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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[19469] viXra:1707.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 11:46:29

Goal → New Heuristic Model of Ideality: Logos → Coincidentia Oppositorum → Primordial Generating Structure

Authors: Vladimir I.Rogozhin
Comments: 9 Pages. FQXi Essay Contest entry 2017

Fundamental knowledge endures deep conceptual crisis manifested in total crisis of understanding, crisis of interpretation and representation, loss of certainty, troubles with physics, crisis of methodology. Crisis of understanding in fundamental science generates deep crisis of understanding in global society. What way should we choose for overcoming total crisis of understanding in fundamental science? It should be the way of metaphysical construction of new comprehensive model of ideality on the basis of the modified ontology. Result of quarter-century wanderings: sum of ideas, concepts and eidoses, new understanding of space, time, consciousness.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[19468] viXra:1707.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 07:18:32

Measurement of Proton Mass

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

In a paper published today in the journal Science, the ASACUSA experiment at CERN reported new precision measurement of the mass of the antiproton relative to that of the electron. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[19467] viXra:1707.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 07:30:59

The Location of HIP 65426b on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 illustrative graph

Astronomers have no idea how something so hot, so small could form so far from its host star. It fits in stellar metamorphosis theory on a simple graph. It is a 350 million year old brown dwarf star.
Category: Astrophysics

[19466] viXra:1707.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 08:52:50

Quantum World and Local Realism

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Physicists have reported some of the strongest evidence yet that that the quantum world does not obey local realism by demonstrating new evidence for the existence of quantum entanglement. [12] Mathematicians at the Universities of York, Munich and Cardiff have identified a unique property of quantum mechanical particles – they can move in the opposite way to the direction in which they are being pushed. [11] For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated the violation of "bilocal causality"—a concept that is related to the more standard local causality, except that it accounts for the precise way in which physical systems are initially generated. The results show that it's possible to violate local causality in an entirely new and more general way, which could lead to a potential new resource for quantum technologies. [10] The microscopic world is governed by the rules of quantum mechanics, where the properties of a particle can be completely undetermined and yet strongly correlated with those of other particles. Physicists from the University of Basel have observed these so-called Bell correlations for the first time between hundreds of atoms. [9] For the past 100 years, physicists have been studying the weird features of quantum physics, and now they're trying to put these features to good use. One prominent example is that quantum superposition (also known as quantum coherence)—which is the property that allows an object to be in two states at the same time—has been identified as a useful resource for quantum communication technologies. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19465] viXra:1707.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 09:32:10

Sphere Theory, the New Grand Unified Theory, Prediction of more Precise Gravitational Constant

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Sphere Theory, is a theory that the universe is made of spheres, that, are made of spheres. In fact ,it is a theory of spheres all the way down. Part of the theory is that there is radiation that creates stable resonances that is similar to Bremsstrahlung and Cherenkov radiation. In this paper it is shown that this same structure that is used to predict mass ratios for the proton, electron, muon, and tau to the neutron, and predictions for the Sommerfeld fine structure constant, and the von Klitzing constant, can also be used to predict a more accurate value for the Gravitational constant, with the accuracy of the Planck constant and neutron mass being the limiting factor. The value predicted for the Gravitational constant is as follows. 6.6738480×10^-11 m^3/kgs^2.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[19464] viXra:1707.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 10:35:11

A Conjecture of Gravitons Driving Cosmic Expansion

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 4 pages, 2 figures. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.21780.19846

It is well known that electronic orbital potential reduction or orbit shrinkage can result photon emission, and photon can excite another atom then expand electrons shell. In similar way, one stellar system shrinkage should also emit graviton, and another stellar system on the path of graviton propagation should be able to absorb the said graviton if energy enough to secure a minimal orbital expansive leap.
Category: Astrophysics

[19463] viXra:1707.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 10:40:29

Modified Coulomb Forces and the Point Particles States Theory

Authors: I. N. Tukaev
Comments: 207 Pages.

A system of equations of motion of point particles is considered within the framework of the classical dynamics (the three Newton’s laws). Equations of the system are similar to the equation by Wilhelm Eduard Weber from his theory of electrodynamics. However, while deriving equations of the system, the Coulomb law as the law for point particles which are motionless relatively one another (used by Weber for formulation of his equation) is regarded as a hypothesis unverified experimentally. An alternative hypothesis was proposed, presuming that the Coulomb law describes the interaction of the two electrically charged point particles within a determined range of their relative velocity magnitudes excluding a zero value – if the relative velocity magnitude is equal to zero, particles with like charges attract one another and those with unlike charges repulse. The results of mathematical analysis of the system of equations of motion of point particles with Coulomb forces modified in accordance with the alternative hypothesis and acting between them were used for modelling of the various physical phenomena and processes.
Category: Classical Physics

[19462] viXra:1707.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-19 19:24:50

Statistical Methods in Astronomy

Authors: James P. Long, Rafael S. De Souza
Comments: 9 Pages. To apper in Wiley StatsRef: Statistics Reference Online

We present a review of data types and statistical methods often encountered in astronomy. The aim is to provide an introduction to statistical applications in astronomy for statisticians and computer scientists. We highlight the complex, often hierarchical, nature of many astronomy inference problems and advocate for cross-disciplinary collaborations to address these challenges.
Category: Statistics

[19461] viXra:1707.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 02:20:32

Finding The Optimal Number ‘K’ In The K-Means Algorithm

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research Technical Note the author has presented a novel method to find the Optimal Number ‘K’ in the K-Means Algorithm.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[19460] viXra:1707.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 03:54:52

Polarization of Terahertz Radiation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Brown University researchers have developed a new method of manipulating the polarization of light at terahertz frequencies. [29] In a recent publication, Aalto University researchers show that in a transparent medium each photon is accompanied by an atomic mass density wave. [28] New research has made it possible for the first time to compare the spatial structures and positions of two distant objects, which may be very far away from each other, just by using a simple thermal light source, much like a star in the sky. [27] In an arranged marriage of optics and mechanics, physicists have created microscopic structural beams that have a variety of powerful uses when light strikes them. [26] At EPFL, researchers challenge a fundamental law and discover that more electromagnetic energy can be stored in wave-guiding systems than previously thought. [25] The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[19459] viXra:1707.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 05:11:07

Modelling Ideal MHD as a System of Coupled Quaternionic Riccati Equations and Its Application for MHD Power Generator

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

In recent years, there are several proposals of using MHD theory for clean power generators on top of coal plant. But the theory involved appears too complicated, so in this paper we will use a simpler approach using ideal MHD equations which then they can be reduced to a system of coupled quaternionic Riccati equations. Further numerical and experimental investigations are advisable.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[19458] viXra:1707.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 05:12:37

Dispelling the Myth Surrounding Maxwell’s Displacement Current, and Its Applications in Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Energy Harvesting

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 6 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

In recent years, there are growing number of proposals to use a novel concept of energy harvesting using nanogenerators. This concept can be used for water wave energy harvesting, wind energy harvesting, but also for self-powered microdevices. This novel concept is based on the reality of Maxwell’s displacement current. On the other hand, such a displacement current has been debated for many years: whether it is real or just a mathematical entity. This paper is intended to dispelling the myth surrounding the reality and correct interpretation of displacement current based on on Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory. We also briefly discuss a plausible extension of Maxwell equations based on vortex sound theory of Prof. Tsutomu Kambe. It is our hope that discerning the myth from reality is very important step toward tapping and harvesting energy from the hidden electromagnetic structure in Nature.
Category: Classical Physics

[19457] viXra:1707.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 05:15:37

Discrete Space and Zeno's Paradoxe "THE Moving Rows or STADIUM"

Authors: Anton Chernikov
Comments: Total 39 pages, 1-18 pp (English), 19-39 pp (Russian)

In this article, I consider the construction of a model of a physical space with discrete space, matter and time. For such a space, the emergence of a contradiction of the analogous Zeno’s paradoxe "Stadium" is shown. I show the elimination of the contradiction of this paradoxe with the introduction of the concept of the order of time’s motion. The assumption about influence of time’s motion on transfer of the information on a finding of a matter in space that in turn can influence the future arrangement of a matter in space is advanced.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[19456] viXra:1707.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 05:38:08

Chaos in Ultracold Reactions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Researchers have performed the first ever quantum-mechanical simulation of the benchmark ultracold chemical reaction between potassium-rubidium (KRb) and a potassium atom, opening the door to new controlled chemistry experiments and quantum control of chemical reactions that could spark advances in quantum computing and sensing technologies. [26] An international team led by the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering has discovered how to manipulate a weird quantum interface between light and matter in silicon carbide along wavelengths used in telecommunications. [25] The central idea of TQC is to encode qubits into states of topological phases of matter (see Collection on Topological Phases). [24] One promising approach to building them involves harnessing nanometer-scale atomic defects in diamond materials. [23] Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22] Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[19455] viXra:1707.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 05:57:22

The Universe or Nothing: the Heat Death of the Universe and It's Ultimate Fate

Authors: Islam Atef Aly
Comments: 5 pages, 2 figures and one table

This paper overviews my hypothesis of the ultimate fate of the universe, showing how it will reach the heat death, and how the dark energy has the main role in the universe movement and even it's end, this paper opens a new path in the searching about the nature of dark energy, by knowing that it's the reason why the universe is expanding, cooling and losing energy. And to note that in this paper we based on that the universe is closed.
Category: Astrophysics

[19454] viXra:1707.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 06:49:38

Moving Vortices in Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Researchers have made the first direct visual observation and measurement of ultra-fast vortex dynamics in superconductors. [37] By gently prodding a swirling cloud of supercooled lithium atoms with a pair of lasers, and observing the atoms' response, researchers at Swinburne have developed a new way to probe the properties of quantum materials. [36] The nickel-bismuth (Ni-Bi) sample studied here is the first example of a 2-D material where this type of superconductivity is intrinsic, meaning that it happens without the help of external agents, such as a nearby superconductor. [35] collaborated to design, build and test two devices that utilize different superconducting materials and could make X-ray lasers more powerful, versatile, compact and durable. [34] A team of researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory has identified a nickel oxide compound as an unconventional but promising candidate material for high-temperature superconductivity. [33] An international team led by scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University has detected new features in the electronic behavior of a copper oxide material that may help explain why it becomes a perfect electrical conductor – a superconductor – at relatively high temperatures. [32] An artistic representation of the data showing the breaking of spatial inversion and rotational symmetries in the pseudogap region of superconducting materials-evidence that the pseudogap is a distinct phase of matter. [31] Superconductivity is a state in a material in which there is no resistance to electric current and all magnetic fields are expelled. This behavior arises from a so-called "macroscopic quantum state" where all the electrons in a material act in concert to move cooperatively through the material without energy loss. [30] Harvard researchers found a way to transmit spin information through superconducting materials. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[19453] viXra:1707.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-19 09:47:17

Controlling Elasticity with Magnetism

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Liquid electrolytes are essential components in a variety of emerging energy technologies, including batteries, supercapacitors and solar-to-fuel devices. [20] Basic processes in chemistry and biology involve protons in a water environment. [19] Scientists from the QUEST Institute at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) have now presented a model system that allows the investigation of atomic-scale friction effects and friction dynamics that are similar to those taking place in proteins, DNA strands and other deformable nanocontacts. [18] New research could make lasers emitting a wide range of colors more accessible and open new applications from communications and sensing to displays. [17] A novel way to harness lasers and plasmas may give researchers new ways to explore outer space and to examine bugs, tumors and bones back on planet Earth. [16] A team of researchers at Harvard University has successfully cooled a three-atom molecule down to near absolute zero for the first time. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13]
Category: Condensed Matter

[19452] viXra:1707.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-19 10:17:16

Cosmological Collider

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

In a recent research, scientists from HKUST and Harvard University revealed the connection between those two aspects, and argued that our universe could be used as a particle physics "collider" to study the high energy particle physics. [8] According to Einstein's theory of relativity, the curvature of spacetime was infinite at the big bang. In fact, at this point all mathematical tools fail, and the theory breaks down. [7] The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[19451] viXra:1707.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-18 15:08:59

A New Result About Prime Numbers: Lim N→+∞ N/(p(n) − N(ln N + ln ln N − 1)) = +∞

Authors: Rédoane Daoudi
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this short paper we propose a new result about prime numbers: lim n→+∞ n/(p(n) − n(ln n + ln ln n − 1)) = +∞ .
Category: Number Theory

[19450] viXra:1707.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-18 22:49:05

The Principle of Equatorial Planes in Planet Formation (Stellar Evolution) in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 data set

: It is proposed a principle of equatorial planes to accurately predict the orbits of evolving stars around their hosts. The new star systems found will have companion stars orbiting their hosts at all inclination angles. The Sun and its orbiting evolving/dead stars are used as an example.
Category: Astrophysics

[19449] viXra:1707.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-19 00:46:58

A Comprehensive Physicochemical, Thermal, and Spectroscopic Characterization of Zinc (Ii) Chloride Using X-Ray Diffraction, Psd, Dsc, Thermogravimetric Analysis/dta, Ultraviolet-Visible, and Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 8 Pages.

Objective: Zinc chloride is an important inorganic compound used as a source of zinc and has other numerous industrial applications. Unfortunately, it lacks reliable and accurate physicochemical, thermal, and spectral characterization information altogether. Hence, the authors tried to explore in-depth characterization of zinc chloride using the modern analytical technique. Materials and Methods: The analysis of zinc chloride was performed using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), particle size distribution, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) analytical techniques. Results: The PXRD patterns showed well-defined, narrow, sharp, and the significant peaks. The crystallite size was found in the range of 14.70–55.40 nm and showed average crystallite size of 41.34 nm. The average particle size was found to be of 1.123 (d10), 3.025 (d50), and 6.712 (d90) μm and average surface area of 2.71 m2/g. The span and relative span values were 5.849 μm and 1.93, respectively. The DSC thermogram showed a small endothermic inflation at 308.10°C with the latent heat (ΔH) of fusion 28.52 J/g. An exothermic reaction was observed at 449.32°C with the ΔH of decomposition 66.10 J/g. The TGA revealed two steps of the thermal degradation and lost 8.207 and 89.72% of weight in the first and second step of degradation, respectively. Similarly, the DTG analysis disclosed Tmaxat 508.21°C. The UV-vis spectrum showed absorbance maxima at 197.60 nm (λmax), and FT-IR spectrum showed a peak at 511/cm might be due to the Zn–Cl stretching. Conclusions: These in-depth, comprehensive data would be very much useful in all stages of nutraceuticals/pharmaceuticals formulation research and development and other industrial applications.
Category: Chemistry

[19448] viXra:1707.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-19 05:05:13

Humanize Artificial Intelligent

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Google recently launched PAIR, an acronym of People + AI Research, in an attempt to increase the utility of AI and improve human to AI interaction. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17] The closer we can get a machine translation to be on par with expert human translation, the happier lots of people struggling with translations will be. [16] Researchers have created a large, open source database to support the development of robot activities based on natural language input. [15]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[19447] viXra:1707.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-19 06:01:57

Using the Appropriate Norm In The K-Nearest Neighbours Analysis. ISSN 1751-3030

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 1 Page.

In this research Technical Note, the author has detailed a novel technique of finding the distance metric to be used for any given set of points.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[19446] viXra:1707.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-19 06:39:49

Modeling Neutrosophic Data by Self-Organizing Feature Map: MANETs Data Case Study

Authors: Haitham ELwahsh, Mona Gamala, A. A. Salama, I.M. El-Henawy
Comments: 8 Pages.

Network security is a major research area for both scientists and business. IntrusionDetection System (IDS) is one of the most challenging problems in MANETs networks. The main reason resides behind the changing and uncertain nature of MANETs networks. Hence, a compensate evolving in the IDS would be converting the whole system to rely on uncertainty and indeterminacy concepts. These concepts are the main issues in the fuzzy system and consequently in neutrosophic system. In neutrosophic system, each attack is determined by membership, indeterminacy and nonmembership degrees. The main obstacle is that most data available are regular values which are not suitable for neutrosophic calculation. This paper is concerned by the preprocessing phase of the neutrosophic knowledge discovery system. Converting the regular data to neutrosophic values is a problem of generating the membership, nonmembership and indeterminacy functions for each variable in the system. Self-Organized Feature Maps (SOFM) are unsupervised artificial neural networks that were used to build fuzzy membership function, hence they could be utilized to define the neutrosophic variable as well.SOFMs capabilities to cluster inputs using self-adoption techniques have been utilized in generating neutrosophic functions for the subsets of the variables. The SOFM are used to define the membership,nonmembership and indeterminacy functions of the KDD network attacks data available in the UCI machine learning repository for further processing in knowledge discovery. Experimental results shows the features and their corresponding functions.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[19445] viXra:1707.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-19 06:40:54

A Generalized Similarity Measure {File Closing Version 2} ISSN 1751-3030

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research Technical Note the author has presented a novel method of finding a Generalized Similarity Measure between two Vectors or Matrices or Higher Dimensional Data of different sizes.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[19444] viXra:1707.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-18 11:42:17

Spintronics Material for Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Scientists have recently created a new spintronics material called bismuthene, which has similar properties to that of graphene. [16] The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19443] viXra:1707.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-18 12:18:47

How to Determine a Jump in Energy Prior to a Causal Barrier, with an Attendant Current, for an Effective Initial Magnetic Field. in the Pre Planckian to Planckian Space-Time

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: follow up of previous document. As cited in the first 2 pages of this new document.

Using Noethers theorem, with caveats, in order to form a magnetic field current, at the start of cosmological evolution.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[19442] viXra:1707.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-18 12:52:38

Numerical Calculation of the Rainich Space in the Vicinity of a Singularty

Authors: Ulrich E. Bruchholz, Horst Eckardt
Comments: 19 Pages.

The well known numerical method of approximating differential quotients by quotients of differences is used in a novel context. This method is commonly underestimated, wrongly. The method is explained by an ordinary differential equation first. Then it is demonstrated how this simple method proves successful for non-linear field equations with chaotic behaviour. Using certain discrete values of their integration constants, a behaviour comparable with Mandelbrot sets is obtained. Instead of solving the differential equations directly, their convergence behaviour is analyzed. As an example the Einstein-Maxwell equations are investigated, where discrete particle quantities are obtained from a continuous theory, which is possible only by this method. The special set of integration constants contains values identical with particle characteristics. Known particle values are confirmed, and unknown values can be predicted. In this paper, supposed neutrino masses are presented.
Category: Geometry

[19441] viXra:1707.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-18 07:39:53

Early Smoothness and Expansion/Contraction of the Earth

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 illustration

In Earth’s earlier history when it had an extremely thick atmosphere, on par with atmospheres thicker than Jupiter’s, the central core was very, very pressurized and essentially liquid. This means it was extremely comparatively smooth to Earth as it currently is with mountains and ocean trenches. A short explanation for how the transition to its varying surface from being at an initial smooth state is provided.
Category: Geophysics

[19440] viXra:1707.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-18 07:46:50

A Neutrosophic Image Retrieval Classifier

Authors: A. A. Salama, Mohamed Eisa, A. E. Fawzy
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper, we propose a two-phase Content-Based Retrieval System for images embedded in the Neutrosophic domain. In this first phase, we extract a set of features to represent the content of each image in the training database. In the second phase, a similarity measurement is used to determine the distance between the image under consideration (query image), and each image in the training database, using their feature vectors constructed in the first phase. Hence, the N most similar images are retrieved.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[19439] viXra:1707.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-18 08:02:22

Neutrosophic Crisp Mathematical Morphology

Authors: Eman.M.El-Nakeeb, Hewayda ElGhawalby, A.A.Salama, S.A.El-Hafeez
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this paper, we aim to apply the concepts of the neutrosophic crisp sets and its operations to the classical mathematical morphological operations, introducing what we call "Neutrosophic Crisp Mathematical Morphology". Several operators are to be developed, including the neutrosophic crisp dilation, the neutrosophic crisp erosion, the neutrosophic crisp opening and the neutrosophic crisp closing.Moreover, we extend the definition of some morphological filters using the neutrosophic crisp sets concept. For instance, we introduce the neutrosophic crisp boundary extraction, the neutrosophic crisp Top-hat and the neutrosophic crisp Bottom- hat filters.The idea behind the new introduced operators and filters is to act on the image in the neutrosophic crisp domain instead of the spatial domain.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[19438] viXra:1707.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-18 10:45:10

Quantum Particle Travels Backwards

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Mathematicians at the Universities of York, Munich and Cardiff have identified a unique property of quantum mechanical particles – they can move in the opposite way to the direction in which they are being pushed. [11] For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated the violation of "bilocal causality"—a concept that is related to the more standard local causality, except that it accounts for the precise way in which physical systems are initially generated. The results show that it's possible to violate local causality in an entirely new and more general way, which could lead to a potential new resource for quantum technologies. [10] The microscopic world is governed by the rules of quantum mechanics, where the properties of a particle can be completely undetermined and yet strongly correlated with those of other particles. Physicists from the University of Basel have observed these so-called Bell correlations for the first time between hundreds of atoms. [9] For the past 100 years, physicists have been studying the weird features of quantum physics, and now they're trying to put these features to good use. One prominent example is that quantum superposition (also known as quantum coherence)—which is the property that allows an object to be in two states at the same time—has been identified as a useful resource for quantum communication technologies. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19437] viXra:1707.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-18 05:05:19

Negative Temperature & Einstein's Relativity Produce Immortality & Resurrection

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 4 Pages.

This article may appear highly speculative at first glance. But it's evidence-based since Relativity (vital to the concept of resurrection) has successfully met all challenges during the past century. The immortality and negative temperature parts are based on much more recent science papers, but those papers are based on the thermodynamics which originated in the 19th century - modern labs confirm its ideas and are discovering more applications. I hope readers can appreciate that the evidence pointing to immortality and resurrection does not need to be limited to medicine, but can be interdisciplinary and embrace physics. Albert Einstein (1879-1955), one of the greatest physicists of all time, said he regretted not making a bigger contribution to medical science. Perhaps the time has arrived when the world will finally understand and appreciate this man more completely ... by realising that his physics will one day have applications in fields like resurrection of the deceased and normalisation of health through the universal gravitational field. The 2013 physics paper "Negative Absolute Temperature for Motional Degrees of Freedom" (Braun, S. et al.: "Science" journal, Volume 339, Issue 6115, pp. 52–55 [2013]) adds the topic of immortality by speaking of negative temperatures below absolute zero. Traditionally, going below absolute zero has been regarded as impossible since this is the temperature at which all atomic motion ceases. However, the authors of the 2013 paper maintain it's possible because a more rigorous definition of temperature is "a trade-off between energy and entropy (disorder)". The first sentence in the Abstract of the 2016 paper "Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures" by J.P.P. Vieira, Christian T. Byrnes and Antony Lewis - Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Volume 2016, August 2016 (reference 2) says, "Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions)."
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[19436] viXra:1707.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-18 05:55:50

Lightest Supersymmetric Particle is a Self-Conjugated Neutral Electron

Authors: Antonio Puccini
Comments: 10 Pages.

Analyzing the neutron decay, or beta-decay (Bd), our calculations and evaluations show that the 3rd particle emitted with the Bd (required by Pauli and Fermi to compensate for a noticeable energy gap) can be identified in an electron free of electric charge, that is a neutral electron: e° (instead of a neutrino). In the various Supersymmetric Models, there is the existence of a particle with a limited mass, which can never collapse in a lighter particle: the so-called Lightest Supersymmetric Particle (LSP). To date, this LSP has never been detected in any experiment. Examining the potential properties attributed to that particle in the various Supersymmetric Models, it seems to see a close analogy with features likely to be related to e°. Indeed, from a more in-depth examination, it appears that the properties of the two considered particles are completely superimposable, as if the two particles could be interchangeable, that is, identifiable in one another. It seems interesting to note that in our model we give particular attention to the fundamental property attributable both to the LSP and to the e°, i.e. the symmetry (represented by C, or charge conjugation), detectable by: ē°=C(e°)=e°
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[19435] viXra:1707.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-17 13:20:25

The Folium of Descartes

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this note we briefly examine the curve: x^3+y^3=sqrt(2)*x*y
Category: Geometry

[19434] viXra:1707.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-17 13:26:16

Ramanujan Trigonometric Formula

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 16 Pages.

This note presents formulas and fractals related with Ramanujan's trigonometric formula.
Category: Number Theory

[19433] viXra:1707.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-17 14:34:07

François Mendzina Essomba pi-3.14 Formulas

Authors: François Mendzina Essomba
Comments: 5 Pages.

I present in this article some of my many formulas discovered on pi
Category: Number Theory

[19432] viXra:1707.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-17 22:43:49

Upper Bound of Prime Gaps, Lengendre's Conjecture Was Verified (I)

Authors: Quang Nguyen Van
Comments: 3 Pages.

We have found the possible max- difference between two successive prime numbers, and by them, Lengendre's conjecture is verified.
Category: Number Theory

[19431] viXra:1707.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-17 11:00:59

Galaxy Rotation Curves: is there a Need for Dark Matter?

Authors: S.M.Hosseini, M.I.Kendrick
Comments: 4 Pages.

Galaxy rotation curves: is there a need for Dark Matter? Abstract In this paper a new approach to the Galaxy rotation curves has produced two values, one for the expansion of space or opening of space that gives a value three times as large as the actual rotation curves of the galaxy due to the real recession red-shift of the galaxy, see paper on: Hubble constant and the age of the Universe by the same authors[1]. The apparent red-shift will indicate that the values of the rotation velocities are three times the actual values, which in turn makes the mass of the galaxy nine times larger than the actual mass compare with the luminosity mass ratio and therefore indicating nearly an order of magnitude larger mass for the host galaxy of which about 90% of Dark Matter inferred in the host galaxy. Furthermore the values of the rotation curve in our own Milky-Way galaxy needs adjustments due to the nature of the aether or photon background in the galaxy. The background photons in our galaxy are of the shorter wavelengths near the center of the galaxy and longer wavelengths in the outskirt of the galaxy or the dark halo, see paper on: Wave particle and luminiferous aether trinity of the light[2]. The size of the galactic photon background will influence our velocity measurements.
Category: Astrophysics

[19430] viXra:1707.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-17 12:43:41

Entanglement in a 2-D Quantum Material

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Now, scientists from EPFL and the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) have realized experimentally a new quantum many body state in a material. [19] Researchers have devised an improved method for checking whether two particles are entangled. [18] A group of researchers from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw has shed new light on the famous paradox of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen after 80 years. They created a multidimensional entangled state of a single photon and a trillion hot rubidium atoms, and stored this hybrid entanglement in the laboratory for several microseconds. [17] Members of the Faculty of Physics at the Lomonosov Moscow State University have elaborated a new technique for creating entangled photon states. [16] Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15] University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19429] viXra:1707.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-17 07:37:26

The Rock Cycle Versus Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

All phases of matter exist in stars as they cool and evolve. This means the rock cycle has a closed loop between solid/liquid material and does not give the complete picture of stellar evolution (planet formation), nor does it explain the structures found on the Earth such as a giant iron nickel/core, which comprises a much larger portion of the Earth than just a thin lithosphere.
Category: Geophysics

[19428] viXra:1707.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-17 08:09:39

Beyond the Standard Model

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Although the discovery of the Higgs boson by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations in 2012 completed the Standard Model, many mysteries remain unexplained. For instance, why is the mass of the Higgs boson so much lighter than expected, and why is gravity so weak? [9] Last week, the detectors of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) witnessed their first collisions of 2017. [8] As physicists were testing the repairs of LHC by zipping a few spare protons around the 17 mile loop, the CMS detector picked up something unusual. The team feverishly pored over the data, and ultimately came to an unlikely conclusion—in their tests, they had accidentally created a rainbow universe. [7] The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[19427] viXra:1707.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-17 09:01:25

Important Spintronic Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[19426] viXra:1707.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-17 09:48:09

Monitor Earth's Rotation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Thanks to an innovative ring laser design, geophysicists at LMU can now measure and monitor Earth's rotation with unprecedented accuracy. [27] Spiral galaxies are found to be strongly rotating, with an angular momentum higher by a factor of about five than ellipticals. [26] Throughout the universe, supersonic shock waves propel cosmic rays and supernova particles to velocities near the speed of light. [25] A team of astronomers from the Inter University Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics (IUCAA), and Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), both in Pune, India, and members of two other Indian universities, have identified a previously unknown, extremely large supercluster of galaxies located in the direction of constellation Pisces. [24] Enigmatic 'dark energy', thought to make up 68% of the universe, may not exist at all, according to a Hungarian-American team. [23] Astronomers in the US are setting up an experiment which, if it fails – as others have – could mark the end of a 30-year-old theory. [22] Russian scientists have discovered that the proportion of unstable particles in the composition of dark matter in the days immediately following the Big Bang was no more than 2 percent to 5 percent. Their study has been published in Physical Review D. [21] Researchers from the University of Amsterdam's (UvA) GRAPPA Center of Excellence have just published the most precise analysis of the fluctuations in the gamma-ray background to date. [20] The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, called DESI, has an ambitious goal: to scan more than 35 million galaxies in the night sky to track the expansion of our universe and the growth of its large-scale structure over the last 10 billion years. [19] If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17]
Category: Astrophysics

[19425] viXra:1707.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-17 05:49:20

A Generalized Similarity Measure ISSN 1751-3030

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research Technical Note the author has presented a novel method of finding a Generalized Similarity Measure between two Vectors or Matrices or Higher Dimensional Data of different sizes.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[19424] viXra:1707.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-16 14:38:26

Entanglement

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 2 Pages.

Physicists claimed that an exchange in information between two photons was instant, but I think that the conclusion of an entangled state was a fallacy. The physicists compared the time that they needed for their meassurement to the time that an exchange in information over a distance of 1.3 kilometers would require, they claimed that there wasn't enough time for an exchange in information over that distance within the time period of their meassurement. So they concluded that it was instant, but I think that they were wrong. Those physicists don't realize that there is another option, that time doesn't apply to an exchange in information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19423] viXra:1707.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-16 14:46:05

Microscopic Theory of Gravitation

Authors: Baihua Qi, Tian Qi
Comments: 5 Pages.

The source of gravitation may come from the virtual electron-positron pairs generated by vacuum polarization and the force carrier particles would be pairs of virtual photons generated by the virtual electron-positron pair that travels in unison, and the origin of gravitation would be electron-positron pair that exchanges virtual photons. Based on this assumption, we establish a theory to describe gravitation. We discuss Barnett effect
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19422] viXra:1707.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-16 19:44:28

The Electrostatic Force

Authors: Preston Guynn
Comments: 7 Pages.

In our previous paper, 'Electromagnetic Effects and Structure of Particles due to Special Relativity', we proved that electromagnetic effects are due to special relativity. We also proved that particle structure is due to special relativity and derived the structure of electron and proton. In addition, we developed a framework for interaction between charged particles and photons. In this paper we extend that work with additional insights into the electrostatic force.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[19421] viXra:1707.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-17 01:39:20

Dialogues Between Two Universes

Authors: Bandaru Ramu
Comments: 10 Pages.

I. Accelerating aspects can follow General relativity? II. Dialogues between : 1.Acceleration by dark energy and Acceleration by gravitation 2. Expanding Universe and Rotating Universe 3. Finite space and infinite space
Category: Astrophysics

[19420] viXra:1707.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-17 01:50:21

Multi Class Classification Using Holistic Non-Unique Clustering {File Closing Version 8}. ISSN 1751-3030

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this research Technical Note the author has presented a novel method to find all Possible Clusters given a set of M points in N Space.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[19419] viXra:1707.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-17 03:41:21

Quantum Gravity Examples in Space Observed Between Different Nebula (B 1509 and the Helix).

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 24 Pages.

According to Function Follows Form (FFF) Theory, Hawking black hole should be interpreted differently. The new (FFF) black hole says that the BH nucleus is a bunch of rigid string particles compressed by the oscillating vacuum particles. All Fermions should be repelled at a new physics BH repelling horizon which has supposed to have two globular shells of positive or negative charge! As a result, each black hole is assumed to have a globular shell of positron and proton based plasma at the inside and a negative electron based plasma shell outside this positive shell. If we include existence of small interference black holes (or Quantum Knots) then Ball lightning and micro comets ( including Comets and sunspots) are to be explained as micro black holes violating the second law of thermodynamics. The form and microstructure of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of functional differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon and Fermion particles. As a consequence of the quantum gravity difference on fermions and black hole nuclei, the new splitting, accelerating and pairing massless black hole, is able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease. This explains quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprites and Elves, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning according to quantum.
Category: Astrophysics

[19418] viXra:1707.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-16 07:10:07

Doppler Effect and Aberration in my New Relativistic Space-Time Theory

Authors: A.V. Mamaev
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this article using Einstein’s method from his known 1905 year article the formulas for the Dopler effect and aberration valid in my new relativistic space-time theory are derived. Key words: relativity, Doppler effect, aberration
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19417] viXra:1707.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-16 08:27:03

DNA Mini-Machines Store Information

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Biomedical engineers have built simple machines out of DNA, consisting of arrays whose units switch reversibly between two different shapes. [15] Scientists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have succeeded at measuring these forces for the very first time on the level of single base pairs. This new knowledge could help to construct precise molecular machines out of DNA. The researchers published their findings in the journal Science. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[19416] viXra:1707.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-16 09:21:39

Spinors with Deformed Lorentz Transformations

Authors: Clemens Heuson
Comments: 6 Pages.

In deformed special relativity with commuting coordinates transforming according special relativity and deformed plane waves the field equations and interactions in coordinate space remain unchanged. However in momentum space Lorentz transformations of spinors, the Dirac equation and helicity spinors are modified. The calculation of some simple tree level scattering amplitudes is discussed.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[19415] viXra:1707.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-16 10:14:11

Proof of ZFC Axioms as Normal Statements No. 2.2

Authors: Thomas Limberg
Comments: 6 Pages. Language: German

We interpret 5 of the 10 axioms of ZFC (Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory with axiom of choice) as normal statements and proof them. So these 5 sentences don't need to be introduced as axioms, but can be used as proven statements.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[19414] viXra:1707.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-16 10:14:52

Brain Training on Decision-Making

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

During the last decade, commercial brain-training programs have risen in popularity, offering people the hope of improving their cognitive abilities through the routine performance of various "brain games" that tap cognitive functions such as memory, attention and cognitive flexibility. [29] The human brain is smaller than most people imagine, it can be held in one hand and weighs about 3 pounds. However, the innocuous looking gray matter is infinitely complex and barely understood. But part of the challenge to understanding, despite the number of researchers, scientists, and doctors dedicated to its study, is that there is no central hub of information, mapping, or data gathering for brain research. Soon though, the Human Brain Project (HBP) hopes to change all that. [28] Many universities and institutes suggested that inside microtubules of brain cells, quantum vibrational computations were orchestrated. [27] New research proposes a way to test whether quantum entanglement is affected by consciousness. [26] Using atomic-scale quantum defects in diamonds known as nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers to detect the magnetic field generated by neural signals, scientists working in the lab of Ronald Walsworth, a faculty member in Harvard's Center for Brain Science and Physics Department, demonstrated a noninvasive technique that can image the activity of neurons. [25] Neuroscience and artificial intelligence experts from Rice University and Baylor College of Medicine have taken inspiration from the human brain in creating a new "deep learning" method that enables computers to learn about the visual world largely on their own, much as human babies do. [24]
Category: Mind Science

[19413] viXra:1707.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-16 06:07:42

The First Big Question Facing Physics and Science

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show the viewpoint with regards to first big question facing physics and science.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[19412] viXra:1707.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-15 15:40:09

How to Prove that an Integer Number is Prime with the Factoriels.

Authors: Mendzina Essomba Francois
Comments: 1 Page.

How to prove that an integer number is prime with the factoriels. We give in this article which is not complete a property of the facoral which allows in an interval of given length to verify if the number is prime
Category: Number Theory

[19411] viXra:1707.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-15 19:08:22

The Role of Dialectical Forces in Quantum Physics and General Relativity

Authors: Tracy Klein
Comments: 9 Pages.

The following manuscript establishes the role of dialectical forces in our physical universe. The dialectical relationship links opposing theories of quantum mechanics and bridges the gap between quantum physics and general relativity.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[19410] viXra:1707.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-15 20:28:14

The Solar System Geometry (III)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 74 Pages.

Abstract The Total Solar Eclipse tells us… "The Earth orbital distance / Earth moon distance = the sun diameter / the moon diameter" No geometrical reason behind ! The solar planets creation theory tells us, a big star was following the sun, and exploded, from his material the solar planets were formed by the gravity … i.e. The Solar Planets were created Randomly, and so any relationship as the previous one must be found by "Pure Coincidence"! I suggest, alternative theory concerns the solar group creation…let's write it: -The solar planets were created Relating Geometrically to each other and Not Randomly. -The Matter in general is produced in pairs relating geometrically (or in some other features) and there's no any matter is found individually. -The solar group is one building, each planet is a component in this same building, that's why each planet has a geometrical relationship with one or more of other planets … -The sun is created related to the solar planets geometrically. To support my theory let's use Einstein Equation E=mc2 We consider Each Particle Mass & Energy is independent from any other Particle Mass & Energy… But let's suppose that, there's One General Energy (E), for the whole universe. So the universe will be as a puppets theater, the puppets are the masses but all of them are connected together in the General Energy i.e. Each Planet (Particle) Energy Is Created Connected To This General Energy, And So They Are Connected & Related Geometrically To Each Other…. that's what my theory suggests
Category: Astrophysics

[19409] viXra:1707.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-15 12:13:56

The Grand Unification Scheme and Metaspace

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

Advance superstrings are consider incalculable particles. With this in mind a more refine definition of the grand unification and metaspace is presented.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[19408] viXra:1707.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-15 04:13:59

Galaxy Rotation Secrets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Spiral galaxies are found to be strongly rotating, with an angular momentum higher by a factor of about five than ellipticals. [26] Throughout the universe, supersonic shock waves propel cosmic rays and supernova particles to velocities near the speed of light. [25] A team of astronomers from the Inter University Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics (IUCAA), and Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), both in Pune, India, and members of two other Indian universities, have identified a previously unknown, extremely large supercluster of galaxies located in the direction of constellation Pisces. [24] Enigmatic 'dark energy', thought to make up 68% of the universe, may not exist at all, according to a Hungarian-American team. [23] Astronomers in the US are setting up an experiment which, if it fails – as others have – could mark the end of a 30-year-old theory. [22] Russian scientists have discovered that the proportion of unstable particles in the composition of dark matter in the days immediately following the Big Bang was no more than 2 percent to 5 percent. Their study has been published in Physical Review D. [21] Researchers from the University of Amsterdam’s (UvA) GRAPPA Center of Excellence have just published the most precise analysis of the fluctuations in the gamma-ray background to date. [20] The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, called DESI, has an ambitious goal: to scan more than 35 million galaxies in the night sky to track the expansion of our universe and the growth of its large-scale structure over the last 10 billion years. [19] If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun’s core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[19407] viXra:1707.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-15 05:03:42

Quantum Dot Position Determination

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Scientists from the Swiss Nanoscience Institute and the University of Basel have succeeded in coupling an extremely small quantum dot with 1,000 times larger trumpet-shaped nanowire. The movement of the nanowire can be detected with a sensitivity of 100 femtometers via the wavelength of the light emitted by the quantum dot. [18] The rapidly developing science and technology of graphene and atomically-thin materials has taken another step forward with new research from The University of Manchester. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19406] viXra:1707.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-15 07:55:46

Molecular Motor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

A team of scientists has used microwaves to unravel the exact structure of a tiny molecular motor. The nano-machine consists of just a single molecule, made up of 27 carbon and 20 hydrogen atoms (C27H20). [31] Skyrmions are swirling spin structures with spiral shapes described in 2009. They have attracted attention in academia as representing a possible basic unit of ultra-high-density next-generation memory devices due to their unique topological stability, small size, and efficient movement. [30] That could lead to new devices such as polariton transistors, Fei said. And that could one day lead to breakthroughs in photonic and quantum technologies. [29] The future of nano-electronics is here. A team of researchers from the Air Force Research Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines, and the Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois have developed a novel method for the synthesis of a composite material that has the potential of vastly improving the electronics used by the Air Force. [28] Physicists have theoretically shown that a superconducting current of electrons can be induced to flow by a new kind of transport mechanism: the potential flow of information. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[19405] viXra:1707.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-15 08:31:23

Carbon Quantum Effects

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Chemists at Ruhr-Universität Bochum have found evidence that carbon atoms cannot only behave like particles but also like waves. This quantum-mechanical property is well-known for light particles such as electrons or hydrogen atoms. [32] A team of scientists has used microwaves to unravel the exact structure of a tiny molecular motor. The nano-machine consists of just a single molecule, made up of 27 carbon and 20 hydrogen atoms (C27H20). [31] Skyrmions are swirling spin structures with spiral shapes described in 2009. They have attracted attention in academia as representing a possible basic unit of ultra-high-density next-generation memory devices due to their unique topological stability, small size, and efficient movement. [30] That could lead to new devices such as polariton transistors, Fei said. And that could one day lead to breakthroughs in photonic and quantum technologies. [29] The future of nano-electronics is here. A team of researchers from the Air Force Research Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines, and the Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois have developed a novel method for the synthesis of a composite material that has the potential of vastly improving the electronics used by the Air Force. [28] Physicists have theoretically shown that a superconducting current of electrons can be induced to flow by a new kind of transport mechanism: the potential flow of information. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19404] viXra:1707.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-15 09:08:58

Protein Engineering

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

The stage is set for a new era of data-driven protein molecular engineering as advances in DNA synthesis technology merge with improvements in computational design of new proteins. [15] Scientists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have succeeded at measuring these forces for the very first time on the level of single base pairs. This new knowledge could help to construct precise molecular machines out of DNA. The researchers published their findings in the journal Science. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[19403] viXra:1707.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 11:34:33

Astrophysical Shock Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Throughout the universe, supersonic shock waves propel cosmic rays and supernova particles to velocities near the speed of light. [25] A team of astronomers from the Inter University Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics (IUCAA), and Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), both in Pune, India, and members of two other Indian universities, have identified a previously unknown, extremely large supercluster of galaxies located in the direction of constellation Pisces. [24] Enigmatic 'dark energy', thought to make up 68% of the universe, may not exist at all, according to a Hungarian-American team. [23] Astronomers in the US are setting up an experiment which, if it fails – as others have – could mark the end of a 30-year-old theory. [22] Russian scientists have discovered that the proportion of unstable particles in the composition of dark matter in the days immediately following the Big Bang was no more than 2 percent to 5 percent. Their study has been published in Physical Review D. [21] Researchers from the University of Amsterdam's (UvA) GRAPPA Center of Excellence have just published the most precise analysis of the fluctuations in the gamma-ray background to date. [20] The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, called DESI, has an ambitious goal: to scan more than 35 million galaxies in the night sky to track the expansion of our universe and the growth of its large-scale structure over the last 10 billion years. [19] If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[19402] viXra:1707.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 12:10:20

Magnetic Domain Walls

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Materials Science and Engineering Ph.D. students Price Pellegren and Derek Lau, led by Assistant Research Professor of Materials Science & Engineering Vincent Sokalski, demonstrate that this stiffness is precisely what governs how the domain wall moves around in certain ultrathin magnets. [21] Liquid electrolytes are essential components in a variety of emerging energy technologies, including batteries, supercapacitors and solar-to-fuel devices. [20] Basic processes in chemistry and biology involve protons in a water environment. [19] Scientists from the QUEST Institute at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) have now presented a model system that allows the investigation of atomic-scale friction effects and friction dynamics that are similar to those taking place in proteins, DNA strands and other deformable nanocontacts. [18] New research could make lasers emitting a wide range of colors more accessible and open new applications from communications and sensing to displays. [17] A novel way to harness lasers and plasmas may give researchers new ways to explore outer space and to examine bugs, tumors and bones back on planet Earth. [16] A team of researchers at Harvard University has successfully cooled a three-atom molecule down to near absolute zero for the first time. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11]
Category: Condensed Matter

[19401] viXra:1707.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 07:21:23

Why Protein Fibers Form

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Alzheimer's disease results from a dysfunctional stacking of protein molecules that form long fibers inside brain cells. Similar stacking occurs in sickle-cell anemia and mad cow disease. [26] Japanese researchers from Osaka University have uncovered a way in which our cells regulate the repair of broken DNA. [25] Scientists at the University of York have used florescent proteins from jellyfish to help shed new light on how DNA replicates. [24] When the molecules that carry the genetic code in our cells are exposed to harm, they have defenses against potential breakage and mutations. [23] A Harvard researcher seeking a model for the earliest cells has created a system that self-assembles from a chemical soup into cell-like structures that grow, move in response to light, replicate when destroyed, and exhibit signs of rudimentary evolutionary selection. [22] New research led by Harvard Medical School reveals a critical step in a molecular chain of events that allows cells to mend broken DNA. [21] Now, Barton's lab has shown that this wire-like property of DNA is also involved in a different critical cellular function: replicating DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16]
Category: Physics of Biology

[19400] viXra:1707.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 07:42:01

Determining the Ages of Stars Using Isotropic Abundances According to Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 illustrative graph

In stellar metamorphosis stars in different stages to their evolution are present in the solar system. They are all mutually exclusive objects not related to the Sun, therefore should all have different isotropic abundances of essentially all elements. Since oxygen has three isotopes that are stable, O-16, O-17 and O-18 then we can use their ratios to determine how old a star is, based off simple processes that occur in stellar evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[19399] viXra:1707.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 07:48:59

Liquid Electrolytes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Liquid electrolytes are essential components in a variety of emerging energy technologies, including batteries, supercapacitors and solar-to-fuel devices. [20] Basic processes in chemistry and biology involve protons in a water environment. [19] Scientists from the QUEST Institute at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) have now presented a model system that allows the investigation of atomic-scale friction effects and friction dynamics that are similar to those taking place in proteins, DNA strands and other deformable nanocontacts. [18] New research could make lasers emitting a wide range of colors more accessible and open new applications from communications and sensing to displays. [17] A novel way to harness lasers and plasmas may give researchers new ways to explore outer space and to examine bugs, tumors and bones back on planet Earth. [16] A team of researchers at Harvard University has successfully cooled a three-atom molecule down to near absolute zero for the first time. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11]
Category: Condensed Matter

[19398] viXra:1707.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 08:14:11

Large-Scale Structures in the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

A team of astronomers from the Inter University Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics (IUCAA), and Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), both in Pune, India, and members of two other Indian universities, have identified a previously unknown, extremely large supercluster of galaxies located in the direction of constellation Pisces. [24] Enigmatic 'dark energy', thought to make up 68% of the universe, may not exist at all, according to a Hungarian-American team. [23] Astronomers in the US are setting up an experiment which, if it fails – as others have – could mark the end of a 30-year-old theory. [22] Russian scientists have discovered that the proportion of unstable particles in the composition of dark matter in the days immediately following the Big Bang was no more than 2 percent to 5 percent. Their study has been published in Physical Review D. [21] Researchers from the University of Amsterdam’s (UvA) GRAPPA Center of Excellence have just published the most precise analysis of the fluctuations in the gamma-ray background to date. [20] The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, called DESI, has an ambitious goal: to scan more than 35 million galaxies in the night sky to track the expansion of our universe and the growth of its large-scale structure over the last 10 billion years. [19] If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun’s core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[19397] viXra:1707.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 10:58:21

Reflective Nanostructures

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[19396] viXra:1707.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 04:54:54

Laser-Cooled Ions Friction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Scientists from the QUEST Institute at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) have now presented a model system that allows the investigation of atomic-scale friction effects and friction dynamics that are similar to those taking place in proteins, DNA strands and other deformable nanocontacts. [18] New research could make lasers emitting a wide range of colors more accessible and open new applications from communications and sensing to displays. [17] A novel way to harness lasers and plasmas may give researchers new ways to explore outer space and to examine bugs, tumors and bones back on planet Earth. [16] A team of researchers at Harvard University has successfully cooled a three-atom molecule down to near absolute zero for the first time. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19395] viXra:1707.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 04:55:42

Multi Class Classification Using Holistic Non-Unique Clustering ISSN 1751-3030

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 1 Page.

In this research technical Note the author have presented a novel method to find all Possible Clusters given a set of M points in N Space.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[19394] viXra:1707.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 05:22:43

Proton Hydration

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Basic processes in chemistry and biology involve protons in a water environment. [19] Scientists from the QUEST Institute at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) have now presented a model system that allows the investigation of atomic-scale friction effects and friction dynamics that are similar to those taking place in proteins, DNA strands and other deformable nanocontacts. [18] New research could make lasers emitting a wide range of colors more accessible and open new applications from communications and sensing to displays. [17] A novel way to harness lasers and plasmas may give researchers new ways to explore outer space and to examine bugs, tumors and bones back on planet Earth. [16] A team of researchers at Harvard University has successfully cooled a three-atom molecule down to near absolute zero for the first time. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10]
Category: Condensed Matter

[19393] viXra:1707.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 05:30:10

Multi Class Classification Using Holistic Non-Unique Clustering. {File Closing Version 7} ISSN 1751-3030

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 1 Page.

In this research technical Note the author have presented a novel method to find all Possible Clusters given a set of M points in N Space.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[19392] viXra:1707.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 05:44:03

Controlling Heat and Particle Currents

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[19391] viXra:1707.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 06:53:48

Quantum Oscillations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

The rapidly developing science and technology of graphene and atomically-thin materials has taken another step forward with new research from The University of Manchester. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[19390] viXra:1707.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 03:38:22

Mathematical Origins of Comparative Nonequivalence in Physics

Authors: Paris Samuel Miles-Brenden
Comments: 10 Pages. The laws of physics in their abstraction are blind to the world.

The laws of physics in their abstraction are blind to the world.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[19389] viXra:1707.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 13:15:43

Watch Molecular Dynamics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Researchers have developed a fast and practical molecular-scale imaging technique that could let scientists view never-before-seen dynamics of biological processes involved in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. [26] A research team led by Professor YongKeun Park of the Physics Department at KAIST has developed an optical manipulation technique that can freely control the position, orientation, and shape of microscopic samples having complex shapes. [25] Rutgers researchers have developed a new way to analyze hundreds of thousands of cells at once, which could lead to faster and more accurate diagnoses of illnesses, including tuberculosis and cancers. [24] An international team including researchers from MIPT has shown that iodide phasing—a long-established technique in structural biology—is universally applicable to membrane protein structure determination. [23] Scientists in Greece have devised a new form of biometric identification that relies on humans' ability to see flashes of light containing just a handful of photons. [22] A research team led by Professor CheolGi Kim has developed a biosensor platform using magnetic patterns resembling a spider web with detection capability 20 times faster than existing biosensors. [21] Researchers at Columbia University have made a significant step toward breaking the so-called "color barrier" of light microscopy for biological systems, allowing for much more comprehensive, system-wide labeling and imaging of a greater number of biomolecules in living cells and tissues than is currently attainable. [20] Scientists around the Nobel laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now achieved what was for a long time considered impossible – they have developed a new fluorescence microscope, called MINFLUX, allowing, for the first time, to optically separate molecules, which are only nanometers (one millionth of a millimeter) apart from each other. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18]
Category: Physics of Biology

[19388] viXra:1707.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 13:33:10

Veblen's Identities, Maxwell's Equations and Weyl's Unified Field Theory

Authors: William O. Straub
Comments: 3 Pages.

An intriguing connection between some work of Oswald Veblen with that of Hermann Weyl is presented.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[19387] viXra:1707.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 13:44:51

Control and Measure Electron Spin Voltage

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Information technologies of the future will likely use electron spin—rather than electron charge—to carry information. But first, scientists need to better understand how to control spin and learn to build the spin equivalent of electronic components, from spin transistors, to spin gates and circuits. [28] In the quest to make computers faster and more efficient, researchers have been exploring the field of spintronics—shorthand for spin electronics—in hopes of controlling the natural spin of the electron to the benefit of electronic devices. [27] When two researchers from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) announced in April that they had successfully simulated a 45-qubit quantum circuit, the science community took notice: it was the largest ever simulation of a quantum computer, and another step closer to simulating "quantum supremacy"—the point at which quantum computers become more powerful than ordinary computers. [26] Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania, in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College, have discovered a new topological material which may enable fault-tolerant quantum computing. [25] The central idea of TQC is to encode qubits into states of topological phases of matter (see Collection on Topological Phases). [24] One promising approach to building them involves harnessing nanometer-scale atomic defects in diamond materials. [23] Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22] Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[19386] viXra:1707.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 07:28:41

Smart Atomic Cloud

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Copenhagen have developed a hands-on answer to a challenge linked to Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle. [18] ICFO Researchers report the discovery of a new technique that could drastically improve the sensitivity of instruments such as magnetic resonance imagers (MRIs) and atomic clocks. [17] Research groups at Aalto University and the University of Jyväskylä have demonstrated a new microwave measurement method that goes to the quantum limit of measurement and beats it. [16] New method allows for quick, precise measurement of quantum states. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19385] viXra:1707.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 08:03:22

Demonstration of Existence of Superlight Speeds

Authors: A.V. Mamaev
Comments: 7 Pages.

This paper introduces an idea of experimental demonstration of electrons superluminal speed existence or non-existence in vacuum of near-Earth space of Universe. As according to Einstein’s special relativity theory superlight speeds of both particles having non-zero rest mass and particles with zero rest mass are forbidden, such an experiment will either confirm Einstein’s special relativity theory in the part of absence in Nature of superlight speeds of any particles or disprove Einstein’s theory clearly, crudely and seeably.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19384] viXra:1707.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 08:16:47

Multiplying Black Holes by Chopping Them Into Equal Halves for Complex Galaxy and Star Evolution.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 18 Pages.

Complex galaxy / star evolution seems to be not only created by galaxy or star merging, but even by central galaxy- and stellar mass black hole chopping into two equal parts to form black hole based Hotspots called Herbig Haro systems or Double Radio Galaxies. This process is supposed to be the consequence of the new physics Electric Dark Matter Black Hole (EDM-BH) principle of Quantum FFF Theory ( Function Follows Forms) and supported by observation of Triple Double Radio Galaxies and even by BH splitting in the Spire Eagle nebula..
Category: Astrophysics

[19383] viXra:1707.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 08:57:00

The Hypergeometrical Universe: Cosmogenesis, Cosmology and Standard Model

Authors: Marco Pereira
Comments: 79 Pages.

This paper presents a simple and purely geometrical Grand Unification Theory. Quantum Gravity, Electrostatic and Magnetic interactions are shown in a unified framework. Newton's Gravitational Law, Gauss' Electrostatics Law and Biot-Savart's Electromagnetism Law are derived from first principles. Gravitational Lensing and Mercury Perihelion Precession are replicated within the theory. Unification symmetry is defined for all the existing forces. This alternative model does not require Strong and Electroweak forces. A 4D Shock-Wave Hyperspherical topology is proposed for the Universe which together with a Quantum Lagrangian Principle and a Dilator based model for matter result in a quantized stepwise expansion for the whole Universe along a radial direction within a 4D spatial manifold. The Hypergeometrical Standard Model for matter, Universe Topology and a new Law of Gravitation are presented. Newton's and Einstein's Laws of Gravitation and Dynamics, Gauss Law of Electrostatics among others are challenged when HU presents Type 1A Supernova Survey results. HU's SN1a results challenge current Cosmological Standard Model (L-CDM) by challenging its Cosmological Ruler d(z). SDSS BOSS dataset is shown to support a new Cosmogenesis theory and HU proposal that we are embedded in a 5D Spacetime. The Big Bang Theory is shown to be challenged by SDSS BOSS dataset. Hyperspherical Acoustic Oscillations are demonstrated in the SDSS BOSS Galaxy density. A New de-Broglie Force is proposed.
Category: Astrophysics

[19382] viXra:1707.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 09:07:27

Atomic Cousins Team Up

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Large-scale quantum computers, which are an active pursuit of many university labs and tech giants, remain years away. But that hasn't stopped some scientists from thinking ahead, to a time when quantum computers might be linked together in a network or a single quantum computer might be split up across many interconnected nodes. [26] Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania, in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College, have discovered a new topological material which may enable fault-tolerant quantum computing. [25] The central idea of TQC is to encode qubits into states of topological phases of matter (see Collection on Topological Phases). [24] One promising approach to building them involves harnessing nanometer-scale atomic defects in diamond materials. [23] Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22] Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[19381] viXra:1707.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 10:22:39

Explanation of the Nature of Negative, Dark Energy, and Dark Matter.

Authors: Richard Palkovac
Comments: 2 Pages.

Although contemporary cosmology and physics allow the mass to be pushed into the singularity (dimensionless point) in the center of black holes, it still doesn't understand that mass in such a state loses the quality of matter. Matter, being a substance and field, is the energy distributed in space. If we take away space from energy, it then changes to a different quality, to pure energy. Today it is often called the negative, dark energy, causing the expansion of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19380] viXra:1707.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 10:30:27

Universes in Other Dimensions.

Authors: Richard Palkovac
Comments: 2 Pages.

Can there be universes in dimensions other than those of our 3 (or 4 if we are talking about a time-space) ? When we want to talk about it, we must first make sure there is a logical reason for the existence of other dimensions.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19379] viXra:1707.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 06:44:47

Quantum Cooling Process

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

New research at the U of A is helping physicists better understand optomechanical cooling, a process that is expected to find applications in quantum technology. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19378] viXra:1707.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 07:24:00

Physicochemical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Characterization of Sodium Selenate Using XRD, PSD, DSC, TGA/DTG, UV-vis, and FT-IR

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 8 Pages.

Sodium selenate is an important inorganic compound but lacks reliable and accurate physico-chemical and spectral characterization information. The study was carried out for the in-depth physicochemical, thermal, and spectroscopic characterization of sodium selenate using various analytical techniques. The powder X-ray diffraction spectroscopy analysis showed well-defined and sharp peaks indicated sodium selenate is crystalline in nature. The crystallite size was found to be in the range of 28.75 to 49.97 nm. The average particle size was found to be of 3.93 (d10), 14.44 (d50), and 40.648 (d90) µm with an average surface area of 0.676 m2/g. The differential scanning calorimetry showed the endothermic inflation at 588.81 °C with the latent heat of fusion 103 J/g. The thermogravimetric analysis revealed two steps of the thermal degradation process. Similarly, the differential thermogravimetric analysis exhibited the major peaks in the thermogram and disclosed Tmax at 852.65 °C. The UV-visible spectrum showed maximum absorbance at 205.1 nm (λmax). The Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed a peak at 888 cm-1 due to the Se-O stretching. This information would be very much useful in the field of nutraceuticals/ pharmaceuticals and other industries using sodium selenate as an ingredient.
Category: Chemistry

[19377] viXra:1707.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 07:25:03

Effect of a Novel Ashwagandha-Based Herbomineral Formulation on Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Expression in Mouse Splenocyte Cells: a Potential Immunomodulator

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Background: Herbomineral formulations are momentous in an audience of worldwide by virtue of their holistic approach to life. These formulations are widely used as complementary therapies in immunocompromised patients including cancer. Still, there is the need of cost-effective and safe herbomineral-based formulation that can modulate immune response by the regulation of cytokines cascades. Objective: Current study, we investigated immunomodulatory effect of TEBEH in LPS-induced cytokines expression levels in mouse splenocytes in vitro. Materials and Methods: The most effective and safe concentrations of TEBEH were chosen by determining the cell viability of splenocytes using MTT assay. The pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, MIP-1α, and IFN-γ were measured in cell supernatants using ELISA. Results: MTT data showed TEBEH formulation was found safe up to 10.53 µg/mL. At noncytotoxic concentrations (0.00001053–10.53 µg/mL), TEBEH significantly (P ≤ 0.001) inhibited the expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, and MIP-1α in mouse splenocytes as compared with vehicle control. Conclusion: In summary, TEBEH may indeed promote an anti-inflammatory environment by suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These observations indicated that TEBEH has potential effects in downregulating the immune system and might be developed as a useful anti-inflammatory product for various inflammatory disorders. Summary: The present study was undertaken to evaluate an immunomodulatory effect of the herbomineral formulation in LPS-induced mouse splenocytes with the measurement of cytokines expression such as TNF-α, IL-1β, MIP-1α and IFN-γ. The results showed that the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and MIP-1α was significantly down-regulated while, IFN-γ was significantly up-regulated in mouse splenocytes. It is hypothesized that modulation of the proinflammatory cytokines might occur via NF-kB pathway. Therefore, the herbomineral test formulation might act as an effective anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory product, and this can be used as a complementary and alternative treatment for the prevention of various types of inflammatory and auto-immune disorders.
Category: Chemistry

[19376] viXra:1707.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-12 20:58:33

14

Authors: Pan Zhang
Comments: 14 Pages.

Let $V$ be an asymptotically cylindrical K\"{a}hler manifold with asymptotic cross-section $\mathfrak{D}$. Let $E_\mathfrak{D}$ be a stable Higgs bundle over $\mathfrak{D}$, and $E$ a Higgs bundle over $V$ which is asymptotic to $E_\mathfrak{D}$. In this paper, using the continuity method of Uhlenbeck and Yau, we prove that there exists an asymptotically translation-invariant Hermitian projectively Hermitian Yang-Mills metric on $E$.
Category: Geometry

[19375] viXra:1707.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-12 21:06:31

Explaining Two Major Jet Propulsion Lab Mysteries Concerning Planet Formation and Star Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 picture, 1 internet link

Two major mysteries are still prevalent according to scientists at Jet Propulsion Laboratories. The first mystery is how micron sized dust particles can clump together into kilometer sized planetesimals. The second mystery is why the oxygen-16 is higher in abundance and nitrogen-15 is in lower comparable abundance in solar wind measurements. In short, the extent and origin of isotopic variations in all samples of solar system objects can be attributable to one factor, which can also explain how micron sized objects become 1 kilometer sized ones during planet formation. Both mysteries are solved with one simple realization, or “aha!” moment.
Category: Astrophysics

[19374] viXra:1707.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 01:20:46

Modification To The Scaling Aspect In Gower’s Scheme Of Calculating Similarity Coefficient

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 1 Page.

In this research technical Note the author have presented a tiny modification to the Numeric Variables Scaling Aspect In Gower’s Scheme of calculating Similarity Coefficient.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[19373] viXra:1707.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 02:34:27

Recursive Future Average Of A Time Series Data Based On Cosine Similarity

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research Technical Note the author have presented a Recursive Future Average Of A Time Series Data Based on Cosine Similarity.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[19372] viXra:1707.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 03:54:39

Uncertainty and the Lonely Runner Conjecture

Authors: John Atwell Moody
Comments: 8 Pages.

By convolving the distribution of one of the non-chosen runners with a step function (to introduce some uncertainty in its start time) we arrange that the mutual expectation reverts to the continuous extension of its value in the transcendental case.
Category: Number Theory

[19371] viXra:1707.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-12 07:20:28

Skyrmion Physics Driven by Magnons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

The magnetic skyrmion is a current hot topic in condensed matter physics, as it is a promising candidate as information carrier for building novel memory and logic computing devices. [32] Measurements at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering have helped clarify the arrangement of magnetic vortices, known as skyrmions, in manganese silicide (MnSi). [31] Skyrmions are swirling spin structures with spiral shapes described in 2009. They have attracted attention in academia as representing a possible basic unit of ultra-high-density next-generation memory devices due to their unique topological stability, small size, and efficient movement. [30] That could lead to new devices such as polariton transistors, Fei said. And that could one day lead to breakthroughs in photonic and quantum technologies. [29] The future of nano-electronics is here. A team of researchers from the Air Force Research Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines, and the Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois have developed a novel method for the synthesis of a composite material that has the potential of vastly improving the electronics used by the Air Force. [28] Physicists have theoretically shown that a superconducting current of electrons can be induced to flow by a new kind of transport mechanism: the potential flow of information. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[19370] viXra:1707.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-12 07:32:30

A Simple Proof of the Last Fermat Theorem (RUSSIAN Version)

Authors: Victor Sorokine
Comments: 4 Pages.

The proof of Fermat's last theorem for the base case / Доказательство ВТФ для базового случая ABSTRACT The essence of the proof: From the known properties of the Fermat’s equality An+Bn=Cn follows: If the second digits of all the prime factors of the numbers A, B, and C are reduced to zero, then the new reduced numbers A°, B°, C° become /remain/ infinitely large. Суть доказательства: Из базового равенства Ферма An+Bn=Cn следует: Если вторые цифры всех простых сомножителей чисел А, В, С УМЕНЬШИТЬ до нуля, то новые уменьшенные числа А°, В°, С° становятся /остаются/ бесконечно большими. (See also http://vixra.org/abs/1707.0092)
Category: Number Theory

[19369] viXra:1707.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-12 07:47:58

Quantum Inverse Measurement Theory Contributing to the Birth of Interpretation System of Quantum Mechanics of Local-Realism and Determinism

Authors: Runsheng Tu
Comments: 61 Pages. This manuscript mainly investigated the interference-free measurements. The verification experiment of quantum inverse measurement is designed. The results show that A solid theoretical foundation has been laid for “correctly understanding the microscopic

The existing interpretation of quantum mechanics is contrary to common sense. The existing quantum mechanical interpretation schemes are puzzling. The confusing theory is unconvincing, and need to be amended and completed. The successful interpretation program of quantum mechanics of local-realism and determinism is undoubtedly the most attractive. Preparing the interpretation program deserves to be chosen as a research goal. It is a very good premise to believe that an object particle consist of light-knot of monochromatic waves. According to this premise, the erroneous recognition about "superposition principle, wave-particle duality and uncertainty principle" can be corrected. Under this premise, above research goal is achieved by establishing, applying quantum mechanics inverse measurement theory, adhering to the principle that there must be a complete empirical chain in the derivation process of experimental conclusion, and using the side effect caused by accompanying-light to explain the diffraction experiment of object particles. Electron secondarily diffraction and other experiments directly prove that there is the measurement (observation) which may not destroy quantum coherence. The diffraction experiments of all kinds of particles show that the Keeping and playing of the coherence of moving particles in the vacuum have nothing to do with their previous experience. These are the existing experiments, to be found, that support the theory of quantum inverse measurements. The verification experiment of quantum inverse measurement is designed. The absolute superiorities of quantum inverse measurement and the new view of measurement of quantum mechanics are listed.These superiorities are: that it has the characteristics of local-realism and determinism; it is not contrary to common sense and there is no confusing place; it can predict several phenomena that cannot be predicted by other theories. A solid theoretical foundation has been laid for “correctly understanding the microscopic world” and establishment of local realism quantum mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19368] viXra:1707.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-12 07:57:16

DNA Damage Repair

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Japanese researchers from Osaka University have uncovered a way in which our cells regulate the repair of broken DNA. [25] Scientists at the University of York have used florescent proteins from jellyfish to help shed new light on how DNA replicates. [24] When the molecules that carry the genetic code in our cells are exposed to harm, they have defenses against potential breakage and mutations. [23] A Harvard researcher seeking a model for the earliest cells has created a system that self-assembles from a chemical soup into cell-like structures that grow, move in response to light, replicate when destroyed, and exhibit signs of rudimentary evolutionary selection. [22] New research led by Harvard Medical School reveals a critical step in a molecular chain of events that allows cells to mend broken DNA. [21] Now, Barton's lab has shown that this wire-like property of DNA is also involved in a different critical cellular function: replicating DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17]
Category: Physics of Biology

[19367] viXra:1707.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-12 08:29:36

Molecules Breathe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Molecules Breathe Laser light excited an electron in the central iron atom (red). The electron transferred to one of the attached bipyridine structures, and then returned to the iron atom 100 femtoseconds later. [31] Skyrmions are swirling spin structures with spiral shapes described in 2009. They have attracted attention in academia as representing a possible basic unit of ultra-high-density next-generation memory devices due to their unique topological stability, small size, and efficient movement. [30] That could lead to new devices such as polariton transistors, Fei said. And that could one day lead to breakthroughs in photonic and quantum technologies. [29] The future of nano-electronics is here. A team of researchers from the Air Force Research Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines, and the Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois have developed a novel method for the synthesis of a composite material that has the potential of vastly improving the electronics used by the Air Force. [28] Physicists have theoretically shown that a superconducting current of electrons can be induced to flow by a new kind of transport mechanism: the potential flow of information. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19366] viXra:1707.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-12 07:04:22

The Covariance of the Wave Equation Does not Support the Constant Hypothesis of Light Speed

Authors: Xiao Jun
Comments: 5 Pages.

On the basis of Maxwell 's electromagnetic theory, the relationship between the speed of light and source is obtained for the first time according to the conclusion that the form of wave equation has nothing to do with the moving velocity of light source. Under the condition to do not make any amendments to the classical absolute space-time theory, all the current dynamic electromagnetic measurement results are easily explained by using this relationship.
Category: Classical Physics

[19365] viXra:1707.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 16:45:28

The Particle Model for the Higgs’ Condensate and the Anomalous Geometrical Diffraction

Authors: Jiri Soucek
Comments: 19 Pages.

In this paper we propose a particle model for the Higgs’ condensate: we propose that this condensate is the set of (infinite velocity) non-local tachyons. We show that then there exists the anomalous geometrical diffraction (which contradicts to quantum mechanics). We show that there exists a universal time constant which defines the limits of the validity of quantum mechanics. We propose an experiment testing the existence of the anomalous geometrical diffraction. We proposed the dark energy conjecture which enables to make an estimate of the time constant. We assume certain (“Feynman”) interaction between standard particle and the non-local tachyon. All this is related to the new (finite) form of the Feynman integral.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19364] viXra:1707.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 17:00:37

The Q-Universe: A Set Theoretic Construction

Authors: Wes Hansen
Comments: 100 Pages.

In an earlier paper, “Q-Naturals: A Counter-Example to Tennenbaum’s Theorem,” we developed a set of non-standard naturals called q-naturals and demonstrated a counter-example to Tennenbaum’s Theorem. In this paper we extend the q-naturals to the Q-Universe and explore the properties of the various subsets along the way. In the process of this development, we realize that the standard Universe and the Q-Universe are simply the zeroth-order and first-order Universes, respectively, in a countable subsumption hierarchy of recursive Universes; there exist countably many counter-examples to Tennenbaum’s Theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[19363] viXra:1707.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 18:24:29

The Surprising Proofs

Authors: Leszek Włodzimierz Guła
Comments: 7 Pages. In this work we have a new deductions.

The proof of the Fermat’s Last Theorem. The proof of the theorem - For all n∈{3,5,7,…} and for all z∈{3,7,11,…} and for all natural numbers u,υ: z^n≠u^2+υ^2. The proof of the Goldbach’s Conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[19362] viXra:1707.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-12 01:12:07

Theoretical Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

University have created the first general-purpose method for using machine learning to predict the properties of new metals, ceramics and other crystalline materials and to find new uses for existing materials, a discovery that could save countless hours wasted in the trial-and-error process of creating new and better materials. [28] As machine learning breakthroughs abound, researchers look to democratize benefits. [27] Machine-learning system spontaneously reproduces aspects of human neurology. [26] Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[19361] viXra:1707.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-12 01:25:24

Multi Class Classification Using Holistic Non-Unique Clustering

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research technical Note the author have presented a novel method to find all Possible Clusters given a set of M points in N Space.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[19360] viXra:1707.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-12 02:37:27

Photosynthesis Help Computer Technology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

"From new ways of capturing and storing the energy coming to us from the Sun, to developing new forms of computing technology, this research opens up some exciting new opportunities." [30] Jiang and his team created a way to measure and control the energy differences of electron valley states in silicon quantum dots, which are a key component of quantum computing research. [29] Now, researchers at Stanford University and MIT have built a new chip to overcome this hurdle. [28] In the quest to make computers faster and more efficient, researchers have been exploring the field of spintronics—shorthand for spin electronics—in hopes of controlling the natural spin of the electron to the benefit of electronic devices. [27] When two researchers from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) announced in April that they had successfully simulated a 45-qubit quantum circuit, the science community took notice: it was the largest ever simulation of a quantum computer, and another step closer to simulating "quantum supremacy"—the point at which quantum computers become more powerful than ordinary computers. [26] Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania, in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College, have discovered a new topological material which may enable fault-tolerant quantum computing. [25] The central idea of TQC is to encode qubits into states of topological phases of matter (see Collection on Topological Phases). [24] One promising approach to building them involves harnessing nanometer-scale atomic defects in diamond materials. [23] Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22] Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[19359] viXra:1707.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-12 03:52:25

Hints of TeV-Scale Black Holes

Authors: Bernard Riley
Comments: 8 Pages.

By application of the 10D/4D correspondence, the radii of nearby stars have been shown to map onto the masses of stable atomic nuclei. The correspondence is now used to calculate the mass m and radius r of the subatomic object that corresponds to a typical 1.4 solar mass neutron star. The mass m is found to be 4.0 TeV. Using natural units, r/m is precisely 2.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[19358] viXra:1707.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 12:04:39

What Went Wrong with the “interpretation” of Quantum Theory?

Authors: Robert H. McEachern
Comments: 41 Pages.

This slideshow is a preliminary account of how the misinterpretation of quantum theory originated.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19357] viXra:1707.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 12:35:27

Information Compression Via the Matching and Unification of Patterns as a Unifying Principle in the Workings of Brains and Nervous Systems

Authors: J Gerard Wolff
Comments: 38 Pages.

This paper presents evidence for the idea that much of the workings of brains and nervous systems may be understood as compression of information via the matching and unification of patterns. Information compression can mean selective advantage for any creature: in the efficient storage and transmission of information; and, owing to the close connection between information compression and concepts of prediction and probability, in the making of predictions about where food may be found, potential dangers, and so on. Several aspects of our everyday perceptions and thinking may be seen as information compression. For example, many words in natural languages may be seen as relatively short identifiers or ``codes'' for relatively complex concepts. When viewing the world with two eyes, we see one view, not two. Random-dot stereograms provide confirmation that, in binocular vision, we do indeed merge information from our two eyes and thus compress it. Information compression may be seen in the workings of sensory units in the eye of "Limulus", the horseshoe crab. Computer models demonstrate how information compression may be a key to the unsupervised discovery of grammars for natural language, including segmental structures (words and phrases), classes of structure, and abstract patterns. Information compression may be seen in the perceptual "constancies", including size constancy, lightness constancy, and colour constancy. Mathematics, which is a product of the human intellect, may be seen to be a set of techniques for the compression of information, and their application. The "SP theory of intelligence" provides evidence for the importance of information compression in several aspects of human intelligence. Four objections to the main thesis of this paper are described, with answers to those objections.
Category: Mind Science

[19356] viXra:1707.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 07:05:04

Interactions and Limiting Speed.

Authors: Elkin Igor Vladimirovich
Comments: 7 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

Relativistic physics is based on the principle of least action. Conclusions from the proposed theory give formulas that the electrical interaction makes responsible for the gravitational interaction, inertia and accelerated "expansion of the universe." The calculations are all extremely elementary and indisputable, since they use the conclusions of relativistic physics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19355] viXra:1707.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 07:18:06

Alternative Reflections on the "Speed of Gravity"

Authors: Johann Albers
Comments: 4 Pages.

The attractive force of gravity, according to Newton's law, enables the planet Earth to move on a planetary orbit around the Sun. The observed stability of Earth's orbital parameters obviously demands an instantaneous interaction along the line between the actual positions of both bodies. Especially on the basis of Special Relativity (STG), General Relativity (GTR), and a lot of experimental results, it is a commonly accepted result, that the speed of gravity, at which gravitational interactions propagate, is equal to c, the speed of light. This rather low speed, however, leads to aberration effects with an amount of 20 arcsec, which prevent a stable orbit. Newtonian Mechanics therefore prefer to assume an almost infinitely high value of the speed of gravity to solve this problem. Relativistic Mechanics seem to favor the existence of appropriate forces which are dictated by conservation laws and the quadrupole nature of gravitational radiation. The Alternative Reflections on Gravitation (ARG), however, let expect quite different results. In a Sun-Earth system the aberration is at least five orders of magnitude lower than expected from Newtonian Mechanics. In a Sun-satellite system the aberration is immeasurably small. This result may be compared to Newtonian and Relativistic Mechanics which also for this system let expect the same amount of aberration of 20 arcsec as for the Sun-Earth system.
Category: Astrophysics

[19354] viXra:1707.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 07:32:02

The Relation of Surface Temperature and Populations of Stars in Evolving Galaxies

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 diagram

A simple relation of stellar surface temperature and population counts of stars in evolving galaxies is provided. They are inversely proportional.
Category: Astrophysics

[19353] viXra:1707.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 07:52:28

Earth-to-Space Quantum Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Two teams of researchers in China have advanced the distance that entangled particles can be used to send information, including encryption keys. [20] Scientists at the University of York's Centre for Quantum Technology have made an important breakthrough in the theory of quantum secure communications. [19] How to reliably transfer quantum information when the connecting channels are impacted by detrimental noise? Scientists at the University of Innsbruck and TU Wien (Vienna) have presented new solutions to this problem. [18] Adding to strong recent demonstrations that particles of light perform what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance," in which two separated objects can have a connection that exceeds everyday experience, physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have confirmed that particles of matter can act really spooky too. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[19352] viXra:1707.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 08:12:37

Space Quantum Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

NICT developed the world's smallest and lightest quantum communication transmitter (SOTA) onboard the microsatellite SOCRATES. [21] Two teams of researchers in China have advanced the distance that entangled particles can be used to send information, including encryption keys. [20] Scientists at the University of York's Centre for Quantum Technology have made an important breakthrough in the theory of quantum secure communications. [19] How to reliably transfer quantum information when the connecting channels are impacted by detrimental noise? Scientists at the University of Innsbruck and TU Wien (Vienna) have presented new solutions to this problem. [18] Adding to strong recent demonstrations that particles of light perform what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance," in which two separated objects can have a connection that exceeds everyday experience, physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have confirmed that particles of matter can act really spooky too. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[19351] viXra:1707.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 08:27:57

On a Problem in Euler and Navier-Stokes Equations

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 27 Pages.

A study respect to a problem found in the equations of Euler and Navier-Stokes, whose adequate treatment solves a centennial problem about the solution of these equations and a most correct modeling of fluid movement.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[19350] viXra:1707.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 09:05:24

Biological Structure from Limited Data

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Understanding the 3D molecular structure of important nanoobjects like proteins and viruses is crucial in biology and medicine. [25] A quantum sensor developed by a team headed by Professor Jörg Wrachtrup at the University of Stuttgart and researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research in Stuttgart, now makes it possible to use nuclear magnetic resonance scanning to even investigate the structure of individual proteins atom by atom. [24] Scientists at the University of Nottingham are working with University College London (UCL) on a five year project which has the potential to revolutionise the world of human brain imaging. [23] Scientists in Greece have devised a new form of biometric identification that relies on humans' ability to see flashes of light containing just a handful of photons. [22] A research team led by Professor CheolGi Kim has developed a biosensor platform using magnetic patterns resembling a spider web with detection capability 20 times faster than existing biosensors. [21] Researchers at Columbia University have made a significant step toward breaking the so-called "color barrier" of light microscopy for biological systems, allowing for much more comprehensive, system-wide labeling and imaging of a greater number of biomolecules in living cells and tissues than is currently attainable. [20] Scientists around the Nobel laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now achieved what was for a long time considered impossible – they have developed a new fluorescence microscope, called MINFLUX, allowing, for the first time, to optically separate molecules, which are only nanometers (one millionth of a millimeter) apart from each other. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[19349] viXra:1707.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 09:17:53

Stationary Frame is the “denied” Absolute Rest

Authors: Mohammed Mezouar
Comments: 3 Pages.

Einstein’s relativism is not only “physical” but also philosophical because it forbids any concept leading to the idea of the absolute. But this phobia is translated into flight forward without giving decisive answers to the crucial questions raised by the paradoxes arising from Special Relativity. In what follows, we show by a thought experiment that absolute rest has it’s discreet but real place in the Einsteinian reasoning under the pseudonym of stationary system.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19348] viXra:1707.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-10 13:09:21

A Conjecture About Prime Numbers Assuming the Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: Rédoane Daoudi
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper we propose a conjecture about prime numbers. Based on the result of Pierre Dusart stating that the n th prime number is smaller than n(ln n + ln ln n − 0.9484) for n ≥ 39017 we propose that the n th prime number is smaller than n(ln n + ln ln n − 1+) when n → +∞.
Category: Number Theory

[19347] viXra:1707.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-10 13:29:52

Second Quantization of the Square-Root Klein-Gordon Operator, Microscopic Causality, Propagators, and Interactions

Authors: John R. Smith
Comments: 60 Pages.

The square-root Klein-Gordon operator, √m^2 − ∇^2 , is a non-local operator with a natural scale inversely proportional to the mass (the Compton wavelength). The fact that there is a natural scale in the operator as well as the fact that the single particle theory for the Coulomb potential, V (r) = −Ze2/r, yields a different eigenvalue spectrum from either the Dirac Hamiltonian or the Klein-Gordon Hamiltonian indicates that this operator is truly distinct from either of the other two Hamiltonians (all three single-particle Hamiltonians have eigenspectra for the 1s states that converge at small atomic numbers, Z → 0, but diverge from each other at large Z). We see no fundamental reason to exclude negative energy states from a “square-root” propagation law and we find several possible Hamiltonians associated with √m2 − ∇2 which include both positive and negative energy plane wave states. Depending on the specific Hamiltonian, it is possible to satisfy the equations of motion with commutators or anticommutators. However, for the scalar case considered, only the Hamiltonian that requires commutation rules has a stable vacuum. We investigate microscopic causality for the commutator of the Hamiltonian density. Also we find that despite the non-local dependence of the energy density on the field operators, the commutators of the physical observables vanish for space-like separations. This result extends the application of Pauli’s1 result to the non-local case. Pauli explicitly excluded √m2 − ∇2 because this op- erator acts non-locally in the coordinate space. We investigate the problems with applying minimal coupling to the square-root equation and why this method of interactions is inconsistent with the exponential shift property of the square-root operator and the demand for gauge-invariance. The Mandelstam representation offers the possibility of avoiding the difficulties inherent in minimal coupling (Lorentz invariance and gauge-invariance). We also compute the propagators for the scat- tering problem and investigate the solutions of the square-root equation in the Aharonov-Bohm problem.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19346] viXra:1707.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-10 13:51:15

Superfluid Helium

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

When Cornell physicists Robert Richardson, David Lee and Douglas Osheroff received the 1996 Nobel Prize for their discovery of the superfluid state of liquid helium, it was only the beginning. Now a new team of Cornell researchers, building on that work, have found new complexities in the phenomenon, with implications for the study of superconductivity and theoretical models of the origin of the universe. [10] MIT physicists have created a superfluid gas, the so-called Bose-Einstein condensate, for the first time in an extremely high magnetic field. The magnetic field is a synthetic magnetic field, generated using laser beams, and is 100 times stronger than that of the world's strongest magnets. Within this magnetic field, the researchers could keep a gas superfluid for a tenth of a second—just long enough for the team to observe it. The researchers report their results this week in the journal Nature Physics. [9] Phonons—the elemental particles that transmit both heat and sound—have magnetic properties, according to a landmark study supported by Ohio Supercomputer Center (OSC) services and recently published by a researcher group from The Ohio State University. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[19345] viXra:1707.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-10 14:41:45

Religious Science

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity is a very “popular” theory among physicists, so don’t dare to state that it is a nonsense theory. The most basic reason for the weirdness of this theory is the acceptance by almost all physicists of the fact that the velocity of light in vacuum in this theory is fully undefined.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19344] viXra:1707.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-10 15:03:13

Is Hubble’s Law an Evidence for the Big Bang Theory?

Authors: Arieh Sher
Comments: 11 Pages.

Hubble's law is considered the first and most cited observational basis for the Big Bang (BB) theory. Hubble, relying on observations made by him and by others, postulated that galaxies are receding from each other at a velocity that is linear to their relative distances. He used the Doppler effect for finding the receding velocity. He claimed that there is a linear relation between the galaxy’s receding velocity and the measured redshift of the galaxy. These observations led to acceptance of the BB theory. The linear relation seemed valid for galaxies relatively close to the Milky Way with small redshifts. However, later measurements done on distant galaxies with high redshift show that the linear graph curves up. These later observations led to the theory that the universe is expanding at an ever-accelerating rate and subsequently to the theory of Dark Energy to account for this accelerated expansion. These new theories related to the accelerated expanding universe has raised controversies among the scientific community. The Pivot theory is a new theory, that I originally suggested for solving the dark matter problem. I claim that the current structure of the universe structure is a huge black hole, the Pivot, where all the dark matter is concentrated, and a ring of a visible universe is orbiting it. In the current article, I claim that the observed z shift of galaxies is caused by gravitational shift of the Pivot rather than by Doppler shift suggested by Hubble. A detailed description of this theory is presented by Sher [1]
Category: Astrophysics

[19343] viXra:1707.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-10 19:13:14

Yuheng Zhang Effect: Strain-Induced Electric Effect in Metals

Authors: Yuanjie Huang
Comments: 21 Pages.

As is known, the piezoelectric effect and electrostrictive effect exist in some ceramics and dielectric materials. However, such effect has never been discovered in conventional metals before. Here, strain-induced electric effect in conventional metals, named after Professor Yuheng Zhang, was first uncovered theoretically in this work. This effect gives several interesting and surprising predictions for metals as follows: 1) conduction electrons in metals no longer obey Einstein diffusion relation but satisfy a new relation given in this work; 2) a metal with strain gradients at a uniform temperature is no longer an equal-electric potential body even without any external electromagnetic disturbances; 3) a metal possessing non-uniform strains may behave as an ideal p-n junction, blocking electric current completely if the applied reverse-biased voltage is not large enough; 4) the long-standing physical puzzle for thermoelectric effect of metals, the positive sigh of Seebeck coefficient for metals, is unraveled by means of Yuheng Zhang coefficient, a newly found vital coefficient induced by both thermal expansion and Yuheng Zhang effect; 5) a notable electric voltage maintains across the shock wave front in metals; 6) an electric voltage appears between two phases when phase transition happens for metals, offering a new probe to detect phase transions. In all, this effect may expand one's fundamental knowledge on metals and find applications in various fields.
Category: Condensed Matter

[19342] viXra:1707.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-10 23:16:42

Discuss on The Individual Freedom of Choice in Abolition of Death Penalty

Authors: Yuan Kai
Comments: 3pages. Chinese version.

Each individual is offered the following two options in adulthood: once someone's right to life is deprived, the offender can be sentenced to death or be waived the death penalty rely on victim's former individual choice. Each individual in society has the right to choose freely according to his will. In the circumstances of being deprived of their right to life,all Individuals in the society chose criminals who could be waived the death penalty. The Abolition of Death Penalty will come naturally and easily.
Category: Social Science

[19341] viXra:1707.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 02:29:17

A Novel Type Of Time Series Type Forecasting

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel Time series type of forecasting.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[19340] viXra:1707.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 03:13:02

The Ultimate Nature of Reality Part 1

Authors: John Peel
Comments: 35 Pages. Part 1 of two files regarding information fields

The role of geometry in particle physics
Category: Mathematical Physics

[19339] viXra:1707.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 04:05:08

New Physics Resulting from Far Too Large a Mass Distance Between the Doubly Charmed Baryons Xi

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Standard Model (SM) and experimental data show that the change of the up quark for down quark increases the mass of nucleon by about 1 MeV. On the other hand, SM and experimental results show that the same change in the doubly charmed baryons Xi decreases the mass by about 100 MeV. Within the SM we cannot explain such two major inconsistencies (i.e. 100 MeV instead 1 MeV and the increase-decrease asymmetry) so such problems suggest new physics. To save the SM, some scientists suggest that the first doubly charmed Xi, detected by the SELEX collaboration based at Fermilab, should disappear! Here, applying the atom-like structure of baryons that follows from the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated masses and I, J and P of many charmed Xi baryons and masses of the two doubly charmed baryons Xi. Calculated mass of Xi_cc+ is 3519.08 MeV whereas of Xi_cc++ is 3621.90 MeV - the results are consistent with experimental data. The other theoretical masses obtained here are very close to experimental results. We present a generalized scheme that is very helpful in calculating masses and other physical quantities that characterize baryons. Charmed baryons contain relativistic, positively charged pion in the d = 0 state which mass is 1256.6 MeV - this mass is close to the mass of the charm quark (in SST it is 1267 MeV) so the quark model can mimic presented here the atom-like theory of baryons. On the other hand, relativistic mass of charged kaon in the d = 0 state is 4444.9 MeV so it can mimic the mass of the bottom quark (in SST it is 4190 MeV).
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[19338] viXra:1707.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 04:48:06

A Novel Type Of Time Series Type Forecasting. {File Closing Version 1}

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel Time series type of forecasting.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[19337] viXra:1707.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-10 08:37:45

Spintronics Breakthrough

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

It's ultra-thin, electrically conducting at the edge and highly insulating within—and all that at room temperature: Physicists from the University of Würzburg have developed a promising new material. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley, fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[19336] viXra:1707.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-10 09:01:10

Maxwell's Demon in Quantum Measurement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19335] viXra:1707.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-10 10:44:11

Occupation of the Sun Which Causes Approach of Ice Age

Authors: Korniienko V
Comments: 16 Pages. In Russian

Our observations have shown that in the summer of 2003 Earth and the Sun were occupied by a power information field (EIF) and since then sucks away S-radiations which consist of electromagnetic energiya of elementary particles of solar matter from the Sun. It has caused decrease of the activity of the Sun, and also the fact that his crown began to generate waves of S-radiations which brought high-temperature deep solar heat to Earth. However in April, 2017 these waves have disappeared. It, and also the fact that EIF shield solar S-radiations, and with them and warmly solar flashes, has led to decrease in revenues to Earth of solar heat that is the most sensitive in middle and high latitudes. It has also caused extraordinary cold spring and summer 2017 that foretells approach of Ice Age. In article the method of cleaning of the Sun of EIF is offered that will return him in the normal state and will prevent frosting of the planet.
Category: Astrophysics

[19334] viXra:1707.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-10 05:31:29

Higgs Boson and Neutrinos

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show the viewpoint with regards to Higgs boson and neutrinos.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[19333] viXra:1707.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-10 05:41:54

An Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Tejas A. Chaudhari
Comments: 8 Pages. Email id:- tejastalk@gmail.com

This paper gives interpretation of Quantum Mechanics (QM) by redefining the theory using 3 new postulates. The first of these postulates specifies the underlying structure that every massive fundamental particle must possess. The mass-Energy equivalence and wave nature of matter emerge as a direct consequence. The second postulate describes the quantum state of particles. Wave function, its conjugate, Born interpretation and the Energy-momentum operators can be derived from these two postulates. The third postulate describes the effect of measurement and interaction on the wave function. The equations of QM starting from Schrödinger’s equation are described. The phenomenon of Quantum entanglement and Schrödinger’s cat thought experiment are described under this interpretation. Finally, the origin of spin resulting from the first postulate is discussed.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19332] viXra:1707.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-09 14:35:31

Electromagnetic Waves Within Small Dielectric Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Scientists from the Lomonosov Moscow State University together with their Russian and foreign colleagues have done for the first time direct measurements of giant electromagnetic fields, emerging in dielectric particles with the high refractive index at the scattering of electromagnetic waves. [17] AMOLF researchers have developed nanoscale strings whose motion can be converted to light signals with unprecedented strength. [16] Twisted PCFs show some amazing features, from circular birefringence to conservation of the angular momentum. [15] Photonics applications rely greatly on what physicists call nonlinear optics-the different way in which materials behave depending on the intensity of light that passes through them. The greater the nonlinearity, the more promising the material for real-life applications. Now a team, led by Robert W. Boyd, Professor of Optics and Physics at the University of Rochester and the Canada Excellence Research Chair in Quantum Nonlinear Optics at the University of Ottawa, has demonstrated that the transparent, electrical conductor indium tin oxide can result in up to 100 times greater nonlinearity than other known materials. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape,
Category: Condensed Matter

[19331] viXra:1707.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-09 15:46:50

Logical Intuitionism

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 2 Pages.

Casting into doubt its intuitive conclusion.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[19330] viXra:1707.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-09 16:28:40

Money Whirling Flow and Keynesian

Authors: Chuanli Chen
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper, I will make use of the Keynes theory to describe the money flow in the free market. I will build a new model based on the Keynes’ model. Then I will use the model to explain how the stagnation occur.
Category: Economics and Finance

[19329] viXra:1707.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-09 16:29:33

The Economic Crisis Model Under Whirling Flow of Money

Authors: Chuanli Chen
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper, I will briefly discuss about the formation of an economic crisis during the movement of free market. I will describe the whole process in a simple way. To make things more easy to understand, I won’t use any math models, which will only make the process more complex.
Category: Economics and Finance

[19328] viXra:1707.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-09 17:37:53

New Infinite Product Representation for Cosine Function and Power Series for Tangent Function

Authors: Edigles Guedes
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper, I demonstrate one new infinite product representation for cosine function, one new power series representation for tangent function and amazing identities involving radical.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[19327] viXra:1707.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-09 17:41:03

New Proof of the Infinite Product Representation for Gamma Function and Pochhammer's Symbol and New Infinite Product Representation for Binomial Coefficient

Authors: Edigles Guedes, Cícera Guedes
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper, we demonstrate some limit's formulae for gamma function and binomial coefficient among other things.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[19326] viXra:1707.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-09 21:31:05

The Ultimate Nature of Reality

Authors: John Peel
Comments: 72 Pages. Perhaps important

This paper hopes to clarify the notion of Information Fields and the role of geometry in particle physics.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[19325] viXra:1707.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-09 22:59:57

Gravitational Forces Revisited

Authors: Jack Bidnik
Comments: 13 Pages.

Abstract: This paper explains my derivation of a number of equations to describe gravitational forces from the relativistic relative momentum of Albert Einstein's Special Relativity. One of these equations parallels Issac Newton's Gravitational Equation by replacing the Gravitational Constant, G, with a velocity dependent expression. The resulting equation is applied to the orbital parameters of the planets and a number of their moons, with very close results. The forces derived have applications in other areas of physics, including electromagnetic force, and have some surprising properties hitherto unknown in physics. I derive these results with no external forces assumed to be present, so that the only mechanical force here must be gravity.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[19324] viXra:1707.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-09 11:29:59

The Cohomology with Automorphism

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 2 pages, written in french

A cohomology is defined with an automorphism of the tangent fiber bundle. The so defined cohomology is a topological invariant of the manifold considered.
Category: Topology

[19323] viXra:1707.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-09 11:43:13

A Cursory Examination of "Electric Universe" Claims About Planetary Orbits

Authors: Bob Ham
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper I examine the claim that the orbits of planets can be explained by nothing more than the electricity and magnetism. For the "overdensity claim," I find that the surface charge densities required to account for observations of the orbits of planets in our own Solar System are not physical. For the "dipole claim," I find that the electric field from the Sun is negligibly small, causing a central force that is 75 orders of magnitude too small to account for the motion of the Earth. These models cannot explain planetary orbits.
Category: Astrophysics

[19322] viXra:1707.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-09 12:27:37

Fayaz Quantum-Relativity Conception and Resolution

Authors: Fayaz Ahmed Siyal
Comments: 6 Pages. my research have well application for the resolution of black hole information paradox and singularity solution . author have prove it by mathematically

Contemporary physics of this century have measured many problems regarding the behaviour of gravity, black hole evolution and its information paradox. Our physicists have struggled to resolve these problems but they again and again failed. The reason of their failure has been resolved by author. The general relativity narrates the behaviour of masses and their gravitational fields on the basis of their space time curvatures. The reason scientist failed to measure the relation of mass and space time curvature because, always they made their calculations in inertial frame of reference for space time curvature but the galaxies, stars, sun, earth, etc are continued in acceleration or moving in accelerating frame of reference so, their space time curvature must be in acceleration. Then space time curvature should behave like variable accelerating wave (these are same waves which have been discovered by LIGO gravitational waves) and by author with mathematical proof it is estimated that space time curvature is the classical property of matter or mass depending upon alternation in the quantum energy of mass or matter. Then the Schrödinger, Hamilton operator H and time evolution operator are applicable for the calculation of space time geometry and its energy. From the author creational research black hole problems are easily solved. Even the unification of general relativity and quantum mechanics can be done.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19321] viXra:1707.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-09 07:05:19

Quantum Vibrations in Brain Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Many universities and institutes suggested that inside microtubules of brain cells, quantum vibrational computations were orchestrated. [27] New research proposes a way to test whether quantum entanglement is affected by consciousness. [26] Using atomic-scale quantum defects in diamonds known as nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers to detect the magnetic field generated by neural signals, scientists working in the lab of Ronald Walsworth, a faculty member in Harvard's Center for Brain Science and Physics Department, demonstrated a noninvasive technique that can image the activity of neurons. [25] Neuroscience and artificial intelligence experts from Rice University and Baylor College of Medicine have taken inspiration from the human brain in creating a new "deep learning" method that enables computers to learn about the visual world largely on their own, much as human babies do. [24]
Category: Physics of Biology

[19320] viXra:1707.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-09 10:32:40

Human Brain Project

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

The human brain is smaller than most people imagine, it can be held in one hand and weighs about 3 pounds. However, the innocuous looking gray matter is infinitely complex and barely understood. But part of the challenge to understanding, despite the number of researchers, scientists, and doctors dedicated to its study, is that there is no central hub of information, mapping, or data gathering for brain research. Soon though, the Human Brain Project (HBP) hopes to change all that. [28] Many universities and institutes suggested that inside microtubules of brain cells, quantum vibrational computations were orchestrated. [27] New research proposes a way to test whether quantum entanglement is affected by consciousness. [26] Using atomic-scale quantum defects in diamonds known as nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers to detect the magnetic field generated by neural signals, scientists working in the lab of Ronald Walsworth, a faculty member in Harvard's Center for Brain Science and Physics Department, demonstrated a noninvasive technique that can image the activity of neurons. [25] Neuroscience and artificial intelligence experts from Rice University and Baylor College of Medicine have taken inspiration from the human brain in creating a new "deep learning" method that enables computers to learn about the visual world largely on their own, much as human babies do. [24]
Category: Mind Science

[19319] viXra:1707.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-09 05:22:24

Peters & TOZZI’S Scientific Results: an Overview

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
Comments: 5 Pages.

This short manuscript summarizes the framework developed by Tozzi and Peters in the years 2015-2017. We claim that the Borsuk-Ulam Theorem (BUT), is not simply a metaphor, rather a real computational tool standing for a universal principle for physical and biological systems. Indeed, the BUT perspective allows a feature (e.g., a shape, a trajectory or an energy) located in the environment to be translated to an abstract space and vice versa. Achieving a map from one system to another enables researchers to assess and elucidate a wide range of phenomena. We provided either demonstrations or testable hypotheses related to the BUT framework in far-flung disciplines, such as neuroscience, theoretical physics, nanomaterials, computational topology, applied algebraic topology, philosophy of the mind, chaotic systems, group theory and cosmology. We collaborated with foremost scientists from Canada, China, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Hungary, Iran, Italy, Norway, Poland, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom, U.S.A.
Category: Mind Science

[19318] viXra:1707.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-09 05:49:29

Dynamics of Statistical Fermionic and Boson-Fermionic Quantum System in Terms of Occupation Numbers

Authors: I. V. Drozdov, B. Drozdov
Comments: 17 Pages.

The ergodic second-order approach of entropy gradient maximization, applied on the problem of a quantum bosonic system, does not provide dynamic equations for pure fermionic system. The first-order dynamic equation results for a system of bosonic and fermionic \dofs interacting by a conservation of a common sum of quantum occupation numbers.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19317] viXra:1707.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-08 16:46:36

On an Experimentum Crucis for Optics

Authors: Ionel DINU, M.Sc.
Comments: 9 Pages.

Formulated almost 150 years ago, Thomas Young’s hypothesis that light might be a transverse wave has never been seriously questioned, much less subjected to experiment. In this article I report on an attempt to prove experimentally that Young’s hypothesis is untenable. Although it has certain limitations, the experiment seems to show that sound in air, a longitudinal wave, can be “polarized” by reflection just like light, and this can be used as evidence against Young’s hypothesis. Further refinements of the experimental setup may yield clearer results, making this report useful to those interested in the important issue of whether light is a transverse or a longitudinal wave.
Category: Classical Physics

[19316] viXra:1707.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-08 20:41:58

Radio Map of North Galactic Pole Reveals Influx of Hydrogen

Authors: B. Rout, Z. Cutter, T. Fairbrother, K. Pantherbone, J. Black Plume, M. Stevens, I. Big Tobacco
Comments: 2 Pages.

A 21-cm radio map around the north galactic pole reveals both an influx of Hydrogen with a velocity of 25-30 kps and and out-flux of Hydrogen at about 2 kps. Data in this region shows a distinct double peak in signal strength vs velocity centered at 1.42 GHz. The map shows a quasi-circular region of Hydrogen influx centered on the north galactic pole and having a diameter of about 10 degrees of arc.
Category: Astrophysics

[19315] viXra:1707.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-08 23:56:21

Magic of Physics, Math Tricks and an Observer with His Own Brain

Authors: George Kirakosyan
Comments: 9 pages 2 figures. The article published in FQXi contest

Here we talk that our bitter lessons have been consigned to oblivion. Disputable divisions of physics have degenerated to a kind of elitist - unproductive genre of creativity because of arbitrary, unreasonable methodology. There is an actual opportunity to come to a high-grade realistic science by returning to natural thinking and objective scientific approaches. To do this we need to overcome the imposed firm convictions with tremendous psychological and political significance. De facto, it is banned to do in present physics, by historical or other circumstances unclear to us.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[19314] viXra:1707.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-08 08:00:43

Majorana Highway

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

A collaboration of researchers has now combined novel nanowires with a high-quality interface to other required materials on a chip. This allows for bullet-like collisionless quantum transport of charges through the nanowires: a requirement for larger-scale Majorana-based experiment. [9] On a more fundamental level, the GeTe compound used in this study shows that the electric and magnetic polarization are exactly antiparallel, unlike the few other known multiferroic materials. Exactly this property forms the basis for the formation of Majorana particles to be used in quantum computers. [8] Researchers in the University of Tokyo have demonstrated that it is possible to exchange a quantum bit, the minimum unit of information used by quantum computers, between a superconducting quantum-bit circuit and a quantum in a magnet called a magnon. This result is expected to contribute to the development of quantum interfaces and quantum repeaters. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19313] viXra:1707.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 19:00:40

Dynamics_and_chemistry_of_earth_atmosphere

Authors: Islam Atef Aly
Comments: 23 Pages. 5 figures, 1 table

ThispaperoverviewingthedynamicsoftheEarthatmosphereandthechemistrycontentsoftheatmosphericlayers includingsomeexperimentstodescribesomeclimateevents liketornadoes,hurricanes,heatwavesandthunderstorm.
Category: Climate Research

[19312] viXra:1707.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 11:58:52

Graphene in Zero Gravity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Researchers and students in the Graphene Flagship are preparing for two exciting experiments in collaboration with the European Space Agency (ESA) to test the viability of graphene for space applications. [18] For the first time, scientists created a tunable artificial atom in graphene. They demonstrated that a vacancy in graphene can be charged in a controllable way such that electrons can be localized to mimic the electron orbitals of an artificial atom. Importantly, the trapping mechanism is reversible (turned on and off) and the energy levels can be tuned. [17] Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11]
Category: Condensed Matter

[19311] viXra:1707.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 12:56:14

Interaction is Given by the Limiting Speed.

Authors: Elkin Igor Vladimirovich
Comments: 6 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

Calculations of relativistic physics are based on the principle of least action. Conclusions from the proposed theory give formulas that the electrical interaction makes responsible for the gravitational interaction, inertia and accelerated "expansion of the universe." The calculations are all extremely elementary and indisputable, since they use the conclusions of relativistic physics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19310] viXra:1707.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 07:59:08

Zero Work, Escape Velocity and the Condition of Minimum Energy Change

Authors: Sonal Jagdish Gupta
Comments: 12 Pages. the paper dealswith the interpretation and co-relation of zero work and escape velocity

Abstract All material bodies compromises of atoms/molecules in there pure form. The kinetic energy of any body is the sum of energies of its atoms and molecules this also applies to potential energy. The smallest change in energy is governed by the quantum of action and should be equal to 6.623 × 10ିଷସ J. The number of atoms in a body determines its requirement for minimum energy when the applied force is unable to deliver this least quantum of energy to all the constituent particles compromising the body then there will be no observational motion and the work done is zero work. Mass act as a reluctance which opposes the change in state. When a body moves with reference to massive gravitating body then after a particular distance the potential energy of the system becomes lesser than the minimum energy then the massive body is unable to do any work on the moving body and the motion of the moving body becomes inertial thereafter. Velocity is quantized in one dimensional linear motion.
Category: Astrophysics

[19309] viXra:1707.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 08:34:01

Manipulate Silicon Qubits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

Jiang and his team created a way to measure and control the energy differences of electron valley states in silicon quantum dots, which are a key component of quantum computing research. [29] Now, researchers at Stanford University and MIT have built a new chip to overcome this hurdle. [28] In the quest to make computers faster and more efficient, researchers have been exploring the field of spintronics—shorthand for spin electronics—in hopes of controlling the natural spin of the electron to the benefit of electronic devices. [27] When two researchers from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) announced in April that they had successfully simulated a 45-qubit quantum circuit, the science community took notice: it was the largest ever simulation of a quantum computer, and another step closer to simulating "quantum supremacy"—the point at which quantum computers become more powerful than ordinary computers. [26] Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania, in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College, have discovered a new topological material which may enable fault-tolerant quantum computing. [25] The central idea of TQC is to encode qubits into states of topological phases of matter (see Collection on Topological Phases). [24] One promising approach to building them involves harnessing nanometer-scale atomic defects in diamond materials. [23] Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22] Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[19308] viXra:1707.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 10:27:21

Photonic Crystal Fibers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Twisted PCFs show some amazing features, from circular birefringence to conservation of the angular momentum. [15] Photonics applications rely greatly on what physicists call nonlinear optics-the different way in which materials behave depending on the intensity of light that passes through them. The greater the nonlinearity, the more promising the material for real-life applications. Now a team, led by Robert W. Boyd, Professor of Optics and Physics at the University of Rochester and the Canada Excellence Research Chair in Quantum Nonlinear Optics at the University of Ottawa, has demonstrated that the transparent, electrical conductor indium tin oxide can result in up to 100 times greater nonlinearity than other known materials. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
Category: Condensed Matter

[19307] viXra:1707.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 10:28:47

General Exact Tetrahedron Argument for the Fundamental Laws in Continuum Mechanics

Authors: Ehsan Azadi
Comments: 28 pages

In this article, we give a general exact mathematical framework that all of the fundamental relations and conservation equations in continuum mechanics can be derived based on it. We consider a general integral equation contains the parameters that act on the volume and the surface of the integral's domain. The idea is to determine how many local relations can be derived from this general integral equation and what these local relations are? Thus, we first derive the general Cauchy lemma and then by a new general exact tetrahedron argument derive two other local relations. So, there are three local relations that can be derived from the general integral equation. Then we show that all of the fundamental laws in continuum mechanics, include the conservation of mass, linear momentum, angular momentum, energy, and the entropy law, can be shown and considered in this general framework. So, we derive the integral form of these fundamental laws in this framework and applying the general three local relations lead to exactly derivation of the mass flow, continuity equation, Cauchy lemma for traction vectors, existence of stress tensor, general equation of motion, symmetry of stress tensor, existence of heat flux vector, differential energy equation, and differential form of the Clausius-Duhem inequality for entropy law. The general exact tetrahedron argument is an exact proof that removes all of the challenges on the derivation of fundamental relations in continuum mechanics. During this proof, there is no approximating or limiting process and the parameters are exact point-base functions. Also, it gives a new understanding and a deep insight into the origins and the physics and mathematics of the fundamental relations and conservation equations in continuum mechanics. This general mathematical framework can be used in many branches of continuum physics and the other sciences.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[19306] viXra:1707.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 11:09:27

Nanoscale Motion Sends Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

AMOLF researchers have developed nanoscale strings whose motion can be converted to light signals with unprecedented strength. [16] Twisted PCFs show some amazing features, from circular birefringence to conservation of the angular momentum. [15] Photonics applications rely greatly on what physicists call nonlinear optics - the different way in which materials behave depending on the intensity of light that passes through them. The greater the nonlinearity, the more promising the material for real-life applications. Now a team, led by Robert W. Boyd, Professor of Optics and Physics at the University of Rochester and the Canada Excellence Research Chair in Quantum Nonlinear Optics at the University of Ottawa, has demonstrated that the transparent, electrical conductor indium tin oxide can result in up to 100 times greater nonlinearity than other known materials. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19305] viXra:1707.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 06:54:57

New Particle of the Strong Force

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

There's a new particle in town, and it's a double-charmingly heavy beast. Researchers working on the LHCb experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider have announced the discovery of the esoterically named Xicc++ particle. [13] One of the fundamental challenges in nuclear physics is to predict the properties of subatomic matter from quantum chromodynamics (QCD)—the theory describing the strong force that confines quarks into protons and neutrons, and that binds protons and neutrons together. [12] At very high energies, the collision of massive atomic nuclei in an accelerator generates hundreds or even thousands of particles that undergo numerous interactions. [11] The first experimental result has been published from the newly upgraded Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The result demonstrates the feasibility of detecting a potential new form of matter to study why quarks are never found in isolation. [10] A team of scientists currently working at the Large Hadron Collider at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) announced that it has possibly discovered the existence of a particle integral to nature in a statement on Tuesday, Dec. 15, and again on Dec.16. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[19304] viXra:1707.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-06 13:56:20

Cauchy Tetrahedron Argument and the Proofs for the Existence of Stress Tensor, a Comprehensive Review, Challenges, and Improvements

Authors: Ehsan Azadi
Comments: 34 pages

Cauchy in 1822 presented the idea of traction vector that contains both the normal and tangential components of the internal surface forces per unit area and gave the tetrahedron argument to prove the existence of stress tensor. These great achievements form the main part of the foundation of continuum mechanics. During nearly two centuries, some versions of tetrahedron argument and a few other proofs for the existence of stress tensor are presented in every text in continuum mechanics, fluid mechanics, and the related subjects. In this article, we show the birth, importance, and location of these Cauchy's achievements, then by presenting the formal tetrahedron argument in detail, for the first time we extract some fundamental challenges. These conceptual challenges are related to the result of applying the conservation of linear momentum to any mass element and the order of its surface and volume terms, the definition of traction vectors on the surfaces that pass through the same point, the limiting and approximating processes in the derivation of stress tensor, and some others. In a comprehensive review, we present the different tetrahedron arguments and the proofs for the existence of stress tensor, consider the challenges in each one, and classify them in two general approaches. In the first approach that is followed in most texts, the traction vectors do not define exactly on the surfaces that pass through the same point so, most of the challenges hold. But in the second approach, the traction vectors are defined on the surfaces that pass exactly through the same point, so some of the related challenges are removed. We also represent the improved works of Hamel and Backus, and show that the original work of Backus removes most of the challenges. This article shows that the foundation of continuum mechanics is not a finished subject and there are still some fundamental challenges.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[19303] viXra:1707.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-06 15:56:41

Trump's Political Manifesto

Authors: Adolfo Kitler
Comments: 557 Pages.

Trump's Political Manifesto
Category: Social Science

[19302] viXra:1707.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-06 18:16:34

From 0 to 1+1=2: On the Grand Unified Theory in Philosophy

Authors: Lei Shi
Comments: 4 Pages.

The conflict between formal logic and dialectical logic is a big problem in philosophy. This paper attempts to unify them by dialectics. Using unified methodology, we can unify all theories and establish the Grand Unified Theory in philosophy. Here we show that we must accept that there is no difference in the world and nothing makes differences which lead to matter and consciousness at the same time. That everything comes from nothing and matter and consciousness are unified, is the Grand Unified Theory in philosophy.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[19301] viXra:1707.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-06 20:04:58

Second Quantization of the Square-Root Klein-Gordon Operator

Authors: John R. Smith
Comments: 58 Pages.

The square-root Klein-Gordon operator,√(m^2− ∇^2), is a non-local operator with a natural scale inversely proportional to the mass (the Compton wavelength). There is no fundamental reason to exclude negative energy states from a “square-root” propagation law. We find several possible Hamiltonians associated with √(m^2− ∇^2) which include both positive and negative energy plane wave states. It is possible to satisfy the equations of motion with commutators or anticommutators. For the scalar case, only the canonical commutation rules yield a stable vacuum. We investigate microscopic causality for the commutator of the Hamiltonian density. We find that despite the non-local dependence of the energy density on the field operators, the commutators of the physical observables vanish for space-like separations. Hence, Pauli’s result can be extended to the non-local case. Pauli explicitly excluded √(m^2− ∇^2) because this operator acts non-locally in the coordinate space. The Mandelstam representation offers the possibility of avoiding the difficulties inherent in minimal coupling (Lorentz invariance and gauge invariance). We also compute the propagators for the scattering problem and investigate thesolutions of the square-root equation in the Aharonov-Bohm problem.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19300] viXra:1707.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 01:23:03

Holistic Non-Unique Clsutering. {File Closing Version 1} ISSN 1751-3030

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research technical Note the author have presented a novel method to find all Possible Clusters given a set of points in N Space.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[19299] viXra:1707.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 01:43:14

Overall Skin Health Potential of the Biofield Energy Healing Based Herbomineral Formulation Using Various Skin Parameters

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Janice Patricia Kinney
Comments: 10 Pages.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the Consciousness Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treatment based test formulation and medium (DMEM) against various skin health parameters using three cell lines i.e., HFF-1, HaCaT, and B16-F10. The various study parameters viz. collagen, elastin, hyaluronic acid, melanin, cell viability against UV-B induced stress, and wound healing were evaluated. The test formulation and DMEM were divided into two parts. One part of the test formulation and one part of the DMEM received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by Janice Patricia Kinney and were defined as the Biofield Energy Treated samples, while the other parts were denoted as the untreated test samples. Cell viability using MTT assay showed more than 70% cells were viable in all the tested concentrations in three cells, indicating that the test formulation was safe and nontoxic. The collagen synthesis was significantly (p≤0.001) increased by 22.42% and 17.48% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group at 0.63 and 2.5 µg/mL, respectively in relation to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group. The Elastin level was significantly (p≤0.001) increased by 28.41% in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group at 5 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Hyaluronic acid at 0.63 µg/mL was increased significantly by 15.90% in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared to the untreated group. The level of melanin was reduced significantly by 9.25% and 7.26% in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group at 0.013 and 0.063 µg/mL, respectively in relation to the untreated group. Protection of skin cells after UV-B exposure data displayed that the cell viability was increased significantly by 17.88%, 20.10%, and 25.77% in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group at 0.625, 1.25, and 2.5 µg/mL, respectively compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group. Wound healing data exhibited significant wound closure and cell migration activities in the HFF-1 and HaCaT cells compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation. Overall, the data suggests that the Biofield Energy Treated DMEM and test formulation demonstrated better responses compared to the untreated medium and test formulation with respect to the tested skin health parameters. Therefore, the Biofield Energy Healing and the Treated test formulation could be developed as an effective cosmetic product to protect and treat the various skin problems including infection, photosensitivity, erythema, contact dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, athlete's foot, psoriasis, erythema, cutis rhomboidalis nuchae, skin aging, wrinkles and/or change in skin color, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[19298] viXra:1707.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 01:43:59

The Study of Biofield Energy Treatment Based Herbomineral Formulation in Skin Health and Function

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Johanne Dodon
Comments: 12 Pages.

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the The Trivedi Effect®- Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment based new proprietary herbomineral formulation and cell medium (DMEM) on various skin health parameters using HFF-1, HaCaT, and B16-F10 cell lines. It contained minerals (zinc chloride, sodium selenate, and sodium molybdate), L-ascorbic acid, along with the mixture of Centella asiatica extract and tetrahydrocurcumin (THC). The test formulation and DMEM were divided into two parts each, one part of each was coded as untreated (UT), while the second part of each was treated with the Biofield Treatment by Johanne Dodon and denoted as the Biofield Energy Treated (BT) test items. MTT assay result showed that the test formulation was safe and nontoxic up to 80 µg/mL concentration. The fibroblast cell proliferation assay using BrdU method showed a significant increased cell proliferation at 2.13, 8.75, and 17.53 µg/mL by 3.90%, 14.68% and 29.54%, respectively in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared to the untreated group. The collagen data showed an increased synthesis by 7.42% and 3.84% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.625 µg/mL with respect to the untreated group. Similarly, the elastin synthesis was increased by 19.8% and 25.8% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 5 µg/mL with respect to the untreated group. However, the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation showed an increased level of hyaluronic acid by 1.7% in UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared to the untreated group. Melanin synthesis inhibition was observed by 15.21% and 11.43% in UT-DMEM + BT-Test Formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test Formulation groups, respectively at 0.125 µg/mL compared with the untreated group in B16-F10 melanoma cell line. Anti-wrinkling effects showed an improved cell viability by 7.65% at 1.25 µg/mL in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation experimental group compared with the untreated test group. In addition, the Biofield Energy Treated Test formulation/DMEM showed a significant wound healing activity and high cellular migration of fibroblast and keratinocytes in HFF-1 and HaCaT cells, respectively. Overall, the data suggested that Biofield Treated formulation/DMEM could be helpful for skin healing, improvement the skin health, elasticity, and tightness, as well as, improving skin health issues such as wrinkling, pigmentation disorders, redness, swelling, skin cancer, aging, rashes, and skin sagging.
Category: Chemistry

[19297] viXra:1707.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 01:44:56

Skin Nourishing Effects of Biofield Energy Healing Treatment Based Herbomineral Formulation

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Shirley Theresa Holmlund
Comments: 10 Pages.

The aim of the present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of a Consciousness Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treatment based test formulation on skin health. The test formulation and DMEM were separated into two parts. One part of each received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by Shirley Theresa Holmlund and were termed as the Biofield Energy Treated samples, while the other parts were considered as the untreated test samples. MTT assay showed more than 70% cells were viable in all the tested concentrations in three cell lines and that the test formulation was safe and nontoxic. The percent cell proliferation using BrdU assay was significantly increased by 343.57%, 100.29%, and 132.6% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 8.75 µg/mL compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group. The collagen synthesis was significantly increased by 5.94% and 10.84% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.625 µg/mL with respect to the untreated group. Elastin level was significantly (p≤0.001) increased by 15.95%, 58.31%, and 47.18% at 2.5 µg/mL in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively compared to the untreated group. The level of hyaluronic acid was significantly increased by 15.13% and 68.56% in the BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.625 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. The level of melanin was significantly reduced by 17.06%, 6.94%, and 13.07% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.063 µg/mL compared to untreated group. The effect of skin protection upon exposure with UV-B rays displayed some alteration of the percent cell viability in all the tested groups. The wound healing activity by scratch assay exhibited significant wound closure and cell migration in the test formulation and DMEM in HFF-1 cells compared to the untreated group. Altogether, the data suggests that the Consciousness Energy Healing Treated DMEM and test formulation exhibited better skin protective responses compared to the untreated DMEM and test formulation group with respect to the skin health parameters. Therefore, the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation could be developed as a potential cosmetic product against various skin problems viz. eczema, vitiligo, psoriasis, acne, hives, rosacea, ichthyosis, seborrheic dermatitis, erythema, contact dermatitis, skin aging, wrinkles, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[19296] viXra:1707.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 01:44:57

Holistic Non-Unique Clsutering. {File Closing Version 2} ISSN 1751-3030

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research technical Note the author have presented a novel method to find all Possible Clusters given a set of M points in N Space.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

Replacements of recent Submissions

[8129] viXra:1707.0250 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-18 17:53:05

How to Determine a Jump in Energy Prior to a Causal Barrier, with an Attendant Current, for an Effective Initial Magnetic Field. in the Pre Planckian to Planckian Space-Time

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 11 Pages. Uploaded the wrong document. The abstract succintly outlines what is new and intended in this document too

This corrected version is primarily an analysis of how to use Noether's current, as a current generator, from exponential of the ( imaginary number, times frequency, times time) times an inflaton to obtain a real valued current, which in turn, leads to an effective magnetic field, at Pre Planckian to Planckian physics regime of space-time. And that combined with a query if we have quintessence or an invariant cosmological constant.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8128] viXra:1707.0239 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-20 12:52:57

The Backward Differentiation of the Bordering Algorithm for an Indefinite Cholesky Factorization

Authors: Stephen Smith
Comments: 19 Pages.

The bordering method of the Cholesky decomposition is backward differentiated to derive a method of calculating first derivatives. The result is backward differentiated again and an algorithm for calculating second derivatives results. Applying backward differentiation twice also generates an algorithm for conducting forward differentiation. The differentiation methods utilize three main modules: a generalization of forward substitution for calculating the forward derivatives; a generalization of backward substitution for calculating the backward derivatives; and an additional module involved with the calculation of second derivatives. Separating the methods into three modules lends itself to optimization where software can be developed for special cases that are suitable for sparse matrix manipulation, vector processing and/or blocking strategies that utilize matrix partitions. Surprisingly, the same derivative algorithms fashioned for the Cholesky decomposition of a positive definite matrix can be used again for matrices that are indefinite. The only differences are very minor adjustments involving an initialization step that leads into backward differentiation and a finalization step that follows forward differentiation.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[8127] viXra:1707.0239 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-19 13:54:31

The Backward Differentiation of the Bordering Algorithm for an Indefinite Cholesky Factorization

Authors: Stephen P. Smith
Comments: 19 Pages.

The bordering method of the Cholesky decomposition is backward differentiated to derive a method of calculating first derivatives. The result is backward differentiated again and an algorithm for calculating second derivatives results. Applying backward differentiation twice also generates an algorithm for conducting forward differentiation. The differentiations methods utilize three main modules: a generalization of forward substitution for calculating the forward derivatives; a generalization of backward substitution for calculating the backward derivatives; and an additional module involved with the calculation of second derivatives. Separating the methods into three modules lends itself to optimization where software can be developed for special cases that are suitable for sparse matrix manipulation, vector processing and/or blocking strategies that utilize matrix partitions. Surprisingly, the same derivative algorithms fashioned for the Cholesky decomposition of a positive definite matrix can be used again for matrices that are indefinite. The only differences are very minor adjustments involving an initialization step that leads into backward differentiation and a finalization step that follows forward differentiation.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[8126] viXra:1707.0229 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-19 03:48:04

Entanglement

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 2 Pages.

Physicists claimed that a quantum process between photons was instantaneous, but the conclusion of an entangled state was a fallacy. The physicists compared the time that they needed for their measurement to the time that was required for a quantum process, that quantum process was a change in the quantum state of another photon over a distance of 1.3 kilometers. They concluded that there wasn't enough time to complete that quantum process within the time period of their measurement, so they concluded that it was instantaneous. But they were wrong, those physicists didn't realize that there was another option.
Category: Quantum Physics

[8125] viXra:1707.0229 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-17 16:02:33

Entanglement

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 2 Pages.

Physicists claimed that an exchange in information between two photons was instant, but I think that the conclusion of an entangled state was a fallacy. The physicists compared the time that they needed for their meassurement to the time that an exchange in information over a distance of 1.3 kilometers would require, they claimed that there wasn't enough time for an exchange in information over that distance within the time period of their meassurement. So they concluded that it was instant, but I think that they were wrong. Those physicists don't realize that there is another option, that time doesn't apply to an exchange in information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[8124] viXra:1707.0218 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-16 10:13:32

The First Big Question Facing Physics and Science

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint with regards to first big question facing physics and science.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[8123] viXra:1707.0214 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-15 15:09:05

The Grand Unification Scheme and Metaspace

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

Advance superstrings are consider incalculable particles. With this in mind a more refine definition of the grand unification scheme and metaspace is presented.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[8122] viXra:1707.0189 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-14 05:30:02

Black Hole Nuclei as a Bunch of Rigid Transformable Higgs Strings Splitting by Relative Small Companion Mergers or Decreased Vacuum Pressure.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 20 Pages.

Complex galaxy / star evolution seems to be not only created by galaxy or star merging, but even by central galaxy- and stellar mass black hole chopping into two equal parts to form black hole based Hotspots for Herbig Haro systems or even for Double Radio Galaxies. This process is supposed to be the consequence of the new physics Electric Dark Matter Black Hole (EDM-BH) principle of Quantum FFF Theory ( Function Follows Forms) and supported by observation of Triple Double Radio Galaxies and even by BH splitting in the Spire Eagle nebula. The EDM-BH is assumed to contain a real particle nucleus of so called Axion-Higgs rigid transformable strings , which are compressed together by the pressure of the oscillation Axion Higgs vacuum lattice. Even the Big Bang nucleus is assumed to contain only compressed Axion Higgs strings which could explode into splinters and dual vacuum particles by the reduced vacuum pressure around the Big Crunch nucleus of a former universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[8121] viXra:1707.0176 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-15 02:12:22

Uncertainty and the Lonely Runner Conjecture

Authors: John Atwell Moody
Comments: 9 Pages.

By convolving the distribution of one of the non-chosen runners with a step function (to introduce some uncertainty in its start time) we arrange that the mutual expectation reverts to the continuous extension of its value in the transcendental case.
Category: Number Theory

[8120] viXra:1707.0176 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-14 06:25:46

Uncertainty and the Lonely Runner Conjecture

Authors: John Atwell Moody
Comments: 9 Pages.

By convolving the distribution of one of the non-chosen runners with a step function (to introduce some uncertainty in its start time) we arrange that the mutual expectation reverts to the continuous extension of its value in the transcendental case.
Category: Number Theory

[8119] viXra:1707.0176 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-13 07:41:09

Uncertainty and the Lonely Runner Conjecture

Authors: John Atwell Moody
Comments: 8 Pages.

By convolving the distribution of one of the non-chosen runners with a step function (to introduce some uncertainty in its start time) we arrange that the mutual expectation reverts to the continuous extension of its value in the transcendental case.
Category: Number Theory

[8118] viXra:1707.0155 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-20 09:28:40

On a Problem in Euler and Navier-Stokes Equations

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 27 Pages.

A study respect to a problem found in the equations of Euler and Navier-Stokes, whose adequate treatment solves a centennial problem about the solution of these equations and a most correct modeling of fluid movement.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[8117] viXra:1707.0143 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-12 04:36:18

New Physics Resulting from Far Too Large a Mass Distance Between the Doubly Charmed Baryons Xi

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

The Standard Model (SM) and experimental data show that the change of the up quark for down quark increases the mass of nucleon by about 1 MeV. On the other hand, SM and experimental results show that the same change in the doubly charmed baryons Xi decreases the mass by about 100 MeV. Within the SM we cannot explain such two major inconsistencies (i.e. 100 MeV instead 1 MeV and the increase-decrease asymmetry) so such problems suggest new physics. To save the SM, some scientists suggest that the first doubly charmed Xi, detected by the SELEX collaboration based at Fermilab, should disappear! Here, applying the atom-like structure of baryons that follows from the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated masses and I, J and P of baryon Delta, of many charmed and bottom baryons and masses of the two doubly charmed baryons Xi. Calculated mass of Xi_cc+ is 3519.08 MeV whereas of Xi_cc++ is 3621.90 MeV - the results are consistent with experimental data. The other theoretical masses obtained here are very close to experimental results. We present a generalized scheme that is very helpful in calculating masses and other physical quantities that characterize baryons. Charmed baryons contain relativistic, positively charged pion in the d = 0 state which mass is 1256.6 MeV - this mass is close to the mass of the charm quark (in SST it is 1267 MeV) so the quark model can mimic presented here the atom-like theory of baryons. On the other hand, relativistic mass of charged kaon in the d = 0 state is 4444.9 MeV so it can mimic the mass of the bottom quark (in SST it is 4190 MeV).
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[8116] viXra:1707.0138 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-11 01:18:35

Higgs Bosons and Neutrinos

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show the viewpoint with regards to the higgs boson and neutrinos.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[8115] viXra:1707.0126 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-13 11:10:52

A Cursory Examination of "Electric Universe" Claims Regarding Planetary Orbits

Authors: Bob Ham
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper I examine the claim that the orbits of planets can be explained by nothing more than the electricity and magnetism. For the "overdensity claim," I find that the surface charge densities required to account for observations of the orbits of planets in our own Solar System are not physical. For the "dipole claim," I find that the electric field from the Sun is negligibly small, causing a central force that is 75 orders of magnitude too small to account for the motion of the Earth. These models cannot explain planetary orbits.
Category: Astrophysics

[8114] viXra:1707.0126 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-12 16:07:44

A Cursory Examination of "Electric Universe" Claims Regarding Planetary Orbits

Authors: Bob Ham
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper I examine the claim that the orbits of planets can be explained by nothing more than the electricity and magnetism. For the "overdensity claim," I find that the surface charge densities required to account for observations of the orbits of planets in our own Solar System are not physical. For the "dipole claim," I find that the electric field from the Sun is negligibly small, causing a central force that is 75 orders of magnitude too small to account for the motion of the Earth. These models cannot explain planetary orbits.
Category: Astrophysics

[8113] viXra:1707.0126 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-11 10:25:41

A Cursory Examination of "Electric Universe" Claims Regarding Planetary Orbits

Authors: Bob Ham
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper I examine the claim that the orbits of planets can be explained by nothing more than the electricity and magnetism. For the "overdensity claim," I find that the surface charge densities required to account for observations of the orbits of planets in our own Solar System are not physical. For the "dipole claim," I find that the electric field from the Sun is negligibly small, causing a central force that is 75 orders of magnitude too small to account for the motion of the Earth. These models cannot explain planetary orbits.
Category: Astrophysics

[8112] viXra:1707.0126 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-09 15:28:08

A Cursory Examination of "Electric Universe" Claims Regarding Planetary Orbits

Authors: Bob Ham
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper I examine the claim that the orbits of planets can be explained by nothing more than the electricity and magnetism. For the "overdensity claim," I find that the surface charge densities required to account for observations of the orbits of planets in our own Solar System are not physical. For the "dipole claim," I find that the electric field from the Sun is negligibly small, causing a central force that is 75 orders of magnitude too small to account for the motion of the Earth. These models cannot explain planetary orbits.
Category: Astrophysics

[8111] viXra:1707.0116 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-13 13:14:05

Unique Relativistic Extension of the Pauli Hamiltonian

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 11 Pages.

Relativistic extension of the Pauli Hamiltonian is ostensibly achieved by minimal coupling of electromagnetism to the free-particle Dirac Hamiltonian. But the free-particle Pauli Hamiltonian is pathology-free in its nonrelativistic domain, while the free-particle Dirac Hamiltonian yields completely fixed particle speed which is greater than c, spin orbit torque whose ratio to kinetic energy tends to infinity in the zero-momentum limit, and mega-violation of Newton's First Law in that limit. Furthermore, relativistic extension of the Pauli Hamiltonian is unique in principle because inertial frame hopping can keep the particle nonrelativistic. That extension is indeed readily achieved by upgrading the terms of the Pauli Hamiltonian's corresponding action to appropriate Lorentz invariants. The resulting relativistic Lagrangian yields a canonical momentum that can't be analytically inverted in general, but a physically-sensible successive-approximation scheme applies. For hydrogen and simpler systems approximation isn't needed, and the result, which includes spin-orbit coupling, is as transparently physically sensible as the relativistic Lorentz Hamiltonian is, a far cry from the Dirac Hamiltonian pathologies.
Category: Quantum Physics