**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(59) - 0703(51) - 0704(5) - 0705(1) - 0706(8) - 0707(2) - 0708(3) - 0709(3) - 0710(2) - 0711(6) - 0712(3)

2008 - 0801(4) - 0802(4) - 0803(2) - 0804(9) - 0805(4) - 0806(1) - 0807(12) - 0808(6) - 0809(3) - 0810(16) - 0811(5) - 0812(9)

2009 - 0901(3) - 0902(7) - 0903(6) - 0904(5) - 0907(50) - 0908(109) - 0909(61) - 0910(66) - 0911(64) - 0912(54)

2010 - 1001(46) - 1002(51) - 1003(265) - 1004(139) - 1005(110) - 1006(68) - 1007(55) - 1008(91) - 1009(71) - 1010(62) - 1011(76) - 1012(52)

2011 - 1101(102) - 1102(55) - 1103(122) - 1104(83) - 1105(41) - 1106(61) - 1107(53) - 1108(49) - 1109(60) - 1110(73) - 1111(114) - 1112(87)

2012 - 1201(119) - 1202(85) - 1203(93) - 1204(96) - 1205(112) - 1206(91) - 1207(102) - 1208(224) - 1209(97) - 1210(164) - 1211(137) - 1212(143)

2013 - 1301(175) - 1302(157) - 1303(197) - 1304(154) - 1305(184) - 1306(211) - 1307(155) - 1308(143) - 1309(194) - 1310(246) - 1311(183) - 1312(216)

2014 - 1401(193) - 1402(154) - 1403(853) - 1404(267) - 1405(340) - 1406(182) - 1407(208) - 1408(231) - 1409(12)

Any replacements are listed further down

[8561] **viXra:1409.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-02 04:18:54*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The physical behavior of elementary particles, massive and energetic, in force fields is studied in this paper. In particular let us consider the gravitational field and the electrostatic field and relative to the electrostatic field, as already it was done for the gravitational field, we demonstrate the theoretical validity of an electrostatic perturbation due to the motion of an electric charge into the electrostatic field generated by a pole charge. This electrostatic perturbation, on a pair with the gravitational perturbation, has characteristics of continuity differently from electromagnetic radiation, emitted by accelerated charges, free or constrained in complex structures, that instead has quantum characteristics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8560] **viXra:1409.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-01 18:19:14*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 52 Pages.

Poeme intr-un rand insotite de imagini sugestive.

**Category:** Linguistics

[8559] **viXra:1409.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-01 18:21:52*

**Authors:** editor Amalia Mia Pop

**Comments:** 50 Pages.

Aceste “poezii cu dedicaţie precisă” sunt versuri ocazionale dedicate şi adresate lui Florentin Smarandache, sub formă de felicitări (“floricitări”) cu ocazia sărbătorilor de Florii (“Florinalii”), colectate din arhiva scriitorului de Amalia Mia Pop şi ilustrate cu fotografii din arhiva SCŞ AdSumus sau din Internet.
Texte poetice de Eugen Evu, Gh. Niculescu, Mircea Monu, George Anca, Marinela Preoteasa, Nicolae Maroga Enceanu, Janet Nică, George Roca, Mari Neagu.

**Category:** Linguistics

[8558] **viXra:1409.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-01 18:28:58*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 52 Pages.

Versuri si imagini sugestive.

**Category:** Linguistics

[8557] **viXra:1409.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-01 19:44:29*

**Authors:** editor Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 300 Pages.

Note:
•This photo-album includes about 280 folklore images gathered from Internet or received by mail.
•The images are contradictory in a lower percent (soft paradoxism), or in a higher percent (hard paradoxism).

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[8556] **viXra:1409.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-01 21:05:29*

**Authors:** Taiki Takahashi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

OBJECTIVE: No study to date compared degrees of inequity aversion in economic decision-making in the ultimatum game between non-addictive and addictive reinforcers. The comparison is potentially important in neuroeconomics and reinforcement learning theory of addiction. METHODS: We compared the degrees of inequity aversion in the ultimatum game between money and cigarettes in habitual smokers. RESULTS Smokers avoided inequity in the ultimatum game more dramatically for money than for cigarettes; i.e., there was a "domain effect" in decision-making in the ultimatum game. CONCLUSIONS: Reward-processing neural activities in the brain for non-addictive and addictive reinforcers may be distinct and the insula activation due to cue-induced craving may conflict with unfair offer-induced insula activation. Future studies in neuroeconomics of addiction should employ game-theoretic decision tasks for elucidating reinforcement learning processes in dopaminergic neural circuits.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[8555] **viXra:1409.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-02 01:36:05*

**Authors:** Felix M. Lev

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Standard mathematics involves such notions as infinitely small/large, continuity and standard division. However, some of these notions are treated differently in traditional and constructive versions. This mathematics is usually treated as fundamental while finite mathematics is treated as inferior. Standard mathematics has foundational problems (as follows, for example, from G\"{o}del's incompleteness theorems) but people usually believe that this is less important than the fact that it describes many experimental data with high accuracy. We argue that the situation is the opposite: standard mathematics is only a special case of finite one in the
formal limit when the characteristic of the ring or field used in finite mathematics goes to infinity. Therefore foundational problems
in standard mathematics are not fundamental.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[8554] **viXra:1409.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-02 02:56:46*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Conjectured polynomial time compositeness test for numbers of the form (10^n-1)/9 is introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[8553] **viXra:1409.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-01 09:46:47*

**Authors:** Alan M. Kadin

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Submitted for Bell Labs Prize Competition July 11, 2014

It is well known that electron spin is quantized, and is measured to be either spin up or spin down in a magnetic field, as was first demonstrated in the classic Stern-Gerlach experiment almost 100 years ago. However, it is also believed that a quantum spin may be indeterminate until it is measured, being in a quantum superposition of the two quantum states. On the contrary, I propose (based on a locally realistic spin-quantized picture of quantum waves) that an electron quantum state is always either spin up or spin down, but is never in a superposition of the two. This concept should be directly testable using a two-stage Stern-Gerlach experiment, similar to that presented in standard quantum textbooks, but apparently never carried out experimentally. This experiment should be straightforward using modern atomic beam laboratory equipment. If successful, this could lead to a serious review of quantum foundations, as well as a new set of practical applications. In particular, a binary storage or logic element based on quantum spin should continue to work down to the atomic scale. This should enable computer memories with orders of magnitude greater density than those based on conventional magnetic memories.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8552] **viXra:1409.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-01 10:02:24*

**Authors:** Liu Ran

**Comments:** 1 Page.

传统数论中的无穷大是没有上界的，也就是没有最大，只有更大。无穷大是自相矛盾的。

**Category:** Number Theory

[8551] **viXra:1409.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-01 06:57:14*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

If the duration of the emission, the duration of the passage and the duration of the absorption of photons depend on the progression value, then the consequence of the observation of red-shift for old photons will be that space is compressing rather than expanding.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8550] **viXra:1409.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-01 08:40:33*

**Authors:** Alan M. Kadin, Steven B. Kaplan

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Submitted to Applied Superconductivity Conference, Aug. 11, 2014

In recent years, quantum computing has promised a revolution in computing performance, based on massive parallelism enabled by many entangled qubits. Josephson junction integrated circuits have emerged as the key technology to implement such a universal digital quantum computer. Indeed, prior experiments have demonstrated simple Josephson qubit configurations with quantized energy levels and long coherence times, which are a necessary prerequisite for a practical quantum computer. However, these quantized states do not directly prove the presence of entanglement or macroscopic superposition, which are essential for the superior speed of such a digital quantum computer. On the contrary, an alternative realistic foundation for quantum mechanics has recently been proposed, with coherent transitions between quantized states, but without entanglement. A new experiment is proposed that may test whether superconducting quantum circuits can exhibit quantized states without macroscopic entanglement or superposition. Specifically, a flux qubit (a bi-stable SQUID) may be configured with a resonant input line for excitation and a single-flux quantum output line for simultaneous direct measurement of quantized energy and flux states, which are incompatible measurements in standard quantum theory. Such an observation could undermine the assumptions of superposition and entanglement, bringing into question the foundation and the ultimate performance of a universal digital quantum computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8549] **viXra:1408.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 19:26:52*

**Authors:** Liu Taixiang

**Comments:** 12 Pages. e-mail:taixiang.l@126.com

The Theory of System Relativity is based on the premise of the assumption of the quantization of matter and introduces a brand new view of matter in terms of "monism and dualism". In view of the serious contradictions existing among the current different branches of physical theories, the author conducts a preliminary study from the perspective of the Theory of System Relativity and attempts to incorporate the different branches of physical theories into the theoretical framework of the Theory of System Relativity. Especially to the general relativity and the quantum theory, the author takes his unique view that the two different theories may achieve unity although the serous contradictions existing between them.
This book is a brand new way for matter principle. It can be used as a reference book for philosophy and fundamental physics research, and also be available for physics enthusiasts and relevant personnel.
e-mail:taixiang.l@126.com

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8548] **viXra:1408.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 20:09:04*

**Authors:** Kim Yu, Huang Shen

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The aim of this short report is to predict demands (measured in relative value unit or RVU) for nutritional services of a future patient based on patient’s demographic attributes (such as age), clinical variables (patient-specific such as systolic (diastolic) blood pressure, or ward (stop)-specific such as high level of nutrition status code assigned), utilization variables (such as total inpatient days spent admitted at a VA facility), and case-mix (i.e., aggregated condition category codes).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[8547] **viXra:1408.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 20:17:30*

**Authors:** Kim Yu, Huang Shen

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The purpose of this short report is to to predict demands (measured in relative value unit or RVU) for nutritional services of a future
patient based on patient’s demographic attributes (such as age), clinical variables
(patient-specific such as systolic (diastolic) blood pressure, or ward (stop)-specific such as high level of nutrition status code assigned), utilization variables (such as total inpatient days spent admitted at a VA facility), and case-mix (i.e., aggregated condition category codes).

**Category:** Statistics

[8546] **viXra:1408.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 21:49:20*

**Authors:** Hardev Singh Virk

**Comments:** 10 Pages. This paper is published in www.researchgate.net. Comments are welcome.

The origin of quantum mechanics goes back to the mid-1920s.It was formulated first as matrix mechanics by Werner Heisenberg, Max Born and Pascual Jordan; then as wave mechanics by Louis de Broglie and Erwin Schrödinger; and later on asquantum statistics of subatomic particles by Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein. Combining relativistic mechanics with quantum mechanics, Dirac formulated his relativistic quantum mechanics during 1930s. Uncertainty Principle is thecornerstone of Quantum Physics. The role of randomness in microscopic physical processes shatters the myth that the universe is deterministic. Quantum world is unpredictable in the classical sense and demolishes the idea of an objective universe. The Copenhagen interpretation remains the quantum mechanical formalism that is currently most widely accepted amongst physicists.Quantum theories support cosmic spirit pervading the cosmos and inter – relationship of individuals in the world society. Quantum philosophy is holistic and is going to revolutionize our world-view.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8545] **viXra:1408.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 23:51:55*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The crucial role of the Birkhoff theorem in Oppenheimer and Snyder's treatment of gravitationally contracting dust is psychologically difficult to reconcile with their exclusive utilization of position-independent dust energy density: on its face the latter excludes the existence any empty-space region whereas the Birkhoff theorem applies only to such regions. Their use of position-independent dust energy density was due to lack of known nonuniform-dust analytic solutions for spherically-symmetric "comoving coordinate systems". This article fills that gap for nonuniform dust which is initially momentarily stable, but in so doing reveals that its behavior in the "comoving coordinate system" always owes more to Newton than to Einstein: the metric periodically singularly contravenes the Principle of Equivalence due to its Newtonian-signature time cycloid component, and it manifests no trace of gravitational redshift. The now justifiable application of the Birkhoff theorem turns out to effect the physically correct inclusion of gravitational redshift; it singularly stretches the "comoving" dust system's time-cycloid first half-period to infinite time duration. The unfamiliar lesson here is that "comoving coordinate systems" are inherently bereft of crucial relativistic gravitational physics: this must be incorporated by a singular transformation to a physically more appropriate coordinate system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8544] **viXra:1408.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 16:46:25*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The current physics believes that vacuum can produce energy and Universes. The basis of any Universe is energy. Author assumes: energy may be positive or negative. Positive energy produces our positive matter, negative energy produces negative matter. Using this effect the author offers the formatting the current planets of Solar system, making them suitable for people, for humanity. That include: the production of Earth atmosphere, water, magnetic field in planets and natural satellites, change their angle speed, and transportation them to Earth orbit.
Negative matter repels our (positive) matter. Using this effect the author offers a space propulsion system which allows reaching by space ship a speed close to light speed and to enable massive retrieval of extraterrestrial materials to construct works in space. That may be the best method colonization the space, Solar System and Universe.
Concept of negative energy also allows solving the many very important problems of humanity. For example, humanity can create any artificial material, food, travel to other stars and possible (in future) create a new Universe.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[8543] **viXra:1408.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 17:27:41*

**Authors:** Sam Juans, Zhoa Xao

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Repeated Measures (RM) data are very often in public health studies where same measurements are collected several times from a single subject (Davidian and Giltian 2003). For example, in a rehospitalization problem at a primary care level, there may exist some patients that had previously been readmitted (maybe more than once) to a specific ward. So it is likely that this group of patients is pooled with others that had never been readmitted in a given training data set. In other words, rather than independent set of patients with unrelated classes, we have profiles of patients in which class labels may tend to be correlated. As a result, failure to account for these correlations may result in overfitting the training data and increasing the misclassification error rates in test set.
In the current study, first I show what problems may occur to a given classifier when there are RM data. Then I propose 1) a Random−effect logistic regression and 2) a bootstrapped random forest algorithm to tackle the classification problem in presence of RM data. Numerical comparisons are given based on real-world data set from four VA facilities in the state of Michigan.

**Category:** Statistics

[8542] **viXra:1408.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 17:34:57*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 131 Pages.

In this book the author pledges for the generalization of the Lupasco-Nicolescu’s Law of Included Middle to the Law of Included Multiple-Middle, which is very well described by the n-valued refined neutrosophic logic: i.e. the indeterminacy [or neutral] value (I) of a proposition can be split into multiple types of indeterminacies such as I1, I2, and so on. The indeterminacy [or neutral] value is actually an extension of the included-middle value; indeterminacy comprises the included-middle.
Even more, depending on each particular proposition, one can split the truth-value (T) of a proposition into multiple types of truths such as T1, T2, etc. and similarly one can split the falsehood-value of the proposition into multiple types of falsehoods such as F1, F2, etc.
Explanation:
The following dialogues are a compilation of different dialogues I had – during the years – on neutrosophy and related topics with academic colleagues, mostly by email.
As they were non-protocol dialogues, initially not intended for publication, I invented a fictional character (somehow resurrected from Plato’s dialogues), Filokratos, and put in his mouth opinions, ideas, questions, comments expressed by academic fellows, in a collective spirit.
Many thanks to all friends and dialogue partners who paid attention to neutrosophy and connected areas.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[8541] **viXra:1408.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 17:37:53*

**Authors:** Allen barenz, Suzhu Lin

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Data Mining (DM) consists of well-organized computer-assisted methods help to extract previously unknown interesting patterns from a data set and transform it into an understandable structure for on-time and future decision making activities. Data mining covers a wide variety of applications, from analyzing customer purchasing behaviors to grouping patients in terms of propensity to receiving diabetes. Basically DM involves some common tasks such as data pre-processing, classification, clustering, visualization, association rules, and anomaly detection. Following this roadmap, we study the mechanism of patient re- admission process that mainly caused by patient non-compliance to the medication instructions. The data is pulled out from VA Detroit Medical Center database during September and October 2006 through 2011.
Erroneous discharge process compliance and subsequent readmission contributed a significant cost to America’s healthcare system. For example, patients’ non-compliance to the medication instruction may cause their recoveries from treatment process and readmission. Many of these non-compliances were personal behavior related. And, in many cases 20% of such patients caused 80% readmission. If an accurate prediction could identify the patients who have a high likelihood of non-compliance with discharging instructions, providing special attention for these patients, such as timely reminders communicated so that the non-compliance is corrected, could reduce their re-admission.

**Category:** Statistics

[8540] **viXra:1408.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 13:03:31*

**Authors:** Algirdas Antano Maknickas

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The article describes communication system working on base of gravity waves. Such system of devices should work if the electromagnetic field curves space-time. Theoretical results shows that the artificial change of gravity of space-time curvature should observes in the distance much more bigger than dimension of transmitter antenna. The article end with discussion of details of technical properties of working electro-gravity communication system.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[8539] **viXra:1408.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 13:42:28*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 10 pages. «Ondes de choc lumineuses cosmiques» is the French version of «Cosmic Luminous Shock Waves» on viXra.org/abs/1408.0232

Nous émettons l’hypothèse de l’existence d’ondes de choc lumineuses susceptibles de participer à la formation de nuages et d’événements atmosphériques sévères. Ces ondes auraient la particularité d’être créées et modulées par le choc des rayons cosmiques galactiques avec les particules de la couronne solaire : les particules énergétiques du rayonnement cosmique, en collision avec les atomes de l’atmosphère solaire, les disloquent, avec le résultat que la vitesse de l’électron ultra-relativiste dans le plasma solaire peut être supérieure à la vitesse de la lumière dans ce milieu. Ce qui produirait un rayonnement secondaire d’intensité supérieure analogue à celui des ondes rayonnantes dans les liquides par effet Tcherenkov. Leur existence pourrait être liée à un phénomène visuel appelé « expérience de flashes lumineux » auquel tous les astronautes sont confrontés.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8538] **viXra:1408.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 14:16:33*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Due to the mergers of the binary systems of protogalaxies, there were created the elliptical (E) and lenticular (S0) galaxies whereas evolution of the not merging binary systems of protogalaxies leads to the spiral (S) and peculiar (P) ones. The scale-symmetric Everlasting Theory shows that there is an analogy between the strong interactions and the strong gravitational interactions at the beginning of expansion of the Universe. Moreover, the early interactions of grouping but not-merging binary systems of protogalaxies mimicked the interactions of the groups composed of 3 protons and 5 neutrons we find in massive atomic nuclei. Due to the asymmetrical inflows of the dark energy, there should be galaxies with lower metallicity (the H-type galaxies) and with higher metallicity (the Fe-type galaxies). These three mechanisms lead to theoretical results concerning abundances of distant and local massive galaxies consistent with observational facts. For distant massive galaxies we obtain following abundances: for E is 3.66%, for S0 14.66%, for S 30.63% and for P 51.05%. On the other hand, for the local massive galaxies we obtain: for E 3.66%, for S0 14.66%, for S 71.47% and for P 10.21%.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8537] **viXra:1408.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 09:48:30*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We hypothesize the existence of cosmic luminous shock waves which might participate in the formation of clouds and severe weather events. These waves would have the peculiarity to be created and modulated by the shock of the galactic cosmic rays with the particles of the solar corona: the energetic particles of cosmic rays collide with atoms of the solar atmosphere, shatter them, with the result that the velocity of the ultra-relativistic electron in the solar plasma might be greater than the speed of light in this medium. What would produce a secondary radiation of higher intensity analogous to that of the shock waves radiating in liquids by Cherenkov effect. Their existence may be linked to a visual phenomenon called «experience of bright light flashes» with which all the astronauts are confronted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8536] **viXra:1408.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 12:01:39*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Conjectured polynomial time primality test for specific class of 13*2^n+1 is introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[8535] **viXra:1408.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 12:10:44*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Conjectured polynomial time compositeness tests for numbers of the form k10^n-c and k10^n+c are introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[8534] **viXra:1408.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 06:59:09*

**Authors:** Bakhmetov Sergey Petrovich Bahmetov Sergey Petrovih

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

В теории даны определения для гравитационного, электромагнитного и ядерного взаимодействий, постоянной тонкой структуры, удельной энергии связи, черной дыры. Представлены геометрические модели для электрона, протона, нейтрона, ядра атома дейтерия, п - мезона, м - мезона. Найдены численные значения для постоянной тонкой структуры и отношения массы протона, нейтрона, п - мезона, м - мезона к массе электрона.
In theory, given the definition of the gravitational, electromagnetic and nuclear interactions, the fine structure constant, the specific binding energy of the black hole. Shows the geometric model for the electron, proton, neutron, nucleus of an atom of deuterium, n - meson, m - meson. Found numerical values for the fine structure constant and the ratio of the mass of the proton, neutron, n - meson, m - meson to the mass of the electron.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8533] **viXra:1408.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 08:29:23*

**Authors:** Keith D. Foote

**Comments:** 269 Pages.

This is a field theory model. It is a functional holistic model designed for hands-on inventors and alternative thinkers. It provides streamlined thinkers with a common sense view of quantum physics and cosmology that can be visualized without the necessity of mathematics. As a new model, the Ultra-Space Field Theory has removed historical flaws traditionally ignored by the supporters of the Standard Model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8532] **viXra:1408.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 08:58:22*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 1 Page. Artigo em construção.

O movimento de 8’’,24 segundos de arco por século que mencionei como um novo valor para a anomalia de Mercúrio precisa ser melhor esclarecido, o que farei em próxima versão deste artigo.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8531] **viXra:1408.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-30 20:11:40*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 2 Pages. This is the French version of Note added to paper «THE PHARAO/ACES MISSION AND THE ALLAIS EFFECT», on viXra.org/abs/1408.0219

Depuis que nous avons présenté le papier « LA MISSION PHARAO/ACES ET L’EFFET ALLAIS » en 2012, dans lequel nous demandions aux autorités scientifiques du projet Pharao de tenir compte de l’effet d’éclipse Allais, une information appréciable a été communiquée par la direction de Pharao à un de nos correspondants internet.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8530] **viXra:1408.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 00:12:58*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make four conjectures on primes, conjectures which involve the sums of distinct unit fractions such as 1/p(1) + 1/p(2) + (...), where p(1), p(2), (...) are distinct primes, more specifically the periods of the rational numbers which are the results of the sums mentioned above.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8529] **viXra:1408.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 01:11:08*

**Authors:** Jeff Yee

**Comments:** 52 pages

A new wave equation is proposed to calculate subatomic particle energies, including rest mass, photon absorption and emission, and annihilation properties. It is suggested that this wave equation is the link between classical and quantum equations, and shows the derivation of such equations, including relativity. Evidence in support of a wave equation is presented in this paper by accurately calculating the energy of lepton particles, the hydrogen spectral series and the ionization energies for elements from hydrogen to calcium. This paper also proposes that a fundamental particle is the building block for all other subatomic particles and is validated by the new wave equation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8528] **viXra:1408.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 01:36:10*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I present three formulas, each of them with the following property: starting from a given prime p, are obtained in many cases two other primes, q and r. I met the triplets of primes [p, q, r] obtained with these formulas in the study of Carmichael numbers; the three primes mentioned are often the three prime factors of a 3-Carmichael number.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8527] **viXra:1408.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 05:38:43*

**Authors:** Peter Hickman

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Yang–Mills Theory coupled to Gravitation is found, using the 6d spaces [1], f-matrices which are doublets of gamma matrices and spin-vectors. Lagrangians for the fermion sector with internal symmetry G=SU(4) coupled to Gravitation, and the scalar sector with quadratic potentials are derived. Calculations given for Higgs bare mass 125.3GeV, Dark matter scalar particle mass 41.8GeV, the cosmological constant 1.15e-52 m-2, Top quark mass 172.7GeV, Higgs VEV 246.2GeV. Inflaton field is a negative complex potential. Electric charges of quarks and leptons are determined. Matter-antimatter asymmetry is resolved. Symmetry breaking of G results in QCD SU(3), QED U(1), and Chiral Electroweak group SU(2)xU(1) is an emergent interaction are the only other gauge groups acting on 3 generations.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8526] **viXra:1408.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 06:11:45*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make a conjecture which states that any prime greater than or equal to 53 can be written at least in one way as a sum of three odd primes, not necessarily distinct, of the same form from the following four ones: 10k + 1, 10k + 3, 10k + 7 or 10k + 9.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8525] **viXra:1408.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 06:41:55*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make a conjecture which states that any square of a prime greater than or equal to 7 can be written at least in one way as a sum of three odd primes, not necessarily distinct, but all three of the form 10k + 3 or all three of the form 10k + 7.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8524] **viXra:1408.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-30 15:35:40*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 2 Pages. This is a Note added to paper «THE PHARAO/ACES MISSION AND THE ALLAIS EFFECT», org/abs/1301.0185 on viXra.

Since we submitted the paper «THE PHARAO/ACES MISSION AND THE ALLAIS EFFECT» in 2012, in which we asked to scientific authorities in charge of the Pharao project to consider the Allais eclipse effect, significant information concerning the Allais eclipse effect was provided to one of our Internet correspondents by the direction of the "Pharao project".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8523] **viXra:1408.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-30 12:33:04*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Conjectured polynomial time primality test for specific class of 7*2^n+1 is introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[8522] **viXra:1408.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-30 12:34:57*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Conjectured polynomial time primality test for specific class of 11*2^n+1 is introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[8521] **viXra:1408.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-30 14:34:24*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** short note, 01page, 04 references

I was surprised by the fact that, Drude’s formula for the electrical conductivity of metals, does not appear in the famous textbook: “The Feynman Lectures on Physics”.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[8520] **viXra:1408.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-29 21:39:03*

**Authors:** Huyan Zhan, Hao Chung

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Call center is a centralized office used for the purpose of receiving or transmitting a large volume
of requests by telephone. A call center can be independently operated or networked with
additional centers, often linked to a corporate computer network,
including mainframes, microcomputers and LANs. The purpose of this short paper is to review
important studies with an emphasis on healthcare applications.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[8519] **viXra:1408.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-29 22:30:36*

**Authors:** Lin Zhang, Adams Ericson

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Over the past decades there has been a growing concern regarding how hospitals manage their capacities in order to deliver higher level of care to patients while maintaining their costs at a reasonable range. Problems such as long delay behind emergency rooms, many inpatients and outpatients as sources of “bad” healthcare delivery have cited insufficient scheduling of nurses to patients and poor bed allocations in different medical units. Moreover, with decreased government grants and increased managed care, hospitals have made severe changes such as downsizing beds and cutting staff in order to reduce their costs. Taking into account the complex dynamics of medical systems, such important operational strategies, without use of OR/MS techniques, were not generally successful (Green 2004). In this paper we try to demonstrate how OR/MS tools can help policymakers better understand the stochastic interdependent nature of hospital capacity planning and consequently make their decisions more precisely.

**Category:** Statistics

[8518] **viXra:1408.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-30 02:09:06*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

After reading "Study challenges black hole theory" in Astronomy magazine's September 2014 issue, I sat down in front of my computer and spent the whole afternoon typing this reply. Most of the thoughts were initially addressed in previous contributions to viXra.org and, as the heading states, this article is "Clarifying Previous Points Regarding Dark Matter" (with cameos by imaginary numbers, time travel into the past, instant space-time travel, unifying fundamental forces with each other as well as matter/mass, string theory, black holes, and the cosmic DVD)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8517] **viXra:1408.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-29 14:54:03*

**Authors:** Stephen Marshall

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper presents a complete and exhaustive proof of the infinitude of Mersenne prime numbers. The approach to this proof uses same logic that Euclid used to prove there are an infinite number of prime numbers. Then we prove that if p > 1 and d > 0 are integers, that p and p + d are both primes if and only if for integer n (see reference 1 and 2):
n=(p-1)!(1/p+(-1)dd!/(p + d))+1/p+ 1/(p+d)
We use this proof for d = 2p(k+m) - 2p(k) to prove the infinitude of Mersenne prime numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8516] **viXra:1408.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-29 10:11:03*

**Authors:** Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Our result is the explicit form of the infinitesimals.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[8515] **viXra:1408.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-29 11:21:12*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I present a formula for generating big primes and products of very few primes, based on the numbers 25 and 906304, formula equally extremely interesting and extremely simple, id est 25^n + 906304. This formula produces for n from 1 to 30 (and for n = 30 is obtained a number p with not less than 42 digits) only primes or products of maximum four prime factors.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8514] **viXra:1408.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-29 12:10:30*

**Authors:** Stephen Marshall

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In number theory, a prime number p is a Sophie Germain prime if 2p + 1 is also prime. For example, 29 is a Sophie Germain prime because it is a prime and 2 × 29 + 1 = 59, and 59 is also a prime number. These numbers are named after French mathematician Marie-Sophie Germain. We shall prove that there are an infinite number of Sophie Germain primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8513] **viXra:1408.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-29 07:28:09*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Conjectured polynomial time primality test for specific class of 5*2^n+1 is introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[8512] **viXra:1408.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-29 08:10:02*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This article applies the holographic principle to obtain the basic provisions
holographic models of quantum mechanics and is an entirely new interpretation of wave
functions via the Feynman integral for the transmission of information about the quantum object.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8511] **viXra:1408.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-29 08:15:47*

**Authors:** Ricardo Alvira

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

It reviews the meaning/definition of terms 'complex' and 'simple' from an etimological perspective, in order to help set the basic definitions to formulate a Unified Theory of Complexity.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[8510] **viXra:1408.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-28 20:52:54*

**Authors:** Salvatore Spadaro

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Recent brain studies show the emerging importance of glia functions in relation to our knowledge of the brain. A new, hypothetical area of research is described to enriching the poverty of cognitive studies on glia. The cognitive methodology has been used because of its intedisciplinarity, and in particular for a possible foundation of a computational glia-neuroscience

**Category:** Mind Science

[8509] **viXra:1408.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-28 23:13:13*

**Authors:** A. A. Frempong

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Copyright © A. A. Frempong

Best news. After over 30 years of debating, the debate is over. Yes, P is equal to NP.
For the first time, NP problems have been solved in this paper. Techniques and formulas were developed and used to solve these problems as well as produce simple equations to help programmers apply the techniques. The techniques and formulas are based on an extended Ashanti fairness wisdom as exemplified below. If two people A and B are to divide items of different sizes which are arranged from the largest size to the smallest size, the procedure will be as follows. In the first round, A chooses the largest size, followed by B choosing the next largest size. In the second round, B chooses first, followed by A. In the third round, A chooses first, followed by B and the process continues up to the last item. To abbreviate the sequence in the above choices, one obtains the sequence "A, BB, AA, BB, AA". Let A and B divide the sum of the whole numbers, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 as equally as possible, by merely always choosing the largest number. Then A chooses 10, B chooses 9 and 8, followed by A choosing 7 and 6; followed by B choosing 5 and 4; followed by A choosing 3 an 2; and finally, B chooses 1. The sum of A's choices is 10 +7+ 6 + 3 + 2 = 28; and the sum of B's choices is 9 + 8 + 5 + 4 + 1 = 27, with error, plus or minus 0.5 . Observe the sequence "A, BB, AA, BB, AA". Observe also that the sequence is not "AB, AB, AB, AB, AB as one might think. If one were to use AB, AB, AB, AB, AB, the sum for A would be 10 + 8 + 6 + 4 + 2 = 30 and the sum for B would be 9 +7 + 5 +3 + 1 = 25, with error, plus or minus 2.5. The reason why the sequence is "A, BB, AA, BB, AA", and not "AB, AB, AB, AB, AB" is as follows. In the first round, when A chooses first, followed by B, A has the advantage of choosing the larger number and B has the disadvantage of choosing the smaller number. In the second round, if A were to choose first, A would have had two consecutive advantages, and therefore, in the second round, B will choose first to produce the sequence AB, B or ABB. In the third round, A chooses first, because B chose first in the second round. After three rounds, the sequence would be A, BB, AA. When this technique was applied to 100 items of different values or masses, by mere combinations, the total value or mass of A's items was equal to the total value or mass of B's items. Similar results were obtained for 1000 items.
By hand, the techniques can be used to prepare final exam schedules for 100 or 1000 courses. Confirmed is the notion that a method that solves one of these problems can also solve other NP problems. Since six problems have been solved, all NP problems can be solved. If all NP problems can be solved, then all NP problems are P problems and therefore, P is equal to NP.
The CMI Millennium Prize requirements have been satisfied.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[8508] **viXra:1408.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-29 03:12:23*

**Authors:** Oliver Consa

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A semiclassical model of the electron is presented based on the Principle of Helical Motion (“A free electron always moves at the speed of light following a helical motion, with a constant radius, and with the direction of movement perpendicular to the rotation plane”). This model interprets the Zitterbewegung as a real motion that causes rotation of the electron spin and its magnetic moment. Based on this model, the quantum magnetic flux and quantum Hall resistance are obtained as parameters of the electron and special relativity theory is derived from the helical motion of the electron. Finally, a fix is proposed for the De Broglie’s wavelength that questions the very validity of the Dirac equation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8507] **viXra:1408.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-29 04:09:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8506] **viXra:1408.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-28 15:30:00*

**Authors:** Stephen Marshall

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper presents a complete and exhaustive proof that an Infinite Number of Triplet Primes exist. The approach to this proof uses same logic that Euclid used to prove there are an
infinite number of prime numbers. Then we prove that if p > 1 and d > 0 are integers, that p and p + d are both primes if and only if for integer n (see reference 1 and 2):
n =(p−1)!(1/p+(−1)d(d!)/(p + d)+ 1/(p+1)+ 1/(p+d)
We use this proof and Euclid logic to prove only an infinite number of Triplet Primes exist. However we shall begin by assuming that a finite number of Triplet Primes exist, we shall
prove a contradiction to the assumption of a finite number, which will prove that
an infinite number of Triplet Primes exist.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8505] **viXra:1408.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-28 16:04:49*

**Authors:** Tobías de Jesús Rosas Soto

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Artículo en español, con resumen en inglés. Contiene ecuaciones, y 8 figuras, a color para mejor comprensión.

Se presenta el estudio de propiedades geométricas de un cuadrilátero inscrito en una circunferencia, en un plano de Minkowski. Se estudian las relaciones entre los cuatro triángulos formados por los vértices del cuadrilátero, sus antitriángulos y puntos de simetría, sus baricentros y otros puntos asociados con dichos triángulos, respectivamente. Se introduce la noción de anticuadrilátero y se extiende la noción de circunferencia de Feuerbach de un cuadriláteros, inscritos en una circunferencia, a planos de Minkowski en general.
---
The study of geometric properties of a inscribed quadrangle in a circle, in a Minkowski plane is presented. We study the relations between the four triangles formed by the vertices of the quadrangle, its anti-triangles and points of symmetry, its barycenters and other points associated with such triangles, respectively. The notion of anti-quadrangle is introduced and extends the notion of Feuerbach circle for quadrangles, inscribed in a circle, to Minkowski planes in general.

**Category:** Geometry

[8504] **viXra:1408.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-28 17:30:10*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A simple calculation is done to show how much energy was released during ocean water formation of Earth’s oceans as they currently stand.

**Category:** Geophysics

[8503] **viXra:1408.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-28 17:46:38*

**Authors:** Thierry PERIAT

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This exploration analyses deeply the results obtained in the 4D presentation of the theory. It confirms the existence of gauge theories for massless particles in a 4D environment. The properties of the "new" EM fields are scrutinized attentively. A link with the whirl tensor of the particle is clearly demonstrated. It asks in which way a particle can be identified with a whirl and if, by some ambivalence, some whirls are not corresponding to geometric deformations?

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[8502] **viXra:1408.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-28 12:50:19*

**Authors:** Anibal Fernando Barral

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

In mathematics, a prime number is a natural number that is divisible only by 1 and itself.
For centuries, the search for an algorithm that could generate the sequence of these numbers became a mystery.
Perhaps the problem arises at the beginning of the enterprise, that is, the search for a single algorithm.
I noticed that all the primes without exception increased by one unit in some cases, or decreased by one unit in the other cases result in a multiple of 6 (six)
Example: 5+1=6 ; 7-1=6 ; 11+1=12 ; 13-1=12 ; 17+1=18 ; 19-1=18 ; 23+1=24 ; 29+1=30 ; 31-1=30 ;
37-1=36 ; 41+1=42 ; 43-1=42 ; 47+1=48 ; and so on.
Then I thought of making it easier to split the problem solving both cases.
So are passed to assume the presence of # 2 complementary families of primes.
To the number 1000, I worked by hand, a job with some effort but great satisfaction.
At this point my algorithms were reliable, but I needed another test.
To get to number 60,000 I leaned in a computational program, which compiled a dear friend. I would have liked to get up to 1,000,000 but the limit of 60,000 has been imposed by the processing time of the data.
At this point I had no more doubts about the reliability of my algorithms that are developed in continuation.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8501] **viXra:1408.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-28 11:24:43*

**Authors:** Alejandro Rivero

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Old paper expunged of Koideish references.

A supersymmetric version of Chew's "democratic bootstrap" argument predicts the existence of three generations of particles, with a quark, of type
"up", more massive that the other five.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8500] **viXra:1408.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-28 08:44:01*

**Authors:** Matthias Lesch

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In recent three preprints S. Marshall claims to give proofs of several famous conjectures in number theory, among them the twin prime conjecture and Goldbach's conjecture. A claimed proof of Beal's conjecture would even imply an elementary proof of Fermat's Last Theorem.
It is the purpose of this note to point out serious errors. It is the opinion of this author that it is safe to say that the claims of the above mentioned papers are lacking any basis.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8499] **viXra:1408.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-28 04:31:37*

**Authors:** Mirosław J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Usually, physicists propose the alternative theories of gravity to the General Relativity (GR). In this paper we propose something different – m(GR) theory. This theory is the modification of GR theory, where the metric tensor has been replaced by the effective mass tensor. The m(GR) theory is a new theory of gravitation, which describes the gravitational phenomena not as geometric properties of the space-time but as the dynamical properties of the bodies which, under the influence of the external gravitational field, behave like bodies with the effective mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8498] **viXra:1408.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-27 18:59:21*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

I present here a collection of algorithms that permits the expansion into a finite series or sequence from a real number x∈ R, the precision used is 64 decimal digits. The collection of mathematical constants was taken from my own collection and theses sources [1]-[6][9][10]. The goal of this experiment is to find a closed form of the sequence generated by the algorithm. Some new results are presented.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8497] **viXra:1408.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-27 20:44:02*

**Authors:** Michael Emerson

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Email: newphysics@safe-mail.net

This is a conceptual model of the fundamental properties of the Universe. This model offers a new viewpoint conceptually on the fundamental properties of Spacetime, Strings and Branes. Taking this conception through Pre-Big Bang and Post-Big Bang Cosmology. A form of inflation and positive cosmological constant naturally flows from this model.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8496] **viXra:1408.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-27 22:59:49*

**Authors:** Tobías de Jesús Rosas Soto

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Artículo en español, con resumen en inglés. Contiene ecuaciones, y 13 figuras, a color para mejor comprensión.

Usando la noción de C-ortocentro se extienden, a planos de Minkowski en general, nociones de la geometría clásica relacionadas con un triángulo, como por ejemplo: puntos de Euler, triángulo de Euler, puntos de Poncelet. Se muestran propiedades de estas nociones y sus relaciones con la circunferencia de Feuerbach. Se estudian sistemas C-ortocéntricos formados por puntos presentes en dichas nociones y se establecen relaciones con la ortogonalidad isósceles y cordal. Además, se prueba que la imagen homotética de un sistema C-ortocéntrico es un sistema C-ortocéntrico.
--
Using the notion of C-orthocenter, notions of the classic euclidean geometry related with a triangle, as for example: Euler points; Euler’s triangle; and Poncelet’s points, are extended to Minkowski planes in general. Properties of these notions and their relations with the Feuerbach’s circle, are shown. C-orthocentric systems formed by points in the above notions are studied and relations with the isosceles and chordal orthogonality, are established. In addition, there is proved that the homothetic image of a C-orthocentric system is a C-orthocentric system.

**Category:** Geometry

[8495] **viXra:1408.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-27 23:33:11*

**Authors:** Francis Thasayyan

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This document gives an answer to Beal's Conjection.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8494] **viXra:1408.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-28 00:37:39*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Conjectured polynomial time primality test for specific class of 9*2^n+1 is introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[8493] **viXra:1408.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-27 12:54:50*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper formulations and calculations are exposed for a new paradigm of dark matter.
Dark matter does not exists of solid particles. Dark matter exists of ‘faster time-cells’ than standard-time-based-on-light-speed. These ‘cells’ may sometimes give high-energetic particles, such as e.g. neutrinos, a velocity-gain, which can violate the light-speed in vacuum. In this perspective dark matter can be detected by the ‘combination of energy per time-volume and simultaneously a small light-flash’. Therefore the focus must be on detection of clock-energy during light-flashes !! Put a clock into the dark matter detection-configuration and the energy of the ‘time energy-density’ will change the clock-period, while it also gives a light-flash per second! The ‘dark matter time-cells’ are independent on whether time is relative or not. The assumption to describe dark matter as solid particles, such as ‘wimps’, ‘axions’, or ‘dark matter being its own anti-particle’, is therefore false. The new dark matter paradigm is based on analysis and worked out in this ‘paper’ as a part of a wider framework, called the Double Torus Theory for the Universe. This is a replacement for the Big Bang theory. The wish of this paper is to contribute to the dark matter research-project-teams, who aim to detect dark matter in the up-coming period to 2017 in the UK, USA, Italy, the Netherlands and other countries. Despite all the institutional- and press-commotion of OPERA an ICARUS in 2012 I postpone neutrinos indeed can be affected by ‘dark matter faster-time-cells’. These imply the violation of General Relativity Theory (GRT) and Quantum Theory (QT). A calculation proves that e.g. 62 nanosecond velocity-gain wouldn’t be a hazardous value, but can vary depending on the intensity of the dark matter’s circular-acceleration in vacuum. This is explained in this ‘paper’. It also means not always a violation of GRT and QT will happen. Separately and consistently an additional formulation (and calculation) is given about how the vacuum-energy-density of the QT can be eliminated from its extreme too large value compared to GRT.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[8492] **viXra:1408.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-27 09:43:48*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 5 Pages. submitted to "Astronomy & Astrophysics"

In our Milky Way galaxy's Westerlund 1 star cluster, there's a magnetar - neutron star with an extremely strong magnetic field - whose progenitor was a star about 40 times the mass of the Sun. This behemoth should have collapsed to form a black hole, not a magnetar. The answer to this puzzle seems to lie with a companion star called Westerlund 1-5 that is now escaping the cluster. Mass was transferred from the magnetar progenitor to Westerlund 1-5, allowing its companion to shrink to a size that allowed a magnetar to be born instead of a black hole. (A study published in the May 2014 issue of "Astronomy & Astrophysics")
The following preserves the necessity of a binary star system; going into detail which proposes why a magnetar, not a black hole, was born - and suggesting an answer as to why the magnetic field is so extreme.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[8491] **viXra:1408.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-27 10:48:21*

**Authors:** Rajib Chakraborty

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Presence of a charged wall distributes like charges (co-ions) and unlike charges (counter-ions) differently within an electrolytic solution. It is reasonable to expect that counter-ions have more population near the wall, while co-ions are abundant away from it; experiments and simulations support this. An analytical formula for the net charge-density distribution has been used widely since almost hundred years, was obtained by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. However, the old formula shows excess counter-ions everywhere, cannot account for the missing co-ions satisfactorily, and clearly violates charge conservation principle. Here, I correct the distribution formula from fundamental considerations. The old derivation expresses charge-density distribution as a function of electrostatic potential through Boltzmann
distribution, but missed a crucial point that the indefinite nature of electrostatic potential makes charge-density indefinite as well. We must tune electrostatic potential by adding suitable constant until the integral of
charge-density becomes consistent with the net charge present in solution; old theory did not do it, that I do here. This result demonstrates how to reconcile a definite quantity to an indefinite one, when they are related. I anticipate, this result is going to have far reaching impacts on many fields like colloid science, electro-kinetics, bio-technology etc. that use the old theory

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[8490] **viXra:1408.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-27 07:41:44*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α) moving with speeds ( 0,3 c – 0,99 c ) creates baryons and mesons.
Stable electrons moving with speeds ( 0,99 c – c ) creates leptons (μ−, τ−), neutrinos (νe, νμ, ντ) and bosons W +, W-, Z.
Speeds of electrons and protons in atoms are smaller. For example: An electron moving at a speed ve= 0,003c creates spectral line Hα.
Weak interactions are caused with stable electrons, which creates leptons, neutrinos and bosons W +, W-, Z.
The strong interactions are caused with stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α ), which creates baryons and mesons. Therefore creation and annihilation operators in physics are irrelevant.
Decay modes „elementary particles“

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8489] **viXra:1408.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-27 09:13:25*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Conjectured polynomial time primality test for specific class of numbers of the form k6^n-1 is introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[8488] **viXra:1408.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-27 05:41:21*

**Authors:** Predrag Terzic

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Conjectured polynomial time primality test for specific class of numbers of the form kb^n-1 is introduced .

**Category:** Number Theory

[8487] **viXra:1408.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-27 06:03:34*

**Authors:** Andrzej Okninski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In the present work we make a small step towards inding explicit formula for polynomial roots. xplicit formulae for simple real roots, based on the Frobenius companion matrix, are derived. After some modifications the method can be used to compute multiple or complex roots.

**Category:** Algebra

[8486] **viXra:1408.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-26 22:22:43*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 9 Pages. The abstract in english and the main text in french

The iteration formula Z_(n+1)=Z_n^2+c of Mandelbrot will give an algebraic number of degree 4 when it converges most of the time. If we take a good look at some of these algebraic numbers: some of them have a very persistent pattern in their binary expansion.
La formule d’itération de Mandelbrot Z_(n+1)=Z_n^2+c converge vers un nombre algébrique de degré 4 si c est un rationnel simple. Mais en regardant de près certains nombres algébriques en binaire on voit apparaître un motif assez évident et très persistant.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8485] **viXra:1408.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-26 22:24:59*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 13 Pages. The abstract in english and the main text in french

An analysis of the function 1/π Arg ζ((1/2)+in) is presented. This analysis permits to find a general expression for that function using elementary functions of floor and fractional part. These formulas bring light to a remark from Freeman Dyson which relates the values of the ζfunction to quasi-crystals. We find these same values for another function which is very similar, namely 1/π Arg Γ((1/4)+in/2). These 2 sets of formula have a definite pattern, the n’th term is related to values like π,ln(π),ln(2),…,log(p), where p is a prime number. The coefficients are closed related to a certain sequence of numbers which counts the number of 0’s from the right in the binary representation of n. These approximations are regular enough to deduce an asymptotic and precise formula. All results presented here are empirical.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8484] **viXra:1408.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-26 17:22:48*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The hierarchy problem follows from the very big energetic gap between the Planck scale and the masses of the most massive known particles. This problem is solved within the scale-symmetric Everlasting Theory. This theory is based on the four succeeding phase transitions of the modified Higgs field composed of the superluminal pieces of space (due to the size of our Cosmos, the next phase transitions are impossible). There appear the four very different scales i.e. the superluminal-quantum-entanglement scale, luminal Planck scale, observed-particles scale and cosmological scale. Due to the irreversible processes during the inflation, the electron and muon neutrinos are the stable particles. The observed oscillations follow from the decays or creations of the unstable tau “neutrinos” and from the exchanges of the free neutrinos for the neutrinos in the neutrino-antineutrino pairs the Einstein spacetime consists of.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8483] **viXra:1408.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-26 17:26:59*

**Authors:** Florentino Muñiz Ania

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

English (traslation): The influence of electricity in the gravity is shown here. Being able to verify this with a simple experiment, charging and discharging a capacitor. Modifying the equation used is achieved justify mass number of atoms in part. And also check that the pressure is needed to create atoms of the planetary cores.
Spanish (original): Se muestra aquí la influencia de la electricidad en la gravedad. Pudiendo constatarlo mediante un sencillo experimento, cargando y descargando un condensador. Modificando la ecuación empleada se consigue justificar, en parte, el número másico de los átomos. Y se comprueba, además, que la presión necesaria para crear átomos es la de los núcleos planetarios.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[8482] **viXra:1408.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-26 11:31:57*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Eddington believed that the number of particles in the universe was equal to the fine
structure constant multiplied by two to the power 256. Paul Dirac(5) proposed a Large
Number Hypothesis (LNH) that related very large unexplained and relatively consistent
numbers in physics. This paper will show that Eddington and Dirac may have been very
close to the truth. In addition it will show the number of particles in the elementary
particles and it is also related to the fine structure constant and two to the power of 128.
In “Planck Pressure and Force between two Hubble Sphere Universes are equivalent
and Provide Evidence for Multiple Hubble Sphere Universes and Rigid Components of
Space”(1) a Critical Mass of the Universe is calculated. This equation can also be used
to estimate a total amount of particles in the universe. The estimated mass of the
Universe is used here to estimate the number of particles and a possible relation to the
Eddington number(2) by the fine structure constant.
In “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and
Kaluza Spinning Spheres”(3) a value “N” of 6.57943*10^40 was calculated for the
number of spheres that give rise to the mass of the Planck Spinning Sphere, which it is
proposed, that the Planck Spinning Sphere is made of many smaller spheres called
Kaluza Spinning Spheres, and it is also proposed that the Universe is made of Planck
Spinning Spheres make up the Universe all packed in a mostly cuboctahedron
structure. The value “N” will be shown to be possibly related to 2^128 and the fine
structure constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8481] **viXra:1408.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-26 07:18:46*

**Authors:** Ramón Ruiz

**Comments:** 34 Pages. This research is based on an approach developed solely to demonstrate the binary Goldbach Conjecture and the Twin Primes Conjecture.

Goldbach's Conjecture statement: “Every even integer greater than 2 can be expressed as the sum of two primes”.
Initially, to prove this conjecture, we can form two arithmetic sequences (A and B) different for each even number, with all the natural numbers that can be primes, that can added, in pairs, result in the corresponding even number.
By analyzing the pairing process, in general, between all non-prime numbers of sequence A, with terms of sequence B, or vice versa, to obtain the even number, we note that some pairs of primes are always formed. This allow us to develop a non-probabilistic formula, to calculate the approximate number of pairs of primes that meet the conjecture for an even number x.
The result of this formula is always equal or greater than 1, and it tends to infinite when x tends to infinite, which allow us to confirm that Goldbach's Conjecture is true.
The prime numbers theorem by Carl Friedrich Gauss, the prime numbers theorem in arithmetic progressions and some axioms have been used to complete this investigation.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8480] **viXra:1408.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-26 07:27:11*

**Authors:** Ramón Ruiz

**Comments:** 24 Pages. This research is based on an approach developed solely to demonstrate the Twin Primes Conjecture and the binary Goldbach Conjecture.

Twin Primes Conjecture statement: “There are infinitely many primes p such that (p + 2) is also prime”.
Initially, to prove this conjecture, we can form two arithmetic sequences (A and B), with all the natural numbers, lesser than a number x, that can be primes and being each term of sequence B equal to its partner of sequence A plus 2.
By analyzing the pairing process, in general, between all non-prime numbers of sequence A, with terms of sequence B, or vice versa, we note that some pairs of primes are always formed. This allow us to develop a non-probabilistic formula to calculate the approximate number of pairs of primes, p and (p + 2), that are lesser than x.
The result of this formula tends to infinite when x tends to infinite, which allow us to confirm that the Twin Primes Conjecture is true.
The prime numbers theorem by Carl Friedrich Gauss, the prime numbers theorem in arithmetic progressions and some axioms have been used to complete this investigation.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8479] **viXra:1408.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-26 08:02:11*

**Authors:** Stephen Marshall

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper presents a complete and exhaustive proof of the Polignac Prime Conjecture. The approach to this proof uses same logic that Euclid used to prove there are an infinite number of prime numbers. Then we prove that if p > 1 and d > 0 are integers, that p and p+ d are both primes if and only if for integer n (see reference 1 and 2):
n =(p−1)!(1/p+(−1)d(d!)/(p + d)+ 1/(p+1)+ 1/(p+d)
We use this proof for d = 2k to prove the infinitude of Polignac prime numbers.
Additionally, our proof of the Polignac Prime Conjecture leads to proofs of several other significant number theory conjectures such as the Goldbach Conjecture, Twin Prime Conjecture, Cousin Prime Conjecture, and Sexy Prime Conjecture. Our proof of Polignac’s Prime Conjecture provides significant accomplishments to Number Theory, yielding proofs to several conjectures in number theory that has gone unproven for hundreds of years.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8478] **viXra:1408.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-26 08:10:03*

**Authors:** Stephen Marshall

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Abstract: This paper presents a complete and exhaustive proof of the Beal Conjecture. The approach to this proof uses the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic as the basis for the proof of the Beal Conjecture. The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic states that every number greater than 1 is either prime itself or is unique product of prime numbers. The prime factorization of every number greater than 1 is used throughout every section of the proof of the Beal Conjecture. Without the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, this approach to proving the Beal Conjecture would not be possible.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8477] **viXra:1408.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-26 08:34:22*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 10 pages

The perception of events in two inertial reference frames in relative motion is analyzed from the perspective of the special relativity (SR) postulates. Straightforward contradictions disproving the SR predictions have been identified. The hoax used in the SR formulation to get around the identified contradictions and hide their cause is revealed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8476] **viXra:1408.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-26 04:17:34*

**Authors:** Robert Nazaryan, Haik Nazaryan

**Comments:** 11 Pages In English, Copyrighted

The aim of this current article is to illustrate in detail Armenian relativistic formulas and compare them with Lorentz relativistic formulas so that readers can easily differentiate these two theories and visualize how general and rich our Armenian Theory of Special Relativity really is with a spectacular build in asymmetry.
Then we are going behind this comparison and illustrating that build in asymmetry inside Armenian Theory of Special Relativity is reincarnating the aether as a universal reference medium, which is not contrary to relativity theory. We mathematically prove the existence of aether and we show how to extract infinite energy from the time-space or sub-atomic aether medium. Our theory explains all these facts and peacefully brings together followers of absolute aether theory, relativistic aether theory or followers of dark matter theory. We also mention that the absolute aether medium has a very complex geometric character, which has never been seen before.
We are explaining why NASA’s earlier "BPP" and DARPA’s "Casimir Effect Enhancement" programs failed.
We are also stating that the time is right to reopen NASA’s BPP program and fuel the spacecrafts using the everywhere existing aether asymmetric momentum force.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8475] **viXra:1408.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-26 06:11:45*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An essay: annotated translation of the "NOTE ON ACCOUNTING FOR THE SECULAR VARIATIONS OF THE ORBITS OF VENUS AND MERCURY", by SIMON NEWCOMB (1895).

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[8474] **viXra:1408.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-25 18:53:30*

**Authors:** Stephen Marshall

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper presents a complete and exhaustive proof of the Fibonacci Prime Conjecture. The approach to this proof uses same logic that Euclid used to prove there are an infinite number of prime numbers. Then we prove that if p > 1 and d > 0 are integers, that p and p+ d are both primes if and only if for integer n (see reference 1 and 2):
n =(p−1)!(1/p+(−1)d(d!)/(p + d)+ 1/(p+1)+ 1/(p+d)
We use this proof for p = Fy-1 and d = Fy-2 to prove the infinitude of Fibonacci prime numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[3781] **viXra:1409.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-02 04:52:37*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

If the duration of the emission, the duration of the passage and the duration of the absorption of photons depend on the progression value, then the consequence of the observation of red-shift for old photons will be that space is compressing rather than expanding.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3780] **viXra:1408.0235 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-01 06:52:34*

**Authors:** Algirdas Antano Maknickas

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The author proposed theory of communication system working on gravity waves. Such system of devices should work if the electromagnetic field curves space-time. Theoretical results shows that the artificial change of gravity or space-time curvature should observes at the distance much more bigger than dimension of transmitter antenna. The article ends with discussion details of technical properties of working electro-gravity communication system.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[3779] **viXra:1408.0213 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-02 01:46:58*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Reason for replacement - to address this statement from the new version: "If a quadrupole gravitational wave becomes a dipole electromagnetic wave, it not only has to change its strength in the way described above but it also has to change its shape."
After reading "Study challenges black hole theory" in Astronomy magazine's September 2014 issue, I sat down in front of my computer and spent the whole afternoon typing this reply. Most of the thoughts were initially addressed in previous contributions to viXra.org and, as the heading states, this article is "Clarifying Previous Points Regarding Dark Matter" (with cameos by imaginary numbers, time travel into the past, instant space-time travel, unifying fundamental forces with each other as well as matter/mass, string theory, black holes, and the cosmic DVD).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3778] **viXra:1408.0211 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-29 22:58:49*

**Authors:** Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Our result is the explicit form of the infinitesimals.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[3777] **viXra:1408.0206 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-29 13:46:45*

**Authors:** Ricardo Alvira

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

It reviews the meaning/definition of terms 'complex' and 'simple' from an etimological perspective, in order to help set the basic definitions to formulate a Unified Theory of Complexity.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[3776] **viXra:1408.0204 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-31 12:03:19*

**Authors:** A. A. Frempong

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Copyright © A. A. Frempong

Best news. After over 30 years of debating, the debate is over. Yes, P is equal to NP.
For the first time, NP problems have been solved in this paper. Techniques and formulas were developed and used to solve these problems as well as produce simple equations to help programmers apply the techniques. The techniques and formulas are based on an extended Ashanti fairness wisdom as exemplified below. If two people A and B are to divide items of different sizes which are arranged from the largest size to the smallest size, the procedure will be as follows. In the first round, A chooses the largest size, followed by B choosing the next largest size. In the second round, B chooses first, followed by A. In the third round, A chooses first, followed by B and the process continues up to the last item. To abbreviate the sequence in the above choices, one obtains the sequence "A, BB, AA, BB, AA". Let A and B divide the sum of the whole numbers, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 as equally as possible, by merely always choosing the largest number. Then A chooses 10, B chooses 9 and 8, followed by A choosing 7 and 6; followed by B choosing 5 and 4; followed by A choosing 3 an 2; and finally, B chooses 1. The sum of A's choices is 10 +7+ 6 + 3 + 2 = 28; and the sum of B's choices is 9 + 8 + 5 + 4 + 1 = 27, with error, plus or minus 0.5 . Observe the sequence "A, BB, AA, BB, AA". Observe also that the sequence is not "AB, AB, AB, AB, AB as one might think. If one were to use AB, AB, AB, AB, AB, the sum for A would be 10 + 8 + 6 + 4 + 2 = 30 and the sum for B would be 9 +7 + 5 +3 + 1 = 25, with error, plus or minus 2.5. The reason why the sequence is "A, BB, AA, BB, AA", and not "AB, AB, AB, AB, AB" is as follows. In the first round, when A chooses first, followed by B, A has the advantage of choosing the larger number and B has the disadvantage of choosing the smaller number. In the second round, if A were to choose first, A would have had two consecutive advantages, and therefore, in the second round, B will choose first to produce the sequence AB, B or ABB. In the third round, A chooses first, because B chose first in the second round. After three rounds, the sequence would be A, BB, AA. When this technique was applied to 100 items of different values or masses, by mere combinations, the total value or mass of A's items was equal to the total value or mass of B's items. Similar results were obtained for 1000 items.
By hand, the techniques can be used to prepare final exam schedules for 100 or 1000 courses. Confirmed is the notion that a method that solves one of these problems can also solve other NP problems. Since six problems have been solved, all NP problems can be solved. If all NP problems can be solved, then all NP problems are P problems and therefore, P is equal to NP.
The CMI Millennium Prize requirements have been satisfied.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[3775] **viXra:1408.0196 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-29 22:20:17*

**Authors:** A. Rivero

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A supersymmetric version of Chew's "democratic bootstrap" argument predicts the existence of three generations of particles, with a quark, of type "up", more massive that the other five.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[3774] **viXra:1408.0191 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-31 13:31:01*

**Authors:** Tobías de Jesús Rosas Soto

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Artículo en español, con resumen en inglés. Contiene ecuaciones, y 13 figuras, a color para mejor comprensión.

Usando la noción de C-ortocentro se extienden, a planos de Minkowski en general, nociones de la geometría clásica relacionadas con un triángulo, como por ejemplo: puntos de Euler, triángulo de Euler, puntos de Poncelet. Se muestran propiedades de estas nociones y sus relaciones con la circunferencia de Feuerbach. Se estudian sistemas C-ortocéntricos formados por puntos presentes en dichas nociones y se establecen relaciones con la ortogonalidad isósceles y cordal. Además, se
prueba que la imagen homotética de un sistema C-ortocéntrico es un sistema C-ortocéntrico.
---
Using the notion of C-orthocenter, notions of the classic euclidean geometry related with a triangle, as for example: Euler points; Euler’s triangle; and Poncelet’s points, are extended to Minkowski planes in general. Properties of these notions and their relations with the Feuerbach’s circle, are shown. C-orthocentric systems formed by points in the above notions are studied and relations with the isosceles and chordal orthogonality, are established. In addition, there is proved that the homothetic image of a C-orthocentric system is a C-orthocentric system.

**Category:** Geometry

[3773] **viXra:1408.0177 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-27 09:32:45*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Fixed fine structure constant notation.

Eddington believed that the number of particles in the universe was equal to the fine structure constant multiplied by two to the power 256. Paul Dirac(5) proposed a Large Number Hypothesis (LNH) that related very large unexplained and relatively consistent numbers in physics. This paper will show that Eddington and Dirac may have been very close to the truth. In addition it will show the number of particles in the elementary particles and it is also related to the fine structure constant and two to the power of 128.
In “Planck Pressure and Force between two Hubble Sphere Universes are equivalent and Provide Evidence for Multiple Hubble Sphere Universes and Rigid Components of Space”(1) a Critical Mass of the Universe is calculated. This equation can also be used to estimate a total amount of particles in the universe. The estimated mass of the Universe is used here to estimate the number of particles and a possible relation to the Eddington number(2) by the fine structure constant.
In “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres”(3) a value “N” of 6.57943*10^40 was calculated for the number of spheres that give rise to the mass of the Planck Spinning Sphere, which it is proposed, that the Planck Spinning Sphere is made of many smaller spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres, and it is also proposed that the Universe is made of Planck Spinning Spheres make up the Universe all packed in a mostly cuboctahedron structure. The value “N” will be shown to be possibly related to 2^128 and the fine structure constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3772] **viXra:1408.0172 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-28 08:12:58*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 10 pages. v2 - minor editing

The perception of events in two inertial reference frames in relative motion is analyzed from the perspective of the special relativity (SR) postulates. Straightforward contradictions disproving the SR predictions have been identified. The hoax used in the SR formulation to get around the identified contradictions and hide their cause is revealed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3771] **viXra:1408.0170 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-28 18:26:31*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An essay: annotated translation of the "NOTE ON ACCOUNTING FOR THE SECULAR VARIATIONS OF THE ORBITS OF VENUS AND MERCURY", by SIMON NEWCOMB (1895).

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics