**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(59) - 0703(50) - 0704(5) - 0705(1) - 0706(8) - 0707(2) - 0708(3) - 0709(3) - 0710(1) - 0711(6) - 0712(3)

2008 - 0801(4) - 0802(4) - 0803(2) - 0804(9) - 0805(4) - 0806(1) - 0807(12) - 0808(6) - 0809(3) - 0810(16) - 0811(5) - 0812(9)

2009 - 0901(3) - 0902(7) - 0903(6) - 0904(5) - 0907(50) - 0908(109) - 0909(61) - 0910(66) - 0911(64) - 0912(54)

2010 - 1001(46) - 1002(51) - 1003(265) - 1004(138) - 1005(110) - 1006(68) - 1007(55) - 1008(91) - 1009(71) - 1010(61) - 1011(76) - 1012(52)

2011 - 1101(100) - 1102(55) - 1103(122) - 1104(82) - 1105(41) - 1106(61) - 1107(52) - 1108(49) - 1109(59) - 1110(71) - 1111(114) - 1112(86)

2012 - 1201(100) - 1202(80) - 1203(92) - 1204(93) - 1205(111) - 1206(91) - 1207(98) - 1208(222) - 1209(95) - 1210(163) - 1211(137) - 1212(141)

2013 - 1301(173) - 1302(147) - 1303(196) - 1304(150) - 1305(182) - 1306(208) - 1307(152) - 1308(139) - 1309(190) - 1310(242) - 1311(165) - 1312(202)

2014 - 1401(185) - 1402(141) - 1403(842) - 1404(253) - 1405(326) - 1406(177) - 1407(203) - 1408(218) - 1409(221) - 1410(186) - 1411(486) - 1412(240)

2015 - 1501(226) - 1502(217) - 1503(245) - 1504(217) - 1505(216) - 1506(202) - 1507(205) - 1508(355) - 1509(264) - 1510(460) - 1511(230)

Any replacements are listed further down

[12278] **viXra:1511.0250 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-25 09:49:10*

**Authors:** Jose P Koshy

**Comments:** 6 pages - The thirteenth paper based on reality

It is proposed that force is finite and remains completely used at any given instant. So, distance between bodies is not arbitrary, and the interactions in many-body systems can be interpreted in a simple way by taking that force exists between immediate neighbours only, forming chains. The nature of interactions and force-constants in different types of many-body systems are explained in this paper. This has much significance in condensed matter physics, which deals with many-body systems made up of atoms.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[12277] **viXra:1511.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-25 09:53:03*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Researchers from Stanford have advanced a long-standing problem in quantum physics – how to send "entangled" particles over long distances. [9]
Scientists at the University of York's Centre for Quantum Technology have made an important step in establishing scalable and secure high rate quantum networks. [8]
As do all advancing technologies, they will also create new nightmares. The most worrisome development will be in cryptography. Developing new standards for protecting data won’t be easy. The RSA standards that are in common use each took five years to develop. Ralph Merkle, a pioneer of public-key cryptography, points out that the technology of public-key systems, because it is less well-known, will take longer to update than these — optimistically, ten years. And then there is a matter of implementation so that computer systems worldwide are protected. Without a particular sense of urgency or shortcuts, Merkle says, it could easily be 20 years before we’ve replaced all of the Internet’s present security-critical infrastructure. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[12276] **viXra:1511.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-25 10:07:27*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 8 Pages. in Russian

We consider the theoretical basis of the Taylor vortex. The proposed mathematical model allows to build a structure of the flow between the cylinders, where arise regularly alternating vortices. \\ Рассматривается теоретическое обоснование вихря Тейлора. Предлагаемая математическая модель позволяет построить структуру течения между цилиндрами, где возникают правильно чередующиеся вихри с правым и левым вращением и с осями, параллельными направлению окружной скорости вращающегося цилиндра.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[12275] **viXra:1511.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-25 11:42:54*

**Authors:** Sinisa Bubonja

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

We are interested in finding sums of some divergent series using the general method for summing divergent series discovered in our previous work and symbolic mathematical computation program Mathematica. We make a comparison to other five summation methods implemented in Mathematica and show that our method is the stronger method than methods of Abel, Borel, Cesaro, Dirichlet and Euler.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[12274] **viXra:1511.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-25 07:46:15*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 93 Pages. In French.

It is a course of numerical analysis and applied mathematics for the students of the geomatic and topography option of the ESAT School, Tunis, Tunisia.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[12273] **viXra:1511.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-24 16:21:26*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper solves the problem of the right scalene triangle through a general sequential solution. A simplified solution is also presented.

**Category:** Geometry

[12272] **viXra:1511.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-24 18:09:13*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Published in Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk 185 (11) 1225 ± 1227 (2015)

It is shown that the gravitational and inertial masses of a photon or indeed of any body are equal. Motion past and free fall onto a center of gravitational attraction are considered.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12271] **viXra:1511.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-24 18:44:17*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Stevens

**Comments:** 120 Pages.

Speed C= Distance/time=0

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12270] **viXra:1511.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-24 18:59:50*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Stevens

**Comments:** 120 Pages.

Speed=C= DISTANCE/TIME=0

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[12269] **viXra:1511.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-25 01:47:44*

**Authors:** Hyoyoung Choi

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In commemoration of the 100th anniversary of general relativity, many others would look back on its history and achievements, so I will write mine focusing on the problems of general relativity and their solutions. Since its publication, general theory of relativity has been numerously challenged but time-tested in the process through numerous experiments.
However, the possibility and demand for revised general relativity is also coming to the fore.
This arises from its own problem of general relativity or is required from newly found observations. In my eyes, currently, there are three big problems with respect to general relativity. 1) Problems of integration with quantum mechanics and the case of a very big curvature in space-time. 2) The theory includes the existence of singularity, which denies the application of general relativity itself, as a solution for field equation. 3) Rising of the problems of dark energy and dark matter. I would investigate these problems in reverse order and propose my ideas to work them out or solutions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12268] **viXra:1511.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-25 01:47:12*

**Authors:** Miroslav Súkeník, Jozef Šima

**Comments:** 10 Pages. No comment

In the paper, relation of logarithmic integral (li) function to the metric of nondecelerative universe model is discussed. It opens the coupling of mathematic prime number theory and macroworld. Up-to-now there has been just a relation between zeros distribution of the zeta function, theory of random matrix and distribution of energy levels in quantum chaotic systems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12267] **viXra:1511.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-25 02:01:26*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has shed light into scientifically explaining the aspect that ‘One’s Good Nature Is One’s Real Wealth’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[12266] **viXra:1511.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-25 03:03:17*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The power spectral formula of the radiation of an electron moving in a rotating
dielectric disc is derived. We suppose the index of refraction is constant during the
rotation. This is in accord with the Fermi dielectric rotating disc for the determination
of the light polarization gyration. While the well-known Cherenkov effect, transition
effect, the Cherenkov-synchrotron effect due to the motion of particles in magnetic field
are experimentally confirmed, the new phenomenon - the radiation due to a charge
motion in rotating dielectric medium and the Cherenkov-synchrotron radiation due to the
superluminal motion of particle in the rotating dielectric medium is still in the state of
the preparation of experiment.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[12265] **viXra:1511.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-24 14:25:28*

**Authors:** M. A. Thomas

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

The subject of fine tuning in physics is a long contentious issue especially now as it has hitched a ride on the Multiverse bandwagon. The mathematics of quadratic forms are predominately featured and relate the physics parameters G h c, which in turn are weighted during the Planck Era(s) determined by relative Planck time clocking. This simplifies the search to these three values as being the important apparent fine-tuned parameters (quasi fine tuning) for determining the gravitational build structures restricted to SM-4D type Universes. Two gravitational coupling constants (dimensionless) are prescribed within the Ghc complex. Both describe the relative rigidity of gravitational physics in the low energy build of our Universe (General Relativity toward endpoint neutron star, black hole formation). A Master vacuum field symmetry relation (Yang-Mills) is presented using both gravitational coupling constants in their respective degenerate domains (electron to neutron) which shows a relative rigid coherent field of parameters from the Codata set showing the interdependency of these values with each other, particularly G,h,c and particle masses. A consensus example aligns the mass-energy value of the charged pi-meson to 140.050502 MeV. The interdependency demands that the gravitational constant’s empirical value to be 6.67354236 x 10-11 m3kg-1s-2 using Codata 2014 values. The Yang-Mills relation has a perfect symmetry (hidden) due to the inclusion of the very weak gravitational charge (Zxx). This is then the weak gravity unification incorporated into the Standard Model. If the Yang-Mills symmetry relation is true then a double copy pion field permeates the observable Universe.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[12264] **viXra:1511.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-24 11:35:56*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Make sure your explanation or debunk really is an explanation or debunk.

Or you are only doing the equivalent of calling a ghost...

"Spooky Action at a Distance"

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[12263] **viXra:1511.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-24 08:31:11*

**Authors:** S.S.Vilkovskii

**Comments:** 10 Pages. The English text with Russian translation

Possibility of formation of a stationary de Broglie wave by the coordinated interaction of periodic processes in elementary particles is considered. It is shown, the length of a wave of an elementary particle corresponds to a half of length of a wave of a low-frequency bending-around total wave of high-frequency processes of a particle and
its environment.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[12262] **viXra:1511.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-24 04:47:27*

**Authors:** M. F. Bugallo, L. Martino, J. Corander

**Comments:** Digital Signal Processing, Volume 47, Pages 36–49, 2015.

In Bayesian signal processing, all the information about the unknowns of interest is contained in their posterior distributions.
The unknowns can be parameters of a model, or a model and its parameters. In many important problems, these distributions
are impossible to obtain in analytical form. An alternative is to generate their approximations by Monte Carlo-based methods
like Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling, adaptive importance sampling (AIS) or particle filtering (PF). While MCMC
sampling and PF have received considerable attention in the literature and are reasonably well understood, the AIS methodology remains relatively unexplored. This article reviews the basics of AIS as well as provides a comprehensive survey of the state-of the-art of the topic. Some of its most relevant implementations are revisited and compared through computer simulation examples.

**Category:** Statistics

[12261] **viXra:1511.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-24 05:31:30*

**Authors:** V. Elvira, L. Martino, D. Luengo, M. F. Bugallo

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

Importance Sampling methods are broadly used to approximate posterior distributions or some of their moments. In its
standard approach, samples are drawn from a single proposal distribution and weighted properly. However, since the performance depends on the mismatch between the targeted and the proposal distributions, several proposal densities are often employed for the generation of samples. Under this Multiple Importance Sampling (MIS) scenario, many works have addressed the selection or adaptation of the proposal distributions, interpreting the sampling and the weighting steps in different ways. In this paper, we establish a general framework for sampling and weighting procedures when more than one proposal is available. The most relevant MIS schemes in the literature are encompassed within the new framework, and, moreover novel valid schemes appear naturally. All the MIS schemes are compared and ranked in terms of the variance of the associated estimators. Finally, we provide illustrative examples which reveal that, even with a good choice of the proposal densities, a careful interpretation of the sampling and weighting procedures can make a significant difference in the performance of the method.

**Category:** Statistics

[12260] **viXra:1511.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-24 06:28:32*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Here we explore the structure of DC and the flow of electromagnetic energy in a wire. We show that the flow of electromagnetic energy is spreading inside the wire along a spiral. For a constant current value the density of spiral trajectory decreases with decreasing remaining load resistivity.

**Category:** Geophysics

[12259] **viXra:1511.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-23 18:21:59*

**Authors:** Valeriy Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 36 Pages. beamer.cls. Talks at the 5th Workshop FLASY2015, Manzanillo, Mexico, Jun. 29 - Jul. 2, 2015, and at the XI Workshop of the Division of Gravitation and Mathematical Physics (DGFM SMF),), Guanajuato, Mexico, Nov. 16-20, 2015

We study the discrete symmetries (P,C and T) on the kinematical level within the extended Poincare Group. On the basis of the Silagadze research, we investigate the question of the definitions of the discrete symmetry operators both on the classical level, and in the secondary-quantization scheme. We study the physical contents within several bases: light-front formulation, helicity basis, angular momentum basis, and so on, on several practical examples. We analize problems in construction of the neutral particles in the the
(1/2,0)+(0,1/2) representation, the (1,0)+(0,1) and the (1/2,1/2) representations of the Lorentz Group. As well known, the photon has the quantum numbers 1-, so the (1,0)+(0,1) representation of the Lorentz group is relevant to its description. We have ambiguities in the definitions of the corresponding operators P, C; T, which lead to different physical consequences. It appears that the answers are connected with the helicity basis properties, and commutations/anticommutations of the corresponding operators, C, P, T, and C^2, P^2, (CP)^2 properties.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[12258] **viXra:1511.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-23 22:19:44*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I conjecture that there exist, for any p prime, p greater than or equal to 7, an infinity of positive integers n such that the number n*p^2 – n*p + p – 2 is prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[12257] **viXra:1511.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-24 03:22:04*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra bagadi

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has presented a certain scheme in which
one can establish Relativistic Connection Of Transformations Between Standard
Prime Metric [29], [30] And/ Or Reverse Prime Metric Within Some Selected
Domains Of Complementable Bounds [22].

**Category:** General Mathematics

[12256] **viXra:1511.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-23 13:55:19*

**Authors:** Hitesh Jain

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We obtained two interesting congruence relations related to Wilson’s theorem.

**Category:** Number Theory

[12255] **viXra:1511.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-23 14:26:13*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

According to the Clay Mathematics Institute, “The prime number theorem determines the average distribution of the primes. The Riemann hypothesis tells us about the deviation from the average. Formulated in Riemann's 1859 paper, it asserts that all the 'non-obvious' zeros of the zeta function are complex numbers with real part 1/2.” Furthermore, if you can write out a valid mathematical proof of the Riemann hypothesis and get it published in a refereed mathematical journal then the Clay Mathematics Institute will, after due deliberation, give you a prize of one million U.S. dollars. The Riemann hypothesis has a generalization to Dirichlet L-functions, among others. What might the Riemann hypothesis and medical predictions have in common? Experience suggests that both are difficult. It might be that accurate prediction of outcomes is mathematically and empirically intractable in almost all interesting cases. Stephen Wolfram’s Principle of Computational Equivalence states that “Almost all processes that are not obviously simple can be viewed as computations of equivalent sophistication.” This brief communication offers two conjectures concerning the generalized Riemann hypothesis for Dirichlet L-functions. In addition to medical doctors and number theory, this brief communication makes reference to Abraham Lincoln and a set of dogs with cardinality one.

**Category:** Number Theory

[12254] **viXra:1511.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-23 15:08:55*

**Authors:** Richard J. Mathar

**Comments:** 31 Pages. Includes a Java program licensed under the LGPL v3.0.

A terrace form assigns an integer altitude to each point of a finite two-dimensional square grid
such that the maximum altitude difference between a point and its four neighbors is one.
It is 2-way monotonic if the sign of this altitude difference is zero or one for steps to the East or steps
to the South. We provide tables for the number of 2-way monotonic terrace forms as a function of grid size
and maximum altitude difference, and point at the equivalence to the number of 3-colorings of the grid.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[12253] **viXra:1511.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-23 10:09:23*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 10 Pages. In French.

Cette étude permettra d'analyser les fondements d'un réseau géodésique de base ou primordial et de comparer les déformations que subit le réseau en des points séparés par de longues distances.

**Category:** Geophysics

[12252] **viXra:1511.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-23 10:41:02*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

A collision of two very big pieces of space leads to the initial conditions for the inflation field and next to the succeeding phase transitions of the superluminal inflation field (i.e. of the superluminal Higgs field composed of the non-gravitating tachyons) so there appear different scales. Due to the inflation, there appear two boundaries of our Cosmos that cause that the basic physical constants are invariant. The fourth phase transition of the Higgs field, described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory, leads to the cosmological structures (protoworlds) which appeared in our Cosmos after the inflation. Evolution of the protoworlds leads to the dark matter, dark energy, and expanding universes - the three components of a universe consist of the components of the luminal Einstein spacetime that appeared during the inflation (the components are the neutrino-antineutrino pairs). The inflows of the dark matter and dark energy into the baryonic matter cause the exits of the universes from their black-hole state. To describe correctly dynamics of an expanding universe, we must know that the speed of light in “vacuum” c, is the speed in relation to source or in relation to a last-interaction object/detector - it follows from the superluminal quantum entanglement. Such cosmological dynamics shows that the Universe is 21.614 Gyr old but we can see only the last period 13.866 +- 0.096 Gyr of evolution of the galaxies. Moreover, the last period is the time distance, not the spatial distance that is equal to about 4.971 Gyr only. Among many other things, we calculated the abundances of the dark matter, dark energy and the baryonic matter, Hubble constant, number of CMB photons, we described the origin of the large-scale structure of the Universe, the anisotropy power for the CMB radiation, and the standard ruler in cosmology, we calculated as well the ratio of B-modes to E-modes and abundance of helium and hydrogen.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12251] **viXra:1511.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-23 04:11:56*

**Authors:** Cheng Tianren

**Comments:** 276 Pages.

This journal is not a popular journal for public, it is a professional research level journal for scientist and artist, even for litterateur. It focus on many topics in mainstream science, especially for future science. Since this journal is very complicated and professional, so we use the “problem-proposed problem-analysis problem-solving” mode to explain our research,to make readers easier to understand. If you truly want to improve your knowledge by reading this journal, it is better for you to study the problems mentioned in this journal carefully. To write down your unusual solutions for these problems after you have read them. Any good idea about the problems appeared in this journal can be mail to author cheng.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[12250] **viXra:1511.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-22 23:07:57*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The mass of the Sun is reduced due to the radiation of the Sun, which causes that the planets are getting further away from the Sun. According to theoretical derivation, the rate that the planet is getting further away from the Sun equals the rate of solar mass reduction. Currently the rate that the Earth is getting further away from the Sun equals 1.02m per century, for Mercury it equals to 0.40m per century, and for Pluto it equals 40.32m per century.
Key words: Sun, planet, Earth, rate, get further away from

**Category:** Astrophysics

[12249] **viXra:1511.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-23 01:51:30*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 86 Pages. in French, with an index.

A course of mathematical cartography and transformations between geodetic systems, given to the students of Geomatic department of the ESAT school, the first semester of 2015.

**Category:** Geophysics

[12248] **viXra:1511.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-23 03:45:24*

**Authors:** Dhananjay P. Mehendale

**Comments:** 4 pages.

Prime numbers are infinite since the time when Euclid gave his one of the most beautiful proof of this fact! Prime number theorem (PNT) reestablishes this fact and further it also gives estimate about the count of primes less than or equal to x. PNT states that as x tends to infinity the count of primes up to x tends to x divided by the natural logarithm of x. Twin primes are those primes p for which p+2 is also a prime number. The well known twin prime conjecture (TPC) states that twin primes are (also) infinite. Related to twin primes further conjectures that can be made by extending the thought along the line of TPC, are as follows: Prime numbers p for which p+2n is also prime are (also) infinite for all n, where n = 1(TPC), 2, 3, …, k, …. In this paper we provide a simple argument in support of all twin prime conjectures.

**Category:** Number Theory

[12247] **viXra:1511.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-22 15:16:03*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

According to establishment astronomy globular clusters are older than open clusters. This is based on false reasoning rooted in the myth called "Big Bang" which determines the stars' ages based on how much metal they have absorbed. Four rational explanations are provided as to why globular clusters are younger than open clusters.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[12246] **viXra:1511.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-22 10:57:46*

**Authors:** Felix M. Lev

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The postulate that coordinate and momentum representations are related to each other by the Fourier transform has been accepted from the beginning of quantum theory. As a consequence, coordinate wave functions of photons emitted by stars have cosmic sizes. This results in a paradox because predictions of the theory contradict observations. The reason of the paradox and its resolution are discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[12245] **viXra:1511.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-22 11:25:28*

**Authors:** M. E. Hassani

**Comments:** 15 Pages; 1Table; 17 References

The main conceptual foundation of previous work on the Combined Gravitational Action is briefly surveyed. Next, we derive a general expression for the CGA-effective (radial) potential energy in order to investigate the behavior and shape of the orbits of a test-body during its orbital motion inside the vicinity of the principal gravitational source. And as direct consequences, two expressions for the concepts of gravitational momentum and dynamic gravitational force are derived. Starting from the concept of the combined gravitational potential energy and using only the familiar tools of Newtonian mechanics, the classical Binet's orbital equation is combgravactionalized and its physico-mathematical expression is exactly identical to that already found in the context of general relativity theory, which enables us to calculate, among other things, the secular perigee precession of the Moon; the secular perihelion advance of the planets and the angular deflection of light passing near the massive object.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[12244] **viXra:1511.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-22 11:56:40*

**Authors:** Bolonkin Alexander

**Comments:** 283 Pages. That is only link to PhD dissertation (283 ps).

Abstract (in Russian). Абстракт
Это скан докторской диссертации Александра Болонкина НОВЫЕ МЕТОДЫ ОПТИМИЗАЦИИ и ИХ ПРИМЕНЕНИЕ В ЗАДАЧАХ ДИНАМИКИ УПРАВЛЯЕМЫХ СИСТЕМ, защищенной в 1971г , содержащий принципиально новый подход к задачам оптимизации и некоторые применения нового метода. Часть диссертации изложена в кратком конспекте лекций по курсу "Теория оптимальных систем" (Болонкин А.А., Новые методы оптимизации и их применение. МВТУ им. Баумана, 1972г., 220 стр. http://vixra.org/abs/1504.0011 v4.), прочитанных автором для студентов старших курсов, аспирантов, инженеров и преподавателей в 1962-1969гг в Московском авиационном технологическом институте и в 1969-1971гг в МВТУ им. Баумана.
Автор излагает новые методы и алгоритмы оптимизации, поиска глобального минимума и его оценок и применяет их в технических задачах автоматики, динамики полета, авиации, космонавтике, комбинаторике, в теории игр, задачах с противодействием и т.п.
Вы можете загрузить полный сканированный текст диссертации.
Линки на диссертацию: https://drive.google.com/file/d/0BzlCj79-4Dz9YTJOUHVhR1FZUVE/view?pli=1 ,
http://viXra.org/abs/1509.0267 Part 1 , http://vixra.org/abs/1509.0265 Part 2 ,
Автореферат http://viXra.org/abs/1503.0081

**Category:** General Mathematics

[12243] **viXra:1511.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-22 02:25:25*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

In this research monograph, the author presents some novel concepts of the aspect of ‘Conservation’ of sense (of belonging to the Language, not necessarily the meaning, the meaning is different) of language when any ‘Samskrutam’ Language Statement is reversed, phonetically {syllable and/ or group of syllables wise forming one unified phonetic construct of concern} wise. Furthermore, the meaning of the considered segments in the onward sense and the meaning of the same considered segment in the reverse and/ or backward sense have a cause-effect-cause (i.e., as in CauseEffectCause) relational sense when such segments are considered cyclically! Furthermore, the author notes that given a meaningful ‘Samskrutam’ language segment one can consider another (sub-set) segment from anywhere (once it is cyclically slated) within this segment and still such segment makes sense (though it may be different). Furthermore, this aspect also satisfies the aforementioned cause-effect-cause meaning aspect detailed above. Furthermore, a ‘Universal Transformation Process Between Any Language Of Concern To Any Other Language Of Concern And Higher And/ Or Lower Order Variants Of Any Language Of Concern’ is presented. Also, a scheme to detect any tempering of ‘Work-Consciousness’ in Samskrutam Language and/ or its Higher Order and/ or lower order variants is presented as we can note that this scheme can also be used a ‘Causality Meter’ and can be used to detect ‘Truth’ regarding Cause<-->Effect<-->Cause when the ‘Work-Consciousness’ in Samskrutam Language and/ or its Higher Order and/ or lower order variants is analyzed in the onward (left to right) and the reverse (right to left) and/ or backward directions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[12242] **viXra:1511.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-22 07:13:44*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 9 Pages. In French.

This note of differential geometry concerns the formulas of Elie Cartan about the differntial forms on a surface. We calculate these formulas for an ellipsoïd of revolution used in geodesy.

**Category:** Geometry

[12241] **viXra:1511.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-21 15:20:32*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 44 Pages. Chongqing University presentation made in front of officials from the Chinese academy of sciences, in November 17, 2015

How Plasma Fusion Burning makes
possible GW analysis in place of only
using Electric Fields in Plasma’s

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12240] **viXra:1511.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-21 20:33:11*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Do time and space exist because there exist mathematical structures that determine the empirical facts about physics? Does time exist because 2^46 divides the order of the monster group? Does space exist because 3^20 divides the order of the monster group? This brief communications offers speculation concerning string theory and a possible unified theory of mathematics, theoretical physics, and theoretical computer science.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12239] **viXra:1511.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-21 13:52:54*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Computer Engineering requires you to know a vast array of programming languages, as well as utilizing different technologies in order to design hardware, or manage databases. It can often be identified as the cross between Information Technology and Electrical Engineering. What I learned is that you don’t have to only know C and C++, but you will also be required to learn more, especially working into the Hardware, Software, and Database side. Softwares you need to be familiar with include Visual Studio, and sometimes Open Source technologies. All in all I learned a great deal of knowledge from the people in which I talked to. I learned that Computer Engineering and related fields, have an impact on technological advancements, as well as making the world an easier place to live. I learned the overall power of different subjects in the fields such as utilizing UML language, Blockchain Technology, Javascript, Python, and the power of Linux. Some of these, I may present in throughout this paper. The purpose to this paper is to inform the average user about what is in the field, what Computer Engineers do, as well as the powerful research and impact of the field. By the end of this paper, I hope you have a beginner’s expertise on the implications of this widely known field.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[12238] **viXra:1511.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-21 14:30:57*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Consider structure of constant current and electromagnetic energy flow in the wire. It is shown that the current is distributed inside the wire on a spiral. If the current in the wire is not changed, then the density of the helical path decreases as the resistance of remaining load. \\ Рассматривается структура постоянного тока и потока электромагнитной энергии в проводе. Показывается, что ток распространяется внутри провода по спирали. При постоянной величине тока плотность спиральной траектории уменьшается по мере уменьшения оставшегося сопротивления нагрузки.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[12237] **viXra:1511.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-21 09:38:34*

**Authors:** Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Prepared for the BGL-9 Conference, October 27-30, 2015, Minsk, Belarus, http://dragon.bas-net.by/bgl9/

We re-examine the theory of antisymmetric tensor fields and 4-vector potentials. We discuss corresponding massless limits.
We analize the quantum field theory taking into account the mass dimensions
of the notoph and the photon. Next, we deduced the gravitational field equations from
relativistic quantum mechanics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[12236] **viXra:1511.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-21 07:54:00*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The general curvature of the universe which determine the shape , evolution and fate of the universe is not the same as the average curvature of the universe which is associated with the average density. Mixing them up leads to the problematic dependence of the shape , evolution and fate of the universe on its average density .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12235] **viXra:1511.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-21 08:34:25*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The author has detailed some important notions regarding Evolution (Of the type of our Universe) here, in this research manuscript.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[12234] **viXra:1511.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-21 05:45:24*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 9 Pages. In French.

The paper concerns the Peterson operator in differentail geometry. The case of the sphere is presented as an example.

**Category:** Geometry

[12233] **viXra:1511.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 15:56:47*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper introduces a numeric method to solving equations of degree n in one variable. Because the method is based on a quadratic model, provides, in general, more accuracy than the similar linear model invented by Isaac Newton.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[12232] **viXra:1511.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 17:44:45*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 8 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov © Singularity, Universe, Matter, Time

This paper considers the model of a universe, YRA-model. The Universe, according to this model is the cosmological material object. The Universe has a center. In the center of the Universe there is a "massive" matter’s core, called the Singularity. The Singularity in the rhythm of nature "emits" a matter in the form of the atom of the matter. The radiating matter Singularity is reduced in size (diameter). The quantity of matter in the Singularity is also reduced. The atoms of the matter come into the Universe. The Universe grows in size (diameter) and the quantity of contained matter. This expansion of the Universe and the reduction of the Singularity are synchronized in tempo of the rhythm of the nature or figuratively speaking in the "speed of light". The author examines the Universe and Singularity as the inseparable couple, a tandem of the "Singularity – Universe" (SU)./
В настоящей статье представлена авторская модель мироздания, YRA-модель. Вселенная, согласно этой модели, представляет собой материальный космологический объект. Вселенная имеет центр. В центре Вселенной находится «массивное» материальное ядро, которое называется Сингулярностью. Сингулярность в ритме природы, «излучает» материю в виде крупиц материи. Сингулярность, излучая материю, уменьшается в размерах (в диаметре). Количество материи в Сингулярности также уменьшается. Крупицы материи поступают во Вселенную. Вселенная увеличивается в размерах (в диаметре) и по количеству содержащейся материи. Это расширение Вселенной и уменьшение Сингулярности идет синхронно в темпе ритма природы, образно выражаясь «со скоростью света». Автор рассматривает Вселенную и Сингулярность, как неразрывную пару, тандем «Сингулярность – Вселенная» (СВ).

**Category:** Classical Physics

[12231] **viXra:1511.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 20:14:18*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman, Yuval Samid

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

Studies on the ultimatum game explain the rejection of low offers as costly punishment imposed by responders on unfair proposers. It is also argued that negative emotions serve as the proximate mechanism for such behavior. This article reports two experimental studies demonstrating that the rejection of low offers is also driven by a desire to maintain a sense of self-worth and that negative emotions alone are poor predictors of responders’ rejections. For this purpose we used a novel variant of the ultimatum game, in which rejecting an offer results in the proposer keeping the entire amount, thus eliminating the possibility of punishment and replacing it with a possible positive reinforcement. Although rejections entail rewarding the proposers instead of punishing them, a sizable percentage of the responders rejected low offers. Accepting low offers was found to be associated with the desire for profit maximization, while rejecting similarly low offers was associated with the desire to maintain self-worth.
The evolutionary puzzle of rejecting low offers, even at a cost of rewarding unfair proposers, is resolved by adopting a wider framework of human interactions; one which accounts not only for the bearing of an interaction on the players' material capital, but also on their symbolic capital. Within such a framework, the rejection of low offers in the investigated game, as in many significant real-life situations, is explained as costly signals aimed at protecting attributes of symbolic capital, such as self-worth, status and prestige.

**Category:** Social Science

[12230] **viXra:1511.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 20:38:06*

**Authors:** Chunxuan Jiang

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

中国发射暗物质卫星促使nature提出zombie physics

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12229] **viXra:1511.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 15:38:56*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Three pages

Many talk about Dr. Einstein’s Special Relativity when they are thinking Lorentz/Einstein 1916 “Lorentz Relativity.” The difference is described in this paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12228] **viXra:1511.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 10:30:43*

**Authors:** Manfred Buth

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The attempt of Schrödinger to describe elementary particles by wave packets is repeated by means nowadays available, that is to say, by applying the results of quantum field theory and especially by the explicit consideration of interaction.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[12227] **viXra:1511.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 10:44:03*

**Authors:** Safaa Moallim

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, I introduce two concepts, first is number influence strength, and second is count of influenced multiples less than x. going from there, we can calculate how many composites is less than x stepping to how many primes is less than x.

**Category:** Number Theory

[12226] **viXra:1511.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 12:10:58*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A Florida State University high-performance computing researcher has predicted a physical effect that would help physicists and astronomers provide fresh evidence of the correctness of Einstein's general theory of relativity. [4]
This paper explains the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12225] **viXra:1511.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 08:54:56*

**Authors:** William L. Stubbs

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

I explore the question: Does the deep inelastic scattering data support a simpler, more accommodating, model of the proton than the quark-gluon model?; and present a case for an alternative to the current proton model. By
reanalyzing the SLAC proton and deuteron F2 curves, I show that the proton can be modeled as nine muons. Then, by reevaluating the F2 results of the HERA proton deep inelastic scattering experiments, I further show that the muons in this proton model are each made of just over 200 electrons. A model of the free electron falls out of the new proton model that reveals why the Bohr magneton only approximates the free electron magnetic moment, and that the mass of the electron neutrino is 236 eV. Finally, by slightly modifying my proton model, I build a model of
the neutron that reveals 0.24 MeV of energy not currently accounted for in the neutron mass-energy balances used to determine its mass. From all of this, I conclude that the deep inelastic scattering data does support a simpler, more accommodating, model of the proton than the quark-gluon model, and question the validity of the quark model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[12224] **viXra:1511.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 09:00:08*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author has presented some basic definitions using which one can form the basis for Algebraic Operations in the Prime Metric Of Any Rth Order Space.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[12223] **viXra:1511.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 09:22:57*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The author considers the optimization problem named ‘the impulse regime’, when the control can have for a short time an instantaneous infinity value and the phase variables have gaps. In mathematics these mean: the variables are not continuous, not differentiable. The variable calculation and Pontryagin principle are not applicable. These problems are in space trajectories, theory of corrections, nuclear physics, economics, advertising and other real control tasks. We need a special theory and special methods for solution of these problems.
Author offers the following method, which simplifies and solves these tasks.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[12222] **viXra:1511.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 04:28:56*

**Authors:** Cheng Tianren

**Comments:** 318 Pages.

This journal is not a popular journal for public, it is a professional research level journal for scientist and artist, even for litterateur. It focus on many topics in mainstream science, especially for future science. Since this journal is very complicated and professional, so we use the “problem-proposed problem-analysis problem-solving” mode to explain our research,to make readers easier to understand. If you truly want to improve your knowledge by reading this journal, it is better for you to study the problems mentioned in this journal carefully. To write down your unusual solutions for these problems after you have read them. Any good idea about the problems appeared in this journal can be mail to author cheng.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[12221] **viXra:1511.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-19 15:27:33*

**Authors:** Gene H. Barbee

**Comments:** 29 Pages. Please contact Gene at genebarbee@msn.com

Observations of the universe’s expansion have created discussion regarding dark energy. Preliminary type 1a supernova data suggested that the universe might be accelerating although this is now unclear. There is consensus that expansion currently is more linear than the equations R=r*t^(1/2) and R=r*t^(2/3). Since the second equation represents conversion of kinetic energy to potential energy and is a curve, data proving that expansion is almost linear in the later period appears to violate energy conservation and require a dark (unknown) energy source.
This paper presents calculations indicating that energy produced by stars causes the linear expansion curve. The analysis draws on data regarding the relative abundance of elements to determine the number of stars and their energy radiation. Energy produced by stars is fusion energy and provides an alternate to dark energy. Current cosmology is based on mass with kinetic energy (with critical density that includes a dark component). A reduced critical density value is presented which subtracts the fusion source. Revised cosmological parameters are included. A full expansion curve is presented, including an analysis of limits on baryon/photon ratio.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12220] **viXra:1511.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-19 17:05:30*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The stretched rubber bed sheet and the bowling ball aren't an accurate model of the gravitational warpage of space... that implies the area nearer the sunken ball is higher density and other masses are attracted to it.

The reverse happens, particles seek a lower density, as in (something like) pressure. You can't say the higher mass or density has a higher gravity because you are using gravity in the example (the explanation) and you can't because in this case it's the question

**Category:** Astrophysics

[12219] **viXra:1511.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-19 20:01:11*

**Authors:** Robert B. Easter

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The G(8,2) Geometric Algebra, also called the Double Conformal / Darboux Cyclide Geometric Algebra (DCGA), has entities that represent conic sections. DCGA also has entities that represent planar sections of Darboux cyclides, which are called cyclidic sections in this paper. This paper presents these entities and many operations on them. Operations include reflection, projection, rejection, and intersection with respect to spheres and planes. Other operations include rotation, translation, and dilation. Possible applications are introduced that include orthographic and perspective projections of conic sections onto view planes, which may be of interest in computer graphics or other computational geometry subjects.

**Category:** Geometry

[12218] **viXra:1511.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-19 20:22:09*

**Authors:** U. V. S. Seshavatharam1, B. Ramanuja Srinivas2, T. Rajavardhanarao3, P. Kalyanai4

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Boldly it is possible to show that, 1) There exists a strong interaction elementary charge of magnitude, es~4.720586603E-19 C and squared ratio of electromagnetic and strong interaction charges is equal to the strong coupling constant. 2) Like quarks, the strong interaction elementary charge is experimentally undetectable and can be called as ‘invisible elementary nuclear charge’. 3) There exists a gravitational constant associated with strong interaction, Gs~3.329561213E28 m3/kg/sec2; 4) There exists a gravitational constant associated with electromagnetic interaction, Ge~2.374335685E37 m3/kg/sec2; Considering the proposed strong interaction elementary charge, magnetic moments of proton and neutron can be understood. Considering the proposed electromagnetic and strong gravitational constants currently believed quantum constants can be quantified and can be shown to be secondary physical constants. Based on these points, in this paper, an attempt is made to understand the mystery of origin of elementary particle rest masses, magnetic moments and quantum nature of electron in hydrogen atom. Proceeding further, the authors developed simple procedure for understanding stable atomic nuclides’ mass number and their corresponding nuclear binding energy.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[12217] **viXra:1511.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-19 23:23:59*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 3 pages

In trial,
we especially consider inequalities for confirming multipartite entanglement
from experimental data obtained in Bell-type experiments.
We present new entanglement witness inequalities.
Some physical situation is that we measure
$\sigma_x$, $\sigma_y$, and $\sigma_z$ per side.
Our analysis discovers a new multipartite entangled state
and it is experimentally feasible.
If the reduction factor $V$ of the interferometric contrast observed
in a $N$-particle correlation experiment is $V>0.4$, then
a measured state is full $N$-partite entanglement in a significant
specific case.
It is not revealed by previous Bell-type experimentally
feasible methods presented
in \cite{NKI},
which states if $V>0.5$ then
the significant specific type state is full $N$-partite entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[12216] **viXra:1511.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-19 23:28:52*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 4 pages

We propose a new measurement theory, in qubits handling,
based on the truth values, i.e.,
the truth T (1) for true and the falsity F (0) for false.
The results of measurement are either 0 or 1.
To implement Deutsch's algorithm, we need both
observability and controllability
of a quantum state.
The new measurement theory can satisfy these two.
Especially, we systematically
describe our assertion based on more mathematical analysis using
raw data in a thoughtful experiment.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[12215] **viXra:1511.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 02:57:00*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

controversy within each model such as Static, Steady-state, Big Bang or Multiverse Continuous-State. In this paper we present only a brief primitive introduction to a new form of ‘Exciplex-Zitterbewegung’ dual space-antispace vacuum Particle Creation applicable especially to Big Bang alternatives which are well-known but ignored; Hubble discovered ‘Redshift’ not a Doppler expansion of the universe which remains the currently popular interpretation. Holographic Anthropic Multiverse cosmology provides viable alternatives to all seemingly sacrosanct pillars of the Big Bang. A model for Multiverse Space-Antispace Dual Calabi-Yau ‘Exciplex-Zitterbewegung’ particle creation has only become possible by incorporating the additional degrees of freedom provided by the capacity complex dimensional extended Yang-Mills Kaluza-Klein correspondence provides.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[12214] **viXra:1511.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 03:00:30*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

spacetime’, ‘spacetime is not fundamental but emergent’ etc. “Henceforth space by itself and time by itself are doomed to fade into the mere shadows, and only a union of the two will preserve an independent reality.” – 1908 Hermann Minkowski. We have come full circle from the time of Minkowski’s 1908 statement to the brink of an imminent new age of discovery. The basis of our understanding of the natural world has evolved in modern times from Newtonian Mechanics to the 2nd regime of Quantum Mechanics; and now to the threshold of a 3rd regime - Unified Field Mechanics (UFM). The Planck scale stochastic quantum realm can no longer be considered the ‘basement’ or fundamental level of reality. As hard as quantum reality was to imagine so is the fact that the quantum domain is a manifold of finite radius; and that the ‘sacrosanct - indelible’ Quantum Uncertainty Principle can now be surmounted. For decades main stream physicists have been stymied by efforts to reconcile General Relativity with Quantum Mechanics. The stumbling block lies with the two theories conflicting views of space and time: For quantum theory, space and time offer a fixed backcloth against which particles move. In Einstein's relativities, space and time are not only inextricably linked, but the resultant spacetime is warped by the matter within it. In our nascent UFM paradigm for arcane reasons the quantum manifold is not the regime of integration with gravity; it is instead integrated with the domain of the unified field where the forces of nature are deemed to unify. We give a simplistic survey of the fundamental premises of UFM and summarize experimental protocols to falsify the model at this stage of the paradigm’s development.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[12213] **viXra:1511.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 03:03:44*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Anthropic Multiverse cosmology in 12 ‘continuous-state’ dimensions. The paradigm with many new parameters is cast in a scale-invariant conformal covariant Dirac polarized vacuum utilizing extended HD forms of the de Broglie-Bohm and Cramer interpretations of quantum theory. The model utilizes a unique form of M-Theory based in part on the original hadronic form of string theory that had a variable string tension, TS and included a tachyon. The model is experimentally testable, thus putatively able to demonstrate the existence of large-scale additional dimensionality (LSXD), test for QED violating tight-bound state spectral lines in hydrogen ‘below’ the lowest Bohr orbit, and surmount the quantum uncertainty principle utilizing a hyperincursive Sagnac Effect resonance hierarchy.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12212] **viXra:1511.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 03:27:09*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 9 Pages. In French

In this paper, a review of the regional inverse referential is presented with application on geodesy for the determination of the parameters of the passage from a geodetic system to another. An numerical exemple is also given.

**Category:** Geophysics

[12211] **viXra:1511.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 03:23:37*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso, Elizabeth A. Rauscher, Peter Rowlands

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

space-antispace quaternionic form and discuss various implications and applications. We note unique solutions in complex spin space. Tachyonic/tardonic signaling also appears to arise from this formalism as well as extensions to micro and macro nonlocality. Complex 8-space Dirac equation solutions exhibit additional nonlinear terms which may yield extension of the formalism from Special to General Relativity.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[12210] **viXra:1511.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 03:56:58*

**Authors:** Padmanabhan Murali

**Comments:** 5 pages

Present understanding of non-possibility of Quantum communication rests on analysis of possibility of signalling within a Quantum system. Is it possible to achieve signalling by a setup where the system is changed from one to another where the act of change serves as the signal and the change in the measurement probabilities would be detected and deciphered at the receiver end? A proposal is made where a variant of Delayed Choice Quantum Eraser experiment setup of Kim et al is used to achieve the same. The setup is also designed such that the speed of communication can be faster than light.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[12209] **viXra:1511.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-19 10:40:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The new limits on the dark matter interaction strength allow for the possibility that an oscillating, low-mass dark matter field coupled to standard model particles causes variations in the fundamental constants. As the scientists explain, this could have important implications for understanding life's origins. [11]
Could scientists use the Second Law of Thermodynamics on your chewing muscles to work out when you are going to die? According to research published in the International Journal of Exergy, the level of entropy, or thermodynamic disorder, in the chewing muscles in your jaw increases with each mouthful. This entropy begins to accumulate from the moment you're "on solids" until your last meal, but measuring it at any given point in your life could be used to estimate life expectancy. [10]
There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also.
From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8]
This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[12208] **viXra:1511.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-19 07:41:35*

**Authors:** C.A. Laforet

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The (proper) transit time of a light signal emitted by an observer at rest at r_0 in a Schwarzschild gravitational field, reflected by body at some distance r>r_0 and received by the observer is shown to decrease as the observer is moved closer to the event horizon. This suggests that observers at rest close to the event horizon will see an increasingly length contracted Universe. We then seek to discover whether the free falling observer will also see the Universe similarly contracted as he/she falls toward the horizon. Using the definition of the Kruskal-Szekeres coordinates (T, X) in terms of Schwarzschild coordinates (r, t) and expanding the expression for dT/dX, it is shown that the worldlines of both timelike and spacelike observers must have slopes approaching 1 on the Kruskal-Szekeres coordinate chart implying that the free falling observer should indeed see an increasingly length contracted Universe as he/she falls toward the horizon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12207] **viXra:1511.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-19 05:10:23*

**Authors:** Tsuneaki Takahashi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Lorentz transformation of special relativity theory has been derived inductively. Using this equation, we could predict possible phenomenon. But it doesn’t suggest underlying nature laws. Here we try to derive it deductively from some definitions and proposed hypotheses. If it is possible, the hypotheses could be new natural laws.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12206] **viXra:1511.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-19 06:17:19*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Casimir's celebrated result that the conducting plates of an unpowered rectangular cavity attract each other with a pressure inversely proportional to the fourth power of their separation entails an unphysical unbounded pressure as the plate separation goes to zero. An unphysical result isn't surprising in light of Casimir's unphysical assumption of perfectly conducting plates that zero out electric fields regardless of their frequency, which he sought to counteract via a physically foundationless discarding of the pressure between the cavity plates when they are sufficiently widely separated. Casimir himself, however, emphasized that real metal plates are transparent to sufficiently high electromagnetic frequencies, which makes removal of the frequency cutoff that he inserted unjustifiable at any stage of his calculation. Therefore his physically groundless discarding of the large-separation pressure isn't even needed, and when it is left out a constant attractive pressure between the plates exists when their separation is substantially larger than the cutoff wavelength. The intact cutoff furthermore implies zero pressure between the plates when their separation is zero, and also that Casimir's pressure is merely the subsidiary lowest-order correction term to the constant attractive pressure between the plates that is dominant when their separation substantially exceeds the cutoff wavelength.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[12205] **viXra:1511.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-19 06:14:36*

**Authors:** Ali Reza Najar Saligheh

**Comments:** 11 Pages. English and French languages.

In order to prove the Four color theorem without using computer, I will prove that no disproof can exist. I will look for some characteristics needed for a disproof and then I will prove that these characteristics can not exist.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[12204] **viXra:1511.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-18 16:25:39*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 32 Pages. This is a new gravitation theory which breaks the wall of Planck scale. I discovered the graviton: the impulse of the graviton, the energy of the graviton, the speed of the graviton, the frequency of the graviton and the mass of the graviton.

I explained Gravitation with quantum mechanics; this means all four fundamental forces acting on the atomic scale are described with quantum mechanics.
I found another wall, the Ferent wall beyond the Planck wall.
The single graviton state is an eigenstate of H and the corresponding energy is aν.
I replaced Max Planck equation E = h × f with the Ferent equation for the energy of a photon: E = h × f + a × f
I discovered the impulse of the graviton: p = a / λ
I replaced Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Δp × Δx ≥ h / 4π with Ferent Uncertainty Principle: Δp × Δx ≥ a
In my view the electromagnetic wave is the superposition of 3 sinusoids, because the photon has relativistic mass and travels with a coupled graviton.
The graviton has negative impulse, negative mass and negative energy.
I am the first who understood and explained that the gravitons with the speed of light are too slow to keep the constellations and the galaxy together. I explained the gravitation with the speed of the gravitons bigger than the speed of light.
I calculated the volume of the universe at Planck wall and the volume of the universe at Ferent wall.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12203] **viXra:1511.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-18 17:55:40*

**Authors:** Fermin Aldabe

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

The U (1) × SO(4) covariant derivative produces an action where the SO(4) generators do not commute with the Dirac matrices because the generators themselves are constructed from those matrices. This yields additional interactions absent in SU(2) and SU(3) Yang Mills theories. The contributions from these interactions produce T-matrix elements consistent with the Newtonian and post Newtonian interactions found in the low energy limit of classical general relativity theory for both matter-matter and matter-photon interactions. The theory here proposed not only reproduces the observed experimental results of general relativity, but it is also renormalizable and more importantly it can be coupled to the standard model in a trivial way. Thus, SO(4) × SU (3) × SU (2) × U (1) Yang Mills best describes all
interactions in nature.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5585] **viXra:1511.0244 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-25 12:55:36*

**Authors:** Andreas Henriksson

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

The groundstate of the Universe exist in a superposition of topologically inequivalent vacuas. The vacuas are topologically distinct in the sense that their respective energies cannot be smoothly transformed into each other. The set of vacuas is the quantum vacuum. Each vacua has three spatial dimensions. The topological quantization for the groundstate of the Universe is illustrated by a discrete imaginary-valued fifth dimension, referred to as quantum time. Interactions in the quantum vacuum is illustrated as an exchange of virtual particles between different vacuas. The dominant contribution to such topological interactions come from instantons. They are physical particles that propagate in quantum time. The flow of instantons follow the second law of physics, a generalization of the second law in thermodynamics to include quantum time. Based on the assumption that quantum time is a physical dimension, combined with energy conservation and the second law, we address the origin of quantum phenomena, matter-antimatter asymmetry, vacuum energy, the cosmological constant, quantum gravity, vacuum decay and cosmic acceleration.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[5584] **viXra:1511.0236 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-25 12:05:24*

**Authors:** M. A. Thomas

**Comments:** 31 Pages. Inserted Photo, Also available on Hal-01232002

The subject of fine tuning in physics is a long contentious issue especially now as it has hitched a ride on the Multiverse bandwagon. The mathematics of quadratic forms are predominately featured and relate the physics parameters G h c, which in turn are weighted during the Planck Era(s) determined by relative Planck time clocking. This simplifies the search to these three values as being the important apparent fine-tuned parameters (quasi fine tuning) for determining the gravitational build structures restricted to SM-4D type Universes. Two gravitational coupling constants (dimensionless) are prescribed within the Ghc complex. Both describe the relative rigidity of gravitational physics in the low energy build of our Universe (General Relativity toward endpoint neutron star, black hole formation). A Master vacuum field symmetry relation (Yang-Mills) is presented using both gravitational coupling constants in their respective degenerate domains (electron to neutron) which shows a relative rigid coherent field of parameters from the Codata set showing the interdependency of these values with each other, particularly G,h,c and particle masses. A consensus example aligns the mass-energy value of the charged pi-meson to 140.050502 MeV. The interdependency demands that the gravitational constant’s empirical value to be 6.67354236 x 10^-11 m^3kg^-1s^-2 using Codata 2014 values. The Yang-Mills relation has a perfect symmetry (hidden) due to the inclusion of the very weak gravitational charge (Z_xx). This is then the weak gravity unification incorporated into the Standard Model. If the Yang-Mills symmetry relation is true then a double copy pion field permeates the observable Universe.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[5583] **viXra:1511.0227 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-23 22:21:31*

**Authors:** Hitesh Jain

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We obtained two interesting congruence relations related to Wilson’s theorem.

**Category:** Number Theory

[5582] **viXra:1511.0215 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-23 13:03:29*

**Authors:** M. E. Hassani

**Comments:** 15 Pages; 1 Table; 17 References

The main conceptual foundation of previous work on the Combined Gravitational Action is briefly surveyed. Next, we derive a general expression for the CGA-effective (radial) potential energy in order to investigate the behavior and shape of the orbits of a test-body during its orbital motion inside the vicinity of the principal gravitational source. And as direct consequences, two expressions for the concepts of gravitational momentum and dynamic gravitational force are derived. Starting from the concept of the combined gravitational potential energy and using only the familiar tools of Newtonian mechanics, the classical Binet's orbital equation is combgravactionalized and its physico-mathematical expression is exactly identical to that already found in the context of general relativity theory, which enables us to calculate, among other things, the secular perigee precession of the Moon; the secular perihelion advance of the planets and the angular deflection of light ray passing near a massive object.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[5581] **viXra:1511.0208 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-22 06:26:10*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Do time and space exist because there exist mathematical structures that determine the empirical facts about physics? Does time exist because 2^46 divides the order of the monster group? Does space exist because 3^20 divides the order of the monster group? This brief communication offers speculation concerning string theory and a possible unified theory of mathematics, theoretical physics, and theoretical computer science.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5580] **viXra:1511.0206 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-22 14:20:32*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 8 Pages. in Russian

Consider structure of constant current and electromagnetic energy flow in the wire. It is shown that the current is distributed inside the wire on a spiral. If the current in the wire is not changed, then the density of the helical path decreases as the resistance of remaining load. \\ Рассматривается структура постоянного тока и потока электромагнитной энергии в проводе. Показывается, что ток распространяется внутри провода по спирали. При постоянной величине тока плотность спиральной траектории уменьшается по мере уменьшения оставшегося сопротивления нагрузки.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[5579] **viXra:1511.0188 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-25 08:00:04*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 57 Pages.

Here we showed that the non-perturbative Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) is the lacking part of Theory of Everything (ToE). General Relativity (GR) leads to the Higgs field composed of the non-gravitating tachyons. Due to the succeeding phase transitions of the superluminal Higgs field, there appear different scales - it is the foundations of the Scale-Symmetric Theory. Theories of three scales are dual i.e. ratios of physical quantities in these scales concerning the same mechanisms, have the same values. Due to the succeeding phase transitions, there appear the binary systems of superluminal closed strings (i.e. the entanglons that are responsible for the quantum entanglement), neutrinos and neutrino-antineutrino pairs the luminal Einstein spacetime consists of, cores of baryons, and cores of cosmic structures (the cores of protoworlds) that evolution leads to dark matter, dark energy, and to the expanding universes. There appear three additional interactions i.e. viscosity of tachyons, superluminal linear quantum entanglement, and volumetric confinement. There appears the four-particle symmetry that solves many problems. Here as well we described the internal dynamics of baryons that leads to the atom-like structure of baryons and next to mesons and to the composite Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV. Among many other things, we described symmetries and laws of conservation that result from the initial parameters, we calculated the physical constants from initial conditions, coupling constants, running coupling for nuclear strong interactions and masses of quarks. Due to the superluminal Higgs field, the neutrinos acquire their gravitational mass. Theoretical results are much better than results obtained within Standard Model. We apply 7 parameters only and very simple mathematics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5578] **viXra:1511.0172 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-22 22:14:58*

**Authors:** Padmanabhan Murali

**Comments:** 6 Pages, 6 Figures

Present understanding of non-possibility of Quantum communication rests on analysis of possibility of signalling within a Quantum system. Is it possible to achieve signalling by a setup where the system is changed from one to another where the act of change serves as the signal and the change in the measurement probabilities would be detected and deciphered at the receiver end? A proposal is made where a variant of Delayed Choice Quantum Eraser experiment setup of Kim et al is used to achieve the same. The setup is also designed such that the speed of communication can be faster than light.

**Category:** Quantum Physics