated that the difference between thermal motion and congruent motion is characterized by the degree of isotropy of the velocities of the particles and in my paper Part 3 on the physical nature of “Work, Kinetic Energy and Planck’s constant” I have demonstrated that the generation of work in particle systems consist in the transformation of isotropic motion into congruent translational motion.
In my paper Part 5 on the physical nature of “Pressure, Temperature and Thermal Energy” I came to the conclusion that the statistical Maxwell – Boltzmann speed distribution function is a consequence of the repetitive isotropic collisions, that are typical for thermal motion.
This allows me, on the basis of Clausius’ and Boltzmann’s absolute concepts of entropy, to propose a new proportionate entropy, in function of the degree of isotropy of the velocities of the elements of a particle system, which makes it possible to reveal the link between the second law of thermodynamics and Newton’s first law of motion, and which in my next paper will allow me to explain the physical nature of the variable velocity of particle systems.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[20977] **viXra:1711.0321 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 15:26:24*

**Authors:** Guido F. Nelissen

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Physics today has an ambiguous attitude towards ‘velocity’. On the one hand relativistic physics considers it a “relative” characteristic of which the numerical value depends on the chosen reference frame, but on the other hand that same physics tells us that velocity causes a length contraction, a time dilation and a mass increase and that it has an absolute upper limit, which is equal to the invariable speed of light.
This duality is caused by the fact that the Lorentz transformations accomplish a mathematical bridging between a relative velocity at low speeds and an absolute velocity at the speed of light, but that it is not clear whether these equations describe observational or real physical phenomena. It is this vagueness that has led to the a number of internal contradictions, such as e.g. the “twin paradox” and the “pole an barn paradox”.
In this paper I demonstrate that mass particles are 3-dimensional particle systems that consist of 2-dimensional massless particles and that their variable velocity is not so much distance divided by time, but that it is an emerging physical state of these a particle systems.
This physical nature of velocity leads in a self-evident way to the Lorentz contraction of moving particle systems in their direction of motion, which I demonstrate to be a real physical distortion.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[20976] **viXra:1711.0320 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 18:23:23*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2017 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

The law of self-equilibrium sometimes uses this example: Too much work produces sickness; sickness produces less work; therefore, too much work implies less work. We rewrite the sentence to replace the connective verb with "causes" for better meaning and also include a modal operator for clarity: Too much work causes possible sickness; sickness causes less work; therefore, too much work causes less work. ... the law of self-equilibrium is not tautologous, and hence not a theorem and not a paradox.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[20975] **viXra:1711.0318 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-14 17:23:56*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2017 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

Given a positive integer n, if it is even, calculate n/2, otherwise if it is odd then calculate 3n+1; repeat this process with the resulting value. (1.0)
We assume the apparatus of the Meth8 modal logic model checker implementing variant system VŁ4. Meth8 allows to mix four logical values with four analytical values. The designated proof value is T.
(p>(p@p))>(((p=(%p>#p))>(p\(%p<#p)))+((p=(%p<#p))>((p&(p=p))+(%p>#p)))) ; TTTT TTTT TTTT TTTT (1.1)
Eq. 1.1 shows the conjecture is tautologous.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[20974] **viXra:1711.0317 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-14 17:32:57*

**Authors:** Giordano Colò

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

We try to give a formulation of Strominger-Yau-Zaslow conjecture
on mirror symmetry by studying the singularities of special Lagrangian
submanifolds of 3-dimensional Calabi-Yau manifolds. In this
paper we’ll give the description of the boundary of the moduli space
of special Lagrangian manifolds.
We do this by introducing special Lagrangian cones in the more
general Kähler manifolds. Then we can focus on the almost Calabi-
Yau manifolds. We consider the behaviour of the Lagrangian manifolds
near the conical singular points to classify them according to
the way they are approximated from the asymptotic cone. Then we
analyze their deformations in Calabi-Yau manifolds.

**Category:** Geometry

[20973] **viXra:1711.0316 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-14 23:23:51*

**Authors:** HaiYing Shen

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The electricity and electromagnetic field are the intrinsic property of the nature and universe, and the life created by the nature. The eukaryotic cells, rather than prokaryotic cells, perform the complicated and highly developed function of the organisms. On eukaryotic mechanism, two vital issues are urgent to update: (i) whether or not the bioelectric excitation operates in the interior of eukaryotic cells and how it operates the activity of eukaryotic cells; and (ii) how the organelles are managed into the coordinated and united work, and from where the potent dynamic energy that support the activity of organelles generates.
The eukaryotic cells are prior to prokaryotic cells with highly developed membrane-bound organelles. What this work focuses on is not only the complicated membrane system of eukaryotic cells, but with the bran-new insight: as an engineer, given the materials and the layout of eukaryotic membrane system, what does it imply? — This work discovers the intrinsic principle and mechanism on eukaryotic working directed by bioelectricity and bioelectromagnetic field, from materials and layout, to flowchart, presenting the perfect and ingenious design art of the nature on the creation of bioorganic electricity and eukaryotic working, which endows human being the precious enlightenment on the generation and utilization of bioorganic electricity.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[20972] **viXra:1711.0315 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 00:19:55*

**Authors:** HaiYing Shen

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

The perpetual operation of energy in vigorous state, instead of standstill (heat death), is the essential vitality of biology and the universe, what principle of nature operates it? The perpetual refers to the state-in-operation of power system in dynamic homeostasis founded on ground energy, instead of the confusion without energy resource or energy dissipated. To pursue the perpetual dynamic power and energy creation is the summit realm of practical technology. However, it has long been disregarded theoretically and practically. This work starts from the highly developed biological studies, and by utilizing the intrinsic principle refined, explores the intrinsic principle, operating mechanism and energy creation of perpetual electromagnetic dynamic power from biology to the nature in macroscale and microscale. The electromagnetic perpetual motion generates from the relativity of field (thermal field, electromagnetic field and gravitation field) as the ground energy to operate energy conversion of thermodynamics, electromagnetic dynamics and fluid dynamics. It creates the potent energy of electricity and electromagnetic dynamic power. This work historically discovers a new milestone on the generating principle and operating mechanism of perpetual electromagnetic dynamic power and energy creation in biology and the nature. The strict and unified principle dominates the vigorous living state from the biology to the Earth’s geological and meteorological phenomena and celestial motions, not obfuscated but clarified, not disordered but in supreme harmony and homeostasis. And it is first time that clearly presents the applicable molecular biochemical model for the digitalized perpetual operation of bioelectricity and bioenergy resource, and provides the practicable reference on the development of harmless fine-energy power, with the purpose learning from and emulating the nature.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[20971] **viXra:1711.0314 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 03:46:24*

**Authors:** Stephen I. Ternyik

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Interview

**Category:** Mind Science

[20970] **viXra:1711.0313 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 05:09:36*

**Authors:** Carlos Alejandro Chiappini

**Comments:** 131 Pages.

Las ecuaciones de Maxwell son los postulados del desarrollo presentado. De ellas se deducen como teoremas propiedades físicas fundamentales, como9 la distribución discreta de la energía, el valor teórico de la constante de estructura fina, el factor g del electrón, la unidad de masa elemental basada en las leyes de las partículas elementales (no de tipo convencional como la una) y varias propiedades más. El documento tiene estilo ameno y didáctico, para optimizar la comprensión.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[20969] **viXra:1711.0312 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 06:04:19*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page.

As presumably a basis for neutrosophic logic these mistakes were found: Theorems 1 and 2 are not tautologous.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[20968] **viXra:1711.0311 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-14 06:30:32*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This note presents some attractors and three formulas for pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20967] **viXra:1711.0310 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-14 06:33:32*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This note presents some formulas related with Dalzell integral.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20966] **viXra:1711.0309 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-14 06:36:40*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This note presents three integrals for pi.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20965] **viXra:1711.0308 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-14 06:38:46*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This note presents some formulas for pi.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20964] **viXra:1711.0307 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-14 06:41:14*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This note presents some formulas involving pi and G (Catalan constant).

**Category:** Number Theory

[20963] **viXra:1711.0306 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-14 06:43:32*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This note presents some fractals.

**Category:** Geometry

[20962] **viXra:1711.0305 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-14 06:45:49*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This note presents a collection of integrals for pi.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20961] **viXra:1711.0304 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-14 06:49:36*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This note presents some formulas related with the real root of the equation: x^5+x^4+x^3+x^2+x-1=0.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20960] **viXra:1711.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-14 06:51:50*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This note presents some elementary integrals for pi.

**Category:** Number Theory

[20959] **viXra:1711.0302 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-14 11:11:27*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Nós ampliamos a apresentação da teoria proposta no artigo precedente [1], a fim de que nossa concepção alcançasse um público mais amplo.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[20958] **viXra:1711.0301 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-14 11:58:38*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper, we construct an equation involving Alexander polynomials for knots 86 and 87.

**Category:** Topology

[20957] **viXra:1711.0300 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-13 11:25:35*

**Authors:** Herbert Weidner

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The C-ring of a motor contains either 34 or 44 copies of FliM but only about 26 copies of FliG. In addition, the amount of FliMs is influenced both by the direction of rotation and by the number of CheY-P signal molecules in the cytoplasm. The rotationally symmetrical model described here combines all known properties.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[20956] **viXra:1711.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-13 19:18:11*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

From Einstein's theory of general relativity we can calculate the proton radius of muonic-hydrogen.
The value obtain is 0,840935×10^(-15) meter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20955] **viXra:1711.0298 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-13 20:01:20*

**Authors:** D Williams

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Some "continuous" (that is, over real numbers in the interval (0,1)) infinite products are given with their finite product approximations. THESE PRODUCTS DESERVE MORE STUDY.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[20954] **viXra:1711.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-13 20:05:52*

**Authors:** D Williams

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Some examples of dx-less integrals are given with their finite sum approximations. They appear to have use in estimating long-term values of certain stochastic recursive functions. A request is made for determining convergence of such integrals.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[20953] **viXra:1711.0296 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-14 04:44:03*

**Authors:** Kurmet Sultan

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Earlier in [http://vixra.org/abs/1708.0177] the author presented a proof of the Collatz conjecture, based on the regularities of numbers of the form 6n ± 1, formed as a result of calculating the Collatz function. In [http://vixra.org/abs/1708.0177] there were many tables, figures, definitions, examples and explanations, which created difficulties in the perception of the material. Taking this into account, in this paper we give a shortened version of the proof of the Collatz conjecture.

**Category:** Number Theory

[20952] **viXra:1711.0295 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-14 06:12:59*

**Authors:** Jeremiah Johnson

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Examining the relationship between solar neutrino flux and gravity finds they correlate by
$\frac{(2\mathit{GM})}{\varrho _t}=c^2\ell _P t$
where $\varrho _t$ are neutrinos produced per t time, c is the speed of light in a vacuum, and is Planck's length. The correlation finds a match to within 0.74% of modern standard solar models and 0.63% of solar neutrino measured values(well within the margin of error). I also consider how this simplifies the Schwarzschild radius and the ramifications of this model on gravitational time dilation. Lastly, I consider how the relation between neutrinos and gravity may help unravel the positive cosmological constant and Supernova behavior.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20951] **viXra:1711.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-13 08:35:09*

**Authors:** D.H.W. Reffer

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Inescapable question

We formulate and discuss, as much as we can, an inevitable mathematical and philosophical question: why do the General Theory of Relativity and the Relative-Velocity Dependence of Gravitational Interaction lead to the same well-known formula for the anomalous Perihelion Advance ?

**Category:** Classical Physics

[20950] **viXra:1711.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-13 10:01:33*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Three proposed models for an ‘electric sun’ are examined here, with evaluation of their plausibility based on the required mass-density relationship of the proposed composition assuming our sun is comprised purely of hydrogen (an idealized examination). The three models include (1) the ‘Electric Sky’ hypothesis, first proposed by Juergens and since then championed by advocates of a plasma/electric universe; (2) a sun comprised of an interior of liquid metallic hydrogen, proposed for more than the past decade by Robitaille; and (3) a sun composed of a superconducting, ‘cold’ solid hydrogen core, more recently developed by Burchell. The three models are not necessarily contradictory, as each includes aspects of the other. An overview of each is presented, followed by a simple analysis of the required mass-density of a sun composed of a solid hydrogen ‘core’ with a gaseous hydrogen surrounding annulus, potentially consistent with each model.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[20949] **viXra:1711.0292 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-12 09:29:57*

**Authors:** J Gerard Wolff

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

This paper first defines "general, human-like artificial intelligence" (GHLAI) in terms of five principles. In the light of the definition, the paper summarises the strengths and potential of the "SP theory of intelligence" and its realisation in the "computer model", outlined in an appendix, in three main areas: the versatility of the SP system in aspects of intelligence; its versatility in the representation of diverse kinds of knowledge; and its potential for the seamless integration of diverse aspects of intelligence and diverse kinds of knowledge, in any combination. There are reasons to believe that a mature version of the SP system may attain full GHLAI in diverse aspects of intelligence and in the representation of diverse kinds of knowledge.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[20948] **viXra:1711.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-12 10:24:36*

**Authors:** Timothy W. Jones

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This article simplifies Niven and others proofs that cos and cosh are irrational when evaluated at non-zero rational numbers. Only derivatives of polynomials are used. This is the third article in a series of articles that explores unified approach to classic irrationality and transcendence proofs.

**Category:** Number Theory

[20947] **viXra:1711.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-12 12:05:19*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 14 Pages. © 2016 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

The rationale for rendering quantifiers as modal operators in Meth8 has arguments from satisfiability and reproducability of invalidating and validating syllogisms.
The Square of Opposition (original) produced four combinations for each corner A, I, E, O for 4 ^ 4 = 256 syllogisms. Medieval scholars determined 24 of the 256 syllogisms were valid deductions. Of those, 9 were made valid but only after additional known assumptions were applied as fix ups. Meth8 Tautologous none of the 24 syllogisms before fix ups. Meth8 also discovered correct additional assumptions to render the other 15 syllogisms Tautologous. We use Meth8 to replicate the 24 valid syllogisms derived from the original Square of Opposition. In the process we make three recent advances.
1. A third assumption is needed to fix up Modus Cesare EAE-2
2. The third assumption cannot be removed from Modus Camestros AEO-2 (as in other syllogisms with known third assumptions); and
3. No third assumptions are required for the other 22 syllogisms.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[20946] **viXra:1711.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-12 12:09:05*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 2 Pages. © 2016 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

The modern revision of the square of opposition is not validated as tautologous by the Meth8 logic model checker, as based on system variant VŁ4. Consequently we redefine the square so that it is validated as true my Meth8. Instead of definientia using implication for universal terms or conjunction for existential terms, we adopt the equivalent connective for all terms. The modal modifiers necessity and possibility map quantifiers as applying to the entire terms rather than to the antecedent within the terms. We note the validating connectives for the edges on the square are: \ Nand for the Contraries and Contradictories; > Imply for the Subalterns; and + Or for the Subcontraries.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[20945] **viXra:1711.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-12 12:11:20*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © 2016 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

The modern, revised square of opposition is not validated as tautologous by the Meth8 logic checker in five models for all expressions. This leads us to consider that any logic system based on the square of opposition is spurious. What follows then is that a first order predicate logic based on the square of opposition is now suspicious.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[20944] **viXra:1711.0285 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-12 16:44:05*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

We obtain a polynomial based iterative solution for early universe creation of the Higgs boson mass, using a polynomial with the coefficients for derived through integral formulations with the mass of a Higgs boson, and the construction of the coefficients derived as of the using a potential system, for the Higgs, largely similar to the Peskin and Schroeder quantum field theoretic treatment for a Higgs potential. Afterwards, we examine if mass may have complex number and possibly imaginary values, with attendant description of consequences in the electroweak regime of space-time. We end with a description of Imaginary mass becoming Real in Electroweak, with resultant consequences for DM discussed in the last section with explicit construction of space-time bubbles nucleated due to imaginary mass of Higgs becoming real, as a contributing source of GW radiation in Electroweak era

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20943] **viXra:1711.0283 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-12 23:30:43*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2017 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

A sentence to test is if known zeroes imply other zeroes. This effectively tests if a location of zeroes (trivial based on even numbers) and a location of zeroes (non trivial based on odd numbers) imply possibly another location of zeroes as a tautology, because the question is "Are there possibly other zeroes".

**Category:** Number Theory

[20942] **viXra:1711.0282 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-13 03:00:34*

**Authors:** Daniel Archer

**Comments:** 2 Pages. My first paper

The new finding of a dust belt around Proxima Centauri and the possibility of more planets than
was first thought is interpreted through the lens of the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[20941] **viXra:1711.0281 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-13 03:24:40*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A lot has been philosophized and written about the phenomenon ‘time dilation’. This article shows the consequences applying this phenomenon to a photon, traveling with velocity c, relative to whichever observer, as the Special Theory of Relativity prescribes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20940] **viXra:1711.0279 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-13 07:04:26*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

For the foreseeable future.

**Category:** Social Science

[20939] **viXra:1711.0278 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-11 07:04:37*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 3 Pages. © Copyright 2017 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

© Copyright 2017 by Colin James III All rights reserved.
The Gödel incompleteness theorem states in effect that sequences of logic symbols can be assigned to strings of natural numbers, but because it is assumed there are more natural number than sequences of logic symbols, the symbols are incomplete as a self-referencing mechanism to describe repeatedly themselves as yet more numbers. (The Gödel completeness theorem states in effect that the sequences of logic symbols may be consistent to form a logic system that is sufficiently complete enough to prove theorems as tautology.)
The arguments ultimately turn on the mapping of sequences of symbols into strings of natural numbers.
The arguments also assume a function to map numbers as a domain into symbols as an image in a co-domain, also collectively named a range. The incompleteness theorem is that such a function exists and operates where all of its domain is larger than the smaller image existing within all of the co-domain. The completeness theorem is that all of the image, existing solely for its purposes, is self-sufficient unto the existence of itself.
We are interested in mapping the image in the co-domain as sequences of logic symbols back into the originating domain which is named a preimage. Attempting such an inverse function is not allowed by the one-way definition of a function to an image as dictated by the incompleteness theorem. We show this invertive approach or reverse process is not tautologous by evaluating the misuse of the application of quantified operators in the one-way functional mapping in the first place.
Our experimental results in mapping are the definitive evidence that constructionist logic and subsequently constructivistic logics are not complete (deny the completeness theorem) and hence deny the incompleteness theorem. The most important evidence is that those logics can exist only by ignoring the law of excluded middle (LEM) that "p or not p is a tautology", (p+~p)=(p=p). We argue that any system denying the LEM is not tautologous and hence unworkable.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[20938] **viXra:1711.0277 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-11 10:41:48*

**Authors:** Russell Leidich

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Herein we present the “surround” function, which is intended to produce a set of “surround codes” which enhance the sparsity of integer sets which have discrete derivatives of lesser Shannon entropy than the sets themselves. In various cases, the surround function is expected to provide further entropy reduction beyond that provided by straightforward delta (difference) encoding alone.

We then present the simple concept of “densification”, which facilitates the elimination of entropy overhead due to masks (symbols) which were considered possible but do not actually occur in a given mask list (set of symbols).

Finally we discuss the ramifications of these techniques for the sake of enhancing the speed and sensitivity of various entropy scans.

[20937] **viXra:1711.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-11 13:07:08*

**Authors:** Dariusz Dudało

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Monty Hall problem

**Category:** Number Theory

[20936] **viXra:1711.0275 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-11 17:44:40*

**Authors:** Thomas J. Buckholtz

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper discusses and applies a basis for modeling elementary forces and particles. We show that models based on isotropic quantum harmonic oscillators describe aspects of the four traditional fundamental physics forces and point to some known and possible elementary particles. We summarize results from models based on solutions to equations featuring isotropic pairs of isotropic quantum harmonic oscillators. Results include predictions for new elementary particles and possible descriptions of dark matter and dark energy.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20935] **viXra:1711.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-12 05:23:19*

**Authors:** Philip Gibbs

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Many of the elements in the periodic table plays a role in supporting life, either directly in biochemistry of indirectly in some supporting role. This is a catalogue of how each element is used.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[20934] **viXra:1711.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-10 13:59:02*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Do Stokes and Gauss's theorems from Vector Analyses hold also in curved spacetime (or in the curved coordinates of a flat manifold)? These theorems (especially the Gauss's or the "Divergence" theorem) are ones of the utmost importance, especially for theoretical astrophysics. My opinion is in the file. Can you tell me what journal will accept this "nonsense"?

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[20933] **viXra:1711.0271 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-10 16:06:05*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

1. The axiom or rule of necessitation N states that if p is a theorem, then necessarily p is a theorem: If ⊢ p then ⊢ ◻p.
We show this is non-contingent (a truth), but not tautologous (a proof). We evaluate axioms (in bold) of N, K, T, 4, B, D, 5 to derive systems (in italics) of K, M, T, S4, S5, D.
We conclude that N the axiom or rule of necessitation is not tautologous Because system M as derived and rendered is not tautologous, system G-M also not tautologous.
What follows is that systems derived from using M are tainted, regardless of the tautological status of the result so masking the defect, such as systems S4, B, and S5.
We also find that Gentzen-sequent proof is suspicious, perhaps due to its non bi-valent lattice basis in a vector space.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[20932] **viXra:1711.0270 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-10 17:28:55*

**Authors:** David Njeru kathuri

**Comments:** 62 Pages.

This publication is about a theory that tries to scientifically prove that under certain conditions, fire is a portal that can be used in teleportation of matter.
The document also tries to give an alternative to General Relativity in the most scientifically precise way that leaves no room for doubt. This is done by giving a testable alternative theory of what the past & future is and its relation to gravity.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[20931] **viXra:1711.0269 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-10 19:23:08*

**Authors:** Peng Yu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The application of prony method for various distance protection schemes is studied in this paper. The prony method extracts the desired information like frequency, amplitude, phase and damping components from a sampled response. The information generated from prony analysis is used for implementing distance protection scheme.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[20930] **viXra:1711.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-10 21:33:15*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Recent experimental results have shown a violation of Bell’s inequalities, which are a mathematical formulation of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox. The violation leads to the conclusion that there are no local hidden variable theories that underlie quantum mechanics. However, the Bell’s inequalities do not rule out the possibility to construct non-local hidden variable theories that comply with quantum mechanics, in particular, a theory of special and general relativity that permits an instantaneous transmission of interaction. In this work we show that a special relativity with a Euclidean metric that allows not only local interactions but also interactions that can be transmitted instantaneously can be constructed and, furthermore, such special relativity can also be generalised to formulate a general theory of relativity that leads to the same experimental results as Einstein theory of general relativity. We also show that it is possible to formulate Dirac-like relativistic wave equations in this Euclidean relativity with either real mass or imaginary mass, which suggests that the proper mass of a quantum particle may be defined in terms of a differential operator that is associated with a spacetime substructure of the particle.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[20929] **viXra:1711.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-10 23:39:44*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following conjecture: The square of any odd prime can be obtained from the numbers of the form 360*k + 72 in the following way: let d1, d2, ..., dn be the (not distinct) prime factors of the number 360*k + 72; than for any square of a prime p^2 there exist k such that (d1 - 1)*(d2 - 1)*...*(dn - 1) + 1 = p^2. Example: for p^2 = 13^2 = 169 there exist k = 17 such that from 360*17 + 72 = 6192 = 2^4*3^2*43 is obtained 1^4*2^2*42 + 1 = 169. I also conjecture that any absolute Fermat pseudoprime (Carmichael number) can be obtained through the presented formula, which attests again the special relation that I have often highlighted between the nature of Carmichael numbers and the nature of squares of primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[20928] **viXra:1711.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-11 03:38:23*

**Authors:** Lixin Fan

**Comments:** 10 Pages. NIPS 2017 publication.

We revisit fuzzy neural network with a cornerstone notion of generalized hamming distance, which provides a novel and theoretically justified framework to re-interpret many useful neural network techniques in terms of fuzzy logic. In particular, we conjecture and empirically illustrate that, the celebrated batch normalization (BN) technique actually adapts the “normalized” bias such that it approximates the rightful bias induced by the generalized hamming distance. Once the due bias is enforced analytically, neither the optimization of bias terms nor the sophisticated batch normalization is needed. Also in the light of generalized hamming distance, the popular rectified linear units (ReLU) can be treated as setting a minimal hamming distance threshold between network inputs and weights. This thresholding scheme, on the one hand, can be improved by introducing double-thresholding on both positive and negative extremes of neuron outputs. On the other hand, ReLUs turn out to be non-essential and can be removed from networks trained for simple tasks like MNIST classification. The proposed generalized hamming network (GHN) as such not only lends itself to rigorous analysis and interpretation within the fuzzy logic theory but also demonstrates fast learning speed, well-controlled behaviour and state-of-the-art performances on a variety of learning tasks.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[20927] **viXra:1711.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-11 04:14:07*

**Authors:** Lixin Fan

**Comments:** 75 Pages. bridging the gap between symbolic versus connectionist.

This article aims to establish a concrete and fundamental connection between two important fields in artificial intelligence i.e. deep learning and fuzzy logic. On the one hand, we hope this article will pave the way for fuzzy logic researchers to develop convincing applications and tackle challenging problems which are of interest to machine learning community too. On the other hand, deep learning could benefit from the comparative research by re-examining many trail-and-error heuristics in the lens of fuzzy logic, and consequently, distilling the essential ingredients with rigorous foundations. Based on the new findings reported in [38] and this article, we believe the time is ripe to revisit fuzzy neural network as a crucial bridge between two schools of AI research i.e. symbolic versus connectionist [93] and eventually open the black-box of artificial neural networks.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[20926] **viXra:1711.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-10 08:37:13*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This document is part of the Hilbert Book Model project

This explanation of gravitation supports the idea that basic discrete objects are excitations of a field. The massive basic discrete objects are spherical shock fronts that carry a standard bit of mass.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[20925] **viXra:1711.0263 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-10 10:13:03*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 189 Pages.

© Colin James III 2016-2017 All rights reserved.
In applied and theoretical mathematics, assertions are categorized in alphabetical order as: axiom; conjecture; definition, entry; equation; expression; formula; functor; hypothesis; inequality; metatheorem; paradox; problem; proof; schema; system; theorem; and thesis. We evaluate 130 objects for 519 assertions to validate 156 as tautology and 363 as not (70%). We use Meth8 that is a modal logic checker in five models.
The semantic content or predicate basis of some expressions on their face does not disqualify them from evaluation by Meth8 in classical modal logic. However, the rules of classical logic, as based on the corrected Square of Opposition by Meth8, apply to virtually any logic system. Consequently some numerical equations are mapped to classical logic as Meth8 scripts.
The rationale for mapping quantifiers as modal operators is in the Appendix based on satisfiability and reproducability of validation of syllogisms.
A table lists what was tested with separated results. The names are numbered in alphabetical order. Test results are Invalidated as Not Validated Tautology (nvt) or Validated as Tautology (vt). For a paradox, invalidated means it is not validated as true, that is, it is not a paradox or contradiction.
The experimental tests used variables for 4 propositions, 4 theorems, and 11 propositions. The size of truth tables are respectively for 16-, 256-, and 2048- truth values. One formula of Popper in 250-characters processed in 125-steps instantly due to recent advances in look up table indexing.
The Meth8 modal theorem prover implements the logic system variant VŁ4 which corrects the quaternary Ł4 of Łukasiewicz. There are two sets of truth values on the 2-tuple {00, 10, 01, 11} as respectively

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[20924] **viXra:1711.0262 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-10 11:00:19*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following conjecture on Poulet numbers: There exist an infinity of Poulet numbers P2 obtained from Poulet numbers P1 in the following way: let d1, d2, ..., dn be the (not distinct) prime factors of the number P1 – 1, where P1 is a Poulet number; than there exist an infinity of Poulet numbers P2 of the form (d1 + 1)*(d2 + 1)*...*(dn + 1) + 1. Example: for Poulet number P1 = 645 is obtained through this operation Poulet number P2 = 1729 (644 = 2*2*7*23 and 3*3*8*24 + 1 = 1729). Note that from more than one Poulet number P1 can be obtained the same Poulet number P2 (from both 1729 and 6601 is obtained 46657).

**Category:** Number Theory

[20923] **viXra:1711.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-10 11:22:22*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The following is a useful briefing of the most essential facts of life.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[20922] **viXra:1711.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-09 07:17:38*

**Authors:** Spiros Konstantogiannis

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

Quasi-exactly solvable symmetrized sextic oscillators have been proposed and studied by Quesne, who categorized them based on the parity – natural or unnatural – of their known eigenfunction [2]. Herein, we examine the quasi-exact solvability of symmetrized sextic oscillators using a quotient-polynomial approach [3, 4, 5], which, in this case, opens up the possibility to construct non-analytic sextic oscillators from analytic quotient polynomials, and thus to distinguish the oscillators resulting from analytic quotient polynomials from those resulting from non-analytic quotient polynomials. We analyze the cases n=0 and n=1, and we show that the results are in agreement with those of Quesne [2]. In the case n=2, we construct sextic oscillators using only analytic quotient polynomials, and focusing on the non-analytic oscillators whose known eigenfunction is of unnatural parity, we register a relation between the coefficients of the two non-analytic terms of the exponential polynomial, which then we generalize to the higher cases n=3 and n=4, to construct new non-analytic sextic oscillators whose known eigenfunction is of unnatural parity.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[20921] **viXra:1711.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-09 13:06:12*

**Authors:** Timothy W. Jones

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This is companion article to The Irrationality and Transcendence of e Connected. In it the irrationality of pi^n is proven using the same lemmas used for e^n. Also the transcendence of pi is given as a simple extension of this irrationality result.

**Category:** Number Theory

[20920] **viXra:1711.0257 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-09 15:57:32*

**Authors:** D Williams

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

An improved version of Stirling's Formula (which I call Neylon's Approximation) for n! is constructed using Product Integrals.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[20919] **viXra:1711.0256 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-08 15:00:29*

**Authors:** Mark Krinker, Galina Pana

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The paper deals with the revealed localized electromagnetic spinning in vicinity of Laminine capsules, what can contribute into biological activity of this dietary supplement. This also can be employed for the further improvement of the product.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[20918] **viXra:1711.0254 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-08 17:56:26*

**Authors:** D Williams

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A simple paradox in probability theory is given. It highlights how inadequate common notions of what is a "fair bet" are (examples given).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20917] **viXra:1711.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-09 00:57:34*

**Authors:** Nicholas R. Wright

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We find that the Hodge conjecture is an overdetermined system rather than an underdetermined system, thereby becoming homogenous and leading to overfitting. A product of normal spaces need not be normal thereby initiating and reinforcing the conjecture. A norm should be found through regularization. We find the Magic Star polygon to be a satisfying norm. The Torelli theorem also gives deep and technical proof. Analysis can be seen through a multiple regression technique. Automorphism is not obtainable with a contradiction in the trivial and integral.

**Category:** Topology

[20916] **viXra:1711.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-09 01:59:34*

**Authors:** Murugesan, Anitha

**Comments:** 9 Pages. The last theorem is the highlight of the paper

In the graph theory, two graphs are said to be isomorphic if there is a one-one, onto mapping defined between their set of vertices so as to preserving the adjacency between vertices. An isomorphism defined on a vertex set of a graph to itself is called automorphism of the given graph. Two vertices in a graph are said to be similar if there is an automorphism defined on its vertex set mapping one vertex to the other. In this paper, it has been discussed that every such automorphism defines an equivalence relation on the set of vertices and the number of equivalence classes is same as the number of rotations that the automorphism makes on the vertex set. The set of all automorphisms of a graph is a permutation group under the composition of permutations. This group is called automorphism group of the graph. A graph is said to be vertex transitive if its automorphism group acts transitively on its vertex set. The path degree sequence of a vertex in a graph is the list of lengths of paths having this particular vertex as initial vertex. The ordered set of all such sequences is called path degree sequence of the graph. It is conjectured that two graphs are isomorphic iff they have same path degree sequence. In this paper, it has been discussed that this conjecture holds good when both the graphs are vertex transitive. The notion of functional graph has been introduced in this paper. The functional graph of any two isomorphic graphs is a graph in which the vertex set is the union of vertex sets of isomorphic graphs and two vertices are connected by an edge iff they are connected in any one of the graph when they belong to the same graph or one vertex is the image of the other under the given isomorphism when they are in different set of vertices. It has been proved that the functional graphs obtained from two isomorphic complete bipartite graphs are vertex transitive.
Keywords : graph automorphism ; functional graph ; vertex transitive graph ; path degree sequence.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[20915] **viXra:1711.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-09 05:32:17*

**Authors:** Karan R.Takkhi

**Comments:** 3 pages

Galaxy clusters are one of the most mysterious large-scale structures in the universe. The extremely hot X-ray emitting gas (plasma) that constitutes the intracluster medium (ICM) is also quite mysterious. The observed gravitational lensing and the high velocity dispersion of galaxies within the cluster add another mysterious dimension to a galaxy cluster. There are many puzzling questions adhered to galaxy clusters, such as, what causes the ICM to remain confined within the cluster? Is it dark matter that confines the ICM, or does the ICM possesses certain properties of its own which gives it the added advantage to remain confined within the cluster, instead of just dispersing or diffusing out of the cluster? Is dark matter really required to explain certain observations related to galaxy clusters, such as, ICM confinement, velocity dispersion of galaxies and the spooky gravitational lensing arcs observed within the cluster? Are we underestimating the baryonic mass? In this paper I present the study of a random galaxy cluster to completely rule out the possibility of dark matter’s presence in all galaxy clusters. The study provides explanation for such discussed mysterious phenomena associated with galaxy clusters that would otherwise be difficult to explain without considering the presence of dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[20914] **viXra:1711.0250 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-08 06:37:55*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel method of finding the ‘Total Intra Similarity And Dissimilarity Measure For The Values Taken By A Parameter Of Concern’. The advantage of such a measure is that using this measure we can clearly distinguish the contribution of Intra aspect variation and Inter aspect variation when both are bound to occur in a given phenomenon of concern. This measure provides the same advantages as that provided by the popular F-Statistic measure.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[20913] **viXra:1711.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-08 09:49:05*

**Authors:** I. N. Tukaev

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This paper proves that the Dirichlet series determining the Riemann zeta function converges within a domain of a real component of complex variable equal to one, with an imaginary component non-equal to zero.

**Category:** Number Theory

[20912] **viXra:1711.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-08 10:41:26*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel method of finding the ‘Total Intra Similarity And Dissimilarity Measure For The Values Taken By A Parameter Of Concern’. The advantage of such a measure is that using this measure we can clearly distinguish the contribution of Intra aspect variation and Inter aspect variation when both are bound to occur in a given phenomenon of concern. This measure provides the same advantages as that provided by the popular F-Statistic measure.

**Category:** Statistics

[20911] **viXra:1711.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 09:41:06*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

We demonstrate some elementary identities for quocient of q-series.

**Category:** Number Theory

[20910] **viXra:1711.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 15:26:10*

**Authors:** Colin James III, James F Peters, Arturo Tozzi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The two theorems for incompleteness and completeness developed by Gödel in the 1930’s provoked a conceptual revolution in the history of mankind. The claim that not all truths can be demonstrated had a pervasive and enduring influence, leading to deep relativistic standpoints in physics, biology, philosophy and social sciences. Here, based on recently-developed logic tools, we demonstrate that the two Gödel theorems are not tautologous, and hence are unworkable.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[20909] **viXra:1711.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 18:43:43*

**Authors:** Ramon Isasi

**Comments:** 17 Pages. in spanish

Para el estudio de los linajes familiares a través de los procedimientos ajustados a las normas establecidas por los genealogistas convencionales, estos siempre utilizan como único recurso la pesquisa documental obtenida en los libros eclesiásticos de bautismos, casamientos y defunciones; también los censos, registros civiles, testamentos y citaciones bibliográficas de otros autores. Algunas de estas dos últimas fuentes no ofrecen las garantías de veracidad objetiva, debido a datos incompletos y omisiones – a veces introduciendo tergiversaciones maliciosas – escondiendo las uniones desiguales o no deseadas, hasta desconocer a los hijos extramatrimoniales. Asimismo, en los casos de familias muy antiguas con un linaje que viene desde el inicio de la Conquista, muchas veces se oculta el inevitable origen mestizo del cual proceden. En este ensayo, se reconoce que los estudios realizados mediante los procedimientos de la genealogía genética, no pueden iniciarse desde ex-nihilo, sino, siempre deben partir de una línea de información específica aportada por el apellido de una persona y por otros datos familiares procedentes de la genealogía tradicional. Luego, se continúa el armado cruzando con otras informaciones, hasta puede reconstruir y encontrar en forma inequívoca y comprobada a personas desconocidas, aún muy distantes, como así excluir legitimidades dudosas para ir completando la red de un árbol familiar

**Category:** Social Science

[20908] **viXra:1711.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 19:20:26*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** Pages.

Abstract: Bringing an elementary knowledge of vectors to Bell (1964), we eliminate 13 false or unnecessary expressions and negate Bell's famous inequality. We hope this interesting result will move STEM students to study one of the most famous—and strangest—works in the history of physics: for who else but famous Bell uses the flawed approximation of an unnecessary experiment to invalidate their flawed use of a mathematical fact? And then rejects the fact?

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[20907] **viXra:1711.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-08 04:13:28*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

It is noted that the known solution for a spherical electromagnetic wave in the far zone does not satisfy the law of conservation of energy (it is retained only on the average), the electric and magnetic intensities of the same name (in coordinate) are in phase, only one of Maxwell's equations is satisfied. A solution is offered that is free from these shortcomings.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[20906] **viXra:1711.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-08 04:24:37*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 11 Pages. in Russian

It is noted that the known solution for a spherical electromagnetic wave in the far zone does not satisfy the law of conservation of energy (it is retained only on the average), the electric and magnetic intensities of the same name (in coordinate) are in phase, only one of Maxwell's equations is satisfied. A solution is offered that is free from these shortcomings. \\ Отмечается, что известное решение для сферической электромагнитной волны в дальней зоне не удовлетворяет закону сохранения энергии (она сохраняется только в среднем), одноименные (по координатам) электрические и магнитные напряженности синфазны, выполняется только одно из системы уравнений Максвелла. Предлагается решение, свободное от этих недостатков.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[20905] **viXra:1711.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 03:26:43*

**Authors:** Frank Schröder

**Comments:** 8 Pages. German

Bei der Realisierung von Robotik-Projekten kann man eine ganze Menge verkehrt machen. Damit sind nicht nur kalte Lötstellen oder abstürzende Software gemeint, sondern sehr viel grundsätzlichere Dinge spielen eine Rolle. Um Fehler zu vermeiden, muss man sich zunächst einmal mit den Failure-Patterns näher auseinandersetzen, also jenen Entwicklungsmethoden, nach denen man auf gar keinen Fall einen Roboter bauen und wie die Software möglichst nicht funktionieren sollte.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[20904] **viXra:1711.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 03:50:18*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this note we explore an elliptic integral

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20903] **viXra:1711.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 03:53:46*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This note presents two BBP-type formulas

**Category:** Number Theory

[20902] **viXra:1711.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 04:48:43*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

**Comments:** Pages.

In this paper a more detailed consideration in framework of the “The
Information as Absolute” conception of the Space and Time problems “is presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20901] **viXra:1711.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 06:28:22*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Strong Interacting Massive Particles (SIMPs) are recently assumed to relate to the Dark Matter phenomenon. (J. R. Espinosa, et al.)
In Quantum FFF Theory ( FFF= Function Follow Form) however, Strong Interacting Massive Particles (or SIMPs) are described already as complex Quantum Knot Bosons in the form of “electric dark matter black hole” based ball lightning, micro Comets or even micro scale evaporating energy bullets found in silicon discharge globule experiments by the author.
These Silicon globule structures show strong differences with normal Silicon matter, which was reason to compare these complexities in detail and make suggestions for future research.
One of the clear phenomena is, that all globules show internal traces of evaporating tunneling energy bullets, which is supposed to be a first sign of evaporating (decaying) Quantum Knots or Dark Matter particles with the characteristic of small fireballs or Ball Lightning often observed in the natural environment.
According to Quantum FFF Theory, postulates that ball lightning nuclei are created by Magnetic particle interference into complex slow evaporating ( decaying) Higgs based quantum knots .
At the same time the LHC experiments showed us, that there should be Higgs particles of different mass series of 125 and 375 GeV. and even higher, which is reason to postulate that these mass series could be based on a form mechanical origin of the rigid string model of Quantum FFF Theory.
Future LHC results could give us more support for such mechanical –mass related Higgs series of 750- and 1625 GeV. as a support for such a rigid string based click-on model for the Higgs and the resulting decay time extension related to traveling distance..
If science is able to produce specific Higgs related SIMPs with exact decay times and travelling distances in the lab, then we also may be able to create new hand held technology for light saber (Star Wars) alike based cutting and smoothing hard stone as we find all over the world in ancient large and small stone cut- and smoothed artifacts.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[20900] **viXra:1711.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-06 18:00:00*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

We demonstrate some elementary identities for q-series involving the q-Pochhammer symbol, as well as an identity involving the generating functions of the (m,k)-capsids and (m, r1, r2)-capsids.

**Category:** Number Theory

[20899] **viXra:1711.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-06 20:27:28*

**Authors:** Xiuyi Yang

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We reinterpret the training of convolutional neural nets(CNNs) with universal classification theorem(UCT). This theory implies any disjoint datasets can be classified by two or more layers of CNNs based on ReLUs and rigid transformation switch units(RTSUs) we propose here, this explains why CNNs could memorize noise and real data. Subsequently, we present another fresh new hypothesis that CNN is insensitive to some variant from input training data example, this variant relates to original training input by generating functions. This hypothesis means CNNs can generalize well even for randomly generated training data and illuminates the paradox Why CNNs fit real and noise data and fail drastically when making predictions for noise data. Our findings suggest the study about generalization theory of CNNs should turn to generating functions instead of traditional statistics machine learning theory based on assumption that the training data and testing data are independent and identically distributed(IID), and apparently IID assumption contradicts our experiments in this paper.We experimentally verify these ideas correspondingly.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[20898] **viXra:1711.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-06 20:45:13*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

H.G. Wells legacy and its descendants.

**Category:** Social Science

[20897] **viXra:1711.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-06 21:23:34*

**Authors:** John E.Miller

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Much of Standard model physics defining Solar System orbits is founded on failure of mathematics to match DATA. The principle failure within the S.M. in diagnosing gravitational attraction as a property of planetary density, instead of the more correct conclusion that gravity is a property of EINSTEIN's CURVED SPACE. This paper will address Galaxy Energy Spheres(G.E.S.)as the driving force maintaining planetary orbits. WEB pages from NASA et. al. explain there is no explanation for VENUS and its opposite spin. This will be explained further as the subject matter for this paper

**Category:** Astrophysics

[20896] **viXra:1711.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 01:45:13*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

“Outer-Art” is a movement set up as a protest against, or to ridicule, the random modern art which states that everything is… art! It was initiated by Florentin Smarandache, in 1990s, who ironically called for an upside-down artwork: to do art in a way it is not supposed to be done, i.e. to make art as ugly, as silly, as wrong as possible, and generally as impossible as possible!

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20895] **viXra:1711.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 01:46:45*

**Authors:** Lediana Paja, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Pradoksizmi është një lëvizje praktike në letërsi, art, filozofi, shkencë bazuar në përdorimet e tepruara të antitezës, antinomisë, konradiksionit, shembël-ltyrës, mosmarrëveshjes, anti-klisheve, derivimit të sensit, kundra fjalimeve, të pakuptueshmes, para-doksit, apo paradokseve të njëjta në krijime. U themelua dhe u udheheq nga Florentin Smarandache qe prej 1980, i cili u shpreh : “Qëllimi është zgjerimi i sferës artistike prej elementeve jo artistikë. Por sidomos kundra kohës, kundra kuptimit të krijimit. Eshtë gjithashtu një eksperiment”.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20894] **viXra:1711.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 01:47:43*

**Authors:** Mugur Grosu, Mircea Tuglea, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Because I have, finally, before my eyes two significant works- your volume, Destiny
(published last year although it was written 20 years ago!) and a more special work, Outer-Art,
that we have to talk about without fail later on-, we can start interviewing you. At the beginning I
am asking you to make a short introducing of your “inventions” until now: paradoxism, outer-art,
etc. Could you place these proposed directions within a certain order of the vanguard currents?

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20893] **viXra:1711.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 01:49:19*

**Authors:** Nadia Idri, Salah Osman, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

From the book: NonPoems, by Florentin Smarandache, Xiquan Publishing House,Phoenix, Chicago, 1991, 1992, 1993.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20892] **viXra:1711.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 01:50:28*

**Authors:** Sharif S. N. Bhuiyan, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

From the book: NonPoems, by Florentin Smarandache, Xiquan Publishing House, Phoenix, Chicago, 1991, 1992, 1993.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20891] **viXra:1711.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 01:51:44*

**Authors:** Albena Tchamova, Maria Nikolova, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Парадоксизмът е авангардно движение в литературата, изкуството, философията, науката,
основано на използването на огромен брой антитези, парадокси, противоречия, притчи, несъгласия в произведенията.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20890] **viXra:1711.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 01:52:12*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed the Theory Of Evolution.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[20889] **viXra:1711.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 01:53:15*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

From the book: NonPoems, by Florentin Smarandache, Xiquan Publishing House,Phoenix, Chicago, 1991, 1992, 1993.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20888] **viXra:1711.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 01:54:09*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Shodovat se k Florentin Smarandache, paradoxism 1980 je teorie a škola paradoxů používání v literárním a uměleckém vytvoření. Stoupenci paradoxism věří, že to odhalí podstatné rozpory existence tím, že se zaměří na je, zatímco jiné avantgardní činnosti takový jak dadaism a surrealism dělají ne.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20887] **viXra:1711.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 01:55:51*

**Authors:** Henri Thijs, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Het paradoxisme (een offici Nederlandse term
moet nog worden uitgevonden), is een avantgardistische beweging in de literatuur, de kunst, de filosofie en de wetenschap die is gebaseerd op het excessief gebruik van antithesen, antinomie contradicties,en paradoxen in de creaties. De stroming werd
al in 1980 opgericht en gepatroneerd door de schrijver Florentin Smarandache die zijn beweegredenen aldus omschrijft: Het doel is de verruiming van de artistieke sfeer door de incorporatie van niet-artistieke elementen en vooral door de creatie op experimentle wijze tegendraads en averechts te laten verlopen.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20886] **viXra:1711.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 01:57:27*

**Authors:** Charles Le, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

PARADOXISM is an avant-garde movement in literature, art, philosophy, science, based on excessive used of antitheses, antinomies, contradictions, parables, paraphrases, odds, anti-clichés, deviations of senses, parodies of proverbs and aphorisms, against-the-grain speech, upside-down interpre-tations, nonsense, paradoxes, semiparadoxes in creations. Paradoxism tries to find common parts to apparently uncommon things in any human field.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20885] **viXra:1711.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 01:58:29*

**Authors:** J. M. Charrier, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Le Paradoxisme est un mouvement d'avant-garde dans la littérature, l'art, la philosophie, la science appuyé sur l'excessive utilisation des antithèses, antinomies, contradictions, paraboles, déviations du sens, interpretations à l'envers des clichés, non-sens, paradoxes, semiparadoxes dans les créations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20884] **viXra:1711.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 01:59:22*

**Authors:** Bernd Hutschenreuther, Martina Teichert, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

PARADOXISMUS ist eine literarische, künstlerische,
geistes- und naturwissenschaftliche Avantgarde-
Bewegung, die den exzessiven Einsatz von
Antithesen, Antinomien, Widersprüchen, Parabeln,
Wahrscheinlichkeiten und Paradoxien in Schöpfungen
zur Grundlage hat.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20883] **viXra:1711.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 02:00:44*

**Authors:** Θεοδώρα Μπλούση, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Ο ΠΑΡΑΔΟΞΙΣΜΟΣ είναι ένα πρωτοποριακό κίνημα στη λογοτεχνία, την τέχνη, τη φιλοσοφία, την επιστήμη, με βάση τη δημιουργία με υπερβολική χρήση αντιθέσεων, αντονομίες, αντιφάσεων, παραβολών, αποδόσεων και παράδοξων ρημάτων.
Ιδρύθηκε και διευθύνεται από τον συγγραφέα Φλωρεντίν Σμαρανδάκε από το 1980, ο οποίος είπε:.. “Ο στόχος είναι η διεύρυνση της καλλιτεχνικής σφαίρας μέσω μη καλλιτεχνικών στοιχείων. Αλλά κυρίως η δημιουργία αντίθετων εννοίων, λογικής και χρόνου. Επίσης, για να πειραματιστεί."

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20882] **viXra:1711.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 02:01:33*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A paradoxizmus a nyolcvanas évek román irodalmi és mûvészeti avantgárd mozgalma. Kommunista-ellenes szándékkal Florentin Smaran-dache, az amerikai disszidens író és matematikus hozta létre az irányzatot, mely az alkotásban nagymértékben az ellentételezésre, az antinó-miákra, az oximoronokra, az ellentmondásokra és a paradoxonokra alapoz.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20881] **viXra:1711.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 02:03:01*

**Authors:** V. Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

PARADOXISMe adalah suatu gerakan kontemporere (avant-garde) dalam sastra, seni, filsafat
dan ilmu, didasarkan pada penggunaan berlebihan
dari antithesis, antinomies, kontradiksi, parable,
kejanggalan, anti-klisé, deviasi-deviasi dari
pemikiran, melawan butiran pidato, ketidakmasukakalan, paradoks, dan semiparadoks dalam penciptaan-penciptaan.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20880] **viXra:1711.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 02:04:06*

**Authors:** Felice Russo, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Il paradossismo e’ un movimento letterario e
artistico di avanguardia, come una protesta antitotalitaria, creata dallo scrittore Florentin Smarandache nel 1980, e basata sull’eccessivo uso delle antitesi, antinomie, contraddidizioni, paradossi durante la produzione.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20879] **viXra:1711.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 02:05:05*

**Authors:** Leonardo F. D. da Motta, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

"Paradoxismo" é um movimento de vanguarda da literatura, arte, filosofia, ciência, baseada no uso excessivo de antíteses, antinomias, contradições, parábolas, diferenças, paradoxos em criação. Foi criado e liderado pelo escritor Florentin Smarandache desde 1980, que disse: "O objetivo é alargar o legado artístico através de elementos não-artísticos. Mas especialmente o contratempo, contra-senso de criar. Também ao experimento."

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20878] **viXra:1711.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 02:05:53*

**Authors:** Gheorghe Niculescu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Paradoxismul este o miscare internationala de avangarda in literatura, arta, filozofie, chiar si stiinta, bazata pe folosirea excesiva de antiteze, antinomii, contradictii, oximorone, parabole, paradoxuri in creatie.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20877] **viXra:1711.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 02:07:03*

**Authors:** Dmitri Rabounski, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Парадоксизм — это передовое литературное и художественное движение, основанное как антитоталитарный протест писателем Флорентином Смарандаке в 1980-м году. Его основа —активное использование антитез, антиномий, противоречий и парадоксов в творчестве.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20876] **viXra:1711.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 02:07:54*

**Authors:** Sebastián Martín Ruiz, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

El Paradoxismo es un movimiento de vanguardia en literatura, arte, filosofía, ciencia, basado en el excesivo uso de antítesis, antinomias, contradicciones, parábolas, rarezas, y paradojas en la creación artística.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20875] **viXra:1711.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 02:08:48*

**Authors:** Kristina Staude, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

PARADOXISM är en avantgarderörelse inom
litteratur, konst, filosofi och vetenskap som är baserad på det omåttliga användandet av antiteser,
antinomier, motsägelser, parabler, tillfälligheter och paradoxer i skapelser.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20874] **viXra:1711.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 02:09:34*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

“Outer-Art” is a movement set up as a protest against, or to ridicule, the random modern art which states that everything is… art! It was initiated by Florentin Smarandache, in 1990s, who ironically called for an upside-down artwork: to do art in a way it is not supposed to be done, i.e. to make art as ugly, as silly, as wrong as possible, and generally as impossible as possible!

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20873] **viXra:1711.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 02:10:30*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 71 Pages.

“Outer-Art” is a movement set up as a protest against, or to ridicule, the random modern art which states that everything is… art! It was initiated by Florentin Smarandache, in 1990s, who ironically called for an upside-down artwork: to do art in a way it is not supposed to be done, i.e. to make art as ugly, as silly, as wrong as possible, and generally as impossible as possible!

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20872] **viXra:1711.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 02:22:45*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed the Theory Of Evolution.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[20871] **viXra:1711.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-05 10:38:34*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski, Barrington James Taylor

**Comments:** 177 Pages.

This is a pre-print book of the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis. It includes the majority of the principles, laws, observations and refutations concerning the general theory and its development. Revisions will be done at a later date.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[20870] **viXra:1711.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-05 13:51:59*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 27 Pages. Also available as video: http://webspace.qmul.ac.uk/rocornwall/QSE_video.htm

This slide/show animation (also available as video: http://webspace.qmul.ac.uk/rocornwall/QSE_video.htm) is meant to explain some of the concepts people find confusing about the entangled communications device and various interpretations of quantum mechanics. We find the wavefunction and its collapse to be very real phenomenon.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[20869] **viXra:1711.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-05 15:39:38*

**Authors:** Han Geurdes

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A simple explanation is given for the continuation of the singlet state over large distances in an EPRBA experiment. The paper answers this question with clocks ticking in synchronized frequencies that can be carried by the particles.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[20868] **viXra:1711.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-05 20:45:06*

**Authors:** Zhang Tianshu

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In this article, we first classify A, B and C according to their respective odevity, and thereby get rid of two kinds which belong not to AX+BY=CZ. Then, affirm AX+BY=CZ in which case A, B and C have at least a common prime factor by several concrete equalities. After that, prove AX+BY≠CZ in which case A, B and C have not any common prime factor by mathematical induction with the aid of the symmetric law of odd numbers whereby even number 2W-1HZ as symmetric center after divide the inequality in four. Finally, reach a conclusion that the Beal’s conjecture holds water via the comparison between AX+BY=CZ and AX+BY≠CZ under the given requirements.

**Category:** Number Theory

[20867] **viXra:1711.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-06 02:56:59*

**Authors:** Kunle Adegoke

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

We present new infinite arctangent sums and infinite sums of products of arctangents. Many previously known evaluations appear as special cases of the general results derived in this paper.

**Category:** Number Theory

[20866] **viXra:1711.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-06 03:26:57*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The occurrence of infinite values in physical equations, such as singularity in the description of black holes, is a painstaking problem that causes many theories to break down and/or being incapable of describing extreme events. Different methods, such as re-normalization, have been used in the assessment of physical observables in order to erase the undesirable infinity. Here we propose a novel technique, based on geometrical considerations, that allows removal of infinity and achievement of physical theories void of such a problem. We compare finite quantities to curved lines endowed in positive-curvature manifolds, and intractable infinity to a straight line. In order to restore the equations and erase the straight line of infinity, we project the quantities onto curved lines endowed in negative-curvature manifolds.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[20865] **viXra:1711.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-06 03:34:27*

**Authors:** Colin James III, Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Logic has been, throughout themillennia, the most important tool for ancient philosophers/scientists in order to cope with scientific issues, in particular the study of the human brain and mind. However, the growing attention in the very last centuryon novel counterintiutiveconcepts such as quantum dynamics, have made logic incapable of describing scientific truths, so that it has been dismissed in the investigation of physical and biological issues. Here we introduce a novel logic model checker, called Meth8-VŁ4, that implements a variant of Łukasiewicz' four valued logic system. Meth8-VŁ4, overcomingmany limitations of the classical and non-classical logics, is able to assess the validity of scientific propositions related to neuroscientific frameworks,techniques andprocedures. We provide examples of the use of Meth8-VŁ4 in current nervous system’s approaches, in order to prove or disprove their validity. In particular, we show that topology-based and informationentropy-based approaches to brain activity are logically validated, while set theory issues are not.

**Category:** Mind Science

[20864] **viXra:1711.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-06 04:15:13*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper reports on the large round trip time variations observed in the Shapiro delay experiments, as reported by Bryan G Wallace , whose claim will be confirmed according to Apparent Source Theory. The 'anomalous' variations in the measured round trip time could be larger than the reported gravitational time dilation effect, typically by a factor of about five to ten. Such large anomalous variations in the round trip time that could be attributed to either the ether theory or the emission theory may have been discarded from the raw data to arrive at the relativistic prediction. The argument in this paper is that Apparent Source Theory predicts that there must have been large variations in the round trip time in the Shapiro delay experiments. And this claim is supported by the reports of Bryan G Wallace. All this casts doubts on the integrity of the experimenters. Therefore, not only did they discard data showing large variations in round trip time, they must also have manipulated the remaining data in order to 'prove' gravitational time dilation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20863] **viXra:1711.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-06 05:04:42*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

QUARKS -- A BASIC FUNDAMENTAL SUBSTANCE?

Something like a quark would be impossible. If there are 3 quarks in a proton and the quark is performing specific tasks -- that means the quark is NOT a fundamental basic thing.

And if a quark is not a basic thing that means it is also made from a group of smaller things -- that process would NOT be able to end. And it would keep getting more and more complex with more and more particles...

● 1 Proton

● 3 Quarks

● 9 Elfs

● 27 Dusters

More and more complex? Yes, the Elfs would have to do everything they do to keep themselves together plus everything the quarks are supposedly doing.

The quarks model turns into a nightmare immediately.

The only answer must be Quantum Thread Theory

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[20862] **viXra:1711.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-06 07:02:12*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 12 Pages. This paper represents the third essay of the "Trilogy on the knowable Universe"

This paper represents the third essay of the "Trilogy on the Knowable Universe". Here a scientific hypothesis on the origin of the Universe is presented and that hypothesis is described through a succession of stages, in concordance with the Theory of Reference Frames. According to this interpretation the Universe isn't a closed and finite system, as it considered in present prevailing models. The Universe, here supposed, is an unlimited system whose origin is characterized by numerous nanobigbangs in the order of a series of subsequent stages rather than by an unique central explosive bigbang. Because the experimental science can give reliable answers to all questions unless the first question on the origin of the Universe and the last question on its final future, the interpretation of this essay on the origin of the Universe is only a scientific hypothesis that doesn't pretend to represent the truth on the origin of the Universe. Besides this hypothesis is in conflict neither with the religious narration of the Genesis nor with the philosophical speculation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20861] **viXra:1711.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-01 20:46:41*

**Authors:** Jose P. Koshy

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Submitted to MNRAS, but rejected on the basis that the theory behind speed-dependent gravity is not well explained. However, explaining that part in detail renders it unsuitable for MINRAS.

The alternate model put forth in my previous papers visualize that gravity is finite and G depends on the square of the speed. A higher G implies that less matter is required in galaxies for satisfying Kepler's laws of orbiting motion. A finite gravity implies that distance between bodies depend on mass, and so the distribution of bodies in galaxies is nearly uniform; this in turn gives flat rotation curves. The gravitational lensing maps of Bullet Cluster is in perfect agreement with speed-dependent gravity. Speed-dependent gravity thus resolves the anomaly of missing matter, and completely rules out the existence of any dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20860] **viXra:1711.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 02:27:04*

**Authors:** Jean Dezert, Albena Tchamova, Pavlina Konstantinova, Erik Blasch

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper presents a comparative analysis of performances of two types of multi-target tracking algorithms: 1)the Joint Probabilistic Data Association Filter (JPDAF), and 2) classical Kalman Filter based algorithms for multi-target tracking improved with Quality Assessment of Data Association (QADA) method using optimal data association. The evaluation
is based on Monte Carlo simulations for difficult maneuvering multiple-target tracking (MTT) problems in clutter.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20859] **viXra:1711.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 02:28:48*

**Authors:** Yilin Dong, Xinde Li, Jean Dezert

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In many applications involving epistemic uncertainties usually modeled by belief functions, it is often necessary to approximate general (non-Bayesian) basic belief assignments
(BBAs) to subjective probabilities (called Bayesian BBAs). This necessity occurs if one needs to embed the fusion result in a system
based on the probabilistic framework and Bayesian inference (e.g. tracking systems), or if one wants to use classical decision theory to make a decision.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20858] **viXra:1711.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 02:30:34*

**Authors:** Changrong Ye, Xiaoping Zeng, Guojun Li, Chenyuan Shi, Xin Jian, Xichuan Zhou

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is one of the most prominent causes of death among patients with
cardiac diseases. Since ventricular arrhythmia is the main cause of SCD and it can be predicted by T wave alternans (TWA), the detection of TWA in the body-surface electrocardiograph (ECG) plays an important role in the prevention of SCD. But due to the multi-source nature of TWA, the nonlinear propagation through thorax, and the effects of the strong noises, the information from
different channels is uncertain and competitive with each other.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20857] **viXra:1711.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 02:32:29*

**Authors:** Hongfei Li, Jinran Wang, Hongbin Jin, Kangsheng Tian, Zhongliang Jing

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A great deal of interest has been paid to computation problem of Dezert-Smarandache theory (DSmT). But there are still problems on complex analysis and frequently search. The computational measurement of DSmT is presented in which the computation is generated in the search for focal elements, the combination of focal elements and basic belief assignment, the expression of focal elements.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20856] **viXra:1711.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 02:33:42*

**Authors:** Yilin Dong, Xinde Li, Jean Dezert

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The study of alternative probabilistic transformation (PT) in DS theory has emerged recently as an interesting topic, especially in decision making applications.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[20855] **viXra:1711.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 02:35:00*

**Authors:** Deyun Zhou, Qian Pan, Gyan Chhipi-Shrestha, Xiaoyang Li, Kun Zhang, Kasun Hewage, Rehan Sadiq

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Dempster-Shafer evidence theory has been widely used in various applications. However, to solve the problem of counter-intuitive outcomes by using classical Dempster-Shafer combination rule is still an open issue while fusing the conflicting evidences.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[8672] **viXra:1711.0345 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-19 19:02:50*

**Authors:** Capt. Joseph H. Forrington

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

General Relativity is solely dependent on the apparent difference in the rate of time between frames. This theory therefore attempts to explain what we are seeing in the universe through relativistic effects in time rather than through the Big Bang, Dark Energy and Dark Matter. Properly understood, Einstein’s field equations can explain the rotational velocities within flattened spiral galaxies. To that end, this paper clarifies how General Relativity describes the evolution of events and spaces within the continuum, rather than the movement of particles through pre-existing, static, spaces. Gravitational fields, (dilation gradients), have different shapes around different shaped masses. Stellar systems are spherical and events appear to evolve forward at an increasingly accelerated rate as the dilation gradient deepens approaching the center of the system. In flattened spiral galaxies, the gradients act across the broad flat surface of the disk from above and below, evolving objects forward at the same rate and hence the same velocity. IBEX failing to find a shock wave at the edge of the heliopause as expected is a proof of the concepts regarding the evolution and nature of the continuum explained here, as also might be the “dead zone” discovered by Pioneer 1. This theory also describes the dynamics in time by which the CMB is generated, accelerated, and concentrated, converting the potential energy of the spacetime continuum into real energy and mass. A proof of the dynamic developed here is LIGO’S Sept. 14, 2015 detection of a “gravity wave”; a distortion in the rate of time, an acceleration in the rate, travelling at c through space and distorting space in the physical form of the antenna. The theory also explains black holes and why our limits of perception within a black hole, and at ~ 13.8 Gly, are due to the limit of relativity, where our perception transitions from time-like to space-like. This is where ∆D, the difference in the rate of time between frames, = 1 s/s, which occurs both at the event horizon of a black hole and looking outward to the limits of perception. It occurs looking outward because events are being constantly accelerated in the rate of time, giving older frames progressively slower rates the older they are. This creates a time dilation gradient and the Hubble shift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8671] **viXra:1711.0336 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-19 12:43:47*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The Brannen neutrino mass triplet extends Koide's rule for the charged leptons, which was used to correctly predict the Tau mass. Assuming that Koide's rule is exact, we consider the small deviation from the 2/9 lepton phase, noting connections to the CKM matrix and arithmetic information. An estimate for the fine structure constant is included.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8670] **viXra:1711.0332 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-17 02:05:35*

**Authors:** HaiYing Shen

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The bioelectric excitation of action potential is the essential character of the living state of eukaryotic organisms, and it is the principal groundwork of physiology. The science and technology are advancing with the progress of the times, however, the principle on action potential remain stalled at the apparent cognition of last century due to the restriction of that era. Based on the highly developed molecular cell biology researches, this work brings insight into the endogenous mechanism of action potential, detects the every detail of this dynamic system: the physical and chemical attributes of each participant and the prerequisites of layout; and especially, focuses on the intrinsic relation and interaction in it. It gives the bran-new presentation on action potential mechanism and its physical and chemical regulation, and importantly, investigates the in-depth insight on the principle of dynamic homeostasis performed by action potential.
The optimal way to operate action potential dynamic system is in the way of electromagnetic interaction: the action potential is the electric current formed by the motion of mobile charged ions, and the electromagnetic field that drives the motion of electric charges is the interaction between the gridding ground substance meshwork of cell and the mobile ions. Since the description of Maxwell's electromagnetic equations, it is first time that clearly illustrates the practical model for understanding the operation of the interaction between magnetism and electricity. It is the bioelectromagnetic mechanism created by the nature that highlights the prospect of practicable technology on the development of bioenergy resource.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[8669] **viXra:1711.0331 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-17 21:11:49*

**Authors:** HaiYing Shen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This paper is the satellite letter of The Eukaryotic Mechanism Directed by Bioelectricity: Creation and Enlightenment (I)

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[8668] **viXra:1711.0331 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-17 02:02:25*

**Authors:** HaiYing Shen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This paper is the satellite paper of The Eukaryotic Mechanism Directed by Bioelectricity: Creation and Enlightenment (I)

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[8667] **viXra:1711.0317 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-16 11:38:05*

**Authors:** Giordano Colò

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

We try to give a formulation of Strominger-Yau-Zaslow conjecture
on mirror symmetry by studying the singularities of special Lagrangian
submanifolds of 3-dimensional Calabi-Yau manifolds. In this
paper we’ll give the description of the boundary of the moduli space
of special Lagrangian manifolds.
We do this by introducing special Lagrangian cones in the more
general Kähler manifolds. Then we can focus on the textitalmost
Calabi-Yau manifolds. We consider the behaviour of the Lagrangian
manifolds near the conical singular points to classify them according
to the way they are approximated from the asymptotic cone. Then
we analyze their deformations in Calabi-Yau manifolds.

**Category:** Geometry

[8666] **viXra:1711.0316 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-17 02:13:28*

**Authors:** HaiYing Shen

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The electricity and electromagnetic field are the intrinsic property of the nature and universe, and the life created by the nature. The eukaryotic cells, rather than prokaryotic cells, perform the complicated and highly developed function of the organisms. On eukaryotic mechanism, two vital issues are urgent to update: (i) whether or not the bioelectric excitation operates in the interior of eukaryotic cells and how it operates the activity of eukaryotic cells; and (ii) how the organelles are managed into the coordinated and united work, and from where the potent dynamic energy that support the activity of organelles generates.
The eukaryotic cells are prior to prokaryotic cells with highly developed membrane-bound organelles. What this work focuses on is not only the complicated membrane system of eukaryotic cells, but with the bran-new insight: as an engineer, given the materials and the layout of eukaryotic membrane system, what does it imply? — This work discovers the intrinsic principle and mechanism on eukaryotic working directed by bioelectricity and bioelectromagnetic field, from materials and layout, to flowchart, presenting the perfect and ingenious design art of the nature on the creation of bioorganic electricity and eukaryotic working, which endows human being the precious enlightenment on the generation and utilization of bioorganic electricity.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[8665] **viXra:1711.0316 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-15 06:46:41*

**Authors:** HaiYing Shen

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The electricity and electromagnetic field are the intrinsic property of the nature and universe, and the life created by the nature. The eukaryotic cells, rather than prokaryotic cells, perform the complicated and highly developed function of the organisms. On eukaryotic mechanism, two vital issues are urgent to update: (i) whether or not the bioelectric excitation operates in the interior of eukaryotic cells and how it operates the activity of eukaryotic cells; and (ii) how the organelles are managed into the coordinated and united work, and from where the potent dynamic energy that support the activity of organelles generates.
The eukaryotic cells are prior to prokaryotic cells with highly developed membrane-bound organelles. What this work focuses on is not only the complicated membrane system of eukaryotic cells, but with the bran-new insight: as an engineer, given the materials and the layout of eukaryotic membrane system, what does it imply?This work discovers the intrinsic principle and mechanism on eukaryotic working directed by bioelectricity and bioelectromagnetic field, from materials and layout, to flowchart, presenting the perfect and ingenious design art of the nature on the creation of bioorganic electricity and eukaryotic working, which endows human being the precious enlightenment on the generation and utilization of bioorganic electricity.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[8664] **viXra:1711.0315 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-17 02:34:40*

**Authors:** HaiYing Shen

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

The perpetual operation of energy in vigorous state, instead of standstill (heat death), is the essential vitality of biology and the universe, what principle of nature operates it? The perpetual refers to the state-in-operation of power system in dynamic homeostasis founded on ground energy, instead of the confusion without energy resource or energy dissipated. To pursue the perpetual dynamic power and energy creation is the summit realm of practical technology. However, it has long been disregarded theoretically and practically. This work starts from the highly developed biological studies, and by utilizing the intrinsic principle refined, explores the intrinsic principle, operating mechanism and energy creation of perpetual electromagnetic dynamic power from biology to the nature in macroscale and microscale. The electromagnetic perpetual motion generates from the relativity of field (thermal field, electromagnetic field and gravitation field) as the ground energy to operate energy conversion of thermodynamics, electromagnetic dynamics and fluid dynamics. It creates the potent energy of electricity and electromagnetic dynamic power. This work historically discovers a new milestone on the generating principle and operating mechanism of perpetual electromagnetic dynamic power and energy creation in biology and the nature. The strict and unified principle dominates the vigorous living state from the biology to the Earth’s geological and meteorological phenomena and celestial motions, not obfuscated but clarified, not disordered but in supreme harmony and homeostasis. And it is first time that clearly presents the applicable molecular biochemical model for the digitalized perpetual operation of bioelectricity and bioenergy resource, and provides the practicable reference on the development of harmless fine-energy power, with the purpose learning from and emulating the nature.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[8663] **viXra:1711.0296 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-17 23:40:31*

**Authors:** Kurmet Sultan

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Russian version

In this paper we give a brief proof of the Collatz conjecture. It is shown that it is more efficient to start calculating the Collatz function C (n) from odd numbers 6m ± 1. It is further proved that if we calculate by the formula ((6n ± 1)·2^q -1) / 3 on the basis of a sequence of numbers 6n ± 1, increasing the exponent of two by 1 at each iteration, then to each number of the form 6n ± 1 there will correspond a set whose elements are numbers of the form 3t, 6m-1 and 6m + 1. Moreover, all sets are disjoint. Then it is shown that if we construct micro graphs of numbers by combining the numbers 6n ± 1 with their elements of the set 3t, 6m-1 and 6m + 1, then combine the micro graphs by combining equal numbers 6n ± 1 and 6m ± 1, then a tree-like fractal graph of numbers. A tree-like fractal graph of numbers, each vertex of which corresponds to numbers of the form 6m ± 1, is a proof of the Collatz conjecture, since any of its vertices is connected with a finite vertex connected with unity.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8662] **viXra:1711.0295 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-21 02:22:06*

**Authors:** Jeremiah Johnson

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Several updates made to the draft, removing speculation and cleaning up the equations and units.

Examining the relationship between solar neutrino flux and gravity finds they correlate by...
(equation and variables removed due to Latex not showing, see pdf document). The correlation finds a match to within 0.74% of modern standard solar models and 0.63% of solar neutrino measured values(well within the margin of error). I also consider how this simplifies the Schwarzschild radius and the ramifications of this model on gravitational time dilation. I consider how the relation between neutrinos and gravity may help unravel the positive cosmological constant and Supernova behavior. Furthermore, I find evidence of a direct relationship between quantum angular momentum spin and gravity. Lastly, three testable predictions are provided.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8661] **viXra:1711.0291 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-16 09:44:04*

**Authors:** Timothy W. Jones

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Clarifications of lemmas, slight re-organization.

This article simplifies Niven's proofs that cos and cosh are irrational when evaluated at non-zero rational numbers. Only derivatives of polynomials are used. This is the third article in a series of articles that explores a unified approach to classic irrationality and transcendence proofs.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8660] **viXra:1711.0291 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-14 09:52:19*

**Authors:** Timothy W. Jones

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Minor clarifications and edits of previous version.

This article simplifies Niven's proofs that cos and cosh are irrational when evaluated at non-zero rational numbers. Only derivatives of polynomials are used. This is the third article in a series of articles that explores a unified approach to classic irrationality and transcendence proofs.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8659] **viXra:1711.0265 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-17 16:28:38*

**Authors:** Lixin Fan

**Comments:** 76 Pages.

This article aims to establish a concrete and fundamental connection between two important fields in artificial intelligence i.e. deep learning and fuzzy logic. On the one hand, we hope this article will pave the way for fuzzy logic researchers to develop convincing applications and tackle challenging problems which are of interest to machine learning community too. On the other hand, deep learning could benefit from the comparative research by re-examining many trail-and-error heuristics in the lens of fuzzy logic, and consequently, distilling the essential ingredients with rigorous foundations. Based on the new findings reported in [38] and this article, we believe the time is ripe to revisit fuzzy neural network as a crucial bridge between two schools of AI research i.e. symbolic versus connectionist [93] and eventually open the black-box of artificial neural networks.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[8658] **viXra:1711.0258 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-10 12:40:06*

**Authors:** Timothy W. Jones

**Comments:** 6 Pages. A more complete bibliography is included.

This is companion article to The Irrationality and Transcendence of e Connected. In it the irrationality of pi^n is proven using the same lemmas used for e^n. Also the transcendence of pi is given as a simple extension of this irrationality result.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8657] **viXra:1711.0244 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-16 18:38:56*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** Pages.

Bringing an elementary knowledge of vectors to Bell (1964), we amend Bell's inequality, reveal his mistake, refute his theorem: all in the hope of helping STEM students study one of the most famous—and strangest—works in the history of physics. For who else but Bell uses flawed approximations of unnecessary experiments to invalidate the flawed use of a fact: and then rejects that fact? Here begins a precautionary tale from a creative life in STEM.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8656] **viXra:1711.0243 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-13 11:42:10*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

It is noted that the known solution for a spherical electromagnetic wave in the far zone does not satisfy the law of conservation of energy (it is retained only on the average), the electric and magnetic intensities of the same name (in coordinate) are in phase, only one of Maxwell's equations is satisfied. A solution is offered that is free from these shortcomings.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[8655] **viXra:1711.0242 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-13 11:40:43*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

It is noted that the known solution for a spherical electromagnetic wave in the far zone does not satisfy the law of conservation of energy (it is retained only on the average), the electric and magnetic intensities of the same name (in coordinate) are in phase, only one of Maxwell's equations is satisfied. A solution is offered that is free from these shortcomings. \\ Отмечается, что известное решение для сферической электромагнитной волны в дальней зоне не удовлетворяет закону сохранения энергии (она сохраняется только в среднем), одноименные (по координатам) электрические и магнитные напряженности синфазны, выполняется только одно из системы уравнений Максвелла. Предлагается решение, свободное от этих недостатков.

**Category:** Classical Physics