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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[20379] viXra:1709.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-26 11:50:52

How Does the ai Understand What's Going on

Authors: Dimiter Dobrev
Comments: 22 Pages.

Most researchers regard AI as a static function without memory. This is one of the few articles where AI is seen as a device with memory. When we have memory, we can ask ourselves: "Where am I?", and "What is going on?" When we have no memory, we have to assume that we are always in the same place and that the world is always in the same state.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[20378] viXra:1709.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-26 07:41:30

Neumann Series Seen as Expansion Into Bessel Functions J_{n} Based on Derivative Matching.

Authors: Andrej Liptaj
Comments: 8 Pages. Text presents known results.

Multiplicative coefficients of a series of Bessel functions of the first kind can be adjusted so as to match desired values corresponding to a derivatives of a function to be expanded. In this way Neumann series of Bessel functions is constructed. Text presents known results.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[20377] viXra:1709.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-26 07:59:53

Undulating Relativity + § 25 Logarithmic Spiral (Continuation)

Authors: Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia
Comments: 128 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know: -The dilatation of time, and -The contraction of the Lorentz Length. The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20376] viXra:1709.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-26 10:31:21

A New Axiom for ZFC Set Theory that Results in a Problem

Authors: Andew Banks
Comments: 5 Pages.

This article adds a new axiom to ZFC that assumes there is a set x which is initially the empty set and thereafter the successor function (S) is instantly applied once in-place to x at each time interval (½ⁿ n>0) in seconds. Next, a very simple question is proposed to ZFC. What is x after one second elapses? By definition, each time S is applied in-place to x, a new element is inserted into x. So, given that S is applied at each time interval (½ⁿ n>0) then an infinite collection of elements is added to x so, x is countable infinite. On the other hand, since x begins as the empty set and only S is applied to x then x cannot be anything other than a finite natural number. Hence, x is finite. Clearly, in-place counting according to the interval timings (½ⁿ n>0) demonstrates a problem in ZFC
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[20375] viXra:1709.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-26 10:59:51

Schrödinger’s Equation as an Energy Diffusion Equation

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle, Drs, MAEc, BAEc, BPhil
Comments: 13 Pages.

While the real and imaginary part of the quantum-mechanical wavefunction are, obviously, not to be looked as field vectors, the similarity between the geometry of the quantum-mechanical wavefunction and that of a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave remains intriguing: from a mathematical point of view, only the relative phase differs. Also, if the physical dimension of the electromagnetic field is expressed in newton per coulomb (force per unit charge), then one might explore the implications of associating the components of the wavefunction with a similar physical dimension: force per unit mass (newton per kg). This leads to a remarkably elegant interpretation of the physical significance of the wavefunction and the wave equation: 1.The calculated energy densities are proportional to the square of the absolute value of the wavefunction and, hence, to the probabilities. 2.Schrödinger’s wave equation itself may then, effectively, be interpreted as a diffusion equation for energy itself.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20374] viXra:1709.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-26 11:10:29

An Insight Into Commutative Algebra Based Informatics & Computational Architecture for Cryo-em Image Processing Involving Gröbner Bases Using C++/java/hol/scala/scalalab/imagej Software Environments – a Short Communication on Gröbner Bases

Authors: D.N.T.Kumar
Comments: 7 Pages. A Short Communication on Gröbner Bases With Applications in Signals and Systems Using JikesRVM/JVM.

In this research communication on commutative algebra it was proposed to deal with Grobner Bases and its applications in signals and systems domain.This is one of the pioneering communications in dealing with Cryo-EM Image Processing application using multi-disciplinary concepts involving thermodynamics and electro magnetics based on first principles approach.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[20373] viXra:1709.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-26 06:49:53

Splitting Dark Matter Black Hole Big Bang as the Origin of Ultra-Energetic-Cosmic-Rays-From Far-Away

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 24 Pages.

Recent UHECR ( Ultra High Energetic Cosmic Rays) observations come from the Pierre Auger Observatory, a huge cosmic ray detector array in Argentina. The finding gives the first solid evidence that the rays don't just come from all over, but mainly from a restricted area outside our own galaxy. Reason to compare the restricted UHECR area with the location of the Splitting Dark Matter Black Hole Big Bang (DMBH.BB) suggested earlier by Quantum FFF Theory. ( Function Follows Form) The first simple comparison do indeed show evidence for a clear match of these areas. The so called “Cold Spot” well known to be present in the Cosmic Background Radiation (CMBR) is surprisingly located in the middle of the restricted UHECR area and connected with the Large Quasar Groups found by Roger Clowes. ( 2013 University of Central Lancashire). As a consequence I suggest, that the UHECR particles are produced by the Big Bang black hole splitting process of the early universe, located in the restricted area of an early Lyman Alpha system. The early larger black hole chunks of the Big Bang splitting process are supposed to be origin of largest particle accelerators, more powerful than the smaller black hole chunks of later era. To understand the forming of early ultra high energy atom nuclei around splitting black holes however, we should follow the new black hole paradigm of Qauntum FFF Theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[20372] viXra:1709.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 14:45:51

Silicon n-p-n Cold Emission Cathode

Authors: Octavian Balaci
Comments: 10 Pages. draft article

A study of a silicon n-p-n structure used as a cold emission cathode. Such a device is able to emit electrons in low external field and also to internally control the intensity of emission.
Category: Condensed Matter

[20371] viXra:1709.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 16:24:08

On the Sum of the Squares of the Particle Masses

Authors: Cris A. Fitch
Comments: 2 Pages.

We observe that the sum of the squares of the three known fundamental massive bosons is within 0.4% of the square of the vacuum expectation value divided by 2. It is also well known that the top quark mass squared is also slightly less than this value. We put forth the conjecture that this is not a coincidence, and that these two facts are a result of a general principle for the Standard Model that the sum of the squares of the boson masses and the sum of the squares of the fermion masses actually equals the vacuum expectation value squared divided by two. Furthermore this foreshadows a coming particle desert at TeV energies, as the available reservoir of mass couplings has already been allocated to known particles.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[20370] viXra:1709.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 22:46:58

《Universal and Unified Field Theory》— 3. Photon, Light and Electromagnetism

Authors: Wei Xu
Comments: 3 Pages. The 2nd part of this series is available at http://vixra.org/abs/1709.0358

For the first time, Law of Conservation of Light is uncovered that consists of the seven principles including the wave-particle duality as well as the Photon Entanglements beyond the speed at constant c. In addition, another Law of Fluxion Continuity unfolds concisely the classical theory of Lorentz force and Maxwell's equations. With these applications to the classical physics, Universal Field Theory demonstrates and derives, but are not limited to, Electromagnetism given rise from the first horizon of Quantum Mechanics.

 


Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[20369] viXra:1709.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 09:32:11

A Delayed Choice Gedanken Experiment

Authors: M. W. Roberts
Comments: 12 Pages.

A delayed choice experiment is proposed. A signal and idler pair of photons are sent to optical circulators. The fate experienced by the idler photon is described by two different cases. In case I, the idler photon has zero probability to reflect from the entrance beam splitter and therefore always enters its optical circulator. In case II, the idler photon has a non-zero probability to reflect from the entrance beam splitter without entering its optical circulator. Which case the idler photon actually experiences is selected by the method that is used to detect the signal photon of the pair. This is true, even if the detection of the signal photon occurs long after the detection of the idler photon.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20368] viXra:1709.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 09:55:45

Il Linguaggio Be-Bop e gli Accordi di Settima di Prima Specie

Authors: Carmine Cataldo
Comments: 7 Pages. Original Article: Cataldo, C. (2017). “The Art of Improvising: the Be-Bop Language and The Dominant Seventh Chords”. Art and Design Review, 5, 181-188. https://doi.org/10.4236/adr.2017.53014 [Adaptation and Translation by the Author].

In questo articolo vengono discusse, in via esclusiva, le tecniche d’improvvisazione relative agli Accordi di Settima di Dominante. Il lettore, cui di fatto non è richiesto il possesso d’alcun background di carattere jazzistico, è subito portato ad esprimersi, per così dire, adoperando il Linguaggio Be-Bop. Il metodo è semplice e intuitivo. Si parte dalla presentazione d’una “Frase Fondamentale”, costruita sulla Triade Maggiore, dalla quale vengono istantaneamente dedotte ulteriori proposizioni. Le frasi così ottenute vengono successivamente modificate, effettuando semplici “tagli” ovvero aggiungendo nuove “parole”, e tra di loro variamente combinate.
Category: Education and Didactics

[20367] viXra:1709.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 05:22:17

Solution of Inscribed Squares Problem

Authors: Choe Ryujin
Comments: 5 Pages.

Solution of Inscribed Squares Problem
Category: Topology

[20366] viXra:1709.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 05:26:15

Analytical Comparison Between Microhematocrit and Automated Methods for Packed Cell Volume (PCV) Determination

Authors: Audu I. Stephen, Simon T. Ubwa, Ogbene G. Igbum, Stephen S. Hati, NwannadiI.Alex
Comments: 4 Pages.

Analytical methods comparison for the determination of packed cell volume(PCV) are essential in clinical laboratory practice as it improves the quality of health care through accurate and reliable clinical decision making from diagnostic results of suitable alternatives. Comparison is necessary because each method is expected to serve as a quality control measure for the other. This study was done to assess the analytical performance between the Microhematocrit and automated methods for PCV determination. In this study carried out at the heamatology laboratory of the Benue State University Teaching Hospital, Makurdi, Nigeria, the Microhematocrit method determined by using the HC 702, (ApelCo. Ltd, Korea) was compared with the Automated hematology Analyzer method (KX-21N sysmex, USA) using paired data of blood samples analyzed respectively from 206 patients in the hospital. Data analysis was performed using Analyse-it ® Version 4.6 method validation software. The results showed that similar overall mean values of PCV were obtained by both microhematocrit (34.5±7.3%) and automated (34.3±6.8%) methods. Result of t-test analysis was not statistically significant (p= 0.135) between the overall measurements by both methods.
Category: Biochemistry

[20365] viXra:1709.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 05:33:48

Augmentation of Anticoagulant Effect with Vitamin D: Possible Therapeutic Target for Venous Thromboembolism

Authors: Anindita Banerjee, Vineet Kumar Khemka
Comments: 5 Pages.

Venous thromboembolism is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality especially in the elderly. Arrays of risk factors altering the blood flow, endothelial function and coagulability have been identified. However, the precise mechanisms that trigger clotting in major veins have not been fully elucidated. Activation of endothelial cells by hypoxia or inflammatory stimuli results in surface expression of adhesion molecules that facilitate the binding of circulating leukocytes and microvesicles. Subsequent leukocyte activation induces the release of potent procoagulant tissue factor that triggers thrombosis. Aging, immobility, smoking, surgery, OCP intake, cancer etc predispose to stasis, increased coagulation factor levels, impaired function of the venous valves, decreases in the efficacy of natural anticoagulants associated with the vessel wall, increased risk of immobilization and increased risk of severe infection. Prophylaxis is both mechanical and pharmacological with anticoagulation being the mainstay of treatment. Thus, better understanding the mechanisms of venous thrombosis may lead to the development of new therapeutic / preventive modalities. Recently, vitamin D, the sunshine hormone, has been in the limelight due to some experimental and epidemiological evidences showing its antithrombotic actions by various mechanisms. With emerging data about the potential association of vitamin D as an antithrombotic agent, our review has dissected the recent evidences of vitamin D having any beneficial effect on the markers of thrombosis or improvement among patients with deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolidm(DVT/PE).
Category: Biochemistry

[20364] viXra:1709.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 05:35:13

Sickle Cell Disease

Authors: Lavanya B
Comments: 1 Page.

Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a hereditary constant disorder. Peoples with the disease turn out abnormal hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells affix to oxygen in the lungs and carries it to all parts of the body. This irregular hemoglobin causes the red blood cells to become inflexible and sickle- cell shaped, which causes them to fix together and hunk the flow of blood and oxygen to the body. The disease results from a single mutation in the gene that codes one of the protein chains that make up the hemoglobin molecule. Hemoglobin is the main constituent of red blood cells and allows the cells to raise up oxygen from the lungs and drop it off in tissues throughout the body, from the brain to the muscles. The sickle alteration causes the red blood cells to make a tainted version of the hemoglobin that forces the red cell into a sickle shape when oxygen levels drop. The sickled red blood cells tangle together, overcrowding blood vessels throughout the body and causing severe pain and unfortunate health consequences.
Category: Biochemistry

[20363] viXra:1709.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 06:33:23

The Origin of Gravity and Newton's Law

Authors: H.J. Veringa
Comments: 19 Pages. Small mistake in title: Gravity in stead of gravirty.

In this document an attempt is made to explain the origin of gravity. The basis for the analysis is a merger of Quantum theory and Relativity. Nowhere in the analysis there is any need to deviate from well proven and successful concepts of both theories and rules of calculation, and no exotic new particles will have to be introduced. By doing so it is demonstrated that, next to its local interactions of a multi-particle system, the Schrödinger equation leads to pairs of two and only two members. This solution is used as the invariant term in the quantized Einstein energy equation which finally leads to gravitational interactions between members of the pairs. With this particular solution for the quantum-mechanical wave function it is found that gravity is a second order effect operating over a long range. In this document it is tried to give a complete and consistent account of all steps that have been taken in the derivation of the classical Newton’s law. Further the document emphasizes precise justification of some of the basic assumptions made and how it works out on a cosmological scale. It is also found that the generator of gravity is contributing mass to particles that have gravitational interaction.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20362] viXra:1709.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-24 14:31:58

Haskell-Java-JikesRVM/ImageJ Nano-Bio Informatics Framework based Cryo-Electron Microscopy/TEM/SEM Image Processing in the Context of Haskell Image Processing Libraries & HDF5 Image Format – A Simple Communication on Applications of Meta-circular Research

Authors: D.N.T.Kumar
Comments: 9 Pages. A Simple Communication on Applications of Meta-circular Research Virtual Machine(RVM) & JTransformer-Prolog Development Tool.

Current R&D project was the development of a software platform designed to be an advanced research testbed for the prototyping of Haskell based novel technologies in Cryo-EM Methodologies. Focused upon software architecture concepts and frameworks involving Haskell image processing libraries.Cryo-EM is an important tool to probe nano-bio systems.A number of hi-tech firms are implementing BIG-DATA analysis using Haskell especially in the domains of Pharma,Bio-informatics etc. Hence current research paper is one of the pioneering attempts made by the author to encourage advanced data analysis in the Cryo-EM domain to probe important aspects of nano-bio applications.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[20361] viXra:1709.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-24 18:23:32

An Essay on the Zeroes of an L-Function

Authors: Matanari Shimoinuda
Comments: 28 Pages.

This article is the summary of the spectral interpretation of critical zeroes of an L-function by Alain Connes. I try to examine the subject from the view of the representation theory and add some comments.
Category: Number Theory

[20360] viXra:1709.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 01:12:29

Emergent Time and Anthropic Principle (In Russian)

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov
Comments: 10 Pages.

Philosophy part of theory of emergent space-time-matter is discussed. It was shown that anthropic principle is direct consequence of emergent time. It was shown that conscience is epiphenomenon, but it is more fundamental than matter.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20359] viXra:1709.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 01:41:33

Psi-Lines, Nodes, and their Minimum Length

Authors: Jeffrey S. Keen
Comments: 6 Pages, 2 Figures,4 Tables

Existing publications suggest that the smallest psi-lines have interesting but unquantified properties. Addressing this challenge is this paper’s objective. The following quantitative experiments demonstrate that psi-lines must be greater than a minimum length of 1.58 metres before they possess nodes. At this minimum length, the distance of the node, measured from the start of the psi-line, equals 0.79 metres i.e. at its centre. Psi-lines without nodes also have a minimum length, but this is slightly less at 0.74 m. This is approximately half the minimum length of psi-lines with a node, and hence cannot be a coincidence. An exponential equation is also discovered. All these findings are additional factors to help determine the structure of psi-lines.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20358] viXra:1709.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 01:55:11

A Genotyping and Phenotyping Study Concerning the Possible Effects of Some Inflammatory Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms on the Development of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis

Authors: Ilker Ates, Asuman Karakaya, Sinan H. Suzen, Berran Yucesoy
Comments: 5 Pages.

Cytokines are important for playing a major role in several inflammatory reactions resulting in development of several diseases as well as Coal Worker’s Pneumoconiosis (CWP). Coal dust exposure stimulates inflammatory response leading to enhanced cytokine release from monocytes such as TNF-alpha and IL1. These released cytokines are the key points in the pathogenesis of CWP. The present study aimed to seek the cytokine gene profiles of Turkish coal workers by genotyping and phenotyping analysis of important CWP-related proinflammatory cytokines; TNF-alpha, IL1-alpha and IL1-beta. According to the genotyping results, TNFA –238 gene polymorphism was appeared to be a risk factor in development of CWP (OR=3.79) and regarding to the phenotyping analysis, both TNF-alpha and IL1 cytokine releases from the monocytes in CWP patients were enhanced significantly compared to the healthy workers. Therewithal, LPS and coal dust stimulated TNF-alpha release were higher significantly in allele 2 carriers than allele 1 carriers in both of the groups. These data propose that coal dust-induced TNF-alpha release from monocytes may be a valuable biomarker of CWP.
Category: Biochemistry

[20357] viXra:1709.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 01:56:12

A T Cell Equation as a Conceptual Model of T Cell Responses for Maximizing the Efficacy of Cancer Immunotherapy

Authors: Haidong Dong, Yiyi Yan, Roxana S. Dronca, Svetomir N. Markovic
Comments: 5 Pages.

Following antigen stimulation, the net outcomes of a T cell response are shaped by integrated signals from both positive co-stimulatory and negative regulatory molecules. Recently, the blockade of negative regulatory molecules (i.e. immune checkpoint signals) demonstrates promising therapeutic effects in treatment of human cancers, but only in a fraction of cancer patients. Since this therapy is aimed to enhance T cell responses to cancers, here we devised a conceptual model by integrating both positive and negative signals in addition to antigen stimulation that can evaluate strategies to enhance T cell responses. A digital range of adjustment of each signal is formulated in our model for prediction of a final T cell response. Our model provides a rational combination strategy for maximizing the therapeutic effects of cancer immunotherapy.
Category: Biochemistry

[20356] viXra:1709.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 01:57:11

Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia:Focusing on Therapy According to Classification

Authors: Fergun Yilmaz, Filiz Vural
Comments: 6 Pages.

AutoImmune Hemolytic Anemia (AIHA) is a rare disease characterized by premature destruction of the red blood cells due to autoantibodies produced against erythrocyte antigens. Early destruction shortens the lifespan of the erythrocytes and causes anemia, the hallmark of the disease. It is a heterogeneous disease so the clinical presentation is diverse from a mild asymptomatic anemia to a refractory disease associated with mortality and morbidity. The different classifications are constituted to determine the prognosis and appropriate treatment strategy. It can be classified according the absence or presence of an underlying cause as primary or secondary. Another classification in AIHA is according to the type and thermal activity of the antibody as Cold Agglutinin Disease (CAD) or warm AIHA. In CAD, rituximab monotherapy or combinations is the treatment of choice. In the warm AIHA, the steroid should be preferred as a first line therapy. In the steroid refractory or relapsed patients, rituximab or splenectomy can be chosen according to the patient’s characteristics and the experience of the doctor. Since treatment mainly depends on the subtype of the disease differential diagnosis between the subtypes becomes important. This review will be focused on the classification and the treatment of AIHAs according to subtypes.
Category: Biochemistry

[20355] viXra:1709.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 01:58:09

Extraintestinal Involvements of Crohn’s Disease Complicated with Nocardia Bacterium: An Overview Due to A Case

Authors: Onur Özgenç, Seher Ayten Coşkuner, Hakan Evren, Meltem Avci
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this case report authors wanted to draw attention, to extraintestinal disorders of Crohn’s disease; an old disease known for more than a century, and to an emerging infectious pathogen Nocardia; a recently emphasized challanging species. A case of Crohn’s disease with complicated skin disorders, and acute compartment syndrome and cervical epidural abscess evolving due to Nocardia bacterium, has been discussed. The two medical entities, the Crohn’s disease with its extraintestinal involvements and nocardial infection with potential risk to cause disseminated infection especially in the immune compromised host, are the main subjects of this manuscript. In this respect, it is concluded that the patients with Crohn’s disease should be monitored closely for their extraintestinal involvements, and emerging and fastidious infections, so that the role of those infectious pathogens in the etiology of Crohn’s disease can be further investigated.
Category: Biochemistry

[20354] viXra:1709.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 02:00:36

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Autoimmune Cytopenias: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment

Authors: Fergun Yilmaz, Demet Kiper, Filiz Vural
Comments: 7 Pages.

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) is a clonal proliferation of B cells in bone marrow, lymph nodes, peripheral blood, spleen and other lymphoid tissues. CLL is mostly associated with dysregulated immune system. Intrinsic immune dysfunction results in increased frequency of autoimmune disorders and susceptibility to infections at the time of diagnosis or during course of the disease. Autoimmune cytopenias especially Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (AIHA) is observed frequently. AIHA is the most common immune cytopenia ranging between 5-10 % and it is followed by less frequent Immune Thrombocytopenia (IT) (1-5%). Autoimmune Neutropenia (AIN) and Pure Red Cell Aplasia (PRCA) are rare entities (<1%). In CLL patients, the differential diagnosis of autoimmune cytopenias is important since there are many confounding factors which may cause cytopenia in CLL patients such as infiltration of bone marrow by malignant cells, chemotherapy and infections. A careful diagnostic workup should be performed including history taking, physical examination, laboratory tests and bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. The treatment of AIHA and IT is similar to their counter parts primary AIHA and IT where the steroids are the treatment of choice. In PRCA, steroids are mostly ineffective and immunosuppressive agents should be tried. AIN is a very rare entity in CLL patients. Granulocyte stimulating factors, immunosuppressive therapies may be options in symptomatic patients.
Category: Biochemistry

[20353] viXra:1709.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 02:04:15

Platelet-Rich Fibrin as a New Approach in Treating Gingival Recession: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Reham AL Jasser, Hania AlKudmani, Sebastiano Andreana
Comments: 12 Pages.

The purpose was to systematically review the effect of platelet rich fibrin (PRF) in the treatment of Miller class I and II recession defects in comparison to conventional surgical procedures. Three electronic databases were searched, and hand search was performed for relevant articles, up to October 2015. All relevant articles were independently screened to specific inclusion criteria. Primary outcomes were Recession Depth (RD), Keratinized Tissue Width (KTW), and Percentage of Root Coverage (%RC). Secondary outcomes were Clinical Attachment Level (CAL), Probing Depth (PD), Healing Index (HI), and Pain. Ten randomized clinical trials met the inclusion criteria and seven were included in the meta-analysis. No statistically significant difference was found in %RC between Coronally Advanced Flap (CAF) and CAF + PRF or between CAF + Connective Tissue Graft (CAF + CTG) and CAF + PRF (p = 0.17 and p = 0.56) respectively. A borderline statistical difference was observed between CAF and CAF + PRF (p = 0.05), and no statistically significance difference between CAF + CTG and CAF + PRF (p = 0.23) in KTW. In regards to pain and healing, a significant reduction in pain during the first 5-7 days and faster healing observed in the PRF intervention when compared to the use of CTG or Enamel Matrix Derivative (EMD). In conclusion, there was no statistical or clinical difference present between PRF and CAF, CAF + CTG, or CAF + EMD for RD, %RC and KTW when treating Miller class I and II gingival recession. Significant improvement of postoperative pain and healing can be achieved, which may indicate PRF use as an alternative to conventional surgical approaches.
Category: Biochemistry

[20352] viXra:1709.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 02:05:06

Assessment of Occlusal Contacts Leading to Orthodontic Relapse. A Case Study

Authors: Svitlana Koval
Comments: 4 Pages.

The probable mechanism of the orthodontic relapse was described in the article. T-scan III occlusal analysis system was used to examine occlusal contacts in post-orthodontic patient according to the author’s protocol.
Category: Biochemistry

[20351] viXra:1709.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 02:08:13

Dental Biofilm and Saliva Biochemical Composition Changes in Young Orthodontic Patients

Authors: Shady Ahmed Moussa, Hany Gameil Gobran, Mohamed Ahmed Salem, Ibrahim Farouk Barkat
Comments: 5 Pages.

Saliva and dental biofilm of children with orthodontic treatment may be associated with high risk factors that increase incidence of caries development in this population. Aim:To assess the dental biofilm and saliva biochemical composition of young fixed orthodontic patients. Design:The sample comprised 64 participants between 12 to 18 years of age, of whom 32 had fixed orthodontic treatment as study group and 32 did not as a control group. Supragingival biofilm samples were collected from all teeth of all participants by using sterile curettes. The level of insoluble extracellular polysaccharide (IEPS)Calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (Pi) concentrations in dental biofilm was measured using phenol sulphuric acid colorimetric method. The estimated unstimulated salivary flow, pH, buffering capacity and count of Streptococcal Mutants were determined on selective media of all participants.
Category: Biochemistry

[20350] viXra:1709.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 02:09:17

Gender Variation in Pattern of Mandibular Third Molar Impaction

Authors: Obuekwe ON, Enabulele JE
Comments: 4 Pages.

A tooth is said to be impacted when it is obstructed on its path of eruption with the most commonly impacted tooth being the third molar. Various factors have been reported to cause obstruction in the path of eruption of the third molar and these include adjacent tooth, bone as well as soft tissue. Lack of space in the dental arch for the third molar to emerge as well as pathological lesions, stunted growth of tooth germ following nutritional deficiency, irradiation and physical trauma have been implicated in the etiology of third molar impaction [1]. There are varying reports regarding the prevalence of impacted third molars. Impacted third molars are more likely to occur in the mandible than in the maxilla [2,3].However, studies have consistently shown that mesioangular impaction is the most common angulations of impaction of mandibular third molars [1,2,4-6]. A few studies [4,6-8] tried to determine if there are any gender variations in mandibular third molar impaction with varying reports about the association of gender with third molar impaction. Previous studies [2,4] reported no statistically significant difference between gender and mandibular third molar impaction while another study [9] reported significant association between gender and number of impacted teeth as well as the presence of impacted mandibular teeth. With the varying reports regarding the association of gender to third molar impaction, this study was designed to determine the gender variation in mandibular third molar impaction among a group of Nigerian dental patients.
Category: Biochemistry

[20349] viXra:1709.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 02:09:57

Emphasizing Minimally Invasive Strategies for Improved Dental Care of Children

Authors: Robert L. Karlinsey
Comments: 3 Pages.

In the spirit of National Children’s Dental Health Month, this paper highlights a few strategies that can be used to promote effective management of dental care for children, including fluoride modalities, effective dentist-patient communication, and minimally invasive recommendations for handling enamel lesions; in short, these strategies may serve to provide the child with a more patientcentered approach to improved oral care. At the same time, such management may potentially save the child’s tooth structure from potentially counter-productive solutions involving ‘drill and fill’.
Category: Biochemistry

[20348] viXra:1709.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-24 12:21:17

A Pragmatic Language for Scientific Purposes

Authors: Arturo Tozzi
Comments: 3 Pages.

In order to avoid the inconsistencies that undermine the (otherwise good) legitimacy of scientific claims and to make them as accurate as possible, here we provide a few suggestions concerning the very structure of scientific propositions.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[20347] viXra:1709.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-24 08:00:37

More About the Inconsistency Solution of the Maxwell Equations

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 12 Pages.

A brief description of the non-contradictory solution of the Maxwell equations given in [1] and new additions are given.
Category: Classical Physics

[20346] viXra:1709.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-24 09:59:50

Electron Spin and Rotating Vector Fields

Authors: Alan M. Kadin, Steven B. Kaplan
Comments: 13 Pages. Submitted to Journal "Quanta" Aug. 28, 2017, but rejected without review.

The nature of electron spin has presented an enigma right from the beginning of quantum mechanics. We suggest that a simple realistic picture of a real coherently rotating vector field can account for both the Schrödinger equation and electron spin in a consistent manner. Such a rotating field carries distributed angular momentum and energy in the same way as a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave. We derive the Schrödinger equation from the relativistic Klein-Gordon Equation, where the complex wave function maps onto a fixed-axis real rotating vector. Such a realistic picture can also explain the Stern-Gerlach experiment which first identified electron spin. Remarkably, the predictions of a two-stage Stern-Gerlach experiment within this realistic picture differ from those of the orthodox quantum superposition approach. This two-stage experiment has not actually been done, and could provide insights into the limits of realistic models. This realistic picture also avoids quantum paradoxes and enables realistic explanations for a variety of quantum phenomena.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20345] viXra:1709.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 21:26:31

A Note on the Block Restricted Isometry Property Condition

Authors: Jianwen Huang, Jianjun Wang, Wendong Wang
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this work, the sufficient condition for the recovery of block sparse signals that satisfy $b=\Phi x+\xi$ is investigated. We prove that every block s-sparse signal can be reconstructed by the $l_2/l_1$-minimization method in the noise-free situation and is stably reconstructed in the noisy measurement situation, if the sensing matrix fulfils the restricted isometry property with $\delta_{ts|\mathcal{I}}<t/(4-t)$ as $0<t<4/3$, $ts\geq2.$
Category: Statistics

[20344] viXra:1709.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-24 00:23:20

《Universal and Unified Field Theory》 2. World Equations, Event Operations, and Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Wei Xu
Comments: 4 Pages. This is the 2nd part of《Universal and Unified Field Theory》. The 1st part is available at http://viXra.org/abs/1709.0308

Extend to the Universal Topology [1], this manuscript presents that the principles of World Equations, World Events and Motion Operations institute a set of Universal Equations and inaugurate the holistic foundations general to all dynamic fields. Defined as the First Universal Field Equations, its application to Quantum Mechanics demonstrates and derives, but are not limited to, Conservation of Energy-Momentum, Schrödinger Equation, Dirac Equation, Spinor Fields, and Weyl Spinor.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20343] viXra:1709.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 12:37:20

The Kakeya Tube Conjecture Implies the Kakeya Conjecture

Authors: Johan Aspegren
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this article we will give a proof that the Kakeya tube conjecture implies the Kakeya conjecture.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[20342] viXra:1709.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 12:39:53

Principle Equivalence and Inequivalence

Authors: Paris Samuel Miles-Brenden
Comments: 10 Pages. relativity, time, theory, everything, equivalence, wave, equation

Be ready for a 10 page compendium of the principles by which time operates with that of the relativistic theory in duplicity of reconcilation between either end of the wave equation. This theory incorporates the ideal of time and space transformation in very general form under entirely compatible principles and only two general equations for that of the theory of everything together. There is a rough synthesis of what is required then to understand the transformations of time; that of a theory second only to Albert Einstein's theory of special and general relativity; without contradiction.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[20341] viXra:1709.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 13:11:07

Common Description of Quantum Electromagnetism and Relativistic Gravitation

Authors: Jérémy Kerneis
Comments: 16 Pages.

We use 3 equations as postulates: Pem referring to electromagnetism, Pgrav referring to gravity, and Pqm referring to quantum mechanic and defining the wave function. Combining Pem with "Sommerfeld's quantum rules" corresponds to the original quantum theory of Hydrogen, which produces the correct relativistic energy levels of atoms (Sommerfeld's and Dirac's theories of matter produces the same energy levels, and Schrodinger's theory produces the approximation of those energy levels). Pqm implies that the wave function is solution of both Schrodinger's and Klein-Gordon's equations in the non interacting case while, in the interacting case it implies "Sommerfeld's quantum rules": Pem and Pqm then produce the correct relativistic energy levels of atoms (the same as Dirac's energy levels). We check that the required degeneracy is justified by pure deduction, without any other assumption (Schrodinger's theory only justifies one half of the degeneracy). We observe the connection between Pqm, Quantum Field Theories and tunnel effect. From Pgrav we deduce an equation of motion very similar to general relativity (with accuracy 10^{-6} at the surface of the Sun), our postulate being explicitly an approximation. First of all, we discuss classical Kepler problems (Newtonian motion of the Earth around the Sun), explain the link between Kelpler's law of periods (1619) and Plank's law (1900) and observe the links between all historical models of atoms (Bohr, Sommerfeld, Pauli, Schrodinger, Dirac, Fock).
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20340] viXra:1709.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:19:37

Laparoscopic Removal of a Migrated Intra Uterine Device Embedded in the Anterior Abdominal Wall in Yaounde (Cameroon), a Third World Country

Authors: Bang Guy Aristide, Nana Oumarou Blondel, Nong Libend Gilles Thierry, Noah Noah Dominique, Savom Eric Patrick
Comments: 3 Pages.

Uterine perforation is a serious complication which can happen after intrauterine device (IUD) insertion. Following the uterine rupture, an IUD may migrate into gynecologic, urinary or gastro-intestinal system organs. There are many reports of migrated iuds but fewer report of iuds embedded in the abdominal wall. Laparoscopic removal of a migrated IUD wasn’t yet described in our country For more information : https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/
Category: Biochemistry

[20339] viXra:1709.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:23:20

Controversies in Pregnancy Management after Prenatal Diagnosis of a Twin Pregnancy Discordant for Trisomy 21 Diagnosed by Cell-Free Fetal DNA Testing

Authors: Emine Cetin, Tamina Rawnaq, Boris Schulze-Koenig, Moritz Doebert, Panagiota Zoi, Peter Schwaerzler
Comments: 3 Pages.

Background: Current preliminary data is advocating cfDNA testing in twin pregnancies since both increasing use of ART and higher maternal ages have raised the incidence of (discordant) aneuploidies. Procedures and findings:This report is raising ethical implications deriving from a twin pregnancy discordant for trisomy 21 conceived from egg donation and diagnosed by cfDNA testing after low risk conventional first-trimester screening. For More Information : https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/
Category: Biochemistry

[20338] viXra:1709.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:25:10

Giant Oocytes with Two Meiotic Spindles and Two Polar Bodies: Report of Two Cases

Authors: Baris Baykal, Cem Korkmaz, Muhterem Bahçe, Cihangir Mutlu Ercan, Temel Ceyhan
Comments: 3 Pages.

With the advent of IVF technology, the terms normal and abnormal oocytes have been defined and one type of abnormal oocyte is the “giant oocyte”. Giant oocytes are defined to have a 30% larger diameter and twice the volume of normal oocytes[1,2]. Giant oocyte is a rarery observed phenomenon among humans and embryos may develop from these oocytes [2,3].The first hypothesis for the mechanism of their formation is cytoplasmic fusion of two oogonia and the second one is the lack of cytokinesis during mitotic divisions in an oogonium [4]. Fertilization and progression of a giant oocyte is suspected to be the cause of digynic triploidy, which is defined as triploidy with two maternal and one paternal complements [5]. In this case report, we present two giant oocytes, each shown to have two meiotic spindles via visualization by polarization microscope. Because giant oocytes can develop into embryos that are morphologically normal, but genetically abnormal, an embryologist has to be aware of this phenomenon. For this reason, the scientific aim of this report is to present the polarization microscopic properties of giant oocytes and increase the awareness of such oocytes among embryologists.
Category: Biochemistry

[20337] viXra:1709.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:26:35

Risk Factors for Preterm Birth among Women Who Delivered Preterm Babies at Bugando Medical Centre, Tanzania

Authors: Josephine J. Rugaimukam, Michael J. Mahande, Sia E. Msuya, Rune N. Philemon
Comments: 7 Pages.

Background: Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality globally. Infants who are born preterm suffer long term health consequences. There only few studies done on risk factors for prematurity in Tanzania. This study aimed to determine the risk factors for preterm birth among women who delivered preterm babies at Bugando Medical Centre in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods:A matched case-control study was conducted at the Bugando Medical Centre from May to June 2015. A total of 50 women with preterm birth (cases) were matched with 50 women who had term births (controls). Cases were matched with controls by date of delivery. We excluded mothers with multiple gestations and those who were sick and unsuitable for the interview. A structured questionnaire was used to collected relevant information from all participants. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 20.0. Odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were estimated in a multivariate regression model to determine factors associated with preterm delivery.
Category: Biochemistry

[20336] viXra:1709.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:27:14

Pregnancy, Exercise and Late Effects in the Offspring until Adult Age

Authors: Jana Pařízková
Comments: 6 Pages.

Maternal exercise during pregnancy as one of the critical periods can have significant delayed effect in the offsprring’s fetal imprinting of future development until adult age; adequate and voluntary exercise is provided, not a forced one as a stress. Spontaneous physical activity of the offspring until adult age can be increased, and body composition, cardiac micro structure and reactibility (greater resistance to noxi), vasomotor function, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity along with related diseases (diabetes) can be positively influenced. Bone development and also the enhancement of brain function and learning sensitivity can be improved as revealed in a number of experimental model animal studies. Exercise during pregnancy was also shown to compensate in the offspring the detrimental effect of inadequate, e.g. high fat diets. Possibility of introducing significant modifications of the programming of the offspring’s desirable development and health status by adequate and physiological maternal exercise during pregnancy was supported also by some observations in humans.
Category: Biochemistry

[20335] viXra:1709.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:33:58

The Role of Veterinarians in a Foundation for Elderly Dogs

Authors: Ronald Lagoe, Alyssa Chandler, Christine Berry
Comments: 2 Pages.

In recent years, interest in the care of elderly dogs has increased in the United States. Advances in veterinary medicine have prolonged the life spans of the animals that it supports. The needs of elderly dogs have generated interest among many specialties within veterinary medicine. These include internal medicine, surgery, anesthesiology, neurology, orthopedics, dermatology, and ophthalmology. This process has occurred in university teaching hospitals and private practices. This evolution of clinical practice has been supported by funding from veterinary providers and dog owners. Unlike in the case of human health care, this has not been accompanied by the development of large third party payers. As a result, a number of relatively small insurance plans and private organizations have emerged to address these needs.
Category: Biochemistry

[20334] viXra:1709.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:35:28

Effect of Moringa Oleifera Leaf Meal (Molm) on the Growth, Carcass, Heamatology and Biochemical Parameters of Rabbits

Authors: Ghomsi MOS, Enow JT, Etchu KA, Tientcheu BL, Enamou G, Chouengouong TM, Mongo BG, Bayemi PH
Comments: 5 Pages.

An experiment was conducted with 30 mixed bred rabbits (6 to 8 weeks old) averaging 592g to assess the performance, haematology, serum biochemistry, carcass and organ weights of growing rabbits fed graded levels of dried Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal (MOLM) of 0%, 25%, and 50%, as a replacement of Soya Bean Meal (SBM) and groundnut cake in 8-week feeding trial. Feed consumption and weight gain were monitored. Blood samples were collected from the animals through the ear vein for haematology and serum biochemistry, while weight of cut parts and visceral organs were collected from the animals after they were stunned and sacrificed after the 8-week feeding trials and weighed. Results showed that there were significant differences (p < 0.05) in the value obtained for weight gain, feed conversion ratio, total protein and White Blood Cell (WBC). While the results of carcass and organ weight showed significant (P < 0.05) difference in values obtained for live weight, dress weight spleen, head and kidney. While there was no significant difference among the blood constants (VGM and MCHC). Among the leukocyte differential counts examined, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were not significantly different among the dietary treatments. The results suggest that MOLM possess good dietary protein quality for optimal growth of rabbits and be incorporated in the rabbit’s diets up to 25% inclusion levels without any detrimental effects on the performance, haematology, serum biochemistry and carcass and organ weights of growing rabbits.
Category: Biochemistry

[20333] viXra:1709.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:38:31

Effect of Month and Season of Birth on Milk Quantity and Quality of Holstein Friesian Cows in Kabul Bini Hisar Dairy Farm

Authors: Shaour Gul Faqiri, Gul Mohammad Tanin
Comments: 4 Pages.

AEffect of calving month and season on productive traits of Holstein dairy cows. In Kabul Bini Hisar Dairy farm. Productive data on 305 days lactation period for 49 Holstein dairy cows, which were collected during one month from dairy cattle in Beni Hisar Farm in Kabul province using recorded data from 1389 to 1392 years, were used to estimate the effect of calving month and season for the purpose of estimating the correlation between milk yield, fat production and fat percentage of the Holstein dairy cows. General linear model (GLM) procedure and SPSS software were used for the estimation of the effect calving month and seasons. The results showed calving month influenced significantly on productive traits (P < 0.05). The greatest milk and fat production (kg) were observed in dairy cows that calved in December. In addition, dairy cows that calved in October had the greatest fat percentage totally, the results showed, animals that calved in fall season had greater performance than the others. Naturally, milk production of these animals reached production peak in winter when the weather and nutritional conditions are suitable for production.
Category: Biochemistry

[20332] viXra:1709.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:39:27

The Prevalence of Coxofemoral Osteoarthritis in Small Dog Breeds and HD Screening in Cairn Terries A Clinical Radiological Study

Authors: Jens Arnbjerg
Comments: 5 Pages.

Background: The prevalence of coxofemoral osteoarthritis being very high, > 40 %, in some large dog breeds. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of osteoarthritic changes in the hip joints in small dog breeds and study the clinical relevance of Hip Dysplasia scoring in Cairn Terries in Denmark. Methods: In a five-year-period study of 2423 small dog breeds (< 15 kg) at the University Hospital, Copenhagen the prevalence of osteoarthritis in the hip joints was calculated A full clinical examination was performed and hip joint radiographs taken in 18 Cairn Terriers, earlier officially scored for hip dysplasia by The Danish Kennel Club, 13 of them with a score of C, D or E respectively
Category: Biochemistry

[20331] viXra:1709.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:40:22

Effect of Natural Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infection on Carcass Yield and Characteristics of Sudan Desert Sheep

Authors: Nazik Z Eisa, Salih A Babiker, Hamid S Abdalla
Comments: 7 Pages.

This study was conducted to detect the effect of natural gastrointestinal parasitic infection along with age and level of energy on the carcass yield and characteristics of Sudan Desert sheep. Forty-eight lambs were divided into eight groups of 6 animals each and fattened for 60 days. A total of twenty four animals (3 from each group) were selected for slaughter at the end of the fattening process. The study revealed significant differences in slaughter weights (P < 0.05), carcass weights (P < 0.05) and carcass characteristics. Both hot and cold empty body weights and dressing percentages were significantly (P < 0.01) affected by internal parasitic infection and dietary energy level. Wholesale cuts yields and loin composition were not significantly affected by infection except for muscle percentage (P < 0.05).
Category: Biochemistry

[20330] viXra:1709.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:50:32

Liposomes and Nanotechnology in Drug Development: Focus On Pancreatic Cancer

Authors: Abdul Malik, Jin Wei, Abdul Raheem, Walidullah Adil, Lei Cui, Ji-Xiang Chen, Jian-Guo Qu, Min Gu, Sheng-Chun Dang
Comments: 10 Pages.

Pancreatic cancer usually has high morbidity and mortality and rests one of the most challenging cancers to treat. 5 years survival rate is less than 6 percent overall for people with pancreatic cancer, because of very late diagnosis and absence of effective treatment. In a western world, pancreatic tumor is the fourth most common cause of death in a western world. The pancreatic tumor needs selective delivery of drugs to target cells, with no side effects is major goals of the recent investigations for the real treatment of the pancreatic tumor. Medication which targets pancreatic tumor cells specially and carriers which deliver medications to specific cells which are quickly dividing, development of these kind drugs is considered as magic for the management of pancreatic cancer. In latest years, liposomes and nanotechnology can show a vital character in the treatment of pancreatic tumor. Liposomes contain multiple characteristics, such as the ability to protect the material from degradation, the capacity for encapsulating many materials and capability for delivering materials intracellularly fusion with plasma membrane. Nanoparticles as a carrier offer a new style of delivery of the medications to target cells of a tumor and allow drugs for the binding to tumor cell membrane, to cytoplasmic and to nuclear receptor sites. It delivers high medication concentrations to specific cells with few side effects to other normal tissues. The general importance of this evaluation is to increase overall understanding of development of the therapeutic nanomedicine for the treatment of pancreatic tumors, agents delivered by nanoliposomes, liposomal nanomedicine in targeting cancer and safety issues.
Category: Biochemistry

[20329] viXra:1709.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:51:52

Α Cost of Illness Analysis of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Greece

Authors: Athanasakis K, Pliarchopoulou F, Reppas L, Brountzos E, Filippiadis D, Foukas P, Sidiropoulos O, Kyriopoulos J, Boumpas D, Chounta A
Comments: 3 Pages.

Background/Objective: Although often called a “silent disease”, HBV entails a significant disease and financial burden for the health system. An attempt to provide detailed estimates of the direct cost of this – rather neglected – disease in Greece comprised the objective of this study. Methods: The medical records of 254 patients diagnosed with HBV and monitored in the Hepatology Unit of the ‘Attikon’ university hospital provided the basis for the analysis. Detailed resource use data (physician visits, medications, labwork, and hospitalizations) were derived from the patients’ records for a retrospective 12month period, before their most recent visit to the clinic. Calculations followed a third-party payer perspective, according to official prices and tariffs, and are expressed in year 2015 Euros.
Category: Biochemistry

[20328] viXra:1709.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:53:19

Characteristics of Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Patients Related Liver Cirrhosis in a Tertiary Care Referral Hospital, Duhok, Iraqi Kurdistan

Authors: Muayad A Merza
Comments: 5 Pages.

Background: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) related to liver cirrhosis is an advanced liver fibrosis that is usually progressive, irreversible, and the only option for the treatment is liver transplantation in selected patients Objectives: to examine the demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of patients with the chronic HBV related to cirrhosis. Methods: The viral hepatitis clinic in Azadi Teaching Hospital is dealing with all viral hepatitis cases. All patients with liver cirrhosis caused by chronic HBV infection were studied. Demographic, clinical and laboratory information of the patients were retrieved by interviewing and from the case notes of September in 2014 until December in 2016. Child–Turcotte–Pugh (CTP) classification was used to evaluate the prognosis of liver cirrhosis. The results obtained were analyzed by entering the data into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. A value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
Category: Biochemistry

[20327] viXra:1709.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:55:05

Does Aberrant Hepatic Arterial Anatomy Affect Resection Margin Status In Pancreaticoduodenectomy For Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma?

Authors: Patrick E Casey, Snehal Lapsia, Rosanna De Souza, Kariem El hadd, Zaria Ali, Ambareen Kausar, David Chang, Colin A Harris, Daren A Subar
Comments: 5 Pages.

Aims: Resection margin status impacts on survival after resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. This study aims to assess the incidence and association between aberrant hepatic arterial anatomy and resection margin status. Methodology: This is a retrospective cohort study of all patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma between 2007 and 2012. Patient demographics, pathology data, and resection margin status (R) were analysed. Arterial anatomy based on contrast enhanced computed tomography as per Michels classification was delineated.
Category: Biochemistry

[20326] viXra:1709.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:59:38

Primary Hepatic Leiomyosarcoma A Space Occupying Lesion in the Liver: An Enigma for Diagnosis

Authors: Rajdeep B More, Irfan A Shera, Sitendu K Patel, Ashwini Kumar Setya, Vivek Raj
Comments: 3 Pages.

Primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma are rare soft tissue sarcomas with about only about 60 cases reported in the English literature [1]. Due to its rare existence and less studied, the diagnostic algorithms and standards of care have not been adequately defined. This has led to a delayed diagnosis and subsequently a poor prognosis and survival of such patients. We herein present a 72 year old lady with primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma treated with chemotherapy and attempt to delineate the line of management after reviewing the medical literature. Primary Hepatic Leiomyosarcoma is a rare primary hepatic malignancy which is usually a diagnosis of exclusion. The standard treatment guidelines are yet to be established; large cohort database is needed for better understanding of disease behaviour and management.
Category: Biochemistry

[20325] viXra:1709.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 05:05:32

Electrospinning of Guar Gum/Corn Starch Blends

Authors: Weiqiao Yang, Ana MM Sousa, Xihong Li, Peggy M Tomasula, LinShu Liu
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this study, electrospun nanofibers were prepared for the first time, from aqueous blends of guar gum (GG) and corn starch with amylose contents of 27.8% (CS28) and 50% (CS50). The fiber morphology and fiber diameter sizes (FDS) were correlated with solution rheology. The spinning solutions were prepared with 3 wt% total concentration and mass ratios ranging from 4:1 to 1:4 GG/CS. The GG alone (3 wt%) was highly viscous and predominantly elastic (G’>G’’) over the range of tested frequencies. Both CS were effective rheological modifiers that facilitated the electrospinning process. Partial substitution of GG by CS decreased solution viscosity and moved the elastic plateau (G’=G’’) to higher frequencies resulting in improved fiber morphology and defectfree nanofibers with uniform FDS at an optimal GG/CS ratio of 2:1 for CS28 and of 1:1 for CS50. The sonication of CS50 prior to blending with GG was important to eliminate nanofiber defects. GG and CS are costattractive options to produce 100% food-grade electrospun nanofibers with potential to encapsulate active food ingredients and be used to develop functional foods and other active food systems.
Category: Biochemistry

[20324] viXra:1709.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 05:06:39

Making the Nitrification Inhibitor with LatexChitosan Raw Material for Agricultural Fertilizers Products

Authors: Sudirman Habibie, Moh Hamzah, Ade Sholeh Hidayat, Eryanti Kalembang, Jaudin, Diah Ayu Fitriani
Comments: 5 Pages.

Fertilizer is one of the priorities for the agricultural industry and it contributes about 15 to 30% in the cost structure of rice farming. Capacity of national urea production in Indonesia is about 8 million tons per year while the needs are about 9 million tons per year. According to the Ministry of Industry in 2015 urea production can be increased by 6% from the previous national urea production capacity. On the use of fertilizers in the field, however, lost of nutrients during fertilization in the field (paddy) occurs a lot, so the efficiency of fertilizer use is reduced partly due to nitrification and urease. Therefore, it needs innovation and technological development of efficient agricultural fertilizer currently need to modify fertilizers with coating technology of nitrification inhibitor on the surface of the fertilizer granules. In this study the nature polymers (latex and chitosan) are used as a raw material nitrification inhibitors, several studies have shown that chitosan has a performance as anti bacteria that can be applied in agriculture. The study of a material generally involves the characterization by SEM and FT-IR to determine the characteristics micrographics and molecular bonding group of materials including latex-chitosan. The results of the study nitrification inhibitor made from latex-derived chitosan found that optimum formula of latex-chitosan mixture is sample with the mixture of latex 20% and chitosan 80% and be compatible with the surface of agricultural fertilizer granule, and a layer of latex-chitosan capable of strengthening the structure of fertilizer granules when tested in water for 3 months. This latex-chitosan based fertilizer shown as slow release fertilizer (urea and NPK) and resistant to moisture.
Category: Biochemistry

[20323] viXra:1709.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 05:07:31

Investigation on Photoluminescence Behaviour of 2, 3-Diphenylquinoxalin-6-Vinyl Benzaldehyde

Authors: R Padma, M Sathiya, S Guhanathan
Comments: 6 Pages.

Poly (p-phenylene vinylene) is one of the most important classes of conjugated polymers, with a wide range of applications, such as lightemitting diodes, optoelectronic devices etc. Electroluminescence from OLEDs arises from the radioactive decay of excitation generated by the recombination of electrons and holes injection from two opposite electrodes into the emissive polymer layer. Quinoxaline is a useful n-type building block with high electron affinity and good thermal stability. It has been successfully incorporating small molecules to find utility as electron transport materials in multilayer OLEDs based on PPV. Hence, vinyl benzaldehyde containing quinoxaline derivatives was synthesized using 6-methyl-2, 3-diphenylquinoxaline with terephthaldicarboxaldehyde via Wittig reaction. The structures of synthesised compounds were confirmed by FT-IR, 1 H, 13C, 31P-NMR, and MASS spectral data. The result of photoluminescence studies showed that vinyl benzaldehyde capped quinoxaline exhibited green emission maxima at shorter wavelengths of 454nm.
Category: Biochemistry

[20322] viXra:1709.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 05:08:19

An Insight into the Capability of Composite Technology to Enable Magnesium to Spread its Wings in Engineering and Biomedical Applications

Authors: Gupta M
Comments: 2 Pages.

Nature has various ways to inspire humans through a lot of its creations that researchers in different disciplines are trying to understand and mimic in order to enhance current state of technology and quality of life. From materials perspective, nature uses composites in its creations involving plants and animals with bone as a classical example.
Category: Biochemistry

[20321] viXra:1709.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 05:09:13

Polyvinyl Alcohol-Nanobioceramic Based Drug Delivery System

Authors: Shameem Shaik, Seethalakshmi K, Kaviya M, Venkatachalapathy B, Sridhar TM
Comments: 6 Pages.

Drug delivery research today is an advanced and important area in pharmaceutical research and application of nanotechnology includes enhancement of the solubility and permeability of the drugs so as to improve their bioavailability including delivery to the targeted site. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) based bioceramic nanoparticles composed of biodegradable polymers have been used in the present work to develop an amoxicillin based delivery systems. The synthesized n-HAP powders were estimated for the Ca/p ratio. This ratio indicates the presence of HAP as a single phase. The nano structure, morphology and presence of vibrational groups are con- firmed using instrumental analysis. The SEM images show the spherical shaped particles of nano hydroxyapatite are confirmed. The loading and unloading characteristics of the drug were recorded spectro photometrically.
Category: Biochemistry

[20320] viXra:1709.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 09:06:00

More About the Inconsistency Solution of the Maxwell Equations \ Еще о непротиворечивом решении уравнений Максвелла

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 13 Pages. in Russian

A brief description of the non-contradictory solution of the Maxwell equations given in [1] and new additions are given. \ Приводится краткое описание непротиворечивого решения уравнений Максвелла, данного в [1], и новые дополнения.
Category: Classical Physics

[20319] viXra:1709.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 11:15:52

Prognostic Systems

Authors: Christopher L. Andreadis
Comments: 15 Pages. A though experiment rooted in non-linear time.

This is a calibration procedure that is prefaced by a set of premises that led up to said procedure. It deals with the possibility that "cause preceded by effect" is greater than null at the macroscopic scale.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[20318] viXra:1709.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-22 14:21:13

The Earth Moves with Light Velocity Relative to the Sun

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 56 Pages.

The Earth moves with C velocity (light velocity) relative to the Sun i.e. The light is produced by The Earth Motion, where The Earth transforms her motion mechanical waves into light waves, producing the light beams These light beams travel to the sun and reflect on her where the sun is just a mirror. The Earth Motion means and equal "The Solar Planets Daily Velocities Total based on a new time rate defined by the Earth".
Category: Astrophysics

[20317] viXra:1709.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-22 15:05:15

The Inglorious History of Thermodynamics

Authors: Hans Detlef Hüttenbach
Comments: 8 Pages.

Usually, physics students don't like thermodynamics: it is incomprehensible. They commonly get told to get used to it. Later on, as an expert, they'll find that the thermodynamic calculations come with surprises: sometimes evil, sometimes good. That can mean only one thing: The theory is inconsistent. In here, it will be shown where that is.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[20316] viXra:1709.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-22 23:43:46

A Temporal Hydrogen Atom and Electromagnetic Field

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this work, we discuss the possibility to formulate a temporal electromagnetic field that can be produced by a temporal system, such as a temporal hydrogen atom in the temporal continuum. We also show that a temporal electromagnetic field can manifest itself not only in the temporal continuum but also in the spatial space.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[20315] viXra:1709.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-22 07:54:10

Reply to “Unscientific Behavior of the Yark Theory of Gravitation” by C. Corda

Authors: T. Yarman, A. Kholmetskii, O. Yarman, M. Arik
Comments: 3 pages

We respond to one more attempt by Corda (vixra: 1709.0190v1) in criticizing the Yarman-Arik-Kholmetskii (YARK) gravitation theory, and show the fallacious character of his aggression.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20314] viXra:1709.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-22 09:55:26

New Findings on Electron Emission

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Even more than 100 years after Einstein's explanation of photoemission the process of electron emission from a solid material upon illumination with light still poses challenging surprises. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[20313] viXra:1709.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-22 10:17:08

On the Quantum Computing Delusion

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 13 Pages.

The prospect of an up-coming quantum computer revolution is big news these days, with some technologists predicting that a scalable quantum computer is a mere 4 - 5 years away. It has even been claimed -by D-Wave co-founder Eric Ladizinsky- that this prospective revolution will be civilization's next big revolution. The truth is that quantum computers that are anything more than toys are, not merely difficult to engineer, but mathematically impossible, and based on a fundamental misunderstanding of the relationship between classical and quantum physics...
Category: Quantum Physics

[20312] viXra:1709.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-22 06:35:05

Understanding Interference and Diffraction of Photons and Electrons: a New Approach

Authors: Kunwar Jagdish Narain
Comments: 33 Pages. 5 Figures

In nature, nothing is said to occur without reason/purpose. For example, our hearts beat persistently without having a source of infinite energy, which does not happen without reason. The reason is due to their special structure that provides all the properties our hearts possess. In the same way, as electrons, nucleons, and all other particles, or quanta (since quantum mechanics is applied to all particles, these should be known as quanta) possess persistent spin motion without having any source of infinite energy, there should be some purpose. And the purpose should be due to their special structure that provides all the properties they display. Therefore, the purpose as to why quanta possess persistent spin motion, their special structures, and properties have been determined. The effect of the purpose as to why quanta possess persistent spin motion (i.e. quantum spin theory) enables us to give very clear and complete explanation of all the phenomena related to them. At present, taking into account the effect of the purpose, it has been tried to give very clear and complete explanations of the phenomena of interference and diffraction of electrons and photons. (As the photons are emitted from the orbiting electrons, which posses persistent spin motion, the photons also possess spin motion that they derive from the orbiting electrons.)
Category: Quantum Physics

[20311] viXra:1709.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-21 05:15:15

Mother of all Field Equations

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages.

The first order quaternionic partial differential equation can be considered as the mother of all field equations. Second order partial differential equations describe the interaction between point-like artifacts and fields. A direct relation exists with integral balance equations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20310] viXra:1709.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-21 05:35:00

Recursive Future Average Of A Time Series Data Based On Cosine Similarity-RF

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research Technical Note the author have presented a Recursive Future Average Of A Time Series Data Based on Cosine Similarity.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[20309] viXra:1709.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-21 05:49:31

Recursive Future Average Of A Time Series Data Based On Cosine Similarity-RF {Version 2}

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research Technical Note the author have presented a Recursive Future Average Of A Time Series Data Based on Cosine Similarity.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[20308] viXra:1709.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-21 06:08:47

Relativistic Spacetime Structures of a Hydrogen Atom

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 12 Pages.

In our previous works on possible relationship between Schrödinger wavefunctions and spacetime structures of quantum particles we suggested that a Ricci scalar curvature for a particular quantum state of a quantum system could be constructed using the Schrödinger wavefunctions as mathematical objects. In this work we will extend our discussions by suggesting possible line elements that can be used to construct relativistic spacetime structures of a hydrogen atom. We also discuss the possibility to use a covariant Ricci flow as evolution equations to describe the dynamics of the hydrogen atom geometric structures.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[20307] viXra:1709.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-21 07:10:19

Tunable Laser Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. [24] A breakthrough has been made in the world of quantum computing this month as engineers at Caltech develop a computer chip equipped with nanoscale optical quantum memory. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]
Category: Condensed Matter

[20306] viXra:1709.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-21 08:59:42

揭秘量子力学 (Demystifying Quantum Mechanics)

Authors: Lukas Saual, Difei Zhang
Comments: 11 Pages. Thank you

(The narrative around the various mathematical and physical techniques broadly known as quantum mechanics has suffered due to the influence of social pressures. The incredible strengths of the theories and their predictive powers have become subject to a number of sensationalized story lines, which we refer to here as “quantum mysticism”. In this paper we demonstrate a three-pronged counterattack which combats these forces. A precise use of terms coupled with an accurate and intuitive way to describe the behavior of discrete and microscopic phenomenon effectively demystifies quantum mechanics. We don't go into the mathematical details here to keep our discussion accessible to the layperson. After our demystification the discipline withholds its incredible predictive power without scaring away a rational thinker. In fact quantum mechanics is an entirely rational, intuitive, and accessible discipline. The world is full of mystery; however, a discipline devoted to quantifying and rationalizing behaviors of certain specific systems is hardly the place to go searching for mystery.) 由于社会压力的影响,围绕着各种数学和物理技术的叙述而被熟知的量子力学遇到了挫折。这些理论及其预测能力的不可思议的力量已经变成了一些耸人听闻的故事情节,我们称之为“量子神秘主义”。本文对这些力量进行了三方面的反击。精确的使用准确的术语,用直观的方法描述离散和微观现象的行为,这有效地揭开了量子力学的神秘面纱。我们不会在这里讨论数学细节,以使我们的讨论能够被普通人所理解。在我们揭开了这个学科的神秘性之后,它拥有了不可思议的预测能力,同时又不会吓跑一个理性的思考者。事实上,量子力学是一个完全理性的、直观的、易于理解的学科。这个世界充满了神秘;然而,这门学科致力于对某些特定系统的行为进行量化和合理化,并不是去寻找神秘事物的地方
Category: Quantum Physics

[20305] viXra:1709.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-21 10:05:49

Relativity: The Theory vs The Principle

Authors: Edward G. Lake
Comments: 13 Pages.

While it appears to be a common practice today to refer to the “Theory of Relativity” as if it were the same as the “Principle of Relativity,” according to Albert Einstein, his “Theory of Relativity” is that the “Principle of Relativity” is an illusion.
Category: Astrophysics

[20304] viXra:1709.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-21 12:04:19

Oscillating Gravitational Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Using data from the first-ever gravitational waves detected last year, along with a theoretical analysis, physicists have shown that gravitational waves may oscillate between two different forms called "g" and "f"-type gravitational waves. [7] Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It’s estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community—it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Astrophysics

[20303] viXra:1709.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-21 12:43:43

A New Interpretation of Photon

Authors: Kunwar Jagdish Narain
Comments: 9 Pages.

The present interpretation of photon is as: A photon = a quantum of radiation energy + energy hn , where the quantum of radiation energy constitutes the photon and provides the particle like physical existence to it, similarly, as the quantum of charge (-e) constitutes the electron and provides the particle like physical existence to it. And the energy hn enables the photon to travel with velocity c, spin with frequency n (which the photon obtains from the orbiting electron, from which the photon is emitted), scatter electron in the Compton scattering, and eject electron penetrating into metals in the photoelectric effect. The present interpretation of photon enables us to give very clear and complete explanation of all the phenomena related to photons, including the phenomena of interference and diffraction
Category: Quantum Physics

[20302] viXra:1709.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-21 14:29:41

Quantum Teleportation Patterns of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20301] viXra:1709.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-22 00:01:00

The Recursive Future Equation Based On The Ananda-Damayanthi Normalized Similarity Measure. {File Closing Version 2}. ISSN 1751-3030

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this research Technical Note the author have presented a Recursive Future Average Of A Time Series Data Based on Cosine Similarity.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[20300] viXra:1709.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-22 01:36:01

The Distribution of Primes

Authors: Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper, we analyze the behavior of prime numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[20299] viXra:1709.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-20 13:33:26

Standard Model from Broken Scale Invariance in the Infrared

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 8 Pages. Under construction, first draft.

As we have recently shown, the minimal fractal manifold (MFM) describes the underlying structure of spacetime near or above the electroweak scale. Here we uncover the connection between quantum field operators and the MFM starting from the operator product expansion of high-energy Quantum Field Theory (QFT). The approach confirms that the Standard Model of particle physics (SM) stems from a symmetry breaking mechanism that turns the spacetime continuum into a MFM.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[20298] viXra:1709.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-20 13:49:06

Calculation of the Sum for Sequence of Square Natural Numbers. Russian

Authors: Misha Mikhaylov
Comments: 2 Pages.

This is the Russian version of my previous publication.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[20297] viXra:1709.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-20 15:19:35

The Dirac-Schrödinger Equation

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 2 pages, written in french

We take a time in a spinorial manifold so that we can define a Dirac-Schrödinger equation when we remplace the derivative with respect to the time by the Dirac operator.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20296] viXra:1709.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-20 17:03:02

Unified and Universal Field Theory - 1. Universal Topology

Authors: Wei Xu
Comments: 4 Pages.

The workings of Universal Topology unfolds a duality of our natural world for the following remarks: i) Dual complex manifolds and the reciprocal world planes beyond a single spacetime manifold; ii) Two pairs of scalar potentials for field entanglements; iii) A mathematical framework of the dual variances to clone the event operations; iv) Two pairs of fluxions of continuity and commutations as a hierarchy foundation of Potential Entanglements; and v) Commutation Infrastructure as an introductory to derive the empirical artifacts of Lorentz Generators, Pauli matrices, Electromagnetic Field Structures, Inertial Commutation Curvature, and General Relativity. Upon this inception, our Universal Topology is ready to give rise to the unified and universal field theory ...
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20295] viXra:1709.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-20 19:35:33

The Existence of God: An Application of the Poisson Distribution

Authors: Charles M. Byrne
Comments: 13 pages, Keywords: God, evolution, mutation, recombination, genetics, molecular biology, naturalism, Poisson distribution

In his theory of evolution by natural selection, Charles Darwin provided a plausible alternative to Christianity's creation account of human origins. In response, the Christian botanist Asa Gray suggested to Darwin that the variation that drives evolution might be generated by God. Darwin rejected Gray’s hypothesis, invoking philosophical naturalism, a hallmark scientific paradigm. Darwin's conclusion was reached on ideological grounds rather than empirical ones. Biological evidence that emerged subsequent to Darwin’s time yields a different conclusion. A means to assess the question of the source of genetic variation is provided by fitting the Poisson distribution to counts of mutation and chromosome crossover events at the DNA sites where they occur. A general failure of fit between observational data and the Poisson distribution confirms an exception to the naturalistic paradigm, and thereby provides epistemic access to the existence of God.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[20294] viXra:1709.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-21 03:02:58

Relativistic Invariance in Direct Derivation of a 4x4 Diagonal Matrix Schrodinger Equation from Relativistic Total Energy

Authors: Han Geurdes
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper an algebraic method is presented to derive a non-Hermitian Schr{\"o}dinger equation from total relativistic energy. Here, $E=V+c\sqrt{m^2c^2+\left(\mathbf{p}-\frac{q}{c}\mathbf{A}\right)^2}$ with $E\rightarrow i\hbar \frac{\partial}{\partial t}$ and $\mathbf{p} \rightarrow -i\hbar \nabla$. In the derivation no use is made of Dirac's method of four vectors and the root operator isn't squared either. Instead, use is made of the algebra of operators. Proof is delivered that it is possible to derive Lorentz invariant forms in this way.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[20293] viXra:1709.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-20 13:07:26

Calculation of the Sum for Sequence of Square Natural Numbers

Authors: Misha Mikhaylov
Comments: 2 Pages.

This sum for natural values is, of course, already calculated by Bernoulli himself – at least modern or relatively recent authors that deal with it usually refer to take into account Bernoulli numbers. But, apparently, this method is rather cumbersome. Therefore, there can be suggested another, easier way to do this, but without claiming of its superfluous rigidity.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[20292] viXra:1709.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-20 07:24:33

Boys' Function Computed by Gauss-Jacobi Quadrature

Authors: Richard J. Mathar
Comments: 48 Pages. Most of the content is the source code listing

Boys' Function F_m(z) that appears in the quantum mechanics of Gaussian Type Orbitals is a special case of Kummer's confluent hypergeometric function. We evaluate its integral representation of a product of a power and an exponential function over the unit interval with the numerical Gauss-Jacobi quadrature. We provide an implementation in C for real values of the argument z which basically employs a table of the weights and abscissae of the quadrature rule for integer quantum numbers m <= 129.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[20291] viXra:1709.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-20 09:38:25

Invisible Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Transparent particles with extraordinarily high refractive indices can become almost invisible at wavelengths longer than the particle size, an A*STAR-led theoretical study has shown. [25] How do we make an object invisible? Researchers from TU Wien (Vienna), together with colleagues from Greece and the USA, have now developed a new idea for a cloaking technology. [24] Scientists from the University of Basel's Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute have succeeded in dramatically improving the quality of individual photons generated by a quantum system. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides.
Category: Condensed Matter

[20290] viXra:1709.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-20 09:47:27

Microwaves Based on Mechanical Interference

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Devices that allow to route microwave signals are essential engineering tools. In particular, isolators, which let signals flow in one direction but block them in the other, are needed to protect sensitive equipment from harm. [26] Transparent particles with extraordinarily high refractive indices can become almost invisible at wavelengths longer than the particle size, an A*STAR-led theoretical study has shown. [25] How do we make an object invisible? Researchers from TU Wien (Vienna), together with colleagues from Greece and the USA, have now developed a new idea for a cloaking technology. [24] Scientists from the University of Basel's Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute have succeeded in dramatically improving the quality of individual photons generated by a quantum system. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]
Category: Condensed Matter

[20289] viXra:1709.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 17:21:22

A First Class Analysis, and Dissemination of Information of the September 11th Attacks

Authors: Peiman Ghasemi
Comments: 11 Pages.

Considering Iran as one of the powerful propagators of radicalism mindset. In September 11, 2001, many American people were killed by terror attacks by several U.S. oppositions. A strong relationship between Palestine and jihadist groups with the Iranian government is existed. Sayyid Qutb, one of the earlier famous figures in Islam, had made an important role in issuing fatwas of jihad against the west, until he was executed in Egypt. And above all on the days of the incident the attackers were receiving strong support by western oppositions. Those days, Islamism in Europe had made strong connections with some Arabs and also Iranians. So, for example the al-Quds Mosque in Hamburg was not such an exception. There some attackers attended and met one another, forming the Hamburg cell. Al-Qaeda is an advocate of Islamic jihad. Prior to the Syrian war, Iranian government had between 2,000 and 3,000 IRGC officers stationed in Syria, helping to train local troops and managing supply routes of arms and money to neighboring Lebanon. Hezbollah trained al-Qaeda and U.S. partially trained Mujahideen. Even though PMOI and also supporters of Saddam Hussein and the Ba'athist Iraq from the west and supporters of jihad and the Taliban and other militias from the east were threatening Iranians, application of Islamic thesis about jihad around the world was necessary for all these countries. Here we shall investigate the real causes of this famous attack that happened several years ago in the American soil. Years after the attacks, a memorial was built in New York City. In addition to the one at Ground Zero, a number of other memorials have been built across the United States. Such as Flight 93 National Memorial, and Pentagon Memorial. Construction of the National September 11 Memorial & Museum began in August 2006. And it was opened to the general public in 2014. Just after the September 11 attacks President George W. Bush called it as “despicable acts of terror”. Today we are trying hard to stand against the will of the terrorists. Relatives of the victims of the attacks won’t ever forget such violations against humanity.
Category: Social Science

[20288] viXra:1709.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 18:59:44

Why Ufos Are Depicted as Saucer Shaped

Authors: Krishan Vats
Comments: 1 Page.

There is a definite reason for “Why UFOs are saucer shaped” and the shape itself has a clue in it for altering gravity. Kind of maneuvers the UFOs/space ships are expected to exhibit are only possible via shielding gravity, or altering the space curvature to say in other words. Therefore UFOs have to involve altered/anti gravity The natural result of gravity is spherical shape. All massive heavenly bodies are near spheres, barring the rotational bulges. Ignore the smaller bodies where there is not enough matter/gravity to cause a spherical shape. Sphere has this property of "Minimum surface area for a given volume". So, gravity is associated with a shape with "Minimum surface area for a given volume" i.e. sphere. Anti gravity (or gravity shielded) is associated with just the opposite - "Maximum surface area for a given volume". Of all shapes, saucer shape has "Maximum surface area for a given volume". Ideally, it is a sheet (plane) that has "Maximum surface area for a given volume", but the sheet would not have place inside it for carrying the stuff. It would not be possible to place gravity altering mechanism inside a sheet. Therefore the most practical shape that associates with altering gravity/space - is saucer shape. So, it is not just a co-incidence that the UFOs are depicted as saucer shaped. This is not to say that the space ships can not be other shapes. They can be and bigger space ships would more likely be other shapes. Once you have a gravity altering mechanism in a saucer shape, then it can be covered with bodies of other more suitable shapes for the purpose of longer travel and comfort, which would include creation of artificial gravity for living beings/things. The smallest (bare minimum) UFOs are more likely to be saucer shaped. These are suitable, and used, for entering the atmosphere of planets. Saucer shape is also more suitable for minimizing the damage by deflecting debris. Bigger ones can be saucer shaped, or any other shapes.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[20287] viXra:1709.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 22:03:13

STOE Inertia

Authors: John C. Hodge
Comments: 5 Pages.

The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model of photons is extended to model the inertia of mass. The characteristic of the plenum, hods, and their interactions yields the Newtonian characteristics of gravitational mass and inertial mass. The medium of the wave in the Hodge Experiment was the massless plenum. The plenum is the carrier of the inertia. The hods are the carrier of the gravitational mass. The Equivalence Principle is derived rather being assumed. Mach's Principle is inconsistent with the STOE.
Category: Classical Physics

[20286] viXra:1709.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 23:18:05

Dualism of time in the SRT of Einstein

Authors: Henry Leonidovich Arutyunov
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this article it will be shown that in the moving frame of reference according to SRT two different time scales are observed. From this it follows that the "relativity of simultaneity" does not exist. Also from this follows the infidelity of the second postulate of Einstein on the constancy of the speed of light in all IFRs.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20285] viXra:1709.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-20 01:14:28

Cosmophysics

Authors: Nikitin Aleksandr Pavlovich
Comments: 31 Pages.

Abstract This article presents the foundations of cosmodynamics - energy theory, which lays the foundation for a new paradigm of physical science, which allows to combine the modern theory of the microcosm and macrocosm. It is proposed to consider the motion of matter in space-time, i.e all of the changes and interactions, including gravity, taking place in the cosmos, not as a police cooperation body, charges, particles, fields, and displays the curvature of space-time, as well as displays and consequences of energy processes in the same cosmos. The measure of these processes is the energy of the cosmos, including the "dark matter" and "dark energy", with absolute power, equal to Planck's constant. Proposed movement of matter in space to consider (to describe, reflect in our minds) as the movement of energy, as the energy dynamics of the vector field, material and energy "cell" structure which is a proton. On the basis of the theory developed by the energy available energy interpretation of the hydrogen atom, and all of baryonic matter, for example, the Earth and the Sun, when the motion of matter occurs and thus describes a "drain" and "radiation" the energy flow vector material-energy field. Planck values are given in the dimensions LT system. It is alleged that the cosmic "relic" radiation is generated in the atoms existing baryonic matter and has nothing to do with the mythical "Big Bang".
Category: Classical Physics

[20284] viXra:1709.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-20 06:46:03

Fermat’s Zero Theorem

Authors: Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin
Comments: 4 Pages.

Fermat’s zero theorem is stated as follows: It is impossible to separate a square of a difference of two natural numbers into two squares of differences, or a cube power of a difference into two cube powers of differences, or a fourth power of a difference into two fourth powers, or in general, any power higher than the first, into two like powers of differences.
Category: Number Theory

[20283] viXra:1709.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 11:33:20

Cost Effective Quantum Networks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Canadian and US researchers have taken an important step towards enabling quantum networks to be cost-effective and truly secure from attack. [16] You can't sign up for the quantum internet just yet, but researchers have reported a major experimental milestone towards building a global quantum network-and it's happening in space. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20282] viXra:1709.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 12:14:34

Cours de Géodésie Pour Les élèves Ingénieurs Option Géomatique

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 306 Pages. In French.

It a course notes of geodesy for the students of Geomatics Option of ESAT school.
Category: Geophysics

[20281] viXra:1709.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 07:21:06

On Richard III's Y-DNA and Time-Asymmetric Mutation Rates

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 20 Pages.

A skeleton excavated in 2012 is almost certainly that of the English king, Richard III (1452 -1485), and mtDNA (which is passed from mother to child) extracted from the skeleton matches mtDNA taken from descendants of Richard's sister Anne of York. However Y-DNA (which is passed from father to son) extracted from the skeleton apparently doesn't match Y-DNA taken from descendants of Henry Somerset the 5th Duke of Beaufort, who according to history descended from Richard's 2nd great grand father Edward III (1312 - 1377). The implication according to geneticists, and the media, is that there is a "false paternity event" somewhere between Edward and the Somersets. In this note, a formula for calculating the time of the most recent common ancestor is introduced, and some of its consequences outlined. This formula is attached to a mathematical framework within which it is possible that the traditional genealogy is correct. If this framework is the right framework for understanding of genetic inheritance, then it has been wrongly assumed that Y-DNA mutation rates are like-line, constant and smooth - in reality they are wave-like and decrease erratically in the direction of the future, and the contrary impression is is an illusion created by an over-focus on the relatively constant and smooth nature of genetic change in the present and the near-present.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[20280] viXra:1709.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 08:37:27

Slowing Down Light to Sound

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Light travels fast – sometimes a little too fast when it comes to data processing. [25] Researchers at the University of Sydney have dramatically slowed digital information carried as light waves by transferring the data into sound waves in an integrated circuit, or microchip. [24] A breakthrough has been made in the world of quantum computing this month as engineers at Caltech develop a computer chip equipped with nanoscale optical quantum memory. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper - and easier - than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices—small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[20279] viXra:1709.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 09:13:07

Single-Photon Guns

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper - and easier - than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices—small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[20278] viXra:1709.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 04:47:04

Selected Papers de L'Ingénieur Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 94 Pages. In French.

This book concerns the tome III of the selected papers of the Senior Engineer Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem that contains papers about: - the robust estimators, - the coordinates Fuseaux in Tunisia, - the problem of the movement of n body.
Category: General Mathematics

[20277] viXra:1709.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 04:55:48

Special Rule for Certain Prime Numbers

Authors: Ranganath G. Kulkarni
Comments: 2 Pages.

A quadratic equation for prime numbers is assumed to be true that satisfy the following four rules. Some prime numbers violate these rules. Whereas some non prime numbers satisfy the four rules. They are not prime, therefore to make them violate the fourth rule we need to study how to choose the value of m and n so as make the quadratic equation as the primes generating formula.
Category: Number Theory

[20276] viXra:1709.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 06:50:53

Principal Directon Divising Partitioning Initialisation of K-Means Clustering Allows to Identify the Most Salient Genes in Discriminating Among Leukemias

Authors: Diego Liberati
Comments: 35 Pages.

This paper attempts to cluster leukemia patients described by gene expression data, and to discover the most discriminating genes that are responsible for the clustering. A combined approach of Principal Direction Divisive Partitioning and bisect K-means algorithms is applied to the clustering of the investigated leukemia dataset. Both unsupervised and supervised methods are considered in order to get optimal result. The combination of PDDP and bisect K-means successfully clusters leukemia patients, and efficiently discovers salient genes able to the discriminate the clusters. The combined approach works well on the automatic clustering of leukemia patients depending merely on the gene expression information, and it has great potential on solving similar problems, like classifying pancreatic tumors. The salient identified genes may thus enhance relevant information for discriminating among leukemias.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[20275] viXra:1709.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 15:55:53

An Iterated LP Approach to the Exact Computation of the Partition Function in General Markov Random Field Models

Authors: Ikhlef Bechar
Comments: 20 Pages. This work completes an earlier work entitled: Exact marginal inference in general Markov random field models using linear programming.

In a recent paper (I. Bechar, 2017), we have shown that one may efficiently compute the marginals of a general higher-order Markov random field (MRF) model with respect to an arbitrary collection of point subsets by solving a single linear program. Therefore, in this paper, we build on such a work for showing that the partition function of a general higher-order MRF model may, in turn, be computed both in an exact and efficient way, by iteratively solving at most $n$ linear programs, with $n$ standing for the number of nodes in the graph representation of a MRF model. This is, first, achieved by establishing a recursive formula between the partition function of a given MRF model and the one of another (one-degree simpler) MRF model resulting from the pruning of any of the nodes of the graph of the former. Then, we show that the problem amounts to solving successive and increasingly simpler MRF marginal inference problems, and thus, one may use the approach developed in (I. Bechar, 2017) for solving such MRF marginal inference problems.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[20274] viXra:1709.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 16:19:25

Unification

Authors: Benjamin Allen Sullivan
Comments: 25 Pages.

Cette publication comprend deux équations dérivées et extrapolées à partir d’un livre que j’ai créé en 2015/2016: Probabilité, Mécaniques quantiques, et Probabilité-Quanta. Le dernier est composé de plusieurs pensées expérimentales et de postulats. J’y ai inclus des numérisations de la publication originale afin d’illustrer mon travail et dans l’espoir de réaliser ces expériences.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20273] viXra:1709.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 19:46:40

Negative Entropy and Reverse Arrow of Time for a Parallel Antimatter Universe.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 1 Page. Reason on Dr. Guths exponential inflation.

Balloon inside balloon theory published as comments in year 2004.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[20272] viXra:1709.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 20:00:56

On the Kakeya Conjecture

Authors: Johan Aspegren
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper we will prove a theorem that implies the Kakeya conjecture.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[20271] viXra:1709.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 23:14:13

Electrostatic Field Control Osmotic Pressure, to Achieve "The Second Type of Perpetual Motion Machine" Experimental Report

Authors: LI WeiGang
Comments: 5 Pages.

In the case of zero current, only ± 32V of the electrostatic field reversal, it brought the liquid level up to about 30cm significant dramatic changes.Where does the energy that causes the liquid level change?Experimental facts seem to have been presented for the human "second type of perpetual motion machine"?!
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[20270] viXra:1709.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 23:55:22

Quantum Metaphysics: the Hydrogen Atom the Heart of the Universe !?

Authors: Nikitin A P
Comments: 12 Pages.

Abstract This paper presents an energy interpretation of quantum theory. It is proposed to deal with all the changes and interactions (including gravity) is not as power bodies interaction of charges of particles, fields, and displays the curvature of space-time, as well as the manifestations and consequences of energy processes in a unified cosmos. Measure these processes is the energy of the cosmos, including the "dark matter" and "dark energy", with absolute power equal to Planck's constant. The motion of matter in the universe is seen as the dynamics of the vector field of energy, material and energy "cell" structure which is a proton. Energy is proposed interpretation of the hydrogen atom, in which the motion of matter occurs and thus describes a "drain" and the radiation energy flux vector material-energy field. Planck values are shown in the dimensions of the LT. It is argued that a cosmic "relic" radiation is generated in the atoms existing baryonic matter and has no relation to the mythical "Big Bang". Shows the energy interpretation of the fine structure constant.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20269] viXra:1709.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 00:15:24

Ray of Light Near the Sun: the Energy View

Authors: Nikitin A. P.
Comments: Pages.

It is explained the deviation of the light beam in the gravitational field of the Sun from energy considerations, when all the changes and interactions, including gravitational ones, are considered not as force interactions or geometric manifestations of the curvature of space-time, but as manifestations and consequences of the motion of matter, described as the motion of energy in space-time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20268] viXra:1709.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 02:48:22

Optical and Electrical Bistability

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Today, electrical bistable devices are the foundation of digital electronics, serving as building blocks of switches, logic gates and memories in computer systems. [24] A breakthrough has been made in the world of quantum computing this month as engineers at Caltech develop a computer chip equipped with nanoscale optical quantum memory. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[20267] viXra:1709.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 07:10:58

Understanding Cellular Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

A team of Caltech scientists has uncovered a molecular code that cells use to communicate with each other. [27] Cells can be programmed like a computer to fight cancer, influenza, and other serious conditions – thanks to a breakthrough in synthetic biology by the University of Warwick. [26] This "robot," made of a single strand of DNA, can autonomously "walk" around a surface, pick up certain molecules and drop them off in designated locations. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a high-intensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18]
Category: Physics of Biology

[20266] viXra:1709.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 07:46:10

Light Bandwidth Ceiling

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

The rise of big data and advances in information technology has serious implications for our ability to deliver sufficient bandwidth to meet the growing demand. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper - and easier - than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices—small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[20265] viXra:1709.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 08:23:30

Drops of Quark-Gluon Plasma

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Particle collisions recreating the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) that filled the early universe reveal that droplets of this primordial soup swirl far faster than any other fluid. [11] Now, powerful supercomputer simulations of colliding atomic nuclei, conducted by an international team of researchers including a Berkeley Lab physicist, provide new insights about the twisting, whirlpool-like structure of this soup and what's at work inside of it, and also lights a path to how experiments could confirm these characteristics. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[20264] viXra:1709.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 08:45:54

Ultra-Fast 3D Microscope

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

A new microscope can capture 3-D images of live organisms in real time. It's called the QIs-scope, an innovation from a spinoff of Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M), 4D Nature. The microscope can be used in biomedical research or to improve clinical diagnosis procedures. [22] Scientists have developed a camera that can see through the human body. [21] A new approach to optical imaging makes it possible to quickly and economically monitor multiple molecular interactions in a large area of living tissue—such as an organ or a small animal; technology that could have applications in medical diagnosis, guided surgery, or pre-clinical drug testing. [20] Chemists at ITbM, Nagoya University have developed a super-photostable fluorescent dye called PhoxBright 430 (PB430) to visualize cellular ultra-structure by super-resolution microscopy. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are.
Category: Physics of Biology

[20263] viXra:1709.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 09:35:00

General Relativity and Dark Energy Are Hidden in the Klein-Gordon Equation in Curved Spacetime

Authors: Gary Nash
Comments: 20 Pages.

By maintaining the form of the Klein-Gordon equation in curved 4-dimensional spacetime, it can be symmetrized into symmetric and antisymmetric (2,0) tensors with the wave function $\Psi$ having spins $0,1,2,1/2$ and $3/2$. Using a decomposition of symmetric tensors and two fundamental principles of general relativity, a new tensor describing the energy-momentum of the gravitational field and dark energy appears naturally alongside the Einstein tensor. The tensors that constitute the modified Einstein equation add to zero. General relativity and dark energy are hidden in the symmetric part of the Klein-Gordon equation for each spin. As quantum field theory in curved spacetime is built from the free field solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation, general relativity and dark energy are hidden in the formalism of quantum field theory. The metric as a field variable describing gravitons vanishes from the massless spin-2 KG equation in the low-energy long-range to particle regimes of spacetime. Massless spin-2 gravitons in those regimes do not exist. Unlike the other three known fundamental forces in nature, no particle exchange is required to explain the force of gravity in those regimes. It is shown that the cosmological constant must be zero. Dark energy effectively replaces the cosmological constant and describes a cyclic universe which developed after the Big Bang. Dark energy is interpreted to be the repulsive part of the trace of the tensor describing the energy-momentum of the gravitational field and dark energy. The dark energy density provides a natural explanation of why the vacuum energy density is so small, and why it dominates the present epoch of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20262] viXra:1709.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 13:03:59

Electromagnetic Line Wave

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Physicists have demonstrated a new mode of electromagnetic wave called a "line wave," which travels along an infinitely thin line along the interface between two adjacent surfaces with different electromagnetic properties. [25] The rise of big data and advances in information technology has serious implications for our ability to deliver sufficient bandwidth to meet the growing demand. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper - and easier - than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices—small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[20261] viXra:1709.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 05:06:33

Turning Optical Data into Readable Soundwaves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Sydney have dramatically slowed digital information carried as light waves by transferring the data into sound waves in an integrated circuit, or microchip. [24] A breakthrough has been made in the world of quantum computing this month as engineers at Caltech develop a computer chip equipped with nanoscale optical quantum memory. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[20260] viXra:1709.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 06:39:04

Cells Programmed to Fight Disease

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Cells can be programmed like a computer to fight cancer, influenza, and other serious conditions – thanks to a breakthrough in synthetic biology by the University of Warwick. [26] This "robot," made of a single strand of DNA, can autonomously "walk" around a surface, pick up certain molecules and drop them off in designated locations. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a high-intensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: Physics of Biology

[20259] viXra:1709.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-17 14:07:17

Nanoscale Optical Quantum Memory Chip

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

A breakthrough has been made in the world of quantum computing this month as engineers at Caltech develop a computer chip equipped with nanoscale optical quantum memory. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper - and easier - than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices—small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]
Category: Condensed Matter

[20258] viXra:1709.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-17 14:15:43

„Geomagnetic Pole” Shift Should Reduce Apsidal Precession Speed of Earth’s Orbit

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 4 Pages. in Russian

Perihelion precession of planets is explained here in terms of vortical рhysics and mass-dynamic forces. Weakening of „geomagnetic” field should weaken Earth’s vortex and therefore- slow down perihelion precession of Earth’s orbit. Taking in account this should be important for asteroide threat calculations in advance.
Category: Classical Physics

[20257] viXra:1709.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-17 19:16:04

E8 Real Forms and Evolution of our Universe

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 13 Pages.

In E8 Physics, when our Planck Scale Universe emerged from its Parent Universe by Quantum Fluctuation, it was represented by Real Form E8(-248) with SO(16) symmetry; and during Octonionic NonUnitary Inflation our Universe was represented by Real Form E8(8) with SO(8,8) symmetry; and after the end of Octonionic Inflation with 8-dim Octonionic Spacetime, during the present era of (4+4)-dim Quaternionic Kaluza-Klein Spacetime and Unitary Quaternionic Quantum Processes our Universe has been represented by Real Form E8(-24) with SO*(8) symmetry.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[20256] viXra:1709.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 00:04:29

Zero.probabilystic Foundation Oftheoretyical Physics

Authors: Gunn Quznetsov
Comments: 54 Pages.

No need models - the fundamental theoretical physics is a part of classical probability theory (the part that considers the probability of dot events in the 3 + 1 space-time)
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[20255] viXra:1709.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 01:09:08

GRT Experiment: Supernova Sn1987a (100 Years of General Relativity GTR) Nikitin Aleksandr Ltd. "Kamproekt" 423814, Russia, Naberezhnye Chelny, Moskovsky Prospekt, 98, e-Mail: Anikitinaaa@mail.ru Abstract General Relativity (GRT), Created by the Genius of

Authors: Nikitin A P
Comments: Pages.

Abstract General relativity (GRT), created by the genius of Einstein from 1907 to 1915 as a geometric theory of gravity, developing special theory of relativity (STR), has been 100 years does not rest and excites minds. Since then, it performed many experiments to confirm with great accuracy GRT. In this paper, we propose to draw attention to the possibility of direct experimental verification of the dependence of the velocity of light by the gravitational potential, what Einstein wrote in 1911 in his article «On the effect of gravity on light propagation» [1, V1, p.172 ]. We assume that nature itself has put this experiment in space in the presence of "dark matter", namely: February 23, 1987 in the Large Magellanic Cloud broke out amazing supernova SN1987A, from which the light came to Earth 2h 47m later neutrinos. On the basis of numerous observations are given an explanation of this fact in terms of changing the speed of light neutrinos, and depending on the time-varying gravitational potential of the Universe.
Category: Classical Physics

[20254] viXra:1709.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 01:22:30

On the Fundamental Connection Between the Planck and Hubble Constants Nikitin A.p. Russia, Moscow, e-Mail: Anikitinaaa@mail.ru

Authors: Aleksandr Nikitin
Comments: 10 Pages.

Abstract In this article it is stated that there is a fundamental connection between the basic constant of the quantum theory - the Planck constant h and the basic constant of astrophysics - the Hubble constant H, which states the material-energy unity of our world in theory.
Category: Classical Physics

[20253] viXra:1709.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-17 12:42:04

Michelson and Morley Experiment Does not Validate Length Contraction

Authors: Ziaedin Shafiei
Comments: 10 Pages.

The theory of length contraction was initially proposed to uphold the existence of aether after the surprise null result from Michelson and Morley (M&M) experiment. The theory claimed that any physical object shrinks in the direction of its movement through aether. The theory is accepted by special relativity. It is, however, redefined as the shortening of any physical object in the direction of its movement relative to an observer. This article shows that M&M experiment, in fact, does not support length contraction as the theory was not based on all-inclusive analysis of the experiment.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20252] viXra:1709.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-17 12:39:48

Self-Interacting Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Self-Interacting Dark Matter " We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit. " [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[20251] viXra:1709.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-17 12:55:28

On Quantum Mechanics: Does G-d Throw Dice?

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 9 Pages.

Einstein once expressed dissatisfaction with quantum mechanics, saying that it didn't take us any closer to the secret of the "old one", and that he didn't believe that the supreme being threw dice. Here we argue that traditional interpretations of quantum mechanics invoke a false picture of reality (a picture that takes us further away rather than closer to the G-d), and that, just as the abstract brush strokes of a representational painting serve the purpose of creating an orderly image, any apparent randomness there is to the behaviour of objects in the quantum domain serves the purpose of creating overall order. 
Category: Quantum Physics

[20250] viXra:1709.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-17 13:33:28

Fermat's Theorem. Proof by 2 Operations

Authors: Victor Sorokine
Comments: 2 Pages.

The essence of the contradiction. The hypothetical Fermat's equality is contradictory between the second digits of the factors of the number А.
Category: Number Theory

[20249] viXra:1709.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-17 13:35:16

Fermat's Theorem. Proof by 2 Operations French

Authors: Victor Sorokine
Comments: 2 Pages. French version

The essence of the contradiction. The hypothetical Fermat's equality is contradictory between the second digits of the factors of the number А.
L'égalité de Fermat est contradictoire entre les deuxièmes chiffres des facteurs du nombre A.
Category: Number Theory

[20248] viXra:1709.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-17 13:36:32

Fermat's Theorem. Proof by 2 Operations Russian

Authors: Victor Sorokine
Comments: 2 Pages. Russian version

The essence of the contradiction. The hypothetical Fermat's equality is contradictory between the second digits of the factors of the number А.
Суть противоречия. Равенство Ферма противоречиво по вторым цифрам сомножителей числа А.
Category: Number Theory

[20247] viXra:1709.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-17 13:43:36

When Were Hydrocarbons Really Formed?

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 MS paint diagram

Establishment dogma has a false worldview, which compounds into hundreds of false smaller theories, models and guesses. They accept that hydrocarbons found in oil and natural gas form as a by-product of decaying life. This is false. Oil and natural gas formed alongside the beginning formation of life itself. It can even be argued that oil/natural gas formed even slightly before life began. This would render the accepted decaying organic material dogma false. Explanation is provided.
Category: Biochemistry

[20246] viXra:1709.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-17 07:14:29

Looks Deeper into Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Scientists are now able to observe a never before seen atomic transformation that may take place in many catalytic reactions, thanks to researchers at Binghamton University and the Brookhaven National Laboratory. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a high-intensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: Condensed Matter

[20245] viXra:1709.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-17 07:45:10

"Experimentally Proven": the Big Fallacy of Theoretical Physics.

Authors: Osvaldo Domann
Comments: 12 Pages. Copyright. All rights reserved. The content of the present work, its ideas, axioms, postulates, definitions, derivations, results, findings, etc., can be reproduced only by making clear reference to the author.

The intention of theoretical physics is to construct mathematical models so that experimental data can be predicted through calculation. If the prevailing model cannot explain new experimental data because of its imperfections, theorists add to the model fictitious entities and helpmates which are defined on the basis of the new experimental data, so that the new experimental data can now be calculated with the modified model. Remaining contradictions are camouflaged as good as possible to make the model consistent. If later on calculated data obtained indirectly from new experiments are consistent with the fictitious entities and helpmates, theorists conclude that this is the prove that the fictitious entities and helpmates really exist. The conclusion is a fallacy because it ignores that the model was previously made consistent, what means that all data obtained through experiments and calculations must be explained with the model, otherwise the model would not be consistent. Adding more and more fictitious entities and helpmates to an imperfect model makes it, with the time, more and more complex, untrustworthy and non-physical and finally a radically new model is required to overcome these problems.
Category: Classical Physics

[20244] viXra:1709.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-17 11:25:39

DNA Nanorobot

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

This "robot," made of a single strand of DNA, can autonomously "walk" around a surface, pick up certain molecules and drop them off in designated locations. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a high-intensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: Condensed Matter

[20243] viXra:1709.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-16 14:19:28

Scalar Theory of Everything Model for Steering Humanity's Growth

Authors: John C. Hodge
Comments: 12 Pages.

We are at a critical time in the evolution of our understanding of the physics of the universe and the evolution of the growth of humanity. Humans lack sufficient knowledge to predict outcomes of their actions. The long-term growth of science and humanity has been by trial-and-error. Life observations are applied to determine new science principles. The process and practice of science and the Scalar Theory of Everything model are applied to suggest how humanity can grow. New fundamental principles of science are proposed. The human species is at such a level that it must reorganize the national and international structure to allow competition and change. Inhibiting change is not an option. Nature's law is grow or die. The measure of success in nature is survival. The national military authority must obey and enforce nature's laws. Competition must be allowed between religions, between approaches to technology, between approaches to society, and between approaches to the environment. Humanity should steer the future by creating a true nation organization. The best state that humanity can achieve is to be able to adapt to changes without the destruction of war or of national collapse.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[20242] viXra:1709.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-17 06:15:04

A Harmonic Oscillator in a Potential Energy Proportional to the Square of the Second Derivative of the Coordinate with Respect to Time

Authors: Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin
Comments: 12 Pages.

In search to construct a Lagrangian functional of a damped harmonic oscillator I thought to study higher derivatives of coordinates with respect to time in the Lagrangian of a simple harmonic oscillator by adding a term proportional to the square of the second derivative of the coordinate with respect to time in its Lagrangian. In Newtonian mechanics a damping term is added directly to the equation of motion of a simple harmonic oscillator, whereas in Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics (Analytical Mechanics as opposed to Vectroial Mechanics of Newton) adding a term to the Lagrangian of the simple harmonic oscillator wouldn’t reveal whether the term is a damping driving or a forced driving agent until one study the solutions of the equation of motion. Here, The Euler-Lagrange and equation of motion of a harmonic oscillator in a potential energy proportional to the square of the second derivative of the coordinate with respect to time have been formulated and discussed. The equation of motion is derived from Euler-Lagrange equation by performing the partial derivatives on the Lagrangian functional of the second variation of the calculus of variations.
Category: Classical Physics

[20241] viXra:1709.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-16 10:26:26

Simulating the Idling Behavior of Escherichia Coli

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 10 Pages.

Until now, it is not known how the motors of E. coli reverse the direction of rotation, mostly simultaneously. If the C-ring is bistable and if the number of bound CheY-P depends on the direction of rotation, there is a strong variation in the concentration of CheY-P in the cytoplasm. Then, the synchronous changeover can be explained without further additional assumptions.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[20240] viXra:1709.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-16 04:30:43

Relaxing Electrons in Solids

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

A team of scientists led by Dr. Eleftherios Goulielmakis, head of the research group "Attoelectronics" at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, have been able to capture the dynamics of core-excitons in solids in real-time. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a high-intensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: Condensed Matter

[20239] viXra:1709.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-16 04:50:26

Nonmetallic Half-Metallicity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

The microscopic mechanism proposed by the researchers differs significantly from the usual half-metal model based on a strong electron-electron interaction. [35] Now an international team by Nagoya University has developed a new way of controlling the domain structure of ferroelectric materials, which could accelerate development of future electronic and electro-mechanical devices. [34] The unusual crystal structures of these materials have regions in their lattices, called domains, that behave like molecular switches. [33] A new way of operating the powerful X-ray laser at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has enabled researchers to detect and measure fluctuations in magnetic structures being considered for new data storage and computing technologies. [32] Measurements at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering have helped clarify the arrangement of magnetic vortices, known as skyrmions, in manganese silicide (MnSi). [31] Skyrmions are swirling spin structures with spiral shapes described in 2009. They have attracted attention in academia as representing a possible basic unit of ultra-high-density next-generation memory devices due to their unique topological stability, small size, and efficient movement. [30] That could lead to new devices such as polariton transistors, Fei said. And that could one day lead to breakthroughs in photonic and quantum technologies. [29] The future of nano-electronics is here. A team of researchers from the Air Force Research Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines, and the Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois have developed a novel method for the synthesis of a composite material that has the potential of vastly improving the electronics used by the Air Force. [28] Physicists have theoretically shown that a superconducting current of electrons can be induced to flow by a new kind of transport mechanism: the potential flow of information. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[20238] viXra:1709.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 13:21:02

Demystifying Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Lukas Saual, Difei Zhang
Comments: 11 Pages. Chinese Translation of Existing Paper

The narrative around the various mathematical and physical techniques broadly known as quantum mechanics has suffered under the influence of various social pressures. The incredible strengths of the theories and their predictive powers have thus become subject to a number of sensationalized storylines, which we refer to here as quantum mysticism. In this paper we demonstrate a three pronged counterattack which combats these forces. A precise use of terms coupled with an accurate and intuitive way to describe the behavior of discrete and microscopic phenomenon effectively demystifies quantum mechanics. We don't go into mathematical details, to keep our discussion accessible to the layperson. After our demystificaion the discipline witholds its incredible predictive power without scaring away a rational thinker. In fact quantum mechnics is entirely a rational, intuitive, and learnable discipline, no more subject to mysticism than any other aspect of the world around us. If you think you don't understand quantum mechanics, it's probably because you don't understand quantum mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20237] viXra:1709.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 14:25:28

Universe According to the Stoe

Authors: John C. Hodge
Comments: 36 Pages.

We are at a special moment in our scientific evolution that requires the big of cosmology and the small of light and of particle physics be united by a single model. The Scalar Theory of Everything model (STOE) suggests fundamental assumptions with consideration for the successful parts of current models and for the data inconsistent with current models. The STOE is simpler, corresponds to both General Relativity and quantum mechanics, and solves many current mysteries and inconsistencies. Data comparisons with redshift, discrete redshift, rotation curves, asymmetric rotation curves, universe temperature, and the double slit experiment are successful. Therefore, the STOE is founded on orthodox science. Data analysis in 2011 confirmed predictions of the STOE made in 2006 that no other model suggested. A new test of the double slit experiment rejected the wave model of light and confirmed predictions of the STOE. The fundamental principles are applied to life and the purpose of life in our universe.
Category: Classical Physics

[20236] viXra:1709.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 19:18:21

Exact Marginal Inference in General Markov Random Field Models Using Linear Programming

Authors: Ikhlef BECHAR
Comments: 36 Pages.

This paper addresses the problem of exact marginal inference in general higher-order Markov random field (MRF) models. This is a fundamental AI problem, yet, renowned for its hardness. Nevertheless, by introducing an algebraic framework (referred to as the ortho-marginal framework)--which turns out to be, at once, a general approximation framework of discrete functions with arbitrary accuracy by means of their sets of margins, as well as a a principled means for modeling locally consistent functions from a global perspective--, we are able to devise a linear programming approach which can solve the marginal inference problem for any instance of the MRF model both exactly and efficiently.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[20235] viXra:1709.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 20:34:58

Exact Map Inference in General Higher-Order Graphical Models Using Linear Programming

Authors: Ikhlef Bechar
Comments: 50 Pages.

This paper is concerned with the problem of exact MAP inference in general higher-order graphical models by means of a traditional linear programming relaxation approach. In fact, the proof that we have developed in this paper is a rather simple algebraic proof being made straightforward, above all, by the introduction of two novel algebraic tools. Indeed, on the one hand, we introduce the notion of delta-distribution which merely stands for the difference of two arbitrary probability distributions, and which mainly serves to alleviate the sign constraint inherent to a traditional probability distribution. On the other hand, we develop an approximation framework of general discrete functions by means of an orthogonal projection expressing in terms of linear combinations of function margins with respect to a given collection of point subsets, though, we rather exploit the latter approach for the purpose of modeling locally consistent sets of discrete functions from a global perspective. After that, as a first step, we develop from scratch the expectation optimization framework which is nothing else than a reformulation, on stochastic grounds, of the convex-hull approach, as a second step, we develop the traditional LP relaxation of such an expectation optimization approach, and we show that it enables to solve the MAP inference problem in graphical models under rather general assumptions. Last but not least, we describe an algorithm which allows to compute an exact MAP solution from a perhaps fractional optimal (probability) solution of the proposed LP relaxation.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[20234] viXra:1709.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-16 02:37:18

Density Functional Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Kohn-Sham density functional theory is one of the most successful theories in chemistry. [19] Researchers have now succeeded in formulating a mathematical result that provides an exact answer to the question of how chaos actually behaves. The researchers have analysed chaotic states at the atomic level. [18] Given enough time, a forgotten cup of coffee will lose its appeal and cool to room temperature. [17] New research at the U of A is helping physicists better understand optomechanical cooling, a process that is expected to find applications in quantum technology. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20233] viXra:1709.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-16 04:01:45

Optical Nanosensor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a high-intensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Category: Condensed Matter

[20232] viXra:1709.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 12:41:26

Portable Electrocaloric Cooling Device

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[20231] viXra:1709.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 13:16:37

Quantum Computers Threaten Encrypted Data

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

The era of full-fledged quantum computers threatens to destroy internet security as we know it. [17] Researchers at the Australian National University (ANU) have taken a major leap forward to provide practical building blocks for a global quantum internet. [16] For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that hyperentangled photons can be transmitted in free space, which they showed by sending many thousands of these photons between the rooftops of two buildings in Vienna. [15] Now in a new study, physicists have cloned quantum states and demonstrated that, because the clones are entangled, it's possible to precisely and simultaneously measure the complementary properties of the clones. [14] Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13] The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[20230] viXra:1709.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 08:19:27

Finding 'internal Clock' Within Live Human Cells

Authors: Philip Maulion
Comments: 6 Pages.

The ultimate, elementary, internal clock, of the living world seems to have been discovered. If we refer to the discoveries of the neuroscientists and biologists, the human being has an endogenous clock that made him a transmitter of the beat of time. This essential beat is estimated at 10-25 second and is that what we are able to measure it? If so, no need to search a source in Nature. The time would be unreal. But the 'Presence' of the ‘Thinking Being’ is a first reality. If not, there is none knowledge's statement possible in physical science as in any other science. Ref. viXra:1211.0149 ; viXra:1301.0157 ; viXra:1307.0018. philip.maulion@paris7.jussieu.fr
Category: Quantum Physics

[20229] viXra:1709.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 08:13:31

On the Physics of the Shroud of Turin

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 32 Pages.

Physicist, and founder of the Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP), John P. Jackson. has proposed that the image features of the Shroud of Turin were produced by radiation emanating from the body of Jesus at the moment of resurrection. To many, the concept of resurrection is patently absurd, but it is argued here that any apparent absurdity is the result of a conflict between this concept and a false world-view in terms of which resurrection contravenes physical laws. Jackson has proposed also that "the Shroud image presents, if you will, some type of "new physics" that ultimately requires an extension or even revision of current concepts, and the purpose of this note is to show that, if certain deep-rooted but inadequate concepts are extended and revised, we will be able to explain the resurrection, and the image on the Shroud, in a way that coheres with both with the biblical account of the life of Yeshua ben Yosef (a.k.a. Jesus of Nazareth) and with science. We will also be able to explain much in this world that is mysterious.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[20228] viXra:1709.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 09:01:14

Light Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[20227] viXra:1709.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 09:16:28

Examination of MAXLOW’S Model for Expansion Tectonics – an Astronomical Perspective

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci, Pe
Comments: 10 Pages.

While not drawing any conclusion regarding the validity of the theory that Earth has undergone volumetric (and mass) expansion over the course of its geologic history, this paper examines one of the leading contenders' models for just such growth, that of James Maxlow ("Global Tectonic Data Modeling," Terella Press, Australia [2017]). Maxlow’s extensive analysis of (paleo-)geology, paleomagnetics, space geodetics, paleogeography, paleoclimatology, paleobiology, fossil fuels, past extinctions and metallogenics suggest that Earth’s radius has grown exponentially over the past 1.6 x 109 years by a factor of 3.75, with sufficient increase in mass to ensure that surface gravity has not decreased, and quite possibly has increased. A much more cursory examination of this assumption from the perspective of astronomical physics, particularly conservation of Earth’s orbital and rotational angular momentum, suggests a much more “modest” rate of increase, not necessarily exponential. And, while quite limited in comparison to Maxlow’s analysis, this simplified one still raises apparently valid discrepancies that should be addressed. Hopefully, further research and analysis, or validation of different assumptions, can bring these two competing arenas into closer agreement.
Category: Geophysics

[20226] viXra:1709.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 09:21:16

Plausibility of Shaw’s “Aether Concept of Gravity”

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci, PhD, Pe
Comments: 5 Pages.

Shaw has proposed an aether explanation for gravity, publishing several papers over the current decade (see http://www.duncanshaw.ca/). These have evolved into his “Aether Concept of Gravity,” by which inflowing aether into cosmic bodies produces an accelerating “ram force” that manifests as the “attractive” gravitational force without the need to postulate “action at a distance.” While examination of the full theory is beyond the scope of this paper, it is feasible to examine three of the key aspects which lend themselves to modeling in the form of mathematical constructs. While no attempt is made to explain the physics behind Shaw’s theory, an investigation into its plausibility, at least from a mathematical perspective, is undertaken and appears to support at least this level of plausibility.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20225] viXra:1709.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 09:29:53

A 3-Dimensional Excursion Through 2-Dimensional “Flatland” as an Analogy for 4-Dimensional Light and Coulombic Force in Three Dimensions

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci, P.e.
Comments: 11 Pages.

The 19th century novella “Flatland” has often inspired comparisons of inter-dimensional phenomena, particularly how phenomena in dimension n + 1 would be manifested to observers restricted to dimension n. With n = 2, a possible analogy for the phenomena of light and Coulombic repulsion and attraction is examined for its potential extension to n = 3, given the impossibility of our even physically imagining a fourth dimension, purely spatial (i.e., not-temporal, in contrast to Einstein’s time or space-time) like the three we know (length, width and height).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20224] viXra:1709.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 09:41:43

Microworld 37. Quantum Reveries of “METALLIC” Hydrogen

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 12 Pages. English and russian texts

The Internet reports Harvard University physicists for the first time ever have derived “metallic” hydrogen.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[20223] viXra:1709.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 10:00:47

Time, Space and Constant Speed of Light with Questionable Relativity.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 1 Page. Reality with time.

Are we following the right path by applying relativity for the larger universe?
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20222] viXra:1709.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 10:22:10

New Way to Manipulate Magnetism

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

In a pioneering effort to control, measure and understand magnetism at the atomic level, researchers working at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have discovered a new method for manipulating the nanoscale properties of magnetic materials. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[20221] viXra:1709.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 04:11:52

The Trouble with Physics

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 19 Pages.

Since the time of the ancient Greeks, the world has been under the sway of the philosophy of atomism, which holds that the parts are prior to the whole, and so that the world is an empty receptacle in which material objects are placed like furniture in an empty room. This philosophy however contradicts the General Theory of Relativity according to which the fundamental condition of the universe involves no space and time and therefore no matter, and has numerous undesirable consequences. It is argued here that the alternative conception -that the whole is prior to the parts, and that space disrupts light rather than the other way around- coheres with theory and with observation, and that it is supported by mathematical principles by reference to which several problems of physics can be solved.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20220] viXra:1709.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 05:23:56

A Minor Theorem Related with the Fermat Conjecture

Authors: José Francisco García Juliá
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is obtained a minor theorem related with the Fermat conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[20219] viXra:1709.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 07:02:57

Confronting the Galilean Transformation with the Field Shapes of a Constant-Velocity Point Charge

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Galilean space-time transformation is predicated on a salient theme of Galilean/Newtonian physics: relative motion at constant velocity has no physical consequences beyond the minimum which is required by that motion's existence. Therefore, since the electric field produced by a point charge at rest is spherically symmetric around the charge's location, and since a point charge at rest produces zero magnetic field, Galilean physics implies that a point charge moving at constant velocity produces an electric field which is spherically symmetric around that charge's instantaneous location and that it produces zero magnetic field. But the Biot-Savart-Maxwell Law has it that a point charge moving at nonzero constant velocity produces nonzero magnetic field, and Faraday's Law has it that this time-varying magnetic field, which has zero component along the line of the charge's motion, produces an electric field which isn't spherically symmetric around the charge's instantaneous location. Thus the Galilean space-time transformation is violated by electromagnetic phenomena in a definite way, and must be modified. The needed modification produces the Lorentz space-time transformation, which can straightforwardly be shown to never change the speed of electromagnetic radiation. The fate of the Galilean/Newtonian constant-velocity relative-motion paradigm was actually already sealed when it was observed that the presence of direct current in a wire deflects an adjacent compass needle.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20218] viXra:1709.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 13:26:42

Terahertz-Speed Polarization Optical Switch

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

A Sandia National Laboratories-led team has for the first time used optics rather than electronics to switch a nanometer-thick thin film device from completely dark to completely transparent, or light, at a speed of trillionths of a second. [26] Graphene Flagship researches from CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Italy and the University of Cambridge, UK have shown that it is possible to create a terahertz saturable absorber using graphene produced by liquid phase exfoliation and deposited by transfer coating and ink jet printing. [25] By finely tuning the distance between nanoparticles in a single layer, researchers have made a filter that can change between a mirror and a window. [24] Scientists from the University of Basel's Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute have succeeded in dramatically improving the quality of individual photons generated by a quantum system. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]
Category: Condensed Matter

[20217] viXra:1709.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 14:26:18

Quantum Gravity Without Additional Theory: Compatibility of Schwarzschild Metric and Quantum Mechanics

Authors: René Friedrich
Comments: Pages.

The current notion of spacetime is marked by three assumptions which are in contradiction to special relativity and to the Schwarzschild metric, and this is the reason why the quantization of spacetime cannot work. Instead, the key to quantum gravity is the limitation of the notion of spacetime to its actual role, by the means of three insights: 1. Spacetime is not continuous, in particular not in spacelike direction, and thus it cannot be quantized. 2. For the solution of fundamental problems of physics about time, we must consider the notion of proper time instead of the coordinate time of spacetime. 3. Gravitation may be represented by Schwarzschild metric not only as the curved spacetime, but alternatively also as gravitational time dilation in absolute, uncurved space. From these three insights are following the characteristics of quantum gravity. The result: Gravity appears within quantum mechanics in the form of gravitational time dilation.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20216] viXra:1709.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 14:32:12

Gravité Quantique Sans Théorie Supplémentaire :La Compatibilité de la Métrique de Schwarzschild et de la Mécanique Quantique

Authors: René Friedrich
Comments: Pages.

La notion actuelle de l'espace-temps est marquée par trois présomptions qui ne sont pas compatibles avec les principes de la relativité restreinte et de la métrique de Schwarzschild, et c'est la raison pourquoi la quantification de l'espace-temps ne peut pas fonctionner. Pour arriver au but, il est important de limiter l'espace-temps à son véritable rôle, fondé sur trois conclusions : 1. L'espace-temps n'est pas continu, il n'y a notamment pas de continuité dans la direction genre espace, et pour cette raison toute tentative de sa quantification doit échouer. 2. Pour les problèmes fondamentaux de la physique par rapport au temps, il faut se baser sur la notion fondamentale du temps propre au lieu de la notion du temps coordonné de l'espace-temps. 3. La gravitation peut être représentée par la métrique de Schwarzschild non seulement sous forme d'espace-temps courbe, mais aussi sous la forme de la dilatation de temps gravitationnelle dans l'espace absolu, non courbé. A partir de ces trois conclusions il est possible de déduire les caractéristiques de la gravité quantique. Le résultat : La gravité agit dans la mécanique quantique en tant que dilatation de temps gravitationnelle.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20215] viXra:1709.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 14:35:01

Quantengravitation Ohne Zusätzliche Theorien: Vereinbarkeit Von Schwarzschildmetrik Und Quantenmechanik

Authors: René Friedrich
Comments: Pages.

Der heutige Raumzeitbegriff wird von drei Annahmen geprägt, die im Widerspruch zur speziellen Relativitätstheorie und zur Schwarzschildmetrik stehen, und dies ist der Grund, warum eine Quantisierung der Raumzeit nicht funktionieren kann. Zum Ziel führt stattdessen die Beschränkung der Raumzeit auf ihre eigentliche Rolle, anhand von drei Erkenntnissen: 1. Die Raumzeit ist nicht stetig, insbesondere nicht in raumartiger Richtung, und daher nicht quantifizierbar. 2. Für fundamentale Probleme der Physik zum Thema Zeit muss man auf den fundamentaleren Begriff der Eigenzeit abstellen, nicht jedoch auf die Koordinatenzeit der Raumzeit. 3. Gravitation lässt sich von der Schwarzschildmetrik nicht nur in der gekrümmten Raumzeit darstellen, sondern auch als gravitative Zeitdilatation im absoluten, ungekrümmten Raum. Aus diesen drei Erkenntnissen ergeben sich die Merkmale der Quantengravitation. Das Ergebnis: Gravitation wirkt im absoluten Raum der Quantenmechanik als gravitative Zeitdilatation.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20214] viXra:1709.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 14:52:53

Gravitational "Anomalies" Caused by Shapiro Delayed Traveling Energy Quanta Around Galactic and Cosmic Scale Structures

Authors: Jose Gregorio Baquero
Comments: 13 Pages.

In 1964, Irwin Shapiro pointed out that electromagnetic waves traveling near a gravitational well of a star were delayed due to relativistic Gravitational Time Dilation (GTD). This paper proposes that traveling energy quanta (mainly vacuum energy and gravitational waves, as well as neutrinos, electromagnetic waves, cosmic rays, stellar winds, and all other kinds of waves and relativistic particles yet to be discovered) accumulate in a Density Wave like mechanism around the galactic and cosmic scale structures because of Shapiro Delay. Ultimately, the accumulative effect is a substantial increase in energy density when seen from frames of reference far from the regions where it occurs. The higher energy density is imperceptible for an observer within its own frame of reference since the proposed mechanism nature is relativistic. The higher concentration of travelling energy quanta around galaxies and galaxy clusters is creating extra gravitational distortion in spacetime with its mass equivalent. The Relativistically Accumulated Mass Equivalent Mechanism (RAMEN), using the proposed model, matches without free parameters the tested local group galaxy rotation curves for all orbits using the same traveling energy density value. The paper proposes how all observations of “Dark Matter” can be easily explained by RAMEN. It predicts the existence of a Universe Traveling Energy Density in disagreement by several orders of magnitude with currently accepted Universe Critical Energy Density. The paper discusses how the Casimir Effect experiments directly confirm with less than 5% disagreement with Quantum Field Theory the existence of higher energy densities in the vacuum. It also discusses how we may have misunderstood the nature of the predominant form of energy in the universe and that have prevented us from understanding the gravitational anomalies attributed to “Dark Matter”.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20213] viXra:1709.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 21:42:22

Spin toe

Authors: Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed
Comments: 1 Page.

This is a toe that explanis the reasons for movement of masses in the universe and gravity
Category: Classical Physics

[20212] viXra:1709.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 01:40:11

Local Time Theory

Authors: G. Stranathan
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper proposes an alternate way of thinking of 'empty' space and its interactions with matter, which may further explain certain mechanics of the universe, such as the behaviors of light, gravity and other forces. This paper will serve as a placeholder to communicate the general concepts until I am able to refine it further.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20211] viXra:1709.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 08:10:07

A Hypothesis About the Origin of Superconductivity

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 2 Pages.

I try to obtain the quantum origin of superconductivity
Category: Condensed Matter

Replacements of recent Submissions

[8448] viXra:1709.0358 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-24 13:08:34

《Universal and Unified Field Theory》- 2. Universal Fields and Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Wei Xu
Comments: 4 Pages. This is the 2nd part of《Universal and Unified Field Theory》. The 1st part is available at http://viXra.org/abs/1709.0308

Harnessed with the Universal Topology [1], actions on the world planes carry out Law of Event Evolutions that gives rise to World Equations, Motion Operations, and Horizon Hierarchy, and institute a set of potential equations that inaugurates the holistic foundations general to all dynamic fields of natural evolutions, defined as the First Universal Fields. The inceptive application to contemporary physics demonstrates and derives, but are not limited to, Quantum Mechanics with the empirical artifacts of Conservation of Energy-Momentum, Schrödinger Equation, Dirac Equation, Spinor Fields, and Weyl Spinor.
Category: Quantum Physics

[8447] viXra:1709.0333 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-24 08:02:49

More About the Inconsistency Solution of the Maxwell Equations \ Еще о непротиворечивом решении уравнений Максвелла

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 13 Pages.

A brief description of the non-contradictory solution of the Maxwell equations given in [1] and new additions are given. \ Приводится краткое описание непротиворечивого решения уравнений Максвелла, данного в [1], и новые дополнения.
Category: Classical Physics

[8446] viXra:1709.0330 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-24 09:06:33

The Inglorious History of Thermodynamics

Authors: Hans Detlef Hüttenbach
Comments: 8 Pages. misspelling corrected.

Usually, physics students don't like thermodynamics: it is incomprehensible. They commonly get told to get used to it. Later on, as an expert, they'll find that the thermodynamic calculations come with surprises: sometimes evil, sometimes good. That can mean only one thing: The theory is inconsistent. In here, it will be shown where that is.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[8445] viXra:1709.0326 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-23 02:56:19

On the Quantum Computing Delusion

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 14 Pages.

The prospect of an up-coming quantum computer revolution is big news these days, with some technologists predicting that a scalable quantum computer is a mere 4 - 5 years away. It has even been claimed -by D-Wave co-founder Eric Ladizinsky- that this prospective revolution will be civilization's next big revolution. The truth is that quantum computers that are anything more than toys are, not merely difficult to engineer, but mathematically impossible, and based on a fundamental misunderstanding of the relationship between classical and quantum physics...
Category: Quantum Physics

[8444] viXra:1709.0326 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-22 12:36:13

On the Quantum Computing Delusion

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 13 Pages.

The prospect of an up-coming quantum computer revolution is big news these days, with some technologists predicting that a scalable quantum computer is a mere 4 - 5 years away. It has even been claimed -by D-Wave co-founder Eric Ladizinsky- that this prospective revolution will be civilisation's next big revolution. The truth is that quantum computers that are anything more than toys are, not merely difficult to engineer, but mathematically impossible, and based on a fundamental misunderstanding of the relationship between classical and quantum physics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[8443] viXra:1709.0312 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-24 03:38:04

The Distribution of Primes

Authors: Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper, we find the axiomatic pattern of prime numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[8442] viXra:1709.0311 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-21 09:40:48

Standard Model from Broken Scale Invariance in the Infrared

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 8 Pages. Under construction, first draft.

As we have recently shown, the minimal fractal manifold (MFM) describes the underlying structure of spacetime near or above the electroweak scale. Here we uncover the connection between quantum field operators and the MFM starting from the operator product expansion of high-energy Quantum Field Theory. The approach confirms that the Standard Model of particle physics (SM) stems from a symmetry breaking mechanism that turns the spacetime continuum into a MFM.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[8441] viXra:1709.0308 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-24 12:48:40

《Universal and Unified Field Theory》— 1. Universal Topology

Authors: Wei Xu
Comments: 4 Pages. First remarkable groundbreakings in Unified Field Theory.

The workings of Universal Topology unfolds a duality of our natural world at the following remarks: 

  1. Dual complex manifolds and the reciprocal world planes beyond a single non-complex spacetime manifold; 
  2. Two pairs of scalar potentials for field entanglements complementarily, reciprocally and interdependently; 
  3. A mathematical framework of the dual variances to clone the event operations as an inevitable feature of reality; 
  4. Two pairs of fluxions of continuity and commutations as a hierarchy foundation of Potential Entanglements; and 
  5. Commutation Infrastructure as an introductory to derive the empirical artifacts of Lorentz Generators, Pauli matrices, Electromagnetic Field Structures, Inertial Commutation Curvature, and General Relativity

Upon this inception, our Universal Topology is ready to give rise to the unified and universal field theory ...

 


Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8440] viXra:1709.0285 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-20 07:40:31

An Iterated LP Approach to the Exact Computation of the Partition Function in General Markov Random Field Models

Authors: Ikhlef Bechar
Comments: 21 Pages. improved version

In a recent paper (I. Bechar, 2017), we have shown that one may efficiently compute the marginals of a general higher-order Markov random field (MRF) model with respect to an arbitrary collection of point subsets by solving a single linear program. Therefore, in this paper, we build on such a work for showing that the partition function of a general higher-order MRF model may, in turn, be computed both in an exact and efficient way, by iteratively solving, at most, $n$ linear programs, with $n$ standing for the number of nodes in the graph representation of a MRF model. This is, first, achieved by establishing a recursive formula between the partition function of a given MRF model and the one of another (one-node smaller) MRF model resulting from the pruning of any of the nodes of the graph of the former. Then, we show that the problem amounts to solving successive and increasingly simpler MRF marginal inference problems, and thus, one may use the approach developed in (I. Bechar, 2017) for solving such MRF marginal inference problems.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[8439] viXra:1709.0265 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-25 08:46:25

E8 Real Forms and Evolution of our Universe

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 13 Pages.

In E8 Physics, when our Planck Scale Universe emerged from its Parent Universe by Quantum Fluctuation, it was represented by Real Form E8(-248) with SO(16) symmetry; and during Octonionic NonUnitary Inflation our Universe was represented by Real Form E8(8) with SO(8,8) symmetry; and after the end of Octonionic Inflation with 8-dim Octonionic Spacetime, during the present era of (4+4)-dim Quaternionic Kaluza-Klein Spacetime and Unitary Quaternionic Quantum Processes our Universe has been represented by Real Form E8(-24) with SO*(16) symmetry.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[8438] viXra:1709.0261 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-23 06:11:49

Michelson and Morley Experiment Does not Validate Length Contraction

Authors: Ziaedin Shafiei
Comments: 10 Pages. Version 2 - 23 Sep 2017

The theory of length contraction was initially proposed to uphold the existence of aether after the surprise null result from Michelson and Morley (M&M) experiment. The theory claimed that any physical object shrinks in the direction of its movement through aether. The theory is accepted by special relativity. It is, however, redefined as the shortening of any physical object in the direction of its movement relative to an observer. This article shows that M&M experiment, in fact, does not support length contraction, and time dilation, as the theory was not based on all-inclusive analysis of the experiment. Subsequently, the constancy of the speed of light becomes uncorroborated by the experiment.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8437] viXra:1709.0259 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-19 07:26:35

On Quantum Mechanics: Does G-d Throw Dice?

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 9 Pages.

Einstein once expressed dissatisfaction with quantum mechanics, saying that it didn't take us any closer to the secret of the "old one", and that he didn't believe that the supreme being threw dice. Here we argue that traditional interpretations of quantum mechanics invoke a false picture of reality (a picture that takes us further away rather than closer to G-d), and that, just as the abstract brush strokes of a representational painting serve the purpose of creating an orderly image, any apparent randomness there is to the behaviour of objects in the quantum domain serves the purpose of creating overall order. 
Category: Quantum Physics

[8436] viXra:1709.0243 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-17 04:30:58

Exact Marginal Inference in General Markov Random Field Models Using Linear Programming

Authors: Ikhlef Bechar
Comments: 36 Pages. added the omitted nonnegativity constraint on the pseudo-marginals in LP (16)

This paper addresses the problem of exact marginal inference in general higher-order Markov random field (MRF) models. This is a fundamental AI problem, yet, renowned for its hardness. Nevertheless, by introducing an algebraic framework (referred to as the ortho-marginal framework)--which turns out to be, at once, a general approximation framework of discrete functions with arbitrary accuracy by means of their sets of margins, as well as a a principled means for modeling sets of locally consistent functions from a global perspective-- we are able to devise a linear programming approach which can solve the marginal inference problem for any instance of the MRF model both exactly and efficiently.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[8435] viXra:1709.0243 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-16 09:03:08

Exact Marginal Inference in General Markov Random Field Models Using Linear Programming

Authors: Ikhlef Bechar
Comments: 36 Pages.

This paper addresses the problem of exact marginal inference in general higher-order Markov random field (MRF) models. This is a fundamental AI problem, yet, renowned for its hardness. Nevertheless, by introducing an algebraic framework (referred to as the ortho-marginal framework)--which turns out to be, at once, a general approximation framework of discrete functions with arbitrary accuracy by means of their sets of margins, as well as a a principled means for modeling sets of locally consistent functions from a global perspective-- we are able to devise a linear programming approach which can solve the marginal inference problem for any instance of the MRF model both exactly and efficiently.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[8434] viXra:1709.0242 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-17 03:01:55

Exact Map Inference in General Higher-Order Graphical Models Using Linear Programming

Authors: Ikhlef Bechar
Comments: 50 Pages.

This paper is concerned with the problem of exact MAP inference in general higher-order graphical models by means of a traditional linear programming relaxation approach. In fact, the proof that we have developed in this paper is a rather simple algebraic proof being made straightforward, above all, by the introduction of two novel algebraic tools. Indeed, on the one hand, we introduce the notion of delta-distribution which merely stands for the difference of two arbitrary probability distributions, and which mainly serves to alleviate the sign constraint inherent to a traditional probability distribution. On the other hand, we develop an approximation framework of general discrete functions by means of an orthogonal projection expressing in terms of linear combinations of function margins with respect to a given collection of point subsets, though, we rather exploit the latter approach for the purpose of modeling locally consistent sets of discrete functions from a global perspective. After that, as a first step, we develop from scratch the expectation optimization framework which is nothing else than a reformulation, on stochastic grounds, of the convex-hull approach, as a second step, we develop the traditional LP relaxation of such an expectation optimization approach, and we show that it enables to solve the MAP inference problem in graphical models under rather general assumptions. Last but not least, we describe an algorithm which allows to compute an exact MAP solution from a perhaps fractional optimal (probability) solution of the proposed LP relaxation.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[8433] viXra:1709.0236 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-17 09:52:02

On the Physics of the Shroud of Turin

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 32 Pages.

Physicist, and founder of the Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP), John P. Jackson. has proposed that the image features of the Shroud of Turin were produced by radiation emanating from the body in the Shroud at the moment of resurrection. To many, the concept of resurrection is patently absurd, but it is argued here that any apparent absurdity is the result of a conflict between this concept and a false world-view in terms of which resurrection contravenes physical laws. Jackson has proposed also that "the Shroud image presents, if you will, some type of "new physics" that ultimately requires an extension or even revision of current concepts." The purpose of this note is to show that, if certain deep-rooted but inadequate concepts are extended and revised, we will be able to explain the resurrection, and the image on the Shroud, in a way that coheres with both with the biblical account of the life of Yeshua ben Yosef (a.k.a. Jesus of Nazareth) and with science.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[8432] viXra:1709.0236 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-15 13:52:06

On the Physics of the Shroud of Turin

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 32 Pages.

Physicist, and founder of the Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP), John P. Jackson. has proposed that the image features of the Shroud of Turin were produced by radiation emanating from the body in the Shroud at the moment of resurrection. To many, the concept of resurrection is patently absurd, but it is argued here that any apparent absurdity is the result of a conflict between this concept and a false world-view in terms of which resurrection contravenes physical laws. Jackson has proposed also that "the Shroud image presents, if you will, some type of "new physics" that ultimately requires an extension or even revision of current concepts." The purpose of this note is to show that, if certain deep-rooted but inadequate concepts are extended and revised, we will be able to explain the resurrection, and the image on the Shroud, in a way that coheres with both with the biblical account of the life of Yeshua ben Yosef (a.k.a. Jesus of Nazareth) and with science.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[8431] viXra:1709.0236 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-15 12:17:56

On the Physics of the Shroud of Turin

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 32 Pages.

Physicist, and founder of the Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP), John P. Jackson. has proposed that the image features of the Shroud of Turin were produced by radiation emanating from the body in the Shroud at the moment of resurrection. To many, the concept of resurrection is patently absurd, but it is argued here that any apparent absurdity is the result of a conflict between this concept and a false world-view in terms of which resurrection contravenes physical laws. Jackson has proposed also that "the Shroud image presents, if you will, some type of "new physics" that ultimately requires an extension or even revision of current concepts." The purpose of this note is to show that, if certain deep-rooted but inadequate concepts are extended and revised, we will be able to explain the resurrection, and the image on the Shroud, in a way that coheres with both with the biblical account of the life of Yeshua ben Yosef (a.k.a. Jesus of Nazareth) and with science.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[8430] viXra:1709.0228 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-21 10:05:49

On the Trouble With Physics

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 19 Pages.

Since the time of the ancient Greeks, the world has been under the sway of the philosophy of atomism, which holds that the parts are prior to the whole, and so that the world is an empty receptacle in which material objects are placed like furniture in an empty room. This philosophy however contradicts the General Theory of Relativity according to which the fundamental condition of the universe involves no space and time and therefore no matter, and has numerous undesirable consequences. It is argued here that the alternative conception -that the whole is prior to the parts, and that space disrupts light rather than the other way around- coheres with theory and with observation, and that it is supported by mathematical principles by reference to which several problems of physics can be solved.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8429] viXra:1709.0228 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-19 07:31:21

On the Trouble With Physics

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 19 Pages.

Since the time of the ancient Greeks, the world has been under the sway of the philosophy of atomism, which holds that the parts are prior to the whole, and so that the world is an empty receptacle in which material objects are placed like furniture in an empty room. This philosophy however contradicts the General Theory of Relativity according to which the fundamental condition of the universe involves no space and time and therefore no matter, and has numerous undesirable consequences. It is argued here that the alternative conception -that the whole is prior to the parts, and that space disrupts light rather than the other way around- coheres with theory and with observation, and that it is supported by mathematical principles by reference to which several problems of physics can be solved.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8428] viXra:1709.0228 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-17 12:26:18

On the Trouble With Physics

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 19 Pages.

Since the time of the ancient Greeks, the world has been under the sway of the philosophy of atomism, which holds that the parts are prior to the whole, and so that the world is an empty receptacle in which material objects are placed like furniture in an empty room. This philosophy however contradicts the General Theory of Relativity according to which the fundamental condition of the universe involves no space and time and therefore no matter, and has numerous undesirable consequences. It is argued here that the alternative conception -that the whole is prior to the parts, and that space disrupts light rather than the other way around- coheres with theory and with observation, and that it is supported by mathematical principles by reference to which several problems of physics can be solved.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8427] viXra:1709.0228 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-17 09:40:35

On the Trouble With Physics

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 19 Pages.

Since the time of the ancient Greeks, the world has been under the sway of the philosophy of atomism, which holds that the parts are prior to the whole, and so that the world is an empty receptacle in which material objects are placed like furniture in an empty room. This philosophy however contradicts the General Theory of Relativity according to which the fundamental condition of the universe involves no space and time and therefore no matter, and has numerous undesirable consequences. It is argued here that the alternative conception -that the whole is prior to the parts, and that space disrupts light rather than the other way around- coheres with theory and with observation, and that it is supported by mathematical principles by reference to which several problems of physics can be solved.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8426] viXra:1709.0226 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-16 11:38:01

Confronting the Galilean Transformation with the Field Shapes of a Constant-Velocity Point Charge

Authors: Steven Kauffmann
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Galilean space-time transformation is predicated on a salient theme of Galilean/Newtonian physics: relative motion at constant velocity has no physical consequences beyond the minimum which is required by that motion's existence. Therefore, since the electric field produced by a point charge at rest is spherically symmetric around the charge's location, and since a point charge at rest produces zero magnetic field, Galilean physics implies that a point charge moving at constant velocity produces an electric field which is spherically symmetric around that charge's instantaneous location and that it produces zero magnetic field. But the Biot-Savart-Maxwell Law has it that a point charge moving at nonzero constant velocity produces nonzero magnetic field, and Faraday's Law has it that this time-varying magnetic field, which has zero component along the line of the charge's motion, produces an electric field which isn't spherically symmetric around the charge's instantaneous location. Thus the Galilean space-time transformation is violated by electromagnetic phenomena in a definite way, and must be modified. The needed modification produces the Lorentz space-time transformation, which can straightforwardly be shown to never change the speed of electromagnetic radiation. The fate of the Galilean/Newtonian constant-velocity relative-motion paradigm was actually already sealed when it was observed that the presence of direct current in a wire deflects an adjacent compass needle.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8425] viXra:1709.0226 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-16 09:31:42

Confronting the Galilean Transformation with the Field Shapes of a Constant-Velocity Point Charge

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Galilean space-time transformation is predicated on a salient theme of Galilean/Newtonian physics: relative motion at constant velocity has no physical consequences beyond the minimum which is required by that motion's existence. Therefore, since the electric field produced by a point charge at rest is spherically symmetric around the charge's location, and since a point charge at rest produces zero magnetic field, Galilean physics implies that a point charge moving at constant velocity produces an electric field which is spherically symmetric around that charge's instantaneous location and that it produces zero magnetic field. But the Biot-Savart-Maxwell Law has it that a point charge moving at nonzero constant velocity produces nonzero magnetic field, and Faraday's Law has it that this time-varying magnetic field, which has zero component along the line of the charge's motion, produces an electric field which isn't spherically symmetric around the charge's instantaneous location. Thus the Galilean space-time transformation is violated by electromagnetic phenomena in a definite way, and must be modified. The needed modification produces the Lorentz space-time transformation, which can straightforwardly be shown to never change the speed of electromagnetic radiation. The fate of the Galilean/Newtonian constant-velocity relative-motion paradigm was actually already sealed when it was observed that the presence of direct current in a wire deflects an adjacent compass needle.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology