**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(59) - 0703(51) - 0704(5) - 0705(1) - 0706(8) - 0707(2) - 0708(3) - 0709(3) - 0710(2) - 0711(6) - 0712(3)

2008 - 0801(4) - 0802(4) - 0803(2) - 0804(9) - 0805(4) - 0806(1) - 0807(12) - 0808(6) - 0809(3) - 0810(16) - 0811(5) - 0812(9)

2009 - 0901(3) - 0902(7) - 0903(6) - 0904(5) - 0907(50) - 0908(109) - 0909(61) - 0910(66) - 0911(64) - 0912(54)

2010 - 1001(46) - 1002(51) - 1003(265) - 1004(138) - 1005(110) - 1006(68) - 1007(55) - 1008(91) - 1009(71) - 1010(62) - 1011(76) - 1012(52)

2011 - 1101(100) - 1102(55) - 1103(122) - 1104(83) - 1105(41) - 1106(61) - 1107(53) - 1108(49) - 1109(59) - 1110(71) - 1111(114) - 1112(87)

2012 - 1201(119) - 1202(85) - 1203(93) - 1204(96) - 1205(112) - 1206(91) - 1207(100) - 1208(224) - 1209(96) - 1210(164) - 1211(137) - 1212(143)

2013 - 1301(175) - 1302(156) - 1303(197) - 1304(153) - 1305(183) - 1306(210) - 1307(151) - 1308(141) - 1309(191) - 1310(244) - 1311(169) - 1312(209)

2014 - 1401(190) - 1402(151) - 1403(844) - 1404(263) - 1405(332) - 1406(180) - 1407(206) - 1408(223) - 1409(229) - 1410(190) - 1411(495) - 1412(187)

Any replacements are listed further down

[9570] **viXra:1412.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-20 07:21:38*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The subtitle of this paper is: “An overwhelming amount of evidence is available for the non-existence of the Big Bang”. Instead a new proposal for the shape and dynamic of the universe is described as an eternally rotating Time-Torus-Universe. Therein particles and observers are in orbit inside a time-density of a sub-time-torus. Such a sub-time-torus is a part of the larger Time-Torus Universe. Such a whole universe rotates forever. This is the Double Torus Universe described in the Double Torus Theory (DTT), which has no beginning or end. Such a universe is full of dark matter in synergy with new dark energy, which emerges the visible material world as we know it. The power for this synergy is capsuled in events happening by 2 dimensions of time smaller than the conformal time in the Big Bang Universe. Therefore this new theory is called ‘double’, because it uses that refined time, which is 2D-time smaller than the conformal Planck-time. However, the General Relativity Theory (GRT) and the Quantum Theory (QT) remain valid in the DTT. In the DTT a new force takes care for the torus not to expand unlimited as in the Big Bang universe. Observers inside the DTT experience a combination of quantum Newton-force and sub-quantum dark matter-force at the edge of any sub-time-torus. This leads to a sometimes shared rotating cosmological horizon in the presence. Space is no longer the issue in the DTT, but conformal and refined time are. In an overview is explained, by means of 14 handwritten sheets, how to visualize this mechanism mathematically and dimensionally. The under laying formulations are already described in former vixra-articles of mine [1]. Popular information can also be found on my website [a]. In the end a description is given of the window of visible matter (a new formula, which is independent of the cosmological constant). This formula calculates the ‘window’. In addition several examples of institutional evidence is shown to support the DTT-formulations. My opinion is: It is unbelievable how science anno 2014 wants holds on to Big Bang. Forget the Big Bang!

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[9569] **viXra:1412.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-20 04:36:42*

**Authors:** Subhajit Ganguly

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

Taking abstraction as the starting point, we build a complex, self-organizing fuzzy logic system. Such a system, being built on top of abstraction as the base, turns out to be just a special outcome of the laws of abstraction. As the system is self-organizing, it runs automatically towards optimization. Using such a system in neural networks, we may come as close as possible to the workings of the human brain. The abstract fuzzy optimization is seen to follow a Gaussian distribution.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[9568] **viXra:1412.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-19 16:55:20*

**Authors:** Bill Porter

**Comments:** Pages.

Some cosmological theories, such as many versions of eternal inflation and ΛCDM
involve creation processes which continue indefinitely with no defined termination.
Such processes can only occur in a temporally unbounded but finite universe. This requirement imposes serious constraints on many theories but the issue is often ignored.
I propose an eternal steady state cosmological model in which past- or future-incomplete processes with no defined beginning or end are not permitted.
Much well regarded theory is incompatible with this model; however there are viable alternatives.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9567] **viXra:1412.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-19 19:56:48*

**Authors:** V.B. Smolenskii

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the article, within the PI-Theory of fundamental physical constants, presents the theoretical basis and experimental confirmation of the author's perspective on the dynamics of evolution of the Universe and the criterion of existence of protein life on the planets of the solar system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9566] **viXra:1412.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-19 12:44:53*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Patrick Coles, Jedrzej Kaniewski, and Stephanie Wehner made the breakthrough while at the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore. They found that 'wave-particle duality' is simply the quantum 'uncertainty principle' in disguise, reducing two mysteries to one. [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9565] **viXra:1412.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-19 06:45:24*

**Authors:** N.N.Leonov

**Comments:** 19 Pages. English and russian texts

This paper describes what function methods of the theory of non-linear oscillations had in gaining detailed and adequate understanding of structure of the material world objects. Using these methods, simple identification techniques and Mandelstam-Andronov’s applied scientific methodology a stubborn researcher had managed to do in thirty years that what the entire global physical elite could not achieve during more than a century.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[9564] **viXra:1412.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-19 07:14:35*

**Authors:** Stefan Vladutescu, Mirela Teodorescu

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

“Communicative Action, Deliberative and Restorative Justice – Socio-juridical perspective on mediational averment” by Antonio Sandu and Elena Unguru, published by TRITONIC in 2014, is a high level transdisciplinary lesson about transactional justice, restorative justice and deliberative alternative to classical (retributive and distributive). Antonio Sandu is Professor at the University "Ştefan cel Mare" from Suceava, and researcher at the Centre for Socio-Human Research Lumen in Iasi (Romania). The main interest of the author include ethics, bioethics, social assistance, social philosophy. He is the author of five books in Social Philosophy and Applied Ethics, more than 8 articles in scientific journals indexed by Thomson Reuters and over 20 other scientific articles. Elena Unguru is researcher in the fields of law, social work, sociology, communication, appreciative inquiry in Socio-Human Research Center Lumen from Iasi- Romania. We are led, naturally and professionally, on the sinuously road from conflict to communication also denoted by the establishment of the public sphere as social reality born of meeting and acceptance of the otherness, of individuality asserting in public space, postulating the universality of human nature as human rights. Starting from the Habermas’ idea of communication power as a form of expression in contemporary society, the author believes that communicative action codes a power strategy based on consensus. Power is soft, seductive, and inter-mediate linguistic and cultural relations. The chosen theme by the authors analyze the communication mediation model based on the values of social justice, equity and charity, assuming an exercise of the integration of the otherness, of perceiving the other as partner.

**Category:** Linguistics

[9563] **viXra:1412.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-19 07:21:37*

**Authors:** Mirela Teodorescu, Adrian Nicolescu, Jozef Novak-Marcincin

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Information from Theory towards Science, the professor Stefan Vlăduţescu’s book from University of Craiova, is a confirmation of high intelligence level and propensity of author’s cognition. From various semiotic materials (words, images, gestures, drawings, etc.), following certain principles, under different procedures (operations, actions, movements, maneuvers, mechanisms, strategies) using means (languages, codes, subcodes) and specific tools (knowledge, concepts, categories) adapted aim between earth (with autocorrection by feedback) and firmament (as anticipation by feed-forward) rises an imposing edifice, a cognitive construction: this is information. It has systemic and procedural character and is organized on four coordinates: metric, semantic, structural and pragmatic.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[9562] **viXra:1412.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-19 04:10:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Physicists’ greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought “theory of everything.”
This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4]
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9561] **viXra:1412.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-18 20:25:59*

**Authors:** VT Padmanabhan, R Ramesh, Joseph Makkolil

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Finland’s parliament has recently approved a joint venture with Russia to build a VVER 1200 MWe, design AES-2006 pressurized water reactor which ‘complies with the IAEA and EUR requirements’ of a generation-III (Gen-III). AES-2006 design has not undergone the Gen-III assessment process. Its parent -design AES-92 which was certified as Gen-III in 2007 is missing from the genealogy of AES-2006 given in a presentation by the vendor, Rosatom. We propose that there are strong reasons to believe that this disappearance is due to the dismal performance of the AES-92 reactors at Kudankulam (KK) in India and the controversy surrounding its Gen-III certification. KK Reactor took about 12 years for construction and failed in the commissioning tests seven times. AES-92 received Gen-III certification in 2007 on the basis of fictitious and fabricated data. Rosatom's practice of selling an un-assessed design as Gen-III compliant has implications for nuclear safety globally as this design is being considered in many countries like Belarus, Bulgaria, Finland, South Africa, Bangladesh and Vietnam. In this article, we will chart out the genealogy of the AES-20056 reactor, the history of EUR (European Utility Requirement) certification process of AES-92, performance of the real AES-92 reactor at Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant (KKNPP) in India and the attributes of its predecessor AES-91 reactor under operation in China since 2007. We will demonstrate that the reason for the deletion of the AES-92 reactor design from the AES-2006 genealogy is the real-world under-performance of the only AES-92 reactor at KKNPP.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[9560] **viXra:1412.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-19 02:03:14*

**Authors:** Karan Doshi

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this paper the author submits a proof using the Power Set relation for the existence of a transfinite cardinal strictly smaller than Aleph Zero, the cardinality of the Naturals. Further, it can be established taking these arguments to their logical conclusion that even smaller transfinite cardinals exist. In addition, as a lemma using these new found and revolutionary concepts, the author conjectures that some outstanding unresolved problems in number theory can be brought to heel. Specifically, a proof of the twin prime conjecture is given.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[9559] **viXra:1412.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-18 08:26:11*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A six-page note

This paper raises some questions regarding general theory of relativity like: (i) the theory predicts ‘expansion of space’ between the galaxies; but the space within the galaxy is not expanding, because galaxy is a gravitationally-bound-structure. The question raised here is: If so, then what happens at the edge of a galaxy whose external space is expanding but the space within is not expanding? Is there a smooth transition from expanding to non-expanding space? And what happens to the cosmologically red-shifted inter-galactic-photons when they enter our milky-way galaxy from expanding outer-space to less-and-less expanding space within our galaxy? (ii) According to general relativity the planets, like the earth, orbit around the Sun, because the space around the Sun has got curved; and the planets are in inertial-motion travelling along the geodesic path. Now the question raised here is: Inertial-motion of a body can be at any speed. Can the planets travel along the geodesic-path at any speed they like? Can they take a coffee-brake and then proceed further? (iii) According to general relativity there is a distance at which rate of expansion of space is equal to the speed of light; and the speed of light is always the same, 3 x 108 meters per second. The question raised here is: Since the speed of light is the same in expanding as well as non-expanding space; and f . λ = c , i.e. the product of frequency (f) and wavelength (λ) is always equal to the speed of light (c); then the wavelength (λ) can increase only when frequency (f) gets reduced; and not because of expansion of space. Then in the second part of the paper it is shown that reduction in energy of ‘cosmologically red-shifting photons’ is strikingly equal to (G me mp / e2) times the reduction in electrostatic potential-energy of an electron at the same distance D.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9558] **viXra:1412.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-18 09:45:54*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

According to the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), the very early Universe was the loop composed of protogalaxies built of the neutron black holes. Due to the succeeding inflows of the dark energy, there was the exit of the loop from its black-hole state and the loop transformed into the expanding sphere. The Milky-Way Galaxy is very close to the centre of the expanding Universe so we cannot see directly the first stage of evolution of the early Universe. But due to some phenomena, the early binary systems and clusters of protogalaxies are imprinted on the CMB. Due to the mergers of the protogalaxies during the unseen period of evolution, the number of observed today clusters of galaxies should be smaller than it follows from the CMB and such conclusion is consistent with the observational facts. Here, I answered following question: Why we cannot see directly the evolution of the early Universe whereas we can see the CMB with coded initial number of clusters of protogalaxies?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9557] **viXra:1412.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-18 11:36:00*

**Authors:** Leonov N.N.

**Comments:** 10 Pages. English and russian texts

The paper describes a schematic structure of UFO photon propulsion system and explains how the structure is used for generating electric current.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[9556] **viXra:1412.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-18 12:20:13*

**Authors:** Yu.A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 20 Pages. in Russian

The article is devoted to the development of the classical theory of electromagnetic fields (EMF) and elimination of "white spots" in the field of electromagnetic energy and electromagnetic forces. On the basis of the axioms of a four-dimensional vector potential and current density of the deductive method, the 4-tensors and the equations of conservation of electromagnetic energy for the system "EMF - 4-current density". The obtained 4-tensor of the electromagnetic forces, the components of which are determined by all kinds of static, stationary and dynamic electromagnetic forces, including the forces of Coulomb, Ampere (Lorentz), Nikolaev. The equations of balance of all the electromagnetic forces. The obtained 4-tensors and the equations of self-consistent motion of electric charges, including the wave equation turbulence plasma. Of the 4-tensor of electromagnetic energy received 4-tensor of mechanical energy-momentum, equation of conservation of mechanical energy-momentum, canonical relativistic Lagrangian for a free particle, than he reveals electrodynamics and mechanics. The present work is a theoretical Foundation on which can be supplemented and refined electrodynamics of material media and plasma physics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[9555] **viXra:1412.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-18 13:14:19*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper shows, building on other papers by Michael John Sarnowski, that the Universe is potentially composed of smaller Spheres called Planck Spinning Spheres, which is composed of smaller spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres, which is composed of smaller spheres called Klein Spinning Spheres and so on until we get to a basic cuboctahedron structure.
In “How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere” (1) It was shown that discontinuities of packing could account for the mass of the Universe. In “New Evidence for the Eddington Number, the Large Number Hypothesis, and the Number of Particles in the Universe” 2 It was shown that the number of particles of mass in the Hubble Sphere Universe was related to the number of particles of mass in the Planck Spinning Sphere. This relationship, if extended all the way down through the layers of the universe yields the basic unit of the universe, which is a unit cuboctahedron. This paper will go through the math to show how this is possible.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9554] **viXra:1412.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-17 19:54:59*

**Authors:** Carlos Oscar Rodríguez Leal

**Comments:** 35 Pages. The paper is written in Spanish. In future I will translate into English with Part II.

This paper generalizes the six basic aritmetic operations in terms of the n-th operation, the n-operation (where n∈ℤ), and many interesting propierties of the n-operations are discovered. Besides this new tipe of operations are applied to the calculus, thereby developing many new laws in modern mathematics (derivatives, integrals, eqs. differentials).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[9553] **viXra:1412.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-18 01:50:48*

**Authors:** Cheng Tianren

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

This is a book review for “The future science institute” (volume 1, issue
2013-2014).It is a scientific journal in professional level, and it is
suitable for the readers who take science and art as their major. In other
words, it is very useful for the professors and graduate students in
full-time university and college, to improve their researches.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[9552] **viXra:1412.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-17 09:25:38*

**Authors:** Mirela Teodorescu, Petre Bosun, Bianca Teodorescu

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Global economy of the world is about to exceed the limit of endurance of the Earth, pushing
civilization from early phase of the XXI century closer to a possible crash than ever. In our concern
for quarterly profit growth from one year to another, we lose sight of the magnitude scale of human
activity in relation to the earth's resources. A century ago, the annual growth of the global economy
was measured in trillions. As a result, the consuming of renewable resources is faster than their
regeneration. Forests are shrinking, grasslands are deteriorating, water fall, fishing seats collapse
and soils erode. Depletion of oil is at a pace that leaves little time for planning what will be beyond
its peak. And "unload" in the atmosphere gases with greenhouse effect faster than nature can absorb
them, thus reaching a stage where increasing the soil temperature is significantly higher than it has
ever been since the beginning of agriculture in here (Hawkins, 2006). Civilization of this XXI
century is not the first which takes the way of a certain economy cannot be sustained by the
environment. Many other previous civilizations were in trouble regarding the environment. As Jared
Diamond (2005) noted some could change the course and avoided the economic downturn. Others
could not.
The idea is that the world is today in what ecologists call “mode exaggeration-and-fall”. In
the past, many times the request exceeded the production of sustainable natural systems locally. In
this context, the major companies in their efforts to find ways to develop projects to stop the
degradation of the planet, then restore the resources. One of the large projects is CSR acting in
areas such as: environmental change, resources, waste, social change, pollution, energy, ecoefficiency,
water, fauna, forests, fossil fuels, contaminants, GHG (greenhouse gases), GM
(genetically modified), desertification are only few objectives. It is also the task of governments and
NGOs to create structures that facilitate and control this activity.

**Category:** Linguistics

[9551] **viXra:1412.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-17 09:31:37*

**Authors:** Stefan Vladutescu

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The study finds, supports and explores some of the uncertainties surrounding the core of the
concept of communicative instance. Examine joints concept and try articulating it as a useful tool in
understanding, describing and explaining the phenomenon of communication.
Method is one meta-analytical. The main conclusion that emerges from draining and
dropping the halo of doubt and uncertainty is the principle of communicative instance: within each
communicative event occurs and remain an instance of communication, understood as a mutual
computational and decisional human device of co-building, co-organization, co-implementation and co-management of communication processes.

**Category:** Linguistics

[9550] **viXra:1412.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-17 11:24:55*

**Authors:** Grzegorz Ileczko

**Comments:** 59 Pages. eBook (Part 1)

This book is composed of two parts. Both parts combine into a single theory, but for easier description of phenomena, they were presented as independent of each other. This book is an attempt to show the Theory of Relativity in “different” light. That is, so to speak, physics without relativism. Each experiment described in the book comprises visual, mathematical and numerical analyses. All possible cases of setting the light source on-board a very fast vehicle were analysed. The conclusions are indeed surprising.
Part_1
Two experiments, to find and precisely define absolute vehicle velocity, have been described. Establishment of total lack of contact of vehicle’s interior with the outside world is in both cases fulfilled. According to the Theory of Relativity such experiment does not exist and vehicle’s absolute velocity cannot be determined.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9549] **viXra:1412.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-17 11:33:01*

**Authors:** Grzegorz Ileczko

**Comments:** 64 Pages. eBook (Part 2)

This book is composed of two parts. Both parts combine into a single theory, but for easier description of phenomena, they were presented as independent of each other. This book is an attempt to show the Theory of Relativity in “different” light. That is, so to speak, physics without relativism. Each experiment described in the book comprises visual, mathematical and numerical analyses. All possible cases of setting the light source on-board a very fast vehicle were analysed. The conclusions are indeed surprising.
Part_2
It is a modified version of a well-known experiment with light clock. The experiment has been improved in relation to the original. Optical clock was replaced with a laser. Laser beam may depart laser’s interior thus becoming observable (not just in theory). Experiment – L has been designed as a “broad” angular analysis. Various laser positions on-board the vehicle were thoroughly examined. One can literally say that laser’s beam is analysed in terms of every angle. As a result of the analyses performed, the “true” nature of time has been discovered. A mathematical proof that time has absolute nature has been presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9548] **viXra:1412.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-17 07:16:00*

**Authors:** N.N. Leonov

**Comments:** 11 Pages. English and russian texts

The study focuses on one of possible scenarios of the contemporary Universe formation where the Universe is originated as a “black hole”.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[9547] **viXra:1412.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-17 09:11:07*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In a paper published in Physical Review D, they suggest that scientists at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where the Higgs was discovered, look for a specific kind of Higgs decay when the collider starts up again in 2015. The details of that decay could tell them whether or not the Higgs has a say in the matter-antimatter imbalance. [7]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[9546] **viXra:1412.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-16 06:23:13*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Based upon the space roar and speculative ideas of Fredkin and Wolfram, I have suggested that the Big Bang recurs every (81.6 ± 1.7) billion years. (81.6 billion years)/(Planck time) = 4.773 * 10^61 where Fredkin-Wolfram-constant * (Planck time) is approximately 81.6 billion years. G *((Planck mass) / (Planck length)^2) / (1.165 * 10 ^-10 meter/second^2) = 4.773 * 10^61, where G is Newton’s gravitational constant. Note that in Milgrom’s MOND (MOdified Newtonian Dynamics) the fundamental MOND acceleration constant a0 is 1.2 * 10^-10 m/s^2. Newtonian-Einstein string theory needs to be replaced by Milgromian string theory. Why? There are 2 basic alternatives: Alternative (1). Milgrom is the greatest astrophysicist of his generation. Alternative (2). Milgrom’s acceleration law is empirically wrong. Alternative (2) is not a real possibility, because if MOND were wrong then Milgrom could never have convinced McGaugh and Kroupa. This brief communication considers ideas concerning Milgromian string theory and Wolframian string theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9545] **viXra:1412.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-16 06:53:46*

**Authors:** Aloysius Sebastian

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Our present concept about gravity is related with the mass and distance of the object. Still we are following the Newtonian concepts of gravity to measure the gravity of objects. Albert Einstein has made a great work on the concept of gravity, after Newton. But still we are trying to know more about gravity. According to me gravity is the property of energy. One must have to explain gravity on the basis of energy. I am agreeing that mass is also a form of energy. But I prefer to find gravity in accordance with the total energy of a system. Here I am making an attempt on this field. I am sure that I am on the right track. I am not placing any new equations here. I am using the existing equations in physics to find the gravity through my thoughts. The way which I am using these equations are may be strange. Sometimes I am thinking in reverse order, first I have found the gravity with the concept of energy. For that I am applying a constant ‘’A’’ and I am getting the value of ‘’A’’ from the last part of equations. Because the value of gravity is still with Newtonian concepts.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9544] **viXra:1412.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-16 08:01:11*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Ludwig et al. (2009) derived solar ages from 1.7 to 22.3 Gyr. The applied Th/Eu ratio is most credible. But the upper limit of the obtained interval is inconsistent with the age of the Universe, about 13.8 Gyr, calculated within the mainstream cosmology. A change of the Ludwig interval in such a way that the lower limit is zero causes that the upper limit is 20.6 Gyr. This value is very close to the age of the Universe obtained within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), about 20.9 Gyr. G. Hasinger et al. (2002) obtained that the Fe/O abundance in a high-redshift quasar is significantly higher than solar (Fe/O = 2 - 5). This result as well is inconsistent with mainstream cosmology and suggests that age of the Universe is bigger than assumed or that there is an unknown mechanism for production of iron in the very early Universe. The S-SET shows that both conclusions are correct. The big mistake in the mainstream cosmology follows from the wrong interpretation of the Michelson-Morley experiment. In reality, due to the quantum entanglement, the speed of light c is the speed of photons in relation to the source or in relation to the last-interaction object. Detectors are always the last-interaction objects so measured speed of photons is the c always. But it is untrue that a photon has simultaneously the speed c in relation to all reference systems. The S-SET shows that the wrong assumption leads to an illusion of acceleration of expansion of the Universe about 5 Gyr ago. The S-SET shows as well that the wrong assumption leads to the incorrect age of the Universe. In reality, the observed most distant cosmological objects are in the time distance 13.4 Gyr but they are already 7.5 Gyr old. In reality, the era of quasars lasted about 10 Gyr but we can see only the end of this era i.e. the last 2.5 Gyr. The quasars transformed into the massive galaxies whereas in explosions of the quasars were produced the satellite/dwarf galaxies - generally, it happened during the unseen 7.5 Gyr. Moreover, due to the duality of relativity, which follows from the quantum entanglement, there is discrepancy between the time distance and spatial distance to an object. The spatial distance to the observed most distant objects is 4.8 Gyr only.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9543] **viXra:1412.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-16 05:58:11*

**Authors:** ChengGang.Zhang

**Comments:** 5pages,1figure

It will be considered that microscopic particle does not have wave nature , diffraction experiment of microscopic particle should indirectly and objectively reflect the existence of one force which can lead to particle’s diffraction phenomenon , the force belongs to deeper theory under the quantum mechanics , and will be proved that it relates to electrostatic force in this paper .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9542] **viXra:1412.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-15 15:24:39*

**Authors:** Thierry PERIAT

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The document exposes just for the pedagogy the basic stones concerning the concept of decomposed extended Lie's product in a four and in a three dimensional context.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[9541] **viXra:1412.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-15 07:01:38*

**Authors:** A. Antipin

**Comments:** 4 Pages. In the Russian language. The English translation will follow.

The obtained combinatorial formulas describing random walks on a simple cubic grid.
For the case of 2 dimensions - accurate and simple.
For the case of 3 dimensions - accurate, but, unfortunately, not compact.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[9540] **viXra:1412.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-15 09:18:25*

**Authors:** A.Antipin

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Версия на русском языке. The English version: http://vixra.org/abs/1408.0023

As a result of search of objective (settlement) methods of the analysis and forecasting of movement of the prices at a stock exchange, the fundamental role of parameter "the maximum deviation of the price from Open by the current moment sessions" (it is named "Base") has been found out.
Base use allows to present session in the form of object with the developed geometrical form-structure. Structure elements are accurately enough localised in space. Structure, as a whole, keep the configuration, at least, some months.
The object is a set of attractors to which the Price and "avoiding areas" for the Price is drawn.
The object, as a whole, has 4 measured character. It is represented in three "spatial" variables plus the coding by colour. Variables are: the transaction Price, Base, a session Present situation, Probability of the transaction to occur till the end of session. All variables have unequivocal numerical character and, thus, are strictly objective. Spatial variables set conditions of realisation of the transaction, the coding colour shows probability of the transaction.
In article the algorithm of construction of Object is given, the basic idea of practical use of Technology is described.
For today the Technology works in current session, i.e. is applicable, while, to day-trading. Use of Technology and supervision with its help behind the market, has shown high degree of conformity of a reality. It has allowed to offer qualitative model for movement of the prices.
(The English version: http://vixra.org/abs/1408.0023)

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[9539] **viXra:1412.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-15 04:04:18*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

It is shown how the Occam Razor favors the one-parameter Coherent Cosmology against the 6-parameters L-CDM model, exhibating dramatic faults in the development of Modern Cosmology. This confirms that the Cosmical Immergence which deduce the atomic dimension from cosmical elementary calculation must be taken seriously. The universality of Intellighent Life follows immediatly.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[9538] **viXra:1412.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-15 05:30:02*

**Authors:** Grzegorz Ileczko

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The Riemann hypothesis is not proved by more, than 150 years. At this paper, I presented new solution for this problem. I found new trigonometrical form of Riemann's zeta function for negative numbers (n). This new form of zeta gives opportunity to prove the Riemann hypothesis. Presented proof isn’t complicated for trigonometrical form of zeta function.

**Category:** Number Theory

[9537] **viXra:1412.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-15 05:33:15*

**Authors:** Omer Dickstein

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Discussion about limits of no communication theorems

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9536] **viXra:1412.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-15 05:33:53*

**Authors:** Grzegorz Ileczko

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This article demonstrates a general solution for the problems of class (P vs.NP). Peculiarly for the problems of class (P=NP). Presented solution is quite simple and can be applicable in many various areas of science. At general, (P=NP) it’s a class of problems which possess algorithmic nature. The algorithms should contains one or more of logical operations like (if...then) instruction, or Boolean operations. The proper proof for this thesis with a new formula was presented. Except formula, one proper example was presented for the problem (P=NP). Exists a lot of problems for which P class problems are equivalent with the NP problems (P=NP). Millions, I think.
For example, I discovered extremely effective algorithm for the “Hamiltonian Path Problem”. Algorithm can find the proper solution for 100 cities at very short time. Solution time for old laptop is less than two seconds. Classical solution for that problem exists, but is extremely difficult and computer’s time is huge. Algorithm for the Hamilton problem, will be presented at separate article (needs more paper).

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[9535] **viXra:1412.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-15 02:58:50*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 47 Pages. Some diagrams

The Tai Xuan Jing (T’ai Hsuan Ching) or Classic of the Great Mystery, although attributed to Chinese writers and preserved in China for two thousand years, probably originated in Vedic India. The Tai Xuan Jing pertains to the dynamic Raja form of 9 x 9 matter, which is a fundamental aspect of Vedic Physics. This paper argues for Vedic origins of the Tai Xuan Jing and provides supporting material for that argument, based on the mathematical argument proposed by Frank “Tony” Smith on his website.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[9534] **viXra:1412.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-13 18:46:16*

**Authors:** Zhiliang Cao, Henry Gu Cao, Wenan Qiang

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The paper "Unified Field Theory and the Configuration of Particles" opened a new chapter of physics. One of the predictions of the paper is that a proton has an octahedron shape. As Physics progresses, it focuses more on invisible particles and the unreachable grand universe as visible matter is studied theoretically and experimentally. The shape of invisible proton has great impact on the topology of atom. Electron orbits, electron binding energy, Madelung Rules, and Zeeman splitting, are associated with proton’s octahedron shape and three nuclear structural axes. An element will be chemically stable if the outmost s and p clouds have eight electrons which make atom a symmetrical cubic.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[9533] **viXra:1412.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-13 12:16:49*

**Authors:** VT Padmanabhan, R Ramesh, Joseph Makkolil

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Finland’s parliament has recently approved a joint venture with Russia to build a VVER 1200 MWe, design AES-2006 pressurized water reactor which according to the vendor ‘complies with the IAEA and EUR requirements’ of a generation-III (Gen-III) reactor in northern Finland. However, design AES-92, which was certified as Gen-III in 2007, is missing in the genealogy of AES-2006 given in a presentation by the vendor, Rosatom. We propose that there are strong reasons to believe that this disappearance is due to the dismal performance of the AES-92 reactors at Kudankulam (KK) in India. KK Reactor I took about 12 years for construction and failed in the commissioning tests seven times. AES-92 received Gen-III certification in 2007 on the basis of fictitious and fabricated data. Since neither AES-2006, nor any other design in the pedigree, has undergone the Gen-III compliance test, the vendor’s claims are contentious. Considering the substandard performance of AES-92 reactor at Kudankulam since its grid connection in October 2013, its Gen-III certification needs to be canceled. It is mandatory that the vendor will also need to prove the Gen-III compliance of AES-2006 before going ahead with the ongoing deals in India, Finland, Vietnam and Bulgaria.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[9532] **viXra:1412.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-13 08:55:27*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13]
Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[9531] **viXra:1412.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-13 09:07:49*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 3 pages

An original thought experiment “interlinking” time between relatively moving frames through belt drive clocks offers concrete evidence on the unviability of the time dilation predicted by the Special Relativity. It also shows that the Special Relativity length contraction gives contradictory time results.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9530] **viXra:1412.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-12 13:27:46*

**Authors:** Alfredo G. Oliveira

**Comments:** 25 pages, 10 figures

The first model of the past hot Earth’s climate consistently indicated by isotopic and biologic data is here established. This model, here named Evolving Climate Model (ECM), accurately matches a 3 Gy long compilation of isotope ^{18}O data. An important consequence of the model is the fast increase of oxygen atmospheric level between 2 and 1 Ga (Gy ago); this is a well-known but until now mysterious occurrence, the Great Oxygenation Event. A solution is presented for the two centuries old “dolomite problem” and new explanations arise for a number of long lasting problems, such as the origin of petroleum or of proto-continents. Differently from the usual climate scenarios, the ECM presents ideal conditions for the massive production of long organic molecules. Critical occurrences of life evolution, such as the Cambrian explosion, are explained and fitted by the ECM, exposing a previously unknown connection between the evolution of life and climate. The most likely cause for this hot past is the expansion of orbits; it is verified that this phenomenon can explain the ECM, the receding of the Moon and the water on early Mars for the same value of *H*_{0} = 48 km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1}, which, if not a coincidence, is a non-negligible result.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9529] **viXra:1412.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-12 15:17:06*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

According to the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), the dark energy consists of the additional unentangled Einstein-spacetime components whereas the dark-matter mechanism follows from existence of regions in the Einstein spacetime with lowered dynamic pressure. Such regions mimic gravitational attraction and were produced due to the flows in the ferromagnetic filaments in the era of quasars. In the limit, we can treat the ferromagnetic filaments as the dark matter. At the end of the era of the quasars, there was about 4 times more the dark matter than the hydrogen-helium visible matter. The dark energy and dark-matter mechanism do not follow from existence of some exotic particles. Both are associated with Einstein spacetime. The dark energy or regions with lowered dynamic pressure can be detected indirectly only: via expansion of the Universe, via increased spin speed of stars, gravitational lensing or ferromagnetic filaments.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9528] **viXra:1412.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-12 11:35:55*

**Authors:** Thierry Periat

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In that document I try to extrapolate classical considerations concerning extended Lie’s products in such a manner that that extrapolation may eventually be applied to a simplified Ising’s model concerning only three aligned molecules. The attempt is formally acceptable provided theoretical developments will be made in the next future on the notion of determinant.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[9527] **viXra:1412.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-11 18:54:14*

**Authors:** Richard A Peters

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The geometric interpretation of time dilation concludes that the geometric relation between moving objects is the cause of time dilation between the objects. The thesis of this paper is that the imposing edifice of the geometric interpretation rests on a flawed foundation. That foundation denies the existence of any fundamental (natural, physical, real) frame of reference for motion. Therefore the position, velocity and acceleration of an object may be reckoned to an arbitrary frame of reference. If space has no properties other than dimensionality, motion relative to that space is undefined and meaningless and can have no influence on any ongoing process. Accordingly I propose a model in which a field of particles occupies and permeates all of space, including the space of atoms. In this model the phenomenon of time dilation demands the existence of a field that supports the propagation of photons. I label this field the temporal-inertial field (TI field). Time dilation occurs when an ongoing process moves relative to space, relative to this TI field. The greater the velocity of the process relative to the TI field the greater is the time dilation experienced by that process. The rate at which a process is slowed or accelerated is intrinsic, absolute and depends solely on the velocity of the process relative to the TI field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9526] **viXra:1412.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-11 22:19:56*

**Authors:** James Conor O'Brien

**Comments:** 111 Pages. A blog itemizing excerpts from this paper are viewable at http://revolutionmatter.blogspot.com.au/2014/07/an-introduction-to-revolution-of-matter.html

It is proposed in accordance with the Feynman-Stückelberg Interpretation that out of the quantum vacuum the anti-particles of virtual pairs travel backwards along the axis of Time to reflect off the boundaries of a quantum potential of a scalar field at the start of the universe. The scalar field is subject to quantum fluctuations that adiabatically shift the boundaries of the potential which acts as the moving mirror of the Dynamical Casimir effect allowing the production of matter-antimatter pairs. A theorem is proposed, via a mechanism that has its foundation in the Wick Rotation, the virtual particles undergo a quantal adiabatic, geometric phase reflection; and as a consequence of the Pauli Exclusion principle this shift in phase nonholonomically conflates virtual particles under Lorentz Invariance into real particles. It is proposed that this model is consistent with the Hartle-Hawking state; leads directly to Guth's Inflationary model; a mechanism for a modified gravitational field (MOND) is given; and finally the results are shown consistent with the Sakharov conditions for the Big Bang.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[9525] **viXra:1412.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-11 23:12:22*

**Authors:** Amir H. Fatollahi

**Comments:** 12 pages, 2 figs, 1 table

The energy spectrum of two 0-branes for fixed angular momentum in 2+1 dimensions is calculated by the Rayleigh-Ritz method. The basis function used for each angular momentum consists of 80 eigenstates of the harmonic oscillator problem on the corresponding space. It is seen that the spectrum exhibits a definite linear Regge trajectory behavior. It is argued how this behavior, together with other pieces of evidence, suggests the picture by which the bound-states of quarks and QCD-strings are governed by the quantum mechanics of matrix coordinates.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[9524] **viXra:1412.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-11 15:54:12*

**Authors:** Stephen Marshall

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper presents a complete rebuttal of the paper Vixra 1408.0195v2 posted by Matthias Lesch on 13 September 2014. This rebuttal is in response to Vixra 1408.0195v2 where Matthias Lesch erroneously attempted to disprove six papers I published proving several conjectures in Number Theory. Specifically, these were papers Vixra:1408.0169, 1408.0174, 1408.0201, 1408.0209, and 1408.0212. This rebuttal paper is presented in the same format as Vixra 1408.0195v2 with necessary quotes from paper Vixra 1408.0195v2 to clarify rebuttals.

**Category:** Number Theory

[9523] **viXra:1412.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-11 08:00:39*

**Authors:** Joseph I. Thomas

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

In 1801, Thomas Young devised what is now known as the Classical Double Slit Experiment. In this experiment, light waves emanating from two separate sources, interfere to form a pattern of alternating bright and dark fringes on a distant screen. By measuring the position of individual fringe centers, the fringe widths and the variation of average light intensity on the screen, it is possible to compute the wavelength of light itself. The original theoretical analysis of the experiment employs a set of geometric assumptions which are collectively referred to here as the Parallel Ray Approximation. Accordingly, any two rays of light arising from either source and convergent on an arbitrary point on the screen, are considered very nearly parallel to each other in the vicinity of the sources. This approximation holds true only when the screen to source distance is very large and the inter-source distance is much larger than the wavelength of light. The predictions that naturally follow are valid only for fringes located near the center of the screen (e.g. the equal spacing of fringes). But for those fringes located further away from the screen center, the precision of these predictions rapidly wanes. Also when the screen to source distance is comparable to the inter-source separation or when the inter-source distance is comparable to the wavelength of light, the original analysis is no longer applicable.
In this paper, the theoretical foundations of Young’s experiment are re-formulated using a newly derived analytical equation of a hyperbola, which forms the locus of the points of intersections of two expanding circular wavefronts (with sources located at the respective centers of expansion). The ensuing predictions of the new analysis are compared with those of the old. And finally, it is shown that the latter approach is just a special instance of the former, when the Parallel Ray Approximation can be said to hold true.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[9522] **viXra:1412.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-11 03:54:38*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The dynamics of reality is well regulated. What is the mechanism that controls dynamics and what rules this mechanism? The models of contemporary physics do not answer these questions.
In the realm of elementary particles the special habits of quaternions appear to play an essential role. In the past physics had a choice between the Maxwell based approach and the quaternionic based approach. That choice has a significant influence on how physics equations look. Einstein selected the Maxwell approach and in this way physics inherits the spacetime view on the universe in which we live.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[9521] **viXra:1412.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-11 04:38:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also.
From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8]
This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9520] **viXra:1412.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-10 22:38:37*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 24 Pages. v2 is a partial draft of a revised paper in process, which in section 5 lays out important new relationships between topology and atomic structure.

The purpose of this paper is to explain the pattern of fill factors observed in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE), which appears to be restricted to odd-integer denominators as well as the sole even-integer denominator of 2. The method is to use the mathematics of gauge theory to develop Dirac monopoles without strings as originally taught by Wu and Yang, while accounting for orientation / entanglement and related “twistor” relationships between spinors and their environment in the physical space of spacetime. We find that the odd-integer denominators are included and the even-integer denominators are excluded if we regard two fermions as equivalent only if both their orientation and their entanglement are the same, i.e., only if they are separated by 4π not 2π. We also find that the even integer denominator of 2 is permitted because unit charges can pair into boson states which do not have the same entanglement considerations as fermions, and that all other even-integer denominators are excluded because only integer charges, and not fractional charges, can be so-paired. We conclude that the observed FQHE fill factor pattern can be fundamentally explained using nothing other than the mathematics of gauge theory in view of how orientation / entanglement / twist applies to fermions but not to bosons, while restricting all but unfractionalized fermions from pairing into bosons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[9519] **viXra:1412.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-11 01:06:10*

**Authors:** Hideki Mutoh

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We found new current-field equations including charge creation-annihilation fields. Although it is difficult to treat creation and annihilation of charge pairs for Maxwell's equations, the new equations easily treat them. The equations cause the confinement of charge creation and annihilation centers, which means the charge conservation for this model. The equations can treat not only electromagnetic field but also weak and strong force fields. Weak gravitational field can be also treated by the equations, where four current means energy and momentum. It is shown that Klein-Gordon and Schr\"{o}dinger equations
and gauge transformation can be directly derived from the equations, where the wave function is defined as complex exponential function of the energy creation-annihilation field.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[9518] **viXra:1412.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-10 13:56:23*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 334 Pages.

This volume includes 37 papers of mathematics or applied mathematics written by the author alone or in collaboration with the following co-authors: Cătălin Barbu, Mihály Bencze, Octavian Cira, Marian Niţu, Ion Patraşcu, Mircea E. Şelariu, Rajan Alex, Xingsen Li, Tudor Paroiu, Luige Vladareanu, Victor Vladareanu, Ştefan Vladuţescu, Yingjie Tian, Mohd Anasri, Lucian Capitanu, Valeri Kroumov, Kimihiro Okuyama, Gabriela Tonţ, A. A. Adewara, Manoj K. Chaudhary, Mukesh Kumar, Sachin Malik, Alka Mittal, Neetish Sharma, Rakesh K. Shukla, Ashish K. Singh, Jayant Singh, Rajesh Singh,V.V. Singh, Hansraj Yadav, Amit Bhaghel, Dipti Chauhan, V. Christianto, Priti Singh, and Dmitri Rabounski.
They were written during the years 2010-2014, about the hyperbolic Menelaus theorem in the Poincare disc of hyperbolic geometry, and the Menelaus theorem for quadrilaterals in hyperbolic geometry, about some properties of the harmonic quadrilateral related to triangle simedians and to Apollonius circles, about Luhn prime numbers, and also about the correspondences of the eccentric mathematics of cardinal and integral functions and centric mathematics, or ordinary mathematics; there are some notes on Crittenden and Vanden Eynden's conjecture, or on new transformations, previously non-existent in traditional mathematics, that we call centric mathematics (CM), but that became possible due to the new born eccentric mathematics, and, implicitly, to the supermathematics (SM); also, about extenics, in general, and extension innovation model and knowledge management, in particular, about advanced methods for solving contradictory problems of hybrid position-force control of the movement of walking robots by applying a 2D Extension Set, or about the notion of point-set position indicator and that of point-two sets position indicator, and the navigation of mobile robots in non-stationary and nonstructured environments; about applications in statistics, such as estimators based on geometric and harmonic mean for estimating population mean using information; about Godel’s incompleteness theorem(s) and plausible implications to artificial intelligence/life and human mind, and many more.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[9517] **viXra:1412.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-10 10:35:30*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Four-page letter

When an electron in an atom falls from higher orbit to a lower orbit a photon gets emitted. Since the electrostatic potential-energy of the electron is negative, because of the attractive force between the proton and the electron, the fall of electron makes its potential-energy more negative. So it is argued here that the energy of the emitted photon is a chunk of positive potential-energy; and since the photon is electrically neutral, it can feel only the gravitational force. Therefore it is proposed here that the photon emitted by an atom might be feeling a repulsive gravitational force; and so it always moves away from the emitting atom. As this photon moves away from the atom, its potential-energy goes on reducing. Then it is shown here that the loss of energy of the cosmologically red-shifted photon is indeed equal to (G me mp/ e^2) times the loss in electrostatic potential-energy of the electron at the same distance D

**Category:** Astrophysics

[9516] **viXra:1412.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-10 06:43:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8]
This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9515] **viXra:1412.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-09 20:21:48*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 500 Pages.

Neutrosophic Theory means Neutrosophy applied in many fields in order to solve problems related to indeterminacy.
Neutrosophy considers every entity <A> together with its opposite or negation <antiA>, and with their spectrum of neutralities <neutA> in between them (i.e. entities supporting neither nor <antiA>). Where

**Category:**

[9514] **viXra:1412.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-09 21:03:03*

**Authors:** Michael Starks

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

This book is invaluable as a synopsis of some of the work of one the greatest philosophers of recent times. There is much value in analyzing his responses to the basic confusions of philosophy, and in the generally excellent attempts to connect classical Chinese thought to modern philosophy. I take a modern Wittgensteinian view to place it in perspective.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[9513] **viXra:1412.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-09 21:06:10*

**Authors:** Michael Starks

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

I give a detailed review of 'The Outer Limits of Reason' by Noson Yanofsky 403(2013) from a unified perspective of Wittgenstein and evolutionary psychology. I indicate that the difficulty with such issues as paradox in language and math, incompleteness, undecidability, computability, the brain and the universe as computers etc., all arise from the failure to look carefully at our use of language in the appropriate context and hence the failure to separate issues of scientific fact from issues of how language works. I discuss Wittgenstein's views on incompleteness, paraconsistency and undecidability and the work of Wolpert on the limits to computation.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[9512] **viXra:1412.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-10 01:06:27*

**Authors:** V.S.Mitin

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Biotonic law is a physical act with more specific constants M. Feigenbaum.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[9511] **viXra:1412.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-10 01:24:12*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

I argue, that there is speciality at the horizon.
Why do we think that the equation of geodesic deviation gives us the tidal force (the right side)? I argue. Even if this is so, a more refined equation gives a speciality at the horizon (see very solid article of very serious prof. Risto Tammelo [Gen.~Rel.~Grav.~1997;29:997--1009]). 2) The deviation equation assumes that the time at different distances from the horizon is synchronized (clocks coincide). But we
know, what in terrestrial conditions it is not observed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9510] **viXra:1412.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-10 02:40:58*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 60 Pages. Published in Romania in 1998. Copyright 1998-2003 by publishing house "B.I.C. ALL". Copyright since 2003 by Marius Coman

In this paper I define a function which allows the reduction to any non-null positive integer to one of the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9. The utility of this enterprise is well-known in arithmetic; the function defined here differs apparently insignificant but perhaps essentially from the function modulo 9 in that is not defined on 0, also can’t have the value 0; essentially, the mar reduced form of a non-null positive integer is the digital root of this number expressed as a function such it can be easily used in various applications (divizibility problems, diophantine equations), defined only on the operations of addition and multiplication not on the operations of subtraction and division. One of the results obtained with this tool is, as I know, the first proof of Fermat’s last Theorem, case n = 3, using just integers, no complex numbers (it is known that Fermat proved himself the case n = 4 and many proofs for this case there exist using only integers but I do not know one for case n = 3).

**Category:** Number Theory

[9509] **viXra:1412.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-09 15:31:41*

**Authors:** Joel M Williams

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The Nazca lines and figures are not readily viewed at ground level. Much, esp on television, has been posited by those who endorse extraterrestrials that these lines and figures are "proof" of alien influence on earthly matters. This paper demonstrates with figures that these lines, whether straight and narrow or broad like rectangles and trapezoids, are simply the application of basic, humankind, engineering knowledge. No extraterrestrial intervention was necessary.
Why the Nazca Desert even exists is demonstrated with a satellite image of the area and contour lines. A colossal landslide performed a strip-mining dump into the previous valley giving pre-Inca miners a "rock-milled" ore source.
How the nature figures were created with significant precision without being viewable has been a source of conjecture. This paper illustrates that they could simply have been created by citizens who staged them on a well-defined, viewable grid and then celebrated by marching into the open desert and taking up corresponding target locations. Some of the Nazca nature figures are even "staged" in the paper. Must have been quite a celebration.

**Category:** Archaeology

[9508] **viXra:1412.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-09 13:12:52*

**Authors:** Alejandro A. Torassa

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper presents an alternative classical mechanics which is invariant under transformations between reference frames and which can be applied in any reference frame without the necessity of introducing fictitious forces. Additionally, a new principle of conservation of energy is also presented.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[9507] **viXra:1412.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-08 16:29:25*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

We propose a novel model of aspiration levels for interactive games, termed economic harmony. The model posits that the individuals' levels of outcome satisfaction are proportional to their actual outcomes relative to their aspired outcomes. We define a state of harmony as a state at which the interacting players' levels of outcome satisfaction are equal, and underscore the necessary condition for the manifestation and sustenance of harmony situations on the behavioral level. We utilize the proposed model to predict the transfer decisions in a class of two-person ultimatum games, including the standard ultimatum game, an ultimatum game with asymmetric information about the size of the "pie", an ultimatum game with varying veto power. We also apply the model to predicting behavior in a three person ultimatum game with uncertainty regarding the identity of the recipient and in a sequential common pool resource game. For all the aforementioned games, we show that the model accounts well for large sets of experimental data, and with the predictions of game theory and other relevant models of interactive situations. Strikingly, for the standard ultimatum game, the model predicts that the allocator should transfer a proportion of the entire sum that equals 1- Φ, where Φ is the famous Golden Ratio, most known for its aesthetically pleasing properties.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[9506] **viXra:1412.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-08 16:43:45*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The present paper is concerned with the derivation of the Einstein's formula of equivalence of mass and energy, E = mc^2, from the universal uncertainty relations. These relations are a generalization of the Heisenberg uncertainty relations. Thus, this approach unifies two of the most important laws of physics as provides the proof of the quantum mechanical interpretation of the above formula, and, at the same time, provides
the proof of the correctness of the universal uncertainty relations that I found in 2012.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9505] **viXra:1412.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-09 02:11:40*

**Authors:** Cheng Tianren

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, I list some interesting problems I proposed in 2013-2014, which are the conclusion of the series papers “The analysis techniques for convexity”. I published this series work on scientific journal and in these problems, I try to sketch a research plan for the technical difficulties we meet in convex bodies and CAT spaces. So I hope readers will give me some advices for whether the outline appear in this paper is feasible and what is their meaningful.

**Category:** Geometry

[9504] **viXra:1412.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-08 11:09:38*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

When photons hit a material surface they exert a pressure on it. It was shown that this pressure has a negative component (opposite to the direction of propagation of the photons) due to the existence of the negative linear momentum transported by the photons. Here we show that, in the photoelectric effect, the electrons are ejected by the action of this negative component of the momentum transported by the light photons. It is still shown that, also the gravitational interaction results from the action of this negative component of the momentum transported by specific photons.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9503] **viXra:1412.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-08 13:32:39*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), the confinement and Mexican-hat mechanism for baryons, atomic nuclei, neutrinos and Einstein-spacetime components is described qualitatively and quantitatively. In core of baryons there appears the circle/compactified-fifth-dimension. The range of confinement of the strongly interacting parts of baryons is defined by the circumference of the compactified fifth dimension. Ranges of Mexican-hat mechanism depend on radiation mass of the circles/loops produced inside the charges/tori. There are only five main shells inside the atomic-nucleus Mexican-hat well i.e. the maximum number of electrons inside the well can be 110 and it should be the upper limit for the Mendeleev’s table. Of course, we can produce nuclei containing more protons than 110 but such objects cannot be electrically neutral i.e. they cannot contain more than 110 electrons. The mean distance between the Einstein-spacetime components in the Einstein spacetime is only about 0.8% higher than the Mexican-hat range. It leads to conclusion that it is relatively very easy to transform, due to the Mexican-hat mechanism for the Einstein-spacetime components, the gravitationally interacting Einstein-spacetime components into condensates with a little higher mass density. In such a way are produced the W and Z bosons. Just the transition from the zero-mass state (the energy of photons and gluons) to the non-zero-mass states is due to the Mexican-hat mechanism for the Einstein-spacetime components. Such is the mechanism which leads to the confinement of the Einstein-spacetime components. This mechanism solves the mass gap problem.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9502] **viXra:1412.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-08 04:39:14*

**Authors:** Cheng Tianren

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper, I list some interesting problems I proposed in 2013-2014, which are the conclusion of the series papers “From Ptolemy theorem to non-euclidean geometry”. I published this series work on scientific journal and in these problems, I try to sketch a research plan for the technical difficulties we meet in non-euclidean geometry and general relativity. So I hope readers will give me some advices for whether the outline appear in this paper is feasible and what is their meaningful.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9501] **viXra:1412.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-08 05:42:35*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** Pages.

Einstein's calculation in 1916 of the deflection of light by the Sun and experimental suggestions.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[9500] **viXra:1412.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-08 05:41:51*

**Authors:** Ramin Zahedi

**Comments:** 9 Pages. An expanded version of this paper (with a few methodological changes) has been accepted and presented at the 11th ANTS, 2014, which is one of the international satellite conferences of ICM 2014: the 27th International Congress of Mathematicians, Korea.

The set of prime numbers has been analyzed, based on their algebraic structure. Here by obtaining a sort of linear formula for the set of prime numbers, they are redefined and re-identified; under a systematic procedure it has been shown that the set of prime numbers is combinations (unions and intersections) of some subsets of natural numbers, with more primary structures. In fact, the logical essence of obtained formula for prime numbers is similar to formula 2n – 1 for odd numbers, and so on. Subsequently, using obtained formula we can define all composite numbers. Finally specified examples for obtained formula are presented.

**Category:** Algebra

[9499] **viXra:1412.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-08 02:12:52*

**Authors:** Miloje M. Rakocevic

**Comments:** 28 Pages. An extended version of Addendum 4 in our Book "Genetic Code as a Unique System, presented at our web site.

There are many approaches to investigate the consciousness. In this paper we will show that it makes sense to speak about the consciousness as about the comprehension of something. Furthermore, to speak about the universal consciousness as about the universal comprehension of the universal code; the comprehension from different investigators, in different creativeness, through different epochs.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[9498] **viXra:1412.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-07 13:34:35*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

According to a distant observer, a Fly escaping towards a black hole never reaches the event
horizon. Let “Fly” be a synonym for a space ship with food while “Bat” stands for a space ship
with starving astronauts. The question then arises, how long the Bat has to wait before reaching
the Fly.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9497] **viXra:1412.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-06 21:52:23*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The reason, as to wherefrom arises the liquid drop character of the nucleus,
has been a source of puzzlement since the birth of nuclear physics.
We provide an explanation of the same by reviving the very first and the "original"
charge exchange interaction model suggested by Yukawa in 1935.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[9496] **viXra:1412.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-07 03:30:07*

**Authors:** Pingyuan Zhou

**Comments:** 16 Pages. This paper has been submitted to mathematical journal.

In this paper we give a proof of the strong Goldbach conjecture by studying limit status of original continuous Goldbach natural number sequence generated by original continuous odd prime number sequence. It implies the weak Goldbach conjecture. If a prime p is defined as Goldbach prime when GNL = p then Goldbach prime is the higher member of a twin prime pair, from which we will give a proof of the twin prime conjecture.

**Category:** Number Theory

[9495] **viXra:1412.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-07 04:31:04*

**Authors:** Nikolay Leonov

**Comments:** 17 Pages. English and russian texts

The analysis conducted covers conditions in which electrons and neutrons can be formed from individual ethereal elements as well as conditions in which electrons and neutrons disintegrate into individual ethereal elements.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[9494] **viXra:1412.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-07 05:34:40*

**Authors:** Stanislav Podosenov, Jaykov Foukzon, Alexander Potapov, Elena Men’kova

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

On the basis of the theory of bound charges the calculation of the motion of the charged particle
at the Coulomb field formed with the spherical source of bound charges is carried out. Such motion is
possible in the Riemanniam space-time. The comparison with the general relativity theory (GRT) and
special relativity theory (SRT) results in the Schwarzshil'd field when the particle falls on the
Schwarzshil'd and Coulomb centres is carried out. It is shown that the proton and electron can to create a
stable connection with the dimensions of the order of the classic electron radius. The perihelion shift of
the electron orbit in the proton field is calculated. This shift is five times greater than in SRT and when corrsponding substitution of the constants it is 5/6 from GRT. By means of the quantization of adiabatic invariants in accordance with the method closed to the Bohr and Sommerfeld one without the Dirac equation the addition to the energy for the fine level splitting is obtained. It is shown that the Caplan's stable orbits in the hydrogen atom coincide with the Born orbits.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9493] **viXra:1412.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-07 06:22:31*

**Authors:** Padmanabhan Murali

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Observations of recurrent evolutions have been noted for long suggesting that evolution prefers certain pathways. At the phenotype and genotype level it appears that evolution tends to arrive at certain solutions that suit environmental conditions present. Further, adaptive Laboratory Evolution studies on single celled organisms show that evolution is consistent and predictable when organisms are subjected to the same environmental Input. This paper presents a case from a different perspective and takes these observations as the starting point to propose a theory that Evolution on the whole is predictable. Only certain organisms are defined to exist as solutions in evolution space and only certain change pathways are possible and evolution necessarily proceeds along them. Presence of many regulatory networks in the organism is common knowledge supplemented by emerging understanding of Gene Regulatory Networks. Networks exist that control an organism right from birth, development, sustenance and survival. Extending this further, hidden regulatory networks are proposed to exist that activate and control organism change (speciation) as a response to environmental change. Evidence (possible cases) for such networks are proposed from literature. A key implication of this hypothesis is it eliminates the need of natural selection as a role player in Evolution. Instead the hidden networks proposed control Speciation. It proposes that beneficial mutations are the result of action of these hidden networks to initiate phenotype change (speciation).

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[9492] **viXra:1412.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-06 16:13:48*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A fundamental theorem underpinning Einstein's gravity theory is that the contraction of a tensor is itself a tensor of lower rank. However this theorem is not an identity; its demonstration cannot be extended beyond space-time points where the space-time transformation in question has a Jacobian matrix with exclusively finite components and that matrix' inverse also has exclusively finite components. Space-time transformations therefore cannot be regarded as physical except at such points; indeed in classical theoretical physics nonfinite entities don't even make sense. This, taken together with the Principle of Equivalence, implies that metric tensors can be physical only at space-time points where they and their inverses have finite components exclusively, and as well have signatures which are identical to the Minkowski metric tensor's signature. For metric-tensor solutions of the Einstein equation there can exist space-time points where these physical constraints on the solution are flouted, just as there exist well-known solutions of the Maxwell and Schroedinger equations which also defy physical constraints -- and therefore are always discarded. Instances of unphysical solutions of the Maxwell or Schroedinger or Einstein field-theoretic equations can usually be traced to subtly unphysical initial inputs or assumptions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9491] **viXra:1412.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-06 14:12:09*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 39 Pages. Wave - particle duality elegantly incorporates into kinetic energy in direction of movement as particle, and kinetic energy against directions of movement as wave, in relations for kinetic energy.

Speeds of electrons and protons in atoms are small. For example: An electron moving at a
speed ve= 0,003c creates spectral line Hα.
Confirmation of Doppler´s principle in hydrogen for Balmer line Hα.
Accompanying activity of reaction on movement of stable particles in the transmission
medium are waves.
Wave - particle duality elegantly incorporates into kinetic energy in direction of movement as
particle, and kinetic energy against directions of movement as wave, in relations for kinetic
energy. Neutron, β electron , gamma rays – calculations.
Stable electrons moving with speeds (0,99 c – c ) creates leptons (μ−, τ−), neutrinos (νe, νμ,
ντ) and bosons W +, W-, Z (= β electrons). Weak interactions are caused with stable
electrons, which creates leptons (μ−, τ−) = ( particles = electrons different speeds),
neutrinos νe, νμ, ντ (= waves) , bosons W +, W-, Z (= particles = β electrons moving at
nearly the speed of light ) and gamma rays (=waves of extremely high frequency >1019 Hz ).
Stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α) moving with speeds ( 0,3 c – 0,99 c ) creates baryons
and mesons.
The strong interactions are caused with stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α ), which
creates baryons and mesons.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[9490] **viXra:1412.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-06 15:09:42*

**Authors:** Jaykov Foukzon

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In recent years there has been a revitalised interest in non-classical solutions to the
semantic paradoxes. In this article the non-classical resolution of Curry’s Paradox and Shaw-Kwei's paradox without rejection any contraction postulate is proposed.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[9489] **viXra:1412.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-06 09:49:34*

**Authors:** Enrico Masina

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The following document is for you people: try your E.M. knowledge and your physical attitude in those simple exercises, od use them for your students/friends/colleagues if you like!

**Category:** Classical Physics

[9488] **viXra:1412.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-06 10:14:17*

**Authors:** Umar Kabir Adinoyi

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The cosmological constant (Λ) problem is resolved within the framework of a new interpretation of time and energy with a second Planck size time dimension T2 where Energy is a vector quantity in combined space and time T2 dimension. This Rotating Universe interpretation of Time and Energy (RUTE) as proposed in this paper, describes a cylindrical brane Universe rotating along its time dimension T1, while also oscillating between two asymmetric vacuum states a and b along its second time dimension T2. Where vacuum states a and b for T2 are analogous to particle and antiparticle states for T1 time dimension. In RUTE, a non-zero and running Λ essentially arises from an asymmetry in Planck density of vacuum states a and b coupled with a general energy-momentum conservation principle in spacetime. It constrains the energy density and speed of a reference frame in spacetime, to always equal the upper limit of the Planck density and c respectively. The asymmetry is fundamentally in the form of difference in speed limit c for vacuum states a and b with a relativistic relationship that is described by a cosmological factor Γ asymptotically approaching zero as a function of orbital radius r. A curious measure of entropy emerge as the surface area of the two time dimensions 2πr in Planck units raising a question as to the relationship between our model Universe and blackhole Physics. Prospects of Λ driven inflation with a reheating mechanism, light speed oscillation and matter-antimatter transmutation among other predictions are briefly discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9487] **viXra:1412.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-06 05:16:47*

**Authors:** N.N. Leonov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. English and russian texts

There has been the structure of superfluid neutron component of neutron stars identified and there have been similarities revealed in structures and properties of superfluid components in liquid helium and in neutron superfluid liquid.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[9486] **viXra:1412.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-06 05:43:30*

**Authors:** S.A. Podosenov

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

An exact solution for the field of a charge in a uniformly accelerated noninertial
frame of reference (NFR) alongside the "Equivalent Situation Postulate"allows one to
find space-time structure as well as fields from arbitrarily shaped charged conductors,
without using Einstein’s equations. In particular, the space-time metric over a charged
plane can be related to the metric being obtained from an exact solution to Einstein-
Maxwell’s equations. This solution describes an equilibrium of charged dust in parallel
electric and gravitational fields. The field and metric outside a conducting ball have
been found. The method proposed eliminates divergence of the proper energy and makes
classical electrodynamics consistent at any sufficiently small distances. An experiment is
proposed to verify the approach suggested.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9485] **viXra:1412.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-06 02:24:29*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 28 Pages. The main differences between Einstein's theory[1] and the latest knowledge[2]are: 1.Form of Intensity of the Moving Charge Electric Field is asymmetrical, 2. Form of the interference field is non-linear, 3. Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the v

Relationship Lorentz derived from the asymmetrical form of the intensity of the moving charge. To derive it we do not need Lorentz's transformations equations, that is we do not need SPACE-TIME.
We do not need local time, or covariant equations or physical simultaneity definition or invariant interval. In other words, in physics we do not need Einstein's theory of relativity. From the asymmetrical form of the intensity of the moving charge we can derive Gauss law, Faraday's law and derive the 4th Maxwell's equation, fictional by Maxwell and not to be derived.Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values: in direction of motion as own kinetic energy of charge and against direction of motion of charge represents the wave energy, which charge creates in transmision medium.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[9484] **viXra:1412.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-06 03:01:39*

**Authors:** Barar Stelian Liviu

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

If in the Sieve of Eratosthenes the majority of multiplication of prime numbers result in a results devoid of practical benefit (numbers divisible by 2,3 and/or 5) , in the sieve of prime numbers , each multiplication of prime number gives a result in a number not divisible to 2,3 and/or 5.

**Category:** Number Theory

[9483] **viXra:1412.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-06 03:30:57*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** three-page letter

This letter reports interesting correlations between cosmological red-shift and the strength-ratio of gravitational and electric forces, which may prove to be a clue to deeper understanding of gravitation and cosmology. Cosmological red-shift, smaller than unity, zc = Δ λ / λ0 = [G mp^2 / h c ] times the luminosity-distance measured in the units of a wavelength [ D / λC ] where λC = ( h / mp c), the Compton-wavelength of a fundamental-particle pi-meson. Also, the energy lost by cosmologically red-shifted photon can be viewed as due to deceleration experienced by the photon; Energy lost = mass times the acceleration (H0 c) times the luminosity-distance D ; where the rate of deceleration (H0 c) turns out to be equal to the accelerated-expansion of the universe! Thus this letter provides some interesting correlations for the experts to think further.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[9482] **viXra:1412.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-05 22:28:36*

**Authors:** Morio Kikuchi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We protect an aircraft from an anti-aircraft missile disposing a flying object between them.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[4205] **viXra:1412.0200 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-20 07:56:36*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A seven-page letter

This paper raises some questions regarding general theory of relativity like: (i) the theory predicts ‘expansion of space’ between the galaxies; but the space within the galaxy is not expanding, because galaxy is a gravitationally-bound-structure. The question raised here is: If so, then what happens at the edge of a galaxy whose external space is expanding but the space within is not expanding? Is there a smooth transition from expanding to non-expanding space? And what happens to the cosmologically red-shifted inter-galactic-photons when they enter our milky-way galaxy from expanding outer-space to less-and-less expanding space within our galaxy? (ii) According to general relativity the planets, like the earth, orbit around the Sun, because the space around the Sun has got curved; and the planets are in inertial-motion traveling along the geodesic path. Now the question raised here is: Inertial-motion of a body can be at any speed. Can the planets travel along the geodesic-path at any speed they like? Can they take a coffee-brake and then proceed further? (iii) According to general relativity there is a distance at which rate of expansion of space is equal to the speed of light; and the speed of light is always the same, 3 x 10^8 meters per second. The question raised here is: Since the speed of light is the same in expanding as well as non-expanding space; and f . λ = c , i.e. the product of frequency (f) and wavelength (λ) is always equal to the speed of light (c); then the wavelength (λ) can increase only when frequency (f) gets reduced; and not because of expansion of space. Then in the second part of the paper it is shown that reduction in energy of ‘cosmologically red-shifting photons’ is strikingly equal to (G me mp / e^2) times the reduction in electrostatic potential-energy of an electron at the same distance D.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4204] **viXra:1412.0191 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-17 14:51:50*

**Authors:** Stefan Vladutescu

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The study finds, supports and explores some of the uncertainties surrounding the core of the
concept of communicative instance. Examine joints concept and try articulating it as a useful tool inunderstanding, describing and explaining the phenomenon of communication.
Method is one meta-analytical. The main conclusion that emerges from draining and
dropping the halo of doubt and uncertainty is the principle of communicative instance: within each
communicative event occurs and remain an instance of communication, understood as a mutual
computational and decisional human device of co-building, co-organization, co-implementation and co-management of communication processes.

**Category:** Linguistics

[4203] **viXra:1412.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-19 19:39:41*

**Authors:** ChengGang.Zhang

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It will be considered that microscopic particle does not have wave nature , diffraction experiment of microscopic particle should indirectly and objectively reflect the existence of one force which can lead to particle’s diffraction phenomenon , the force belongs to deeper theory under the quantum mechanics , and will be proved that it relates to electrostatic force in this paper .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[4202] **viXra:1412.0182 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-18 12:07:23*

**Authors:** Thierry PERIAT

**Comments:** 16 Pages. v2, modest corrections and precisions.

The document exposes just for the pedagogy the basic stones concerning the concept of decomposed extended Lie's product in a four and in a three dimensional context.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[4201] **viXra:1412.0162 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-16 15:08:54*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The dynamics of reality is well regulated. What is the mechanism that controls dynamics and what rules this mechanism? The models of contemporary physics do not answer these questions.
In the realm of elementary particles the special habits of quaternions appear to play an essential role. In the past physics had a choice between the Maxwell based approach and the quaternionic based approach. That choice has a significant influence on how physics equations look. Einstein selected the Maxwell approach and in this way physics inherits the spacetime view on the universe in which we live.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[4200] **viXra:1412.0160 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-17 22:33:38*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 41 Pages. Sections 6 and 7 are new in v2.

The purpose of this paper is to explain the pattern of fill factors observed in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE), which appears to be restricted to odd-integer denominators as well as the sole even-integer denominator of 2. The method is to use the mathematics of gauge theory to develop Dirac monopoles without strings as originally taught by Wu and Yang, while accounting for orientation / entanglement and related “twistor” relationships between spinors and their environment in the physical space of spacetime. We find that the odd-integer denominators are included and the even-integer denominators are excluded if we regard two fermions as equivalent only if both their orientation and their entanglement are the same, i.e., only if they are separated by 4π not 2π. We also find that the even integer denominator of 2 is permitted because unit charges can pair into boson states which do not have the same entanglement considerations as fermions, and that all other even-integer denominators are excluded because only integer charges, and not fractional charges, can be so-paired. We conclude that the observed FQHE fill factor pattern can be fundamentally explained using nothing other than the mathematics of gauge theory in view of how orientation / entanglement / twist applies to fermions but not to bosons, while restricting all but unfractionalized fermions from pairing into bosons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[4199] **viXra:1412.0151 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-11 01:37:05*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

I argue, that there is speciality at the horizon.
Why do we think that the equation of geodesic deviation gives us the tidal force (the right side)? I argue. Even if this is so, a more refined equation gives a speciality at the horizon (see very solid article of very serious prof. Risto Tammelo [Gen.~Rel.~Grav.~1997;29:997--1009]). 2) The deviation equation assumes that the time at different distances from the horizon is synchronized (clocks coincide). But we
know, what in terrestrial conditions it is not observed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4198] **viXra:1412.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-19 14:45:12*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The present paper is concerned with the derivation of the Einstein's formula of equivalence of mass and energy, E = mc^2 , from the universal uncertainty relations. These relations are a generalization of the original uncertainty relations developed by Werner Heisenberg in 1927. Thus, this approach unifies two of the most important laws of physics as provides the proof of a) the quantum mechanical nature of the above
formula, and, b) the correctness of the universal uncertainty relations that I found in 2012.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[4197] **viXra:1412.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-15 17:01:51*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The present paper is concerned with the derivation of the Einstein's formula of equivalence of mass and energy, E = mc^2 , from the universal uncertainty relations. These relations are a generalization of the original uncertainty relations developed by Werner Heisenberg in 1927. Thus, this approach unifies two of the most important laws of physics as provides the proof of a) the quantum mechanical nature of the above
formula, and, b) the correctness of the universal uncertainty relations that I found in 2012.

**Category:** Quantum Physics