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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[32508] viXra:1911.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-18 08:20:27

Quantum Computers Mark Their Work

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 93 Pages.

A new test to check if a quantum computer is giving correct answers to questions beyond the scope of traditional computing could help the first quantum computer that can outperform a classical computer to be realized. [56] A new test to check if a quantum computer is giving correct answers to questions beyond the scope of traditional computing could help the first quantum computer that can outperform a classical computer to be realized. [56] In quantum computing, as in team building, a little diversity can help get the job done better, computer scientists have discovered. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32507] viXra:1911.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-18 08:50:16

A Refutation Of Ilija Barukˇci ́c’s Modus Inversus AndConclusions Following From It

Authors: Nhef Luminati
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper the general validity of the methodological approach of frequent vixra.org contributor Ilija Barukčić are examined and refuted.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[32506] viXra:1911.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-18 08:57:59

Hydrogen Tuning Quantum Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

Researchers at TU Delft have discovered a method to stretch and compress quantum materials using hydrogen gas. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45] Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a highly efficient converter that enlarges the diameter of a HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light beam by 400 times. [44] There's little doubt the information technology revolution has improved our lives. But unless we find a new form of electronic technology that uses less energy, computing will become limited by an "energy crunch" within decades. [43] Researchers at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, have recently succeeded in boosting the storage time of quantum information, using a small glass container filled with room temperature atoms, taking an important step towards a secure quantum encoded distribution network. [42] New work by a team at the University of Bristol's Centre for Quantum Photonics has uncovered fundamental limits on the quantum operations which can be carried out with postselection. [41]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32505] viXra:1911.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-18 09:03:07

The Words Implicit and Explicit Seem to Describe All that "IS"

Authors: John Raymond
Comments: 19 Pages.

I conceptually discuss what I consider the naturally occurring construct of universal reality might be. I talk about what I consider to be the random conditions, influences and effects that might help to conceptually explain how the universe might have come into being in the first place. I debate that there are two continuums in the universe. One of these is the implicit continuum and the other is the explicit continuum. I suggest that quantum non-locality theory in physics provides a useful tool in order to help to understand the concurrent relationship between both these continuums. I demonstrate that non-locality [metaphysical-implicitness] is real and that this is why science must learn to accommodate this notion if it is ever to be able to describe and demonstrate a theory of everything. Email: conceptscience@bigpond.com
Category: Quantum Physics

[32504] viXra:1911.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-18 09:26:22

Unknown Summations

Authors: Yuly Shipilevsky
Comments: 2 Pages.

We introduce a set of finite and infinite summations which looks like were never considered yet.
Category: General Mathematics

[32503] viXra:1911.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-18 11:12:58

The Prime Counting Function and the Sum of Prime Numbers

Authors: Juan Moreno Borrallo
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper it is proved that the sum of consecutive prime numbers up to the square root of a given natural number is asymptotically equivalent to the prime counting function. Also, they are found some solutions such that both series are equal. Finally, they are listed the prime numbers at which both series are equal, and exposed some conjectures regarding this type of prime numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[32502] viXra:1911.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-18 13:17:11

Metaphysics and Human Life

Authors: Kiyoung Kim
Comments: 11 Pages.

The ontological interpretation of physical vacuum and its interactions in physical phenomena was initiated to understand the quantum philosophy or the reality matter in quantum mechanics, at the beginning; however, it must be a different worldview from any metaphysical view that used to be in philosophy, and thus, it affects on all branches of academic studies and human activities in general. Especially, the ontological interpretation of soul, such as what it is, how it interacts with its own living physical body and external physical objects, and so on, should have an influence on the basic human values and principles, which makes human life improved ultimately with a firm philosophical base.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[32501] viXra:1911.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-18 13:06:53

Elementary Geometric Proofs Of Euler's Rotation Theorem

Authors: Ross Ure Anderson
Comments: 13 pages, 12 figures

Two elementary Euclidean Geometry proofs of Euler's Rotation Theorem, with appendices discussing a formal mathematical definition of rigid motion.
Category: Classical Physics

[32500] viXra:1911.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-18 17:38:27

The Big Bang is a Mystery (SR Proves)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 12 Pages.

Paper Hypothesis The Universe Is A Continuum Explanation Question no. 1 If the universe is a continuum why that disprove the big bang concept? Because – in this case – the universe will no longer be created by some random process otherwise it can't be a continuum – to be a continuum its components should be created complementary to each other to consist together one continuum Question no. 2 Why does the Special theory of relativity prove that the universe is a continuum? Einstein told that Space-time is a continuum but he didn't tell that the universe is a continuum- Space-time is coordinates consist one continuum because it's coordinates –means – the time and distance values are defined by the point position in space-time – So when Einstein told the Space-time is a continuum he didn't effect on the universe geometry itself – he simply provided a new geometry to define the coordinates But When we accept the hypothesis that – the universe is a continuum - that means -we accept that the particle properties are defined by coordinates! Specifically – that means – Particle Mass will be defined as time and distance in the space-time coordinates! But particle mass is a particle property and can't be defined by any coordinates! We have 2 different visions here! But … in fact ....the particle high velocity motion changes its time, length and MASS So, simply if the mass can be added to the space-time and defined as particle coordinates – so the special theory of relativity disproves the big bang theory Otherwise –it can't …. In this paper I try to prove that – practical mass is defined as distance & time values – all of them are space-time coordinates – that proves the hypothesis – the universe is a continuum – and disproves the big bang theory Gerges Francis Tawdrous +201022532292
Category: Astrophysics

[32499] viXra:1911.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-18 01:26:38

A Note on a Possible Anomaly in the Complex Numbers

Authors: Han Geurdes
Comments: 3 Pages.

In the present paper a conflict in basic complex number theory is reported. The ingredients of the analysis are Euler's identity and the DeMoivre rule for $n=2$. The outcome is that a quadratic equation only has one single solution because one of the existing solutions gives rise to an impossibility.
Category: General Mathematics

[32498] viXra:1911.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-18 05:46:30

多 与 少 告 诉 我 们 黎 曼 伪 造 质 数

Authors: Aaron chau
Comments: 2 Pages.

在西方的古希腊,Euclid 证明质数无限,他是用(乘除法)来表述反证法; 而现时在东方香港,本文同时来证明孪生质数无限,黎曼假设被推翻; 筆者是用(加减法)来表述永恒的多与少。
Category: Number Theory

[32497] viXra:1911.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-18 07:00:38

Cancer-Shielding Protein

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

What we learned in this study is extremely useful in designing new drugs because it tells us which areas to target to block the checkpoint protein's function." [36] Now, in a watershed advance, engineers at the University of California, Riverside, in collaboration with researchers at City of Hope National Medical Center, have invented a device that holds potential for mass-producing engineered cells at lower cost, a tipping point for these lifesaving therapies. [35] Scientists have reported a new approach to treating lung cancer with inhaled nanoparticles developed at Wake Forest School of Medicine, part of Wake Forest Baptist Health. [34]
Category: Physics of Biology

[32496] viXra:1911.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-18 07:05:36

The Goldbach Conjecture is True

Authors: James Edwin Rock
Comments: 2 Pages.

In the 17th century Christian Goldbach conjectured that any even number four or greater is the sum of two primes. This has never been proven, but it has been tested and shown to be true for all even numbers up to 4 x 10^18. We show the probability of this being false is about (1 / 10^98912 ) collectively for all even integers greater than 65,536,000 and drops to over ((1 / 10)^10)^14 collectively for all even integers greater than 4.5 x 10^18.
Category: Number Theory

[32495] viXra:1911.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-18 07:16:29

The Inescapable Duality of All “things”

Authors: John Raymond
Comments: 3 Pages.

I present the notion that our space time universe is “swimming” in a sea of sub-quantum [non-local] weirdness. I also conceptually postulate that all “things” and events in our universe are somehow in a dual and entangled relationship with each other. I imagine this relationship as being a concurrent one and that they are not materially connected to each other. However, I believe that they do influence and effect each other in some way. I refer to this sea of weirdness as being non-physical implicit phenomena and physical phenomena entangled within this sea as being explicit phenomena. I discuss what my concept of the duality of all that “IS” might mean in helping us to better understand the workings of the wider universe as well as what such a conceptual theory might mean for future scientific research and understanding. Email: conceptscience@bigpond.com
Category: Quantum Physics

[32494] viXra:1911.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-18 07:22:25

Constraints on Dark Matter Axions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

ADMX, with its world-leading sensitivity, has ruled out axions of a certain mass range as dark matter. [30] In a recent study, a team of researchers has presented new direct-detection constraints on eV-to-GeV dark matter interacting with electrons, using a new prototype detector developed as part of the Sub-Electron-Noise Skipper-CCD Experimental Instrument (SENSEI) project. [29] As fascinating as it is mysterious, dark matter is one of the greatest enigmas of astrophysics and cosmology. [28] An exotic and extremely rare nuclear decay that involves the simultaneous capture of two atomic electrons by a xenon-124 nucleus has been observed in a dark-matter detector. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23]
Category: Astrophysics

[32493] viXra:1911.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-18 08:00:20

Better Light-Trapping Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

A study published in Nature describes a new design for optical resonators that are more effective at trapping light, an important fundamental step towards making more efficient optical devices. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32492] viXra:1911.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-17 10:20:29

The Light Deflection and the Anomaly near the Sun

Authors: Walter Orlov
Comments: 2 Pages.

Closer to the sun the relativistic dependence is violated. The gravitational field becomes stronger than calculated by the general relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32491] viXra:1911.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-17 12:12:14

Wolf 1061c in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 5 Pages.

A few issues are addressed to explain Wolf 1061c, which are different than the dogma. Explanation is provided. A screenshot of the Wikipedia page of Wolf 1061c is provided to juxtapose the General Theory from dogma.
Category: Astrophysics

[32490] viXra:1911.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-17 14:40:21

A New Hamiltonian Model of the Fibonacci Quasicrystal Using Non-Local Interactions: Simulations and Spectral Analysis

Authors: Amrik Sen, Carlos Castro
Comments: 16 Pages. Submitted to EPJB

This article presents a novel Hamiltonian architecture based on vertex types and empires for demonstrating the emergence of aperiodic order (quasicrystal growth) in one dimension by a suitable prescription for breaking translation symmetry. At the outset, the paper presents different algorithmic, geometrical, and algebraic methods of constructing empires of vertex configurations of a given quasi- lattice. These empires have non-local scope and form the building blocks of the new lattice model. This model is tested via Monte Carlo simulations beginning with randomly arranged N tiles. The simulations clearly establish the Fibonacci configuration, which is a one dimensional quasicrystal of length N, as the final relaxed state of the system. The Hamiltonian is promoted to a matrix operator form by performing dyadic tensor products of pairs of interacting empire vectors followed by a summation over all permissible configurations. A spectral analysis of the Hamiltonian matrix is performed and a theoretical method is presented to find the exact solution of the attractor configuration that is given by the Fibonacci chain as predicted by the simulations. Finally, a precise theoretical explanation is provided which shows that the Fibonacci chain is the most probable ground state. The proposed Hamiltonian is a one dimensional model of quasicrystal growth.
Category: Condensed Matter

[32489] viXra:1911.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-17 17:07:29

On the Neutrino Theory of Light

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

This is a review article. We show that the mass of neutrinos in accelerating fields behaves radically differently than masses other particles. Abandonment of the idea that photons are systems of entangled neutrino-antineutrino (NAN) pairs creates great problems today in a coherent description of dark matter, dark energy, nuclear plasma and spin and mass of the proton. In fact, objects built from entangled or/and confined NAN pairs create the illusion of the existence of quarks. Here we calculated the neutrino charge and the lower and upper limits for photon mass.
Category: Quantum Physics

[32488] viXra:1911.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-17 17:45:40

New Origin, Shape and Dynamics of the Universe

Authors: Dan Visser
Comments: 5 Pages.

A new origin, shape and dynamics of the universe is postulated in addition to an extensive amount of my articles earlier posted in the vixra-archive, because endorsement for review and acceptence is neglected by institutional physics and cosmology departements.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[32487] viXra:1911.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-16 20:25:13

Weather Event Severity Prediction Using Buoy Data and Machine Learning

Authors: Vikas Ramachandra
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper, we predict severity of extreme weather events (tropical storms, hurricanes, etc.) using buoy data time series variables such as wind speed and air temperature. The prediction/forecasting method is based on various forecasting and machine learning models. The following steps are used. Data sources for the buoys and weather events are identified, aggregated and merged. For missing data imputation, we use Kalman filters as well as splines for multivariate time series. Then, statistical tests are run to ascertain increasing trends in weather event severity. Next, we use machine learning to predict/forecast event severity using buoy variables, and report good accuracies for the models built.
Category: Climate Research

[32486] viXra:1911.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-17 01:09:59

Artificial Robot Muscles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Artificial muscles will power the soft robots and wearable devices of the future. But more needs to be understood about the underlying mechanics of these powerful structures in order to design and build new devices. [28] Researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology have recently proposed a neurorobotics approach that could aid the development of robots with advanced communication capabilities. [27] Now, a team of scientists at MIT and elsewhere has developed a neural network, a form of artificial intelligence (AI), that can do much the same thing, at least to a limited extent: It can read scientific papersand render a plain-English summary in a sentence or two. [26] To address this gap in the existing literature, a team of researchers at SRI International has created a human-AI image guessing game inspired by the popular game 20 Questions (20Q), which can be used to evaluate the helpfulness of machine explanations. [25]
Category: Condensed Matter

[32485] viXra:1911.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-17 01:14:42

Natural Mechanics

Authors: Matthew Taylor
Comments: 49 Pages. All rights reserved.

From the Microcosmic Expansions of First-Generation Universes to the Macroscopic Expansions of Late-Generation Universes and a Fair Portion of Everything in Between - and a few mistakes made along the way - a New Model of Reality Emerges.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32484] viXra:1911.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-17 04:22:45

Nanoparticles Fight Lung Cancer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

Scientists have reported a new approach to treating lung cancer with inhaled nanoparticles developed at Wake Forest School of Medicine, part of Wake Forest Baptist Health. [34] Another collaborative project from a nanoparticles expert at The University of Texas at Arlington has yielded promising results in the search for more effective, targeted cancer treatments. [33] Automated radiotherapy planning is a boon for medical physicists and dosimetrists, radiotherapy departments, and patients themselves – according to a team at Cone Health Cancer Center. [32]
Category: Physics of Biology

[32483] viXra:1911.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-17 04:49:49

Nanoscale Magnetic Tuning

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

In collaboration with colleagues from the Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden (IFW) and the University of Glasgow, physicists from the German research center Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) are working to produce engineered magnetic nanostructures and to tailor material properties at the nanoscale. [30] Manipulating nanoscale light in scanning tunneling microscope junctions is attained by nanofabrication of gold tips using a focused ion beam technique. [29] Researchers at Tokyo Tech have developed a nanosized container bearing photoswitches that takes up hydrophobic compounds of various size and shape in water and subsequently releases them quantitatively by non-invasive light stimulus. [28] By studying how electrons in two-dimensional graphene can literally act like a liquid, researchers have paved the way for further research into a material that has the potential to enable future electronic computing devices that outpace silicon transistors. [27] This research is a therefore a step towards basic and technological research into 3-D analogues of QSH insulators, and may ultimately lead to new electronic and spintronic technologies. [26] Topological insulators (TIs) host exotic physics that could shed new light on the fundamental laws of nature. [25] A new study by scientists from the University of Bristol brings us a significant step closer to unleashing the revolutionary potential of quantum computing by harnessing silicon fabrication technology to build complex on-chip quantum optical circuits. [24] Two teams of scientists from the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have collaborated to conduct groundbreaking research leading to the development of a new and innovative scientific field: Quantum Metamaterials. [23]
Category: Condensed Matter

[32482] viXra:1911.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-17 05:26:04

Carbon Nanotubes Application

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

An international team of scientists led by researchers from the Laboratory of Nanomaterials at the Skoltech Center for Photonics and Quantum Materials (CPQM) has rationally designed a novel p-type flexible transparent conductor using single-walled carbon nanotubes. [39] Scientists at Texas Heart Institute (THI) and Rice University have used biocompatible fibres made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as electrical bridges to restore conductivity to damaged hearts. [38] A team of researchers from China, the U.S. and Japan has developed a way to strengthen graphene-based membranes intended for use in desalination projects-by fortifying them with nanotubes. [37] The team arrived at their results by imaging gold nanoparticles, with diameters ranging from 2 to 5 nanometres, via aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. [36] Nanoparticles of less than 100 nanometres in size are used to engineer new materials and nanotechnologies across a variety of sectors. [35] For years, researchers have been trying to find ways to grow an optimal nanowire, using crystals with perfectly aligned layers all along the wire. [34] Ferroelectric materials have a spontaneous dipole moment which can point up or down. [33] Researchers have successfully demonstrated that hypothetical particles that were proposed by Franz Preisach in 1935 actually exist. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31] Materials scientists at Duke University computationally predicted the electrical and optical properties of semiconductors made from extended organic molecules sandwiched by inorganic structures. [30]
Category: Condensed Matter

[32481] viXra:1911.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-17 06:20:30

On the Ramanujan Formulas: Mathematical Connections with Some Sectors of Particle Physics, in Particular on the Masses of the Dilaton, of the Candidate Glueball and of the Two Pion Mesons.

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 174 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed various Ramanujan equations and described the new possible mathematical connections with some sectors of Particle physics, in particular on the masses of the dilaton, of the candidate glueball and of the two Pion mesons.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[32480] viXra:1911.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-17 06:38:45

Precisely Poking Cells Cure Cancer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

Now, in a watershed advance, engineers at the University of California, Riverside, in collaboration with researchers at City of Hope National Medical Center, have invented a device that holds potential for mass-producing engineered cells at lower cost, a tipping point for these lifesaving therapies. [35] Scientists have reported a new approach to treating lung cancer with inhaled nanoparticles developed at Wake Forest School of Medicine, part of Wake Forest Baptist Health. [34]
Category: Physics of Biology

[32479] viXra:1911.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-17 08:18:55

Recurring Pairs of Consecutive Entries in the Number-of-Divisors Function

Authors: Richard J. Mathar
Comments: 39 Pages.

The Number-of-Divisors Function tau(n) is the number of divisors of a positive integer n, including 1 and n itself. Searching for pairs of the format (tau(n), tau(n+1)), some pairs appear (very) often, some never and some --- like (1,2), (4,9), or (10,3) --- exactly once. The manuscript provides proofs for 46 pairs to appear exactly once and lists 12 pairs that conjecturally appear only once. It documents a snapshot of a community effort to verify sequence A161460 of the Online Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences that started ten years ago.
Category: Number Theory

[32478] viXra:1911.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-16 08:33:32

Graphene Softer if You Bend

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 78 Pages.

To make the bent graphene, Yu fabricated individual atomic layers of hexagonal boron nitride, another 2-D material, into atomic-scale steps, then stamped the graphene over the top. [48] "The junctions were reproducible over several devices and operated from 20 Kelvin up to room temperature. Our approach represents a simple but powerful strategy for the future integration of molecule-based functions into stable and controllable nanoelectronic devices." [47] The team has turned graphene oxide (GO) into a soft, moldable and kneadable play dough that can be shaped and reshaped into free-standing, three-dimensional structures. [46] A team of researchers based at The University of Manchester have found a low cost method for producing graphene printed electronics, which significantly speeds up and reduces the cost of conductive graphene inks. [45] Graphene-based computer components that can deal in terahertz "could be used, not in a normal Macintosh or PC, but perhaps in very advanced computers with high processing rates," Ozaki says. This 2-D material could also be used to make extremely high-speed nanodevices, he adds. [44] Printed electronics use standard printing techniques to manufacture electronic devices on different substrates like glass, plastic films, and paper. [43] A tiny laser comprising an array of nanoscale semiconductor cylinders (see image) has been made by an all-A*STAR team. [42] A new instrument lets researchers use multiple laser beams and a microscope to trap and move cells and then analyze them in real-time with a sensitive analysis technique known as Raman spectroscopy. [41]
Category: Condensed Matter

[32477] viXra:1911.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-16 10:17:04

Better Candidate for Chemotherapy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

When the red blood cells make their tight squeeze through the lung's tiny capillaries, the nanoparticles are sheared off and taken up by lung cells with tenfold greater success than free-floating nanoparticles, and dramatically improved the survival of mice with lung cancer metastasis. [25] But a new ultrasonic method proposed by biomedical engineers from Qifa Zhou's team at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles could enable acoustic control and real-time tracking of drug release within the body. [24] A Rutgers-led team has created better biosensor technology that may help lead to safe stem cell therapies for treating Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases and other neurological disorders. [23]
Category: Physics of Biology

[32476] viXra:1911.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-16 10:27:13

Mass of the W Boson as Threshold Energy in Electroweak Interactions

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

The W and Z bosons are the normal particles that masses follow from weak interactions of pions and leptons. In reality, the weak interactions are defined by the scalar condensates in centres of fermions. Here we show that to produce the scalar condensate in centre of the baryons, involved energy must be equal to or higher than mass of the W boson.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[32475] viXra:1911.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-16 16:36:39

Theory of God's Creation

Authors: Christopher L A Smith
Comments: 5 Pages. theory of everything would like it well handled

Pyramids they are everything’s particle constituent as I explain you will get to know the basic structure of the universe they are magnetic in nature and have both a field release and field return of magnetism as a force continuum. These Pyramid’s release and intake force into each other’s field continuum they stream force into each other’s field continuum force intake releases force into return fields force intake spirals into release into a vortex of motion spiraling around release. The force releases straight out the tip to return normally but can move slightly towards greater force of returning magnetism the release field of the base seeks the return field in release direction and the base can split into several release and return points. These Pyramids are gluons permeate as heat make up all particles when together as fields.
Category: Quantum Physics

[32474] viXra:1911.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-16 12:26:40

Creating a More Human-Like AI Entity

Authors: Keith D. Foote
Comments: 1 Page.

This paper initiates and explores the concept of recording the visual and audio experiences of individuals to be used as a foundation for AI entities. The goal is to provide more human like behavior.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[32473] viXra:1911.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-16 14:47:29

Nature Astronomy Journal Has Been Published Plagiarism of Leonov's Concept of a Quantized Ball-Shaped Universe

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 3 Pages

In 1996, I developed and published the scientific concept of the quantized ball-shaped universe in Russian [1]. This concept was published a second time in English in 2010-2011 in my fundamental the theory of Superunification [2-4]. The concept of a quantized universe is my development. Our universe is a quantized universe and the universe is filled with quantons. Quanton is a quantum of space-time and it was discovered by me in 1996. Quanton has four integer quark two electric (±e) and two magnetic (±g). The calculated diameter of the quanton is 10^—25 m. The concentration of quantons is the quantum density (is an average ~10^75 q/m3) of the medium (space) and this is a variable function that describes the deformation (Einstein's analogue of curvature) of quantized space-time. A quantized universe can only have the shape of a ball and at the moment it is in a white hole state. Our universe is not flat. It is spherically deformed and the deformation (force) vector is directed to the periphery of the universe forcing the galaxies to run with acceleration. A quantized universe has no expansion and its diameter is a constant parameter. We are observing only the accelerated scattering (recession) of galaxies inside of the quantized deformed universe. This is a new physics; this is a new methodology for calculating the parameters of the universe and its state as at the present moment and for the future. I was glad when I read the article “Planck evidence for a closed Universe and a possible crisis for cosmology” in the “Nature Astronomy” [5], which once again confirms the correctness of the theory of Superunification. But I was surprised when I did not see a reference to my theory of Superunification and to the Leonov's concept of a quantized ball-shaped universe. We must make references to publications that were made earlier. This is customary in the scientific community. The lack of reference to the publication is plagiarism.
Category: Quantum Physics

[32472] viXra:1911.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-16 17:23:15

Simultaneity Role in The Solar System (SR Discussions)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 16 Pages.

One of the basic difficulties I have faced with the Special Theory of Relativity….is What's happened on the next day after the relativistic effects?! We know L0 will be contracted and be L1 - and t0 will be longer t1 – also m0 will be greater m1 But how these values will live their rest of lives?! Imagine we have a rectangle its length L0 now if this length be contracted by lorentz length contraction phenomenon to become L1 – is this new length will work as the rectangle length or this position will change….? Shortly How the relativistic system will cooperate with the non-relativistic one? Special Theory of relativity gives us a short information – it's a story for what's happening in accident – but what will happen after?…. we don't know! Now I wish to write my conclusion how Einstein created this theory…. While Einstein depends on hundreds of electrodynamics experimental results and many of new discoveries in particle motion analysis – he had a very hard job to find the cooperation point between all this material – In addition to his incredible brilliant intelligence – he was so brave warrior to accept such heavy job to do The theory gives us incomplete picture –because – he didn't allow himself to provide imagination has no proves – so he provided the facts which are proved by experiments and their direct conclusions with so deep insights Now this is almost the electrodynamics apex capacity – means – this is the highest result can reach by the 5 senses experiments – instead we have to use Data Analysis to see much deeper We simply ask why they didn't use the data analysis? The difficulty here is in the experiment meaning in itself… Because we don't know how the matter is created?, we don't really know the experiment tools which we use – Einstein told us that – we even didn't know how to use the time and distance values which we measure in labs that because we have wrong definitions about them Shortly If we search for a system in which a relativistic dimension has cooperation with non-relativistic one- so this system we can't be created in experiments – we have to find it in the nature itself – Clearly we can't create such system – basically because we have no the required sufficient knowledge to do I provide a clear claim here– I claim that the solar system has relativistic effects – and because the system works sufficiently – we conclude that the relativistic dimension cooperates with the non-relativistic one perfectly- and they consist together the solar system – This idea gives us a chance to a new-approach analysis for the theory– let's start in following Gerges Francis Tawdrous +201022532292
Category: Astrophysics

[32471] viXra:1911.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-15 20:08:51

Testing the No-Signaling Hypothesis

Authors: Bruce Holton
Comments: 2 Pages.

Here we describe an experiment that demonstrates how messages might be sent using entangled photons. While super-luminal signaling is considered impossible due to the statistical nature of quantum processes, we suggest a possible loophole has been found. Provided the reasoning here is correct, we have an open conflict between quantum mechanics and special relativity. If we can send messages, we can time them. Quantum mechanics predicts instantaneous action-at-a-distance. Special relativity tells us that no information can be transmitted faster than the speed of light. Hence, whether the timing turns out to be super-luminal or not, we have an apparent contradiction between the results and one of these two theories. We hypothesize that a timing test will demonstrate super-luminal signaling.
Category: Quantum Physics

[32470] viXra:1911.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-15 22:44:56

Two Body Motion: A Rudimentary Inspection

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 10 Pages.

The basic laws of mechanics, conservation of linear momentum and angular momentum have been considered along with a third equation—a new one-- to bring out conflicting features in the subject by considering two body motion.
Category: Classical Physics

[32469] viXra:1911.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-15 23:47:03

Energy, Market, Ecology and the Challenge of Civilization

Authors: V. A. Kasimov.
Comments: 7 Pages. Russian, English

Perhaps the most sinister the shadow hanging over the future of Humanity is the uncontrolled use of enormous amounts of energy. The "marriage union" of the market with energy is able to create an ecological monster that will "devour” all life on Earth except, perhaps, prokaryotes - the original form of life.
Category: Physics of Biology

[32468] viXra:1911.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-16 02:53:50

Exponential Factorization and Polar Decomposition of Multivectors in C(p,q), P + Q <=3

Authors: Eckhard Hitzer, Stephen J. Sangwine
Comments: 18 Pages. Submitted to Adv. in Appl. Cliff. Algs., 2019.

In this paper we consider general multivector elements of Clifford algebras $C(p,q)$, $p+q \leq 3$, and study multivector equivalents of polar decompositions and factorization into products of exponentials, where the exponents are frequently blades of grades zero (scalar) to $n$ (pseudoscalar).
Category: Algebra

[32467] viXra:1911.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-16 04:58:19

Hot Electrons Harvested

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Semiconductors convert energy from photons (light) into an electron current. However, some photons carry too much energy for the material to absorb. These photons produce "hot electrons," and the excess energy of these electrons is converted into heat. [26] Researchers at Heriot-Watt University, in collaboration with researchers from the University of Toulouse, France, have proposed a novel framework that combines statistical models with highly scalable computational tools from the computer graphics community to accurately extract the 3-D information in real-time (50 frames per second). [25] The team is now working to make the device even smaller by shortening the distance between the silicon disk and the gold membrane. This would further reduce signal loss, making the technology even more appealing to industry. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32466] viXra:1911.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-16 07:04:28

Photoemission Electron Microscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

A research group led by Prof. Fu Qiang and Prof. Bao Xinhe at the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) have developed near ambient pressure photoemission electron microscopy (AP-PEEM) with a tunable deep-ultraviolet (DUV) laser source as the excitation source. [27] Semiconductors convert energy from photons (light) into an electron current. However, some photons carry too much energy for the material to absorb. These photons produce "hot electrons," and the excess energy of these electrons is converted into heat. [26] Researchers at Heriot-Watt University, in collaboration with researchers from the University of Toulouse, France, have proposed a novel framework that combines statistical models with highly scalable computational tools from the computer graphics community to accurately extract the 3-D information in real-time (50 frames per second). [25] The team is now working to make the device even smaller by shortening the distance between the silicon disk and the gold membrane. This would further reduce signal loss, making the technology even more appealing to industry. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32465] viXra:1911.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-16 07:14:38

On Various Ramanujan Continued Fractions: Mathematical Connections with Some Sectors of Particle Physics Concerning Like-Particle Solutions and Dilaton Value.

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 41 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed various Ramanujan continued fractions and described the new possible mathematical connections with some sectors of Particle physics concerning like-particle solutions and dilaton value.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[32464] viXra:1911.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-16 07:43:53

Carbon Nanotube Controlling Neural Cell

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

Researchers of the Microelectronics Research Unit (MIC) at the University of Oulu, in collaboration with Tampere University, have demonstrated that carbon nanotubes can be used to control the direction of neural cell growth. [40] Now Shulaker and his team in Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, alongside researchers at Analog Devices, Inc.(ADI) also in Massachusetts USA, have taken on a series of challenges that have hampered carbon nanotube (CNT) computers since the first carbon nanotube transistors were reported in the late 1990s. [39] Scientists at Texas Heart Institute (THI) and Rice University have used biocompatible fibres made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as electrical bridges to restore conductivity to damaged hearts. [38]
Category: Physics of Biology

[32463] viXra:1911.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-15 08:28:30

Particle Beam Instability

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

The more intense the beams, the more easily scientists can examine the object they are looking at. But intensity comes with a cost: the more intense the beams, the more they become prone to instabilities. [40] DESY scientists have created a miniature particle accelerator for electrons that can perform four different functions at the push of a button. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[32462] viXra:1911.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-15 08:58:17

Complex Scenes from Long Distances

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Researchers at Heriot-Watt University, in collaboration with researchers from the University of Toulouse, France, have proposed a novel framework that combines statistical models with highly scalable computational tools from the computer graphics community to accurately extract the 3-D information in real-time (50 frames per second). [25] The team is now working to make the device even smaller by shortening the distance between the silicon disk and the gold membrane. This would further reduce signal loss, making the technology even more appealing to industry. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32461] viXra:1911.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-15 09:20:11

The Riemann Flow

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 1 page, written in english

The Riemann flow is defined with help of the riemannian curvature.
Category: Geometry

[32460] viXra:1911.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-15 10:10:10

GR Equation for Gravitational-Capillary Waves of Deep Water

Authors: Vladimir Aksayskiy
Comments: 1 Page.

The equation of gravitational-capillary waves of deep water can be represented in form of Einstein field equation in general theory of relativity. In this case, waves with a minimum speed on surface of water will be a physical model of gravitational waves with the speed of light.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[32459] viXra:1911.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-15 11:12:23

Analysis vs Synthesis

Authors: Oleg Lihvoinen
Comments: 96 Pages.

In this book we study different conscience levels based on different approaches to the reality - analysis and synthesis. We show that analysis always leads to splitting the reality into pieces in order to gain some money benefits. As a result there happens complexity and information growth when people are not able to manage it anymore. Analysis always relates to rational mind when a person builds a "rule firewall". Eventually this leads to "dehumanization" in the sense that a person forgets own dreams - the best ideas the person had in childhood or young age. Because he/she needs to spend the whole day building his/her rational mind that usually results in building career. On the contrary, synthesis leads to creative thinking that helps to build new methods to study the reality that give new innovative solutions to all problems of mankind such as climate change, hunger and wars.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[32458] viXra:1911.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-15 12:09:07

Kalecki's Paradoxical Odyssey

Authors: Stephen Ternyik
Comments: 10 Pages.

Non-orthodox economic approach.
Category: Economics and Finance

[32457] viXra:1911.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-15 01:19:00

Trapped Interferometer Gravity Probe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Atoms held in place by laser beams offer a new and more compact means of measuring the local acceleration due to gravity, paving the way for applications ranging from geophysical exploration to sensitive tests of fundamental forces. [34] In a study published online in Nature Methods, Prof. Compact quantum devices could be incorporated into laptops and mobile phones, thanks in part to small devices called quantum optical micro-combs. [31] Taking their name from an intricate Japanese basket pattern, kagome magnets are thought to have electronic properties that could be valuable for future quantum devices and applications. [30] A team of Cambridge researchers have found a way to control the sea of nuclei in semiconductor quantum dots so they can operate as a quantum memory device. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25]
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[32456] viXra:1911.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-15 02:58:53

Split Photons in Bose-Einstein Condensate

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

"Perhaps quantum computers might one day use this method to communicate with each other and form a kind of quantum Internet," says Weitz with a view towards the future. [23] Researchers led by Tracy Northup at the University of Innsbruck have now built a quantum sensor that can measure light particles non-destructively. [22] A study by the Quantum Technologies for Information Science (QUTIS) group of the UPV/EHU's Department of Physical Chemistry, has produced a series of protocols for quantum sensors that could allow images to be obtained by means of the nuclear magnetic resonance of single biomolecules using a minimal amount of radiation. [21] An international team of physicists at ETH Zurich, Aalto University, the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, and the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics in Moscow has demonstrated that algorithms and hardware developed originally in the context of quantum computation can be harnessed for quantum-enhanced sensing of magnetic fields. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32455] viXra:1911.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-15 03:30:27

Reroute Light in Computer Chips

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

The team is now working to make the device even smaller by shortening the distance between the silicon disk and the gold membrane. This would further reduce signal loss, making the technology even more appealing to industry. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon-the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy-in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32454] viXra:1911.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-15 05:05:34

Cooper Pair Metal

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 77 Pages.

The findings describe an entirely new state of matter, the researchers say, that will require a new theoretical explanation. [51] This area of research aims to greatly accelerate the study of spintronics with organic molecules. [50] In a recent study, researchers at the NASA Ames Research Center have demonstrated that nanoscale vacuum channel transistors can be fabricated on silicon carbide wafers. [49] Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanofibers can have various applications, such as in catalyzers and filters. [48] Today, scientists report progress in making versions of these nanoparticles that could someday give built-in night vision to humans. [47] A new piece of a difficult puzzle-the nature of memory-fell into place this week with a hint at how brain cells change structure when they learn something. [46] Researchers at the University of Alberta have found an important protein in the cells of a deadly infectious parasite, opening the door to less harmful treatment for millions of people suffering from diseases like sleeping sickness in Africa and Chagas disease in South America. [45] The remarkable ability of a small Australian sea snail to produce a colourful purple compound to protect its eggs is proving even more remarkable for its potential in a new anti-cancer pharmaceutical. [44] Gene editing technology is a technology that eliminates the underlying causes of and treats diseases by removing specific genesor editing genes to restore their normal function. In particular, CRISPR gene editing technology is now commonly used for immunotherapy by correcting the genes of immune cells to induce them to attack cancer cells selectively. [43] Bioengineers and biophysicists from the have discovered that the toxicity of nanoparticles depends more on their size and the extent to which their surface area is charged than on their chemical composition. [42]
Category: Condensed Matter

[32453] viXra:1911.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-15 05:36:23

Terahertz Laser with Laughing Gas

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Within the electromagnetic middle ground between microwaves and visible light lies terahertz radiation, and the promise of "T-ray vision." [15] A team of scientists from DESY and the University of Hamburg has achieved an important milestone in the quest for a new type of compact particle accelerator. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32452] viXra:1911.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-15 06:15:04

Spring and Gravity Laws of Vibration Energy Harvesting

Authors: Emmanuel F.C. Chimamkpam
Comments: 15 pages of texts/equations and 11 pages of figures. DOI:10.5281/zenodo.3530639

Usual theory has it that large power is only attained by using large mass in harvesting of vibration energy. But can a heavy harvester be displaced at all or meaningfully under small vibration sources? Large mass means large materials with high costs, less ease of transportation and high difficulty of integration into portable technologies. Herein, a theory is proposed and validated for power as inversely proportional to mass but directly proportional to the stiffness of spring, meaning that large mass is not always needed. A further concept is established that more local gravity gives higher power but on condition that mass, spring stiffness and displacement amplitude of vibration source remain unchanged. Nonlinear multi-phase power spectrum arises when displacement amplitude of a vibration source is constant, whereas linear single-phase spectrum is the result when this amplitude fluctuates in non-zero gravity. All theoretical findings concur with results of real-life applications, giving new design pathways for high performance harvesters.
Category: Quantum Physics

[32451] viXra:1911.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-15 06:50:19

Refutation of Fundamental Sets for Algebraic Subgroups

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate fundamental sets for algebraic subgroups by way of the seminal Theorem 6.12. It is not tautologous and refutes the conjecture. What follows is refutation of quantitative reduction theory and unlikely intersections. These results form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Algebra

[32450] viXra:1911.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-15 06:56:30

New Paradox in the Special Relativity Mass-Spring-Mass Oscillator

Authors: Randolf Rolff
Comments: 7 pages; German language Deutsch: Neues Paradoxon in der SRT– Masse-Feder-Masse-Schwinger

When calculating the resonance frequency of a fast moving mass-spring-mass oscillator, this contradicts the relativistic time dilation. The calculated frequency depends on the inertial system used for the calculation. There are indications that the elastic potential energy of a spring decreases with increasing speed and does not increase as predicted by the theory of relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32449] viXra:1911.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-14 07:19:42

Quantum Transition Electron Lack Spin

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

The phenomenon occurs at extremely low temperatures very close to absolute zero. When temperatures fall this low, thermodynamic fluctuations practically disappear, and quantum fluctuations are observed, constituting the "medium" in which interactions among electrons take place. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32448] viXra:1911.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-14 08:48:22

Spin Dynamics in Rydberg Molecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

Rydberg molecules are giant molecules made up of tens or hundreds of atoms bound to a Rydberg atom. [39] The three-year Rydberg Quantum Simulators (RYSQ) project was set up to capitalize on the versatility of Rydberg atoms in order to address a variety of quantum simulations. [38] Using lasers, U.S. and Austrian physicists have coaxed ultracold strontium atoms into complex structures unlike any previously seen in nature. [37] A team of researchers has now presented this state of matter in the journal Physical Review Letters. The theoretical work was done at TU Wien (Vienna) and Harvard University, the experiment was performed at Rice University in Houston (Texas). [36] The old question, whether quantum systems show recurrences, can finally be answered: Yes, they do-but the concept of recurrence has to be slightly redefined. [35] Researchers at Purdue University have performed the first experimental tests of several fundamental theorems in thermodynamics, verifying the relationship between them and providing a better understanding of how nanoparticles behave under fluctuation. [34] Identifying right-handed and left-handed molecules is a crucial step for many applications in chemistry and pharmaceutics. [33] A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information-known as qubits-that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32447] viXra:1911.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-14 09:45:02

Quantum Objective Reality

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Clearly these are all deeply philosophical questions about the fundamental nature of reality. Whatever the answer, an interesting future awaits. [37] Researchers at the University of Vienna study the relevance of quantum reference frames for the symmetries of the world. [36] Researchers in Singapore have built a refrigerator that's just three atoms big. This quantum fridge won't keep your drinks cold, but it's cool proof of physics operating at the smallest scales. [35] Researchers have created a new testing ground for quantum systems in which they can literally turn certain particle interactions on and off, potentially paving the way for advances in spintronics. [34] In 2017, University of Utah physicist Valy Vardeny called perovskite a "miracle material" for an emerging field of next-generation electronics, called spintronics, and he's standing by that assertion. [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32446] viXra:1911.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-14 10:52:41

Molecular Chirality Changes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

The researchers have generated femtosecond laser pulses, with tailor-made, temporally varying polarizations, which are themselves chiral. [17] The scientists identified a shortlist, a kind of "periodic table" of the most designable knot types, i.e. those knots that could easily self-assemble under appropriate physical and chemical conditions. [16] Scientists have now observed for the first time how diamonds grow from seed at an atomic level, and discovered just how big the seeds need to be to kick the crystal growing process into overdrive. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Physics of Biology

[32445] viXra:1911.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-14 11:58:07

Catalan's Constant and pi :Integrals

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito, Rodrigo Valdebenito
Comments: 2 Pages.

Double integrals
Category: General Mathematics

[32444] viXra:1911.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-14 12:00:10

Numbers: Part 6, Three Integrals .

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito, Rodrigo Valdebenito
Comments: 1 Page.

We give three definite integrals
Category: General Mathematics

[32443] viXra:1911.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-14 12:00:22

The Essential Papakonstantinidis/protocol

Authors: Stephen I. Ternyik
Comments: 3 Pages.

Natural Language Protocol of Presentation
Category: Social Science

[32442] viXra:1911.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-14 12:45:12

On Various Ramanujan Equations: Mathematical Connections with Some Cosmological Parameters and Some Sectors of Particle Physics, in Particular the Masses of the Two Pion Mesons.

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 123 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed various Ramanujan equations and described the new possible mathematical connections with some cosmological parameters and some sectors of Particle physics, in particular the masses of the two Pion mesons.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[32441] viXra:1911.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-14 14:26:32

On the New Mathematical Connections Between Some Ramanujan Equations and Some Formulas Concerning Various Sectors of String Theory and Particle Physics

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 113 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed various Ramanujan equations and described the new possible mathematical connections with some sectors of string theory and Particle Physics
Category: Mathematical Physics

[32440] viXra:1911.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-14 15:07:54

Diffusion Gravity: An Alternative to Dark Matter

Authors: DH Fulton
Comments: 13 Pages. Fourth paper in series on Diffusion Gravity

Diffusion Gravity is a theory based upon established physical principles including Newtonian mechanics, quantum mechanics, and the Principle of Least Action. Radial flows of virtual particles from all masses due to mass diffusion is proposed as the fundamental cause of gravity, along with the corresponding quantum mechanisms underlying the macroscopic phenomenon. The Poisson equation for gravity and the corresponding “sink” or depletion zone is presented as the attraction mechanism for gravity; this current research installment applies the equation to large scale gravitational equipotential point-surfaces in galactic star orbits, where the acceleration according to Newton-Kepler should fall to a0<10-10 m/sec2, but observationally does not. By steradial geometry and the Gaussian transform of volume virtual particle flows to equipotential surface fluxes, the diffusion gravity model demonstrates how a gravitational “locking” and “equipotential-locking” at galactic scale affects centripetal acceleration and velocity rotation curves of galaxies, without invoking dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[32439] viXra:1911.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-13 22:50:11

Exploring [ Spring Tools 4 for Eclipse/JamVM/ Prolog Development Tool - PDT ] in the Context of Prolog/Palladio Studio/IoT/HPC Heterogeneous Systems & Environments - A Simple Understanding of JamVM [ Java Virtual Machine ]

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 4 Pages. Short Communication & Technical Notes

Exploring [ Spring Tools 4 for Eclipse/JamVM/ Prolog Development Tool - PDT ] in the Context of Prolog/Palladio Studio/IoT/HPC Heterogeneous Systems & Environments - A Simple Understanding of JamVM [ Java Virtual Machine ]interaction With Spring Boot Framework.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[32438] viXra:1911.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-13 23:51:00

Refutation of Bunch Theory with Derivations

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 3 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate bunch theory in ten equations which are not tautologous. This refutes the conjecture of bunch theory along with its derivations of: improper bunch theory; wholistic functions; fixed point theory; and formal grammars. These results form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[32437] viXra:1911.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-14 01:16:00

Antimatter and Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

Thinking that they might be, scientists from the international BASE collaboration, led by Stefan Ulmer of the RIKEN Cluster for Pioneering Research, and collaborators have performed the first laboratory experiments to determine whether a slightly different way in which matter and antimatter interact with dark matter might be a key to solving both mysteries. [34] Our universe could be the mirror image of an antimatter universe extending backwards in time before the Big Bang. [33] "As you celebrate New Year's Day, cast an eye upward and think for a moment about the amazing things our country and our species can do when we set our minds to it," Stern wrote in the New York Times on Monday. [32]
Category: Astrophysics

[32436] viXra:1911.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-14 06:51:46

Numbers Do Not Exist

Authors: Averky Glebov
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper we discuss how numbers, are just not real, and do not exist in the world.
Category: General Mathematics

[32435] viXra:1911.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-13 10:34:46

The Shape of the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Therefore, the most interesting result of our paper is not that the universe appears to be curved rather than flat, but the fact that it may force us to rearrange the pieces of the cosmic puzzle in a completely different way. [32] Now physicists at MIT, Kenyon College, and elsewhere have simulated in detail an intermediary phase of the early universe that may have bridged cosmic inflation with the Big Bang. [31] At the Japanese Research Center for Particle Physics KEK, the new particle accelerator experiment Belle II started operation after eight years of construction. [30]
Category: Astrophysics

[32434] viXra:1911.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-13 11:40:36

L'évolution Des Espèces en Question

Authors: Vialla Stéphane
Comments: 4 Pages. français

Dans cet article je reviens sur les trois mécanismes qui régissent l'évolution des espèces: l'environnement de Charles Darwin, l'épigénétique de Jean baptiste Lamarck et la génétique dont l'origine tient dans les travaux de G. Mendel. Je conclus avec une proposition d'un mécanisme génétique propre supplémentaire intervenant dans l'évolution des espèces.
Category: Physics of Biology

[32433] viXra:1911.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-13 11:38:30

Solution to the New Paradox of Special Relativity

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 2 Pages.

Albert Einstein said against Quantum Physics: "God does not play dice''. Einstein has never accepted the Quantum Physics. So, there can be contradiction between the Theory of Relativity and Quantum Physics. That mean, that one or more of these two theories are incomplete. Just like the Gödel incompleteness theorem says, that formal arithmetic is incomplete.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32432] viXra:1911.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-13 12:27:00

Capture Objects with Ghost Imaging

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 72 Pages.

Researchers have developed a way to capture moving objects with the unconventional imaging method known as ghost imaging. [47] The key to ghost imaging is to use two or more correlated beams of particles. [46] Physicists at the University of Alberta in Canada have developed a new way to build quantum memories, a method for storing delicate quantum information encoded into pulses of light. [45] Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32431] viXra:1911.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-13 13:18:58

Human Cytomegalovirus is the Cause of Essential Hypertension

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 26 Pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, 2019, Jever, Germany. All rights reserved.

Objective: To our knowledge, no study has provided strict evidence of a clear relationship between a human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection and human essential hypertension (EH). Methods: To examine the possible role of HCMV in the etiology of EH, a literature searched through the electronic database PubMed was performed. Data were accurately assessed and re-analyzed by new statistical methods. Results: The meta-analysis results of this study provide evidence that HCMV infection and essential hypertension are connected. Conclusions: Without HCMV infection no EH. Keywords: Human cytomegalovirus, essential hypertension, causal relationship.
Category: Statistics

[32430] viXra:1911.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-13 14:02:48

A Technical Report on 'The Inconsistency of Arithmetic' -- The Discussion

Authors: David Streit, Christoph Benzmüller, Ralf Wüsthofen
Comments: 35 Pages.

This document presents the discussion with two experts in automated theorem proving in the course of drawing up their technical report http://viXra.org/abs/1910.0115 on the paper 'The Inconsistency of Arithmetic' (http://vixra.org/abs/1904.0428). Main issue of the discussion is the wrong countermodel given in the report that is based on an incorrect application of predicate logic.
Category: Number Theory

[32429] viXra:1911.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-13 15:41:29

New Small Cheap Rocket for Small Payload

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 10 Pages.

Conventional modern rocket has existed for more than a half century. However, there has been little or no significant progress in their basic data. They are very exceedingly complex and generally very expensive to build. Designers ordinarily try to improve them by simplifying in order to reduce the cost payload launches. They try to use the first stagy of rocket sometimes, because the rocket engine and body are expensive. But no significant success. The author offers a new type of rocket which does not have the usual rocket body and engine (only open solid rocket fuel). This new rocket is cheap to fabricate, may be switched on and switched off many times and has specific impulse more than conventional solid fuel engine (i.e., close to liquid fuel). One can be used for launch as well as vector correcting rocket. This method is particularly suitable for micro-spacecraft (up to 1 kg). It allows to reduce the launch weight of the rocket to 50 ÷ 1000 kg.
Category: Classical Physics

[32428] viXra:1911.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-13 16:43:54

Lorentz Length Contraction Analysis (SR Discussions) (Part III)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 15 Pages.

Lorentz Length Contraction Is A Real Phenomenon Done For Particle Own Length And Cause To Be Contracted. Gerges Francis Tawdrous +201022532292
Category: Astrophysics

[32427] viXra:1911.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-13 17:21:28

Refutation of Multiplication, Addition, and Subtraction by Zero Calculus

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate the conjecture of the following equations: (a×0)≠0 ; (a×0)<a; and (a−0)<a<(a+0). None is tautologous, and the first two are contradictory. This refutes the conjectures to form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: General Mathematics

[32426] viXra:1911.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-13 18:28:28

Electrostatic Gunnon

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 5 Pages.

The author proposes a new type of gun, in which the projectile is accelerated by an electrostatic field. It shows that a strong electrostatic field (high voltage pulse) can accelerate a small charge (shell) to huge speeds (up to 1000 km/s). If this micro-projectile (10-4 grams) consists of thermonuclear fuel, its explosion will destroy the target. This idea can be used to create thermonuclear engines and missiles, for conventional long-range artillery.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[32425] viXra:1911.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-13 01:57:55

Multiplication by Zero Calculus, Addition by Zero Calculus, and Subtraction by Zero Calculus

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 2 Pages.

In physics, there are many particles in a vacuum.\\ Perfect zero cannot exist.\\ 0 is not perfect zero.\\ 0 is almost zero.\\ Perfect zero is only a mathematical fantasy.\\ $a\times0\approx0$, but $a\times0\neq0$.\\ $a\times0\times0\times0\times0\times0<a\times0\times0\times0\times0<a\times0\times0\times0<a\times0\times0<a\times0<a$.\\ $a-0-0-0<a-0-0<a-0<a<a+0<a+0+0<a+0+0+0$.\\
Category: General Mathematics

[32424] viXra:1911.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-13 07:14:31

Deep Learning Nuclear Waste

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

A research collaboration between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Brown University, and NVIDIA has achieved exaflop performance on the Summit supercomputer with a deep learning application used to model subsurface flow in the study of nuclear waste remediation. [28] A team of scientists at Freie Universität Berlin has developed an Artificial Intelligence (AI) method that provides a fundamentally new solution of the "sampling problem" in statistical physics. [27]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[32423] viXra:1911.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-13 07:55:01

Ultrashort-Pulse Laser Oscillators

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

With the demonstration of a sub-picosecond thin-disk laser oscillator delivering a record-high 350-watt average output power, physicists at ETH Zurich set a new benchmark and pave the path toward even more powerful lasers. [28] But in new experiments by physicists at MIT and elsewhere, the opposite happens: When a pattern called a charge density wave in a certain material is hit with a fast laser pulse, a whole new charge density wave is created-a highly ordered state, instead of the expected disorder. [27] Scientists from Universität Hamburg have united the two research fields and succeeded in observing the emergence of ions in ultracold atoms. [26] Researchers at the Kirchhoff Institute for Physics of Heidelberg University recently succeeded in verifying so-called non-local quantum correlations between ultracold clouds of rubidium atoms. [25] Four decades after it was predicted, scientist create a skyrmion, and take one step towards efficient nuclear fusion. [24] While standard quantum hardware entangles particles in two states, the team has found a way to generate and entangle pairs of particles that each has 15 states. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32422] viXra:1911.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-13 08:23:37

Neutron Scattering Techniques

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

An international team led by New Zealand food scientists at the Riddet Institute has used neutron scattering techniques to characterize the structure of an oil-in-water emulsion commonly used in foods, such as milk, cream, salad dressings and sauces. [14] Coupled with SNS, the world's most powerful pulsed accelerator-based neutron source, VENUS will be the only open research facility platform in the US to provide time-of-flight neutron imaging capabilities to users from academia and industry. [13] A spallation neutron source has been used by physicists in Japan to search for possible violations of the inverse square law of gravity. [12]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[32421] viXra:1911.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-12 10:44:29

Sound Waves Target Drugs to Tumors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

But a new ultrasonic method proposed by biomedical engineers from Qifa Zhou's team at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles could enable acoustic control and real-time tracking of drug release within the body. [24] A Rutgers-led team has created better biosensor technology that may help lead to safe stem cell therapies for treating Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases and other neurological disorders. [23]
Category: Physics of Biology

[32420] viXra:1911.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-12 10:50:35

Hypercomplex Numbers of Dimension 11

Authors: Valery Timin
Comments: timinva@yandex.ru, 3 pages in Russian

This work is devoted to the search, study and compilation of the multiplication table of a compound hyperbolic (Hypercomplex) number of dimension nine (11): q = {1, i1, i2, i3, …, i10, }: in2 = 1. On this basis, as a template, you can choose other multiplication tables with a different target or arbitrary arrangement of plus (+) and minus (-) characters in the cells of the multiplication table. The disadvantage of multiplication tables of dimension 11 is that they are neither associative nor commutative (not even anticommutative). But this is their fundamental property.. Эта работа посвящена поиску, изучению и составлению таблицы умножения составного гиперболического (гиперкомплексного) числа размерностью девять (11): q = {1, i1, i2, i3, …, i11, }: in2 = 1. На этой основе как на шаблоне можно подобрать другие таблицы умножения с другой целевой или произвольной расстановкой знаков "плюс" (+) и "минус" (-) в ячейках таблицы умножения. Ассоциативных и коммутативных таблиц умножения не имеется.
Category: Algebra

[32419] viXra:1911.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-12 12:19:36

Invariance of the Speed of Light and Time Dilation

Authors: Giacomo Roccaforte
Comments: 16 Pages. This version is in Italian

In this chapter we highlight a situation in which the fact that the speed of light is constant in all reference systems would imply that even the flow of the time should be the same in all reference systems , a conclusion that is exactly and paradoxically opposed to the Theory Of Relativity At this point it would be a matter of choosing between two undisputed points: or the speed of light is constant for all the reference systems but in this case also the flow of time would be, and this is against the Theory Of Relativity. Or the flow of time is different in different reference systems, but the speed of the light would no longer be constant, and we know that this is against of the experimental data. At the end of the whole theory, we would arrive at a third possibility, in agreement with all the experimental data, and without a series of doubtful points of the Theory Of Relativity, such as the present and this one http://vixra.org/abs/1801.0229, listed and explained in the complete research already published at http://vixra.org/abs/1707.0297 . This chapter for the moment does not want to suggest a solution to a problem, but only highlights its existence.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32418] viXra:1911.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-12 12:53:29

Massive Photons in Magnetic Field

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

An international research collaboration from Poland, the UK and Russia has created a two-dimensional system-a thin optical cavity filled with liquid crystal-in which they trapped photons. [26] This novel technology could be used to produce molecular junctions in a scalable fashion-allowing millions of them to be manufactured in parallel. [25] Physicists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have successfully generated controlled electron pulses in the attosecond range. [24] A University of Oklahoma physicist, Alberto M. Marino, is developing quantum-enhanced sensors that could find their way into applications ranging from biomedical to chemical detection. Researchers from Queen Mary University of London have developed a mathematical model for the emergence of innovations. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32417] viXra:1911.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-12 13:26:14

Вывод всех линейных преобразований, удовлетворяющих эксперименту Майкельсона-Морли, и обсуждение основ релятивизма (In Russian)

Authors: Szostek Roman
Comments: 36 Pages. This article presents formal proof that STR is a wrong theory (in Russian).

В статье представлено формальное доказательство того, что математика, на которойосновывается Специальная Теория Относительности (СТО), в настоящее время неверно истолкована. Доказательство опирается на анализ значения параметра e(v).Понимание значения этого параметра возможно благодаря анализу общей формы преобразования, для которого преобразование Лоренца является лишь частным случаем. Если e(v) ≠ 0, тогда часы в инерциальных системах отсчета рассинхронизированы. Величины, например, однонаправленной скорости при использовании таких часов не дают реальных значений.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32416] viXra:1911.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-12 13:28:39

Dark Baryonic and Dark Gravitational as Solution for D.M. in M33

Authors: M. Abarca
Comments: 25 Pages.

After the success of the DG theory explaining the data known for DM in M31 and Milky Way and published in [1] Abarca,M., it is right to check the same theory in M33, because DG theory aims to be a universal theory as it is based on a quantum gravitation effect. Taking as starting point the remarkable rotation curve of Corbelli,E , and applying DG theory it has been possible to show that DG matter in M33 cannot explain the total amount of DM needed to justify the rotation curve of M33. Therefore, it has been postulated that the extra amount of DM is dark baryon. Even such mass has been estimated roughly. Similarly, thanks a rotation curve of LMC got by Vasiliev,E. and applying DG theory has been demonstrated that in LMC there is a DM proportion at least four times bigger than such proportion in MW. Therefore in order to preserve the DG theory as universal based on a property of gravitational propagation, it has been postulated the existence of an important amount of dark baryonic. Consequently this conclusion arises an extraordinary test to check the DG theory. Currently, it has been published a method called nanolensing which might be applied to search a type of dark baryon called SULCOs (Sub Lunar Compact Object) in Milky Way and LMC. Possibly, it could be made measures of DB in the Milky Way and LMC in a close future. If measures backed the proportion of DB predicted by the theory then DG theory would be a real theory able to explain DG as a universal law. A second important result showed in the paper is related to the concept of Dark Gravitational mass, DG, because according the theory, the calculus of DG mass has to be extended up to the distance where is placed the interacting system. For example, when it is studied the interaction between M33 and M31, the distance to calculate the DG mass has to be 220 kpc, not only for DG mass of M33 but also for M31, whereas when it is studied the interaction between MW and M31 then both DG masses has to be calculated for a distance of 770 kpc. By DG theory has been found a lower bound for total masses of M33 and LMC. It has not been possible to calculate a more accurate value of masses for both galaxies because the rotation curve published are a bit short and even at the furthest radius of rotation curve, the proportion of baryonic matter versus DG mass is too high to be neglected. Consequently the parameter C, which is the initial condition of a Bernoulli differential equation, cannot be calculated properly. It would be suitable new measures of rotation curves of M33 especially for radius bigger than 23 kpc in order to calculate parameter C with more accuracy. It worth to highlight an interesting property of DG mass formula, which is that its value tends to a finite value, Mo, as variable X grows indefinitely. Physically is important that mass does not tend to infinite. However the NFW formula for mass tends to infinite as x grows, so it is only right inside a bounded halo dominion. Similarly it happens with Burkert DM mass, which is unbounded as x grows. Another important result got in this paper is a very good estimation of Local Group total mass. According [13]Fattahi & Navarro the dynamical mass at 3 Mpc in the Local Group gives a mass of 10^13 Msun. Calculus made with DG theory at such distance gives a total mass bigger than 7*10^12 Msun, when it is considered M31, M33, Milky Way and LMC, obviously when is added the total mass of the rest of dwarfs galaxies of Local Group the total mass will be even more close to the value estimated by Fattahi & Navarro. There is no doubt that this is a magnificent result for DG theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[32415] viXra:1911.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-12 19:58:51

Deep Clustering for Mars Rover Image Datasets

Authors: Vikas Ramachandra
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper, we build autoencoders to learn a latent space from unlabeled image datasets obtained from the Mars rover. Then, once the latent feature space has been learnt, we use k-means to cluster the data. We test the performance of the algorithm on a smaller labeled dataset, and report good accuracy and concordance with the ground truth labels. This is the first attempt to use deep learning based unsupervised algorithms to cluster Mars Rover images. This algorithm can be used to augment human annotations for such datasets (which are time consuming) and speed up the generation of ground truth labels for Mars Rover image data, and potentially other planetary and space images.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[32414] viXra:1911.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-12 16:43:47

On the Srinivasa Ramanujan Manuscripts: Further and New Mathematical Developments Between Various Formulas, the Rogers-Ramanujan Continued Fractions, the Mock Theta Functions and Some Sectors of Cosmology and Theoretical Physics. III

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 131 Pages.

In this research thesis, concerning the Srinivasa Ramanujan Manuscripts, we have analyzed various formulas, the Rogers-Ramanujan continued fractions, the mock theta functions and some sectors of Cosmology and Theoretical Physics. We have obtained further new possible mathematical connections and developments
Category: Mathematical Physics

[32413] viXra:1911.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-12 20:31:45

Minimal Fractal Manifold as Foundation of Quantum Information Theory

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 7 Pages.

Derived from the mathematics of the Renormalization Group, the minimal fractal manifold (MFM) represents a spacetime continuum endowed with arbitrarily small deviations from four dimensions. The geometrical structure of the MFM can be conveniently formulated using the concept of dimensional quaternion, a vector-like entity built from component deviations along the four spacetime coordinates. Our analysis shows that dimensional quaternions form a natural basis for qubit systems and Quantum Information Theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[32412] viXra:1911.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-12 00:37:42

Exploring [ C/C++/Bio-C++ ] based Bio-informatics R&D Framework Using [ XNA- Xeno Nucleic Acids/ Machine Learning/Minsky Machines/Group Theory/Grobner Bases.]

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 4 Pages. Short Communication & Technical Notes

[ BioCPP Computational Libraries/dlibC++( Machine Learning-Library)/Group Theory/Grobner Bases ] interaction With C++ based Template Turing Machine w.r.t Minsky Machines in the Context of XNA Sequencing Mechanisms – A Simple Idea to Test Minsky Machines.We intend to explore Synthetic Biology Theoretically.Hence,this Short communication on Synthetic Biology R&D.To understand XNA related mechanisms like Sequencing we are also using/considering Minksy Machines for better Bio-informatics Applications.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[32411] viXra:1911.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-12 01:18:49

Determining the Length Scale at Which the Force of Gravity is Strong Between Any Two Electrons

Authors: Balungi Francis
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this study we show that the gravitational force between any two electrons becomes strong when the distance between them is the Planck length and that this happens when the applied electric field used to accelerate one electron towards the other up to the Planck length where gravity becomes strong has a value of approximately 5.5269 ×10^60��/��. We also deduce the limiting lengths and electric field at which the electromagnetic and Casimir force becomes strong. This study has implications for physics beyond the standard model.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[32410] viXra:1911.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-12 03:15:37

Ultrafast Laser Pulses Produces

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

But in new experiments by physicists at MIT and elsewhere, the opposite happens: When a pattern called a charge density wave in a certain material is hit with a fast laser pulse, a whole new charge density wave is created—a highly ordered state, instead of the expected disorder. [27] Scientists from Universität Hamburg have united the two research fields and succeeded in observing the emergence of ions in ultracold atoms. [26] Researchers at the Kirchhoff Institute for Physics of Heidelberg University recently succeeded in verifying so-called non-local quantum correlations between ultracold clouds of rubidium atoms. [25]
Category: Condensed Matter

[32409] viXra:1911.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-12 05:59:15

Refutation of Reduction of Provability Logics

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate definitions for “Lob” and the “completeness principle” also the necessitation rule. None is tautologous. Hence reduction of provability logics is not confirmed. These results form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[32408] viXra:1911.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-12 07:02:09

An Extension of the Dynamics of the Core of Baryons

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Presented here an extension of the dynamics of the core of baryons reduces the initial 3 iterative numbers in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) to 2. Now SST starts from 7 parameters and 2 iterative numbers which are derived after formulation of the theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[32407] viXra:1911.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-12 07:29:08

The Ferent Mechanism Gives the Electron Mass, not the Wrong Higgs Mechanism

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 455 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

“The Ferent mechanism gives the electron Mass, not the wrong Higgs mechanism” Adrian Ferent “The photon confined inside the electron has mass” Adrian Ferent “The photon confined inside the electron has mass and electric charge” Adrian Ferent “The Dark electron gives mass to the electron” Adrian Ferent “Because the Ferent mechanism gives Mass to elementary particles, the Higgs mechanism is wrong and the Higgs boson is an unimportant particle” Adrian Ferent You learned from scientists, Nobel Laureates, your professors… that the Higgs boson is a special particle, ‘the God particle’, because it is the manifestation of the Higgs field, that gives mass to elementary particles like electrons, quarks…that cannot be broken into smaller parts. I discovered that: “The electron is not an elementary particle, because it is composed of a Photon and a Dark electron” Adrian Ferent Steven Weinberg and Abdus Salam included the wrong Higgs mechanism into modern particle physics and is an essential part of the Standard Model. I discovered that: “The Standard Model is wrong because the electron is not an elementary particle, and it does not include Dark Matter particles” Adrian Ferent 2013 Nobel Prize in physics was a fraud because: François Englert and Peter Higgs did not discover a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles! “The reaction of the Swedish Academy to Higgs boson discovery appears to be a result of being beguiled by CERN’s attempts to justify the billions of dollars of public money being spent.“ The same thing with LIGO, one billion of dollars of public money being spent and zero results! Another fraud was the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics, awarded for a project, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO), not for a scientific discovery; they did not detect anything. In Ferent Quantum Gravity, LIGO is a fraud. Since they received the Nobel Prize they did not detect gravitational waves, because: “Einstein’s gravitational waves do not exist, how they can detect them?” Adrian Ferent “Einstein did not understand Gravitation, he calculated Gravitation” Adrian Ferent “Gravitational waves are carried by gravitons” Adrian Ferent The mass generation mechanism is a theory that describes the origin of mass. The mass generation mechanism is one of the most burning problem of the modern particle physics. The problem is complex because the primary role of mass is to mediate gravitational interaction between bodies. “Ferent Quantum Gravity explains how mass mediates gravitational interaction between bodies, with Matter and Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent The Higgs mechanism doesn't explain the source of any masses, the Higgs mechanism is not a mechanism for generating mass. The Higgs boson does not give other particles mass; the Higgs boson is a quantized manifestation of a Higgs field that not generates mass through its interaction with other particles. Particles drag through the Higgs field by exchanging virtual Higgs particles with it. How scientists explain how elementary particles get their masses, with syrup and honey: Except for massless photons and gluons, "all elementary particles get their masses from their interactions with the [Higgs] field, kind of like being 'slowed down' by passing through a thick syrup" “The Higgs field is likened to a rich and creamy soup, or maybe a dense and heavy fog, or even a vat of thick and goopy honey… impeding the free travel of carefree electrons and quarks.” “The elementary particles contain Dark Matter with the mass much smaller than particles mass, but with much higher energy” Adrian Ferent That is why: “The electrons contain Dark Matter with the mass much smaller than electrons mass, but with much higher energy” Adrian Ferent “The Ferent mechanism: the interaction energy of gravitons emitted by Dark Matter gives mass to the elementary particles” Adrian Ferent “Because the elementary particles contain Dark Matter with the mass much smaller than particles mass, Dark Matter is not detected at CERN” Adrian Ferent “What you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists…about elementary particles is wrong; because you learned about elementary particles without Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity the mass generation mechanism is caused by an internal field the Gravitational field; in Higgs mechanism, there is an external field, the Higgs field.” Adrian Ferent “Ferent Quantum Gravity is right, because were only few Higgs boson detected, with very short life, that is why the Higgs field is not like syrup or honey and that is why the Higgs mechanism is wrong” Adrian Ferent “Physics is much more complicated than you learned it, with Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Because the Ferent mechanism gives Mass to elementary particles, the Higgs mechanism is wrong and the Higgs boson is an unimportant particle” Adrian Ferent “I explained Particle physics with Dark Matter from Ferent Quantum Gravity” Adrian Ferent “The electron is a photon around Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “The Dark Matter electron is the Dark Matter inside the electron” Adrian Ferent “Between the Ferent time t = 1.294 × 10^(-86) s and the Planck time t = 5.391 × 10^(-44) s were created the Dark Matter electrons” Adrian Ferent “When the photons were created, the photons with the energy 0.5 MeV and the Dark Matter electrons created the electrons” Adrian Ferent “I calculated the charge created by the photon with f = 10^20 Hz inside the electron Q = 1.6 × 10^(-19) C, the electron charge” Adrian Ferent “The Spin of the electron is the Orbital angular momentum of the photon within the electron” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for elementary particle, made of 2 particles, a Matter particle and a Dark Matter particle, is the Unification between Matter and Dark Matter!” Adrian Ferent “The electron equation:” Adrian Ferent Where Ψ is the wave function of the electron. “I discovered what the electron is, because I discovered what Dark Matter is” Adrian Ferent “The photon confined inside the electron has mass” Adrian Ferent “The photon confined inside the electron has mass and electric charge” Adrian Ferent “The Dark electron gives mass to the electron” Adrian Ferent “The Ferent mechanism gives the electron Mass, not the wrong Higgs mechanism” Adrian Ferent 272. I am the first who discovered that the Ferent mechanism gives the electron Mass, not the wrong Higgs mechanism 273. I am the first who discovered that the photon confined inside the electron has mass 274. I am the first who discovered that the photon confined inside the electron has mass and electric charge 275. I am the first who discovered that the Ferent mechanism gives Mass to elementary particles and the Higgs mechanism is wrong and the Higgs boson is an unimportant particle 276. I am the first who discovered that the Dark electron gives mass to the electron
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[32406] viXra:1911.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-11 13:23:32

Формальная теория жизнедеятельности психики человека

Authors: Кондратенко Виктория Александровна
Comments: 19 Pages.

Множество исследований в области искусственного интеллекта не могут быть завершены, или проведены вообще, из-за отсутствия на текущий момент корректной теории функционирования человеческого мозга, связанного с его интеллектуальной деятельностью, хотя бы на концептуальном уровне. Нет пока комплексных предложений исследователей, на каких принципах должны основываться модели элементарных и структурированных смыслов, обрабатываемых мозгом в процессе жизнедеятельности человека, не говоря уже о формальных языках и их грамматиках, или, тем более, о формальных теориях, предназначенных для этих целей. Цель статьи заключается в восполнении отмеченного только что пробела в научных знаниях о человеческом мозге.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[32405] viXra:1911.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-11 14:06:06

Dynamics of the Core of Baryons

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

In 2017, scientists from Osaka University measured unexpected gamma-ray energy spectrum of the lithium reaction with the 246-MeV protons. Here, using the dynamics of the core of baryons described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we showed that the two absorption lines follow from such dynamics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[32404] viXra:1911.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-11 14:09:39

Refutation of the Aafrempong Conjecture

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate the AAFrempong conjecture, named by the author after the name of the author, which states in any triangle, the sum of the lengths of any two sides is greater than the length of the third side, is not tautologous. This forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Number Theory

[32403] viXra:1911.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-11 15:51:22

Analysis of Natural Lightning Phenomena and Method for Laboratory Study

Authors: Stoyan Sarg Sargoytchev
Comments: 12 Pages. Reported in International conference on Nanotechnology and Materials Science, 2019, Rome, Italy

On Earth, the lightning frequency is approximately 44 times per second, or nearly 1.4 billion flashes per year. The average lightning duration is a few hundred milliseconds made up from a number of shorter strokes. Lightning is a transient process producing very high frequency pulses mostly in MHZ range. The analysis of lightnings using the BSM-SG models indicates that theoretically predicted and experimentally proved “Heterodyne Resonance Mechanism” (HRM) is involved in the transient process of lightning. The physics of HRM effect permits a new understanding on the energy of lightning. This article is focused mainly on lightnings between clouds and ground in which an avalanche process takes place. The enormous energy released during this process could not be only from the potential energy accumulated in clouds. A new technical method for a laboratory study of the lightning is proposed.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[32402] viXra:1911.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-11 18:05:40

Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponents in the Instantaneous Limit and Material Transport

Authors: Peter J. Nolan, Mattia Serra, Shane D. Ross
Comments: 43 Pages. Submitted for publication

Lagrangian techniques, such as the Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE) and hyperbolic Lagrangian coherent structures, have become popular tools for analyzing unsteady fluid flows. These techniques identify regions where particles transported by a flow will converge to and diverge from over a finite-time interval, even in a divergence-free flow. Lagrangian analyses, however, are time consuming and computationally expensive, hence unsuitable for quickly assessing short-term material transport. A recently developed method called OECSs rigorously connected Eulerian quantities to short-term Lagrangian transport. This Eulerian method is faster and less expensive to compute than its Lagrangian counterparts, and needs only a single snapshot of a velocity field. Along the same line, here we define the instantaneous Lyapunov Exponent (iLE), the instantaneous counterpart of the finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE), and connect the Taylor series expansion of the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor to the infinitesimal integration time limit of the FTLE. We illustrate our results on geophysical fluid flows from numerical models as well as analytical flows, and demonstrate the efficacy of attracting and repelling instantaneous Lyapunov exponent structures in predicting short-term material transport.
Category: General Mathematics

[32401] viXra:1911.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-11 19:04:20

Lorentz Length Contraction Analysis (SR Discussions) (Part II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 4 Pages.

Paper Hypothesis Human Realization process Is The Universe Reference Point
Category: Astrophysics

[32400] viXra:1911.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-11 20:09:57

Refutation of H-Inductive Sentences and Positive Logic

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate h-universal sentences which are not tautologous. This refutes h-inductive sentences and positive logic. These form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[32399] viXra:1911.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-11 00:47:10

Yes, P = NP=NP-Complete=NP-hard, says the NP-hard Traveling Salesman Problem

Authors: A. A. Frempong
Comments: 38 Pages. Copyright © by A. A. Frempong

The solution of the traveling salesman problem (TSP) in this paper makes this problem no longer an NP-hard problem, but rather, a P problem. The TSP was solved in polynomial time and its solution was also correctly checked in polynomial time. Also solved were an NP-Complete TSP, and six other NP-Complete problems. The TSP solution killed two (three) birds with one stone, because its solution made the NP-hard problems and NP-Complete problems become P problems. The shortest route as well as the longest route for the salesman to visit each of nine cities once and return to the base city was determined. In finding the shortest route, the first step was to arrange the data of the problem in increasing order, since one's interest is in the shortest distances; but in finding the longest route, the first step was to arrange the data of the problem in decreasing order, since one's interest is in the longest distances. For the shortest route, the main principle is that the shortest route is the sum of the shortest distances such that the salesman visits each city once and returns to the starting city; but for the longest route, the main principle is that the longest route is the sum of the longest distances such that the salesman visits each city once and returns to the starting city. Since ten cities are involved, ten distances would be needed for the salesman to visit each of nine cities once and return to the starting city. One started the construction of the shortest route using only the shortest ten distances; and if a needed distance was not among the set of the shortest ten distances, one would consider distances longer than those in the set of the shortest ten distances. For the longest route, the construction began using only the longest ten distances; and if a needed distance was not among the set of the longest ten distances, one would consider distances shorter than those in the set of the longest ten distances. It was found out that even though, the length of the shortest or the longest route is unique, the sequence of the cities involved is not unique. The approach used in this paper can be applied in work-force project management and hiring, as well as in a country's work-force needs and immigration quota determination. Since approaches that solve the TSP and NP-Complete problems can also solve other NP problems, and the TSP and NP-Complete problems have been solved, all NP problems can be solved. If all NP problems can be solved, then all NP problems are P problems, and therefore, P is equal to NP. The CMI Millennium Prize requirements have been satisfied.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[32398] viXra:1911.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-11 09:36:29

Unified Theory W-En..1

Authors: Vladimir Pastushenko
Comments: 1 Page. Unified theory w-EN..1

Unified theory w-EN..1
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[32397] viXra:1911.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-11 02:24:22

Prime Triplet Conjecture

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 5 Pages.

Prime Triplet and Twin Primes have exactly the same dynamics. All Prime Triplet are executed in hexagonal circulation. It does not change in a huge number (forever huge number). In the hexagon, Prime Triplet are generated only at (6n -1)(6n+1). [n is a positive integer] When the number grows to the limit, the denominator of the expression becomes very large, and primes occur very rarely, but since Prime Triplet are 35/12 times of the 3th power distribution of primes, the frequency of occurrence of Prime Triplet is very equal to 0. However, it is not 0. Therefore, Prime Triplet continue to be generated. If Prime Triplet is finite, the Primes is finite. The probability of Prime Triplet 35/12 times of the 3th power probability of appearance of the Prime. This is contradictory. Because there are an infinite of Primes. That is, Prime Triplet exist forever.
Category: Number Theory

[32396] viXra:1911.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-11 03:17:24

Our Quantized Universe is a Spherical White Hole in the Shape of a Ball

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 14 Pages, 6 Figures

Astronomers have found that galaxies in our universe move with acceleration in towards the periphery of the universe, creating the appearance that the universe is expanding. In fact, we are seeing an accelerated recession of galaxies. The paradox is that according to Newton, motion with acceleration is possible only under the influence of external force, gravitation and antigravitation. There are no other explanations for this paradox. Galaxies do not have engines to create an external force. Gravity is contrary to the effect of expansion. It remains only to consider the effect of antigravitation that explains the movement of galaxies with acceleration (recession of galaxies). I have explained the antigravitation in 1996 when I discovered superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI) - the global energy field in the form of a quantized space-time consisting of quantons. Antigravitation is created as a result of deformation (Einstein's curvature) of quantized space-time in the form of a gradient of the quantum density of the medium and the energy gradient of the SEI. For this, the space-time of our universe must be deformed and curved, it must not be flat. The deformation vector of the quantum density of the medium should be directed to the periphery of the universe providing accelerated movement of galaxies. Antigravitation is realized by the gravitational field of a white hole with minus-mass (negative mass). Our quantized universe is a spherical white hole in the shape of a ball. This fact was established by me and published in 1996 [1] and then published a second time in the theory of Superunification in 2010 [2].
Category: Quantum Physics

[32395] viXra:1911.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-11 07:24:18

Spin Atomic Transport

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

This regime is difficult to study otherwise, but is of considerable fundamental and practical interest, not least for applications in spintronic devices and to explore fundamental phases of matter. [31] Scientists find surprising way to affect information storage properties in metal alloy. [30] A new method allows the quantum state of atomic "qubits"—the basic unit of information in quantum computers—to be measured with twenty times less error than was previously possible, without losing any atoms. [29] Nanoparticles derived from tea leaves inhibit the growth of lung cancer cells, destroying up to 80% of them, new research by a joint Swansea University and Indian team has shown. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32394] viXra:1911.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-11 07:34:34

Analyzing Some Parts of Ramanujan’s Manuscripts: Mathematical Connections Between Several Ramanujan’s Equations, the Rogers-Ramanujan Continued Fractions and Some Sectors of Cosmology and Theoretical Physics. II

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 172 Pages.

In this research thesis, we have analyzed some parts of Ramanujan’s Manuscripts and obtained new mathematical connections between several Ramanujan’s equations, the Rogers-Ramanujan continued fractions and some sectors of Cosmology and Theoretical Physics
Category: Number Theory

[32393] viXra:1911.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-11 07:46:12

DNA Signaling Pathways

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

When cells suffer DNA damage, they send out an SOS signal. When the repair crew arrives, the emergency signal is cancelled as it is no longer needed. [21] Now, in a new paper published in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, Mayo researchers have determined how one DNA repair protein gets to the site of DNA damage. [20] A microscopic thread of DNA evidence in a public genealogy database led California authorities to declare this spring they had caught the Golden State Killer, the rapist and murderer who had eluded authorities for decades. [19]
Category: Physics of Biology

[32392] viXra:1911.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-11 08:03:52

DNA Genetic Molecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Biology encodes information in DNA and RNA, which are complex molecules finely tuned to their functions. [22] When cells suffer DNA damage, they send out an SOS signal. When the repair crew arrives, the emergency signal is cancelled as it is no longer needed. [21] Now, in a new paper published in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, Mayo researchers have determined how one DNA repair protein gets to the site of DNA damage. [20]
Category: Physics of Biology

[32391] viXra:1911.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-11 08:19:50

Understanding Antibiotic Synthesis

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Researchers at McGill University's Faculty of Medicine have made important strides in understanding the functioning of enzymes that play an integral role in the production of antibiotics and other therapeutics. [23] Biology encodes information in DNA and RNA, which are complex molecules finely tuned to their functions. [22] When cells suffer DNA damage, they send out an SOS signal. When the repair crew arrives, the emergency signal is cancelled as it is no longer needed. [21]
Category: Physics of Biology

[32390] viXra:1911.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-11 09:43:35

Metamaterials Reprogram Themselves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Materials scientists aim to engineer intelligence into the fabric of materials or metamaterials for programmable functions. [15] Researchers at Aalto University have developed new metasurfaces for the arbitrary manipulation of reflected waves, essentially breaking the law to engineer the reflection of a surface at will. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12]
Category: Condensed Matter

[32389] viXra:1911.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-11 10:06:30

CERN Cosmic-Ray Showers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Cosmic rays are particles from outer space, typically protons, travelling at almost the speed of light. When the most energetic of these particles strike the atmosphere of our planet, they interact with atomic nuclei in the atmosphere and produce cascades of secondary particles that shower down to the Earth's surface. [31] Europe's physics lab CERN on Tuesday said it was planning a new experiment to look for particles associated with dark matter which is believed to make up some 27 percent of the universe. [30]
Category: Astrophysics

[32388] viXra:1911.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-11 10:33:11

Magnetic Anisotropy of Electric Polarization

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

Researchers at Kanazawa University controlled the magnetic properties of a metal layer through the electrical polarization of a neighboring metal oxide layer. [34] It is commonplace to be under pressure at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory— that is, if you happen to be a sample of material undergoing investigation by the lab's condensed matter physicists. [33] Associate Professor Justin Ye, head of the Device Physics of Complex Materials group at the University of Groningen, studied superconductivity in a double layer of molybdenum disulfide and discovered new superconducting states. [32]
Category: Condensed Matter

[32387] viXra:1911.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-11 10:48:37

Biosensor for Stem Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

A Rutgers-led team has created better biosensor technology that may help lead to safe stem cell therapies for treating Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases and other neurological disorders. [23] Biology encodes information in DNA and RNA, which are complex molecules finely tuned to their functions. [22] When cells suffer DNA damage, they send out an SOS signal. When the repair crew arrives, the emergency signal is cancelled as it is no longer needed. [21]
Category: Physics of Biology

[32386] viXra:1911.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-11 10:56:10

Diagnostics into Your Hand

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Handheld electrochemical sensors are part of the daily routine for millions of people with diabetes around the globe who monitor their blood sugar levels with electric glucometers. [24] A Rutgers-led team has created better biosensor technology that may help lead to safe stem cell therapies for treating Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases and other neurological disorders. [23]
Category: Physics of Biology

[32385] viXra:1911.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-10 12:29:39

The Number 273.55488 Which aids Calculation of the Mass of the Neutron Also Yields Important Dates Etc.

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 2 Pages. I have held back this work because i didn't understand its significance until now

Abstract: Important dates are found from the dimensionless constant 273.55488 used to find the accurate mass of the neutron as well as a signal of the use of holography in the universe
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32384] viXra:1911.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-10 17:41:38

Tutorial: Binary Star Masses from Newton's Laws

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 4 Pages.

By Newton's Third Law the gravitational forces on the two stars of a binary system are equal and opposite, so the acceleration of each star is inversely proportional to its mass, which yields the ratio of the two stars' masses. However the difference of the two stars' gravitational accelerations is proportional to the sum of their masses; it is also inversely proportional to the square of their vector separation, so that vector separation traces out an elliptical orbit. The orbit's period plus its major axis length yields the sum of the stars' masses. The complete orbit isn't required; five or more of the points which lie on an ellipse determine it, and the orbit sweeps out the area enclosed by the ellipse at a constant rate.
Category: Astrophysics

[32383] viXra:1911.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-10 20:56:18

Hopf Field Unification Plan

Authors: Jennifer Lorraine Nielsen
Comments: 1 Page.

Unification via the Hopf field and the Beltrami flux
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[32382] viXra:1911.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-10 04:05:32

Without a Varicella Zoster Virus Infection, no Schizophrenia

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 17 pages. Copyright © 2018 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. Published by:

Objective: Despite decades of research and major efforts, a cause or the cause of schizophrenia is still not identified. Although many studies indicate that infectious agents are related to schizophrenia no definite consensus has been reached on this issue. Methods: The purpose of this study was to investigate relationship between varicella zoster virus (VZS) and schizophrenia while relying on new statistical methods. Results: The meta-analysis results provide striking evidence that VZV is a necessary condition of schizophrenia. Conclusions: There is some weak evidence that VZV infection is the cause of schizophrenia. Keywords: Varicella zoster virus, schizophrenia, causal relationship.
Category: Statistics

[32381] viXra:1911.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-10 10:39:24

Refutation of Tense Logic and Display to Labelled Proofs Back Again for Tense Logics

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate tense logic (Kt) as an extension of K. The equation for A→□A is not tautologous, hence refuting Kt. What follows is that the conjecture of display to labelled proofs and back again for tense logic is not confirmed. These results form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[32380] viXra:1911.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 13:58:34

The Cosmological Redshift is Compatible with the Aether, But not with Special Relativity

Authors: Dino Bruniera
Comments: The file contains two versions of the paper: English, pages 1-3 and Italian, pages 4-6

The observations show that the apparent brightness of type Ia supernovae with high redshift, is about 25% lower than that expected. Which, according to the present paper, shows that the cosmological redshift cannot indicate the expansion of space. So since Special Relativity is compatible with the cosmological redshift only if it indicates the expansion of space, the demonstration that does not indicate it, proves that Special Relativity is not compatible with it. For the theories of the aether, on the other hand, the cosmological redshift may not indicate the expansion of space, therefore they are compatible with it.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32379] viXra:1911.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 16:00:44

Lorentz Length Contraction Analysis (SR Discussions)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 5 Pages.

Particle Nature (Definition) depends On Light Velocity 1- Particle Nature Absolute Meaning Special theory of relativity states that If a particle (with length L0) travels by speed of light (approximately), it will suffer from Lorentz length contraction and be seen with a contracted length (L1) So – the question is - "What's happened For The Particle Own Nature?" The theory states "The Proper Length L0 Never Change"! We have 2 directions to choose from: (1st) to accept the idea that – the particle own nature doesn't change and the contracted length is seen by us as a wrong vision (as mirage) but the particle length itself has no real change Or (2nd) to accept the idea that – the particle own nature changes with this motion – and by such way – the particle nature should be created relative to speed of light! I choose the 2nd choice- Why? Because – the 1st choice tells us that – The particle own nature is defined clearly when no difference in motions velocities between me and this particle – that means – I'm The Universe Reference Point – and this is similar to a person looks at a mirror Specifically for the previous reason we should refuse the assumption that "Particle Own Nature doesn't Change" or the statement "The Proper Length L0 Never Change"…. In fact ….Particle length is changed already Let's consider this point with some deep analysis in following: We deal here with the assumption "Particle length doesn’t change and the contracted length is only an imaginary vision" How do we measure the particle length in static case (before any motion)? and how do we measure the moving particle length? Where we use The Same Methods in both cases – practically and logically – we have to consider both results are equal in power – no result is better than the other because both are produced by the same methods of measurements.. Although I consider that –Particle in static should be considered as a special case because it moves by my velocity – means – instead to choose any other velocity the particle chooses to move by my velocity which makes it specific case for particle different motions cases So the analysis tells us that – the particle different velocities motions is the general case and static situation (relative to me) is a special one Spite of that SR states "The Proper Length L0 Never Change"! I mean – if the theory means – the proper length will stay with particle during its motion – that means – the special case is used here as a general one – and depending on it all other parameters are created Conclusion (1) Particle own length is contracted by high velocity (light velocity approximately) Because I'm not "The Universe Reference Point" I refuse the statement "The Proper Length L0 Never Change" (2) Light Velocity should be a player in Human Realization Process Gerges Francis Tawdrous +201022532292
Category: Astrophysics

[32378] viXra:1911.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 16:17:51

Prime Sextuplet Conjecture

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 4 Pages.

Prime Sextuplet and Twin Primes have exactly the same dynamics. All Prime Sextuplet are executed in hexagonal circulation. It does not change in a huge number (forever huge number). In the hexagon, Prime Sextuplet are generated only at (6n -1)(6n+5). [n is a positive integer] When the number grows to the limit, the denominator of the expression becomes very large, and primes occur very rarely, but since Prime Sextuplet are 48/3 times of the sixth power distribution of primes, the frequency of occurrence of Prime Quintuplet is very equal to 0. However, it is not 0. Therefore, Prime Sextuplet continue to be generated. If Prime Sextuplet is finite, the Primes is finite. The probability of Prime Sextuplet 48/3 times of the sixth power probability of appearance of the Prime. This is contradictory. Because there are an infinite of Primes. That is, Prime Sextuplet exist forever.
Category: Number Theory

[32377] viXra:1911.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 17:24:44

Prime Quintuplet Conjecture

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 5 Pages.

Prime Quintuplet and Twin Primes have exactly the same dynamics. All Prime Quintuplet are executed in hexagonal circulation. It does not change in a huge number (forever huge number). In the hexagon, Prime Quintuplet are generated only at (6n -1)(6n+5). [n is a positive integer] When the number grows to the limit, the denominator of the expression becomes very large, and primes occur very rarely, but since Prime Quintuplet are 96/3 times of the 5th power distribution of primes, the frequency of occurrence of Prime Quintuplet is very equal to 0. However, it is not 0. Therefore, Prime Quintuplet continue to be generated. If Prime Quintuplet is finite, the Primes is finite. The probability of Prime Quintuplet 96/3 times of the 5th power probability of appearance of the Prime. This is contradictory. Because there are an infinite of Primes. That is, Prime Quintuplet exist forever.
Category: Number Theory

[32376] viXra:1911.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 01:22:55

Unified Theory

Authors: Pastushenko Vladimir
Comments: 6 Pages. Unified theory

Unified theory
Category: Astrophysics

[32375] viXra:1911.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 01:24:48

Sexy Primes Conjecture

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 6 Pages.

Sexy Primes Conjecture were prooved. Sexy Primes and Twin Primes and Cousin Primes have exactly the same dynamics. All Primes are executed in hexagonal circulation. It does not change in a huge number (forever huge number). In the hexagon, Sexy Primes are generated only at (6n+1)(6n -1). [n is a positive integer] When the number grows to the limit, the denominator of the expression becomes very large, and primes occur very rarely, but since Sexy Primes are 8/3 times the square of the distribution of primes, the frequency of occurrence of Sexy Primes is very equal to 0. However, it is not 0. Therefore, Sexy Primes continue to be generated. If Sexy Primes is finite, the Primes is finite. Because, Sexy Primes are 8/3 times the square of the distribution of primes. This is contradictory. Since there are an infinite of Primes. That is, Sexy Primes exist forever.
Category: Number Theory

[32374] viXra:1911.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 03:28:29

Energy Analysis of a Null Electromagnetic Wave

Authors: ‪Moshe Segal‬‏
Comments: 17 Pages.

The article deals with the following question: is it possible to detect a Null electromagnetic traveling wave, which is a wave that does not contain any electric or magnetic fields. The article discusses the above question and shows that any possible answer to that question provides surprising and important new insights. The article provides a description of how to implement such a Null electromagnetic wave, and it also provides a description of how to carry on a lab experiment which might provide answers to the above question. As already mentioned above, any answer to the above question also provides surprising and new insights to issues such as: Energy in general, especially energy embedded in electromagnetic waves and energy embedded in electric and magnetic fields, and even to issues such as new surprising insight into possible new features of electric charges, the charge disappearance in electron positron collisions and even some possible leads related to the Dark Energy issue.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32373] viXra:1911.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 03:41:48

Interference at the Nanoscale

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

It also provides new theoretical frameworks and models for working with sophisticated electron microscopes, like the facilities present at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A collaboration between the lab of Judy Cha, the Carol and Douglas Melamed Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, and IBM's Watson Research Center could help make a potentially revolutionary technology more viable for manufacturing. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32372] viXra:1911.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 04:11:04

On the Construction of a Regular Heptagon by Straightedge and Compass

Authors: Henry Wong
Comments: 1 Page.

An addendum to field theory.
Category: Algebra

[32371] viXra:1911.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 05:09:01

Energy Density of a Vacuum Observed by Background Radiation

Authors: Filip Kozarski
Comments: Four pages, no figures. Known physics, new results.

In the paper zero-point energy density of free photons is estimated for an empty space surrounded by — and observed by — a bath of thermal background photons. Interpreting the results, the outline of the cosmological arrow of time is suggested.
Category: Quantum Physics

[32370] viXra:1911.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 04:40:07

Photosynthesis by X-Ray Pules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

In a new study, led by Petra Fromme and Nadia Zatsepin at the Biodesign Center for Applied Structural Discovery, the School of Molecular Sciences and the Department of Physics at ASU, researchers investigated the structure of Photosystem I (PSI) with ultrashort X-ray pulses at the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (EuXFEL), located in Hamburg, Germany. [14] Researchers have discovered a new role for protein vibrations in controlling the transformation of sunshine into useful energy. [13] University Professor of Applied Physics Stephen Arnold and his team at the New York University Tandon School of Engineering have made a discovery that could lead to Star Trek-like biosensor devices capable of flagging the barest presence in blood of a specific virus or antibody, or protein marker for a specific cancer; or sniffing out airborne chemical warfare agents while they are still far below toxic levels. [12]
Category: Physics of Biology

[32369] viXra:1911.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 05:00:50

Quantum Internet Future

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

This proposal represents a new step towards quantum information networks, since it sets a solid theoretical framework on what is physically possible in the field of automated classification and distribution of quantum information. [27] Researchers from QuTech have achieved a world's first in quantum internet technology. [26] The achievement represents a major step towards a "quantum internet," in which future computers can rapidly and securely send and receive quantum information. [25] Scientists have used precisely tuned pulses of laser light to film the ultrafast rotation of a molecule. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32368] viXra:1911.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 05:20:34

Deep Learning Convert Images

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

A UCLA research team has devised a technique that extends the capabilities of fluorescence microscopy, which allows scientists to precisely label parts of living cells and tissue with dyes that glow under special lighting. [25] Social, economic, environmental and health inequalities within cities can be detected using street imagery. [24] Citizen science is a boon for researchers, providing reams of data about everything from animal species to distant galaxies. [23] In early 2018, with support from IBM Corporate Citizenship and the Danish Ministry for Foreign Affairs, IBM and the Danish Refugee Council (DRC) embarked on a partnership aimed squarely at the need to better understand migration drivers and evidence-based policy guidance for a range of stakeholders. [22]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[32367] viXra:1911.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 05:29:41

Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 78 Pages.

Quantum mechanics and the general theory of relativity form the bedrock of the current understanding of physics—yet the two theories don't seem to work together. [48] A ground-breaking study conducted by researchers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has revealed a method of using quantum mechanical wave theories to "lock" heat into a fixed position. [47] Researchers at the University of Konstanz have recently carried out a study exploring the quantum states of light and vacuum fluctuations, as well as their interplay with time. [46] Physicists at the University of Innsbruck are proposing a new model that could demonstrate the supremacy of quantum computers over classical supercomputers in solving optimization problems. [45]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32366] viXra:1911.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 07:06:25

Physics Mathematical Approximations

Authors: Harry A Watson
Comments: 4 Pages.

There are many ad hoc expressions for the mass ratio of the proton to the electron. the models presented here are different from others in that they rely strictly on volumes and areas. One geometry is based on ellipsoids constructed with values taken from one of the two number sets: {(4pi), (4pi-1/pi), (4pi-2/pi)} or {(4pi+2), (4pi-2), (4pi-2/pi)}. The product of the three values of each number set approximates the value given by CODATA for the mass ratio of the proton to the electron. Another approximate is formed from a solid ball of radius, r = (4pi-1/pi), with a conical sector, wedge, or internal ellipsoid removed. Each extracted solid has curved surface area of (4pi-1/pi)/(pi^2). With the advent of the Higg’s Boson, its value can be approximated by H^0 = (4pi)(4pi-1/pi)(4pi-2/pi)(4pi-3/pi)(4pi-4/pi). Define the function F as follows: Let the initial set be the positive integers, the final set be the real numbers, and the rule assigning each member of the initial set to one member of the final set: F(m) =(4pi)...(4pi-(m-1)/pi). Conclusion: The function F(2)=1836.15... approximates the experimental value of the mass ratio of the proton to the electron and F(4) approximates the mass ratio of the Higg's Boson to the electron. The neutron-to-electron ratio is approximated with ln(4pi)+F(2). Email: harry.watson@att.net
Category: Mathematical Physics

[32365] viXra:1911.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 07:33:40

Imaging Limits by Information Technology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Narimanov has gone a step further in abstracting the imaging process by only considering information transfer, independently of how that information is encoded. [26] A UCLA research team has devised a technique that extends the capabilities of fluorescence microscopy, which allows scientists to precisely label parts of living cells and tissue with dyes that glow under special lighting. [25] Social, economic, environmental and health inequalities within cities can be detected using street imagery. [24] Citizen science is a boon for researchers, providing reams of data about everything from animal species to distant galaxies. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32364] viXra:1911.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 07:42:23

Speed of Light Mathematics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

AMOLF researchers and their collaborators from the Advanced Science Research Center (ASRC/CUNY) in New York have created a nanostructured surface capable of performing on-the-fly mathematical operations on an input image. [27] Narimanov has gone a step further in abstracting the imaging process by only considering information transfer, independently of how that information is encoded. [26] A UCLA research team has devised a technique that extends the capabilities of fluorescence microscopy, which allows scientists to precisely label parts of living cells and tissue with dyes that glow under special lighting. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32363] viXra:1911.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 07:57:50

Frequency Combs Shape Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

Today, optical frequency combs (OFCs) are routinely employed in applications as diverse as time and frequency metrology, spectroscopy, telecommunications, and fundamental physics. [28] AMOLF researchers and their collaborators from the Advanced Science Research Center (ASRC/CUNY) in New York have created a nanostructured surface capable of performing on-the-fly mathematical operations on an input image. [27] Narimanov has gone a step further in abstracting the imaging process by only considering information transfer, independently of how that information is encoded. [26] A UCLA research team has devised a technique that extends the capabilities of fluorescence microscopy, which allows scientists to precisely label parts of living cells and tissue with dyes that glow under special lighting. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32362] viXra:1911.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 08:46:50

Benefits and Harms of Relativism for Fundamental Science

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 6 Pages, 1 Figure

This article was published by me in English 2000 in a separate brochure: “Four Reports on the Theory of Elastic Quantized Space” in the materials of the Sixth International Conference "Modern Problems of Natural Science", August 21-25, 2000, St.-Petersburg, Russia, pp. 36-41. In this article, I drew attention to the controversial issue of the contradictions of relativism at that time. Then many physicists believed that the action of relativism is possible only in an absolutely empty vacuum of space. This was contrary to my concept of quantized space-time consisting of quantons. I had to unite relativity and the concept of quantized space-time. I came to the conclusion that the principle of relativity is a fundamental property of quantized space-time. I found that every object of the universe from an elementary particle to cosmological objects obeys the principle of spherical invariance and it behaves as an independent center a relatively of quantized space-time, being its part. This idea was set forth in detail by me in my monograph: V. S. Leonov. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, 745 pgs.
Category: Quantum Physics

[32361] viXra:1911.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 09:17:56

Four Reports on the Theory of Elastic Quantized Space (Eqs)

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 41 Pages, 17 Figures

I have read these four reports at the Sixth International Conference "Modern Problems of Natural Science", August 21-25, 2000, St.-Petersburg, Russia. My reports were published as a separate brochure "Four reports on the theory of elastic quantized space (EQS)" in the conference proceedings. In this publication I set out the basic principles of the theory of Superunification, which was completed by me in 1999 in the period 1996-1999. It was only ten years later the theory of Superunification was published in the UK in English in 2010 with a volume of over 700 pages: V. S. Leonov. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, 745 pgs.
Category: Quantum Physics

[32360] viXra:1911.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 10:07:59

Forecasting the Effect of Heat Stress Index and Climate Change on Cloud Data Center Energy Consumption

Authors: Vikas Ramachandra
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper, we estimate the effect of heat stress index (a measure which takes into account rising temperatures as well as humidity) on data center energy consumption. We use forecasting models to predict future energy use by data centers, taking into account rising temperature scenarios. We compare those estimates with baseline forecasted energy consumption (without heat stress index or rising temperature correction) and present the result that there is a sizeable and significant difference in the two forecasts. We show that rising temperatures will cause a negative impact on data center energy consumption, increasing it by about 8 percent, and conclude that data center energy consumption analyses and forecasts must include the effects of heat stress index and rising temperatures and other climate change related effects.
Category: Climate Research

[32359] viXra:1911.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 10:23:05

Thorium Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

A group of scientists led by Artem Oganov of Skoltech and the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, and Ivan Troyan of the Institute of Crystallography of RAS has succeeded in synthesizing thorium decahydride (ThH10), a new superconducting material with the very high critical temperature of 161 kelvins. [20] Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory have developed a method to accurately measure the "exact edge" or onset at which a magnetic field enters a superconducting material. [19]
Category: Condensed Matter

[32358] viXra:1911.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 10:30:02

Massive Black Holes Mergers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in the U.S. along with one in India and one in Hungary has created simulations that could explain how larger than expected black holes could form near supermassive black holes at the center of galaxies. [31] These results, important for the construction of new theoretical models and for the development of new hypotheses about the nature of dark matter, offer much more precise indications for tracing the intricate path to understanding one of the largest mysteries of the cosmos. [30]
Category: Astrophysics

[32357] viXra:1911.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 11:40:52

“AI” Physics – Atomic Structure – Part 2.

Authors: Brian Strom
Comments: 21 Pages.

In the first paper on Atomic Structure, Artificial Intelligence (AI) was used to explore the structure of the atom by analyzing the results of established experiments on ionization energies and spectral emissions. In this paper, the findings of AI Physics - Energy Fields are used to further analyze the nature of sub-atomic particles. Analysis of radio-isotope decay leads to proposals on the structure of the atom, and Energy Field theory leads to alternative explanations for the structure of the nucleus, the nature of the crystal lattice, and the nature of molecular structure.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[32356] viXra:1911.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 12:03:14

The Topology of Spacetime is Open But the Fields in Spacetime Are Closed

Authors: Kaushal Timilsina
Comments: 6 Pages. A lot of it might seem silly and inconsistent, but I am fascinated by how creative we can get, and might generate useful insights along the way.

Wikipedia: Path or Zeeman topology on spacetime is Hausdorff, separable but not locally compact. By a lemma in general topology: A subspace of a Hausdorff compact space is closed. So, is spacetime is not compact it might not be closed. In this paper, we discuss the notion on a topologically open spacetime that can contain closed fields. An interesting extension (or consequence) could be that a particle creating a field can feel its own field.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[32355] viXra:1911.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 12:44:42

Solving the Container Shipment Problem with the Focus on Special Goods (Dangerous and Fragile) Using Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Walter Zimmer, Carsten Mueller
Comments: 8 Pages.

An optimum usage of the shipping space is calculated using genetic algorithms. The objective of the optimization is the maximization of loaded container of type dangerous and the minimization of the unused shipping space. The minimization of the unused shipping space has to be preferred against the maximization of the loaded container of type dangerous. Statistical evalutations were done and the usage of various parameters was analysed.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[32354] viXra:1911.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 14:10:21

Nonconvex Stochastic Nested Optimization via Stochastic ADMM

Authors: Zhongruo Wang
Comments: 28 Pages.

We consider the stochastic nested composition optimization problem where the objective is a composition of two expected-value functions. We proposed the stochastic ADMM to solve this complicated objective. In order to find an $\epsilon$ stationary point where the expected norm of the subgradient of corresponding augmented Lagrangian is smaller than $\epsilon$, the total sample complexity of our method is $\mathcal{O}(\epsilon^{-3})$ for the online case and $\cO \Bigl((2N_1 + N_2) + (2N_1 + N_2)^{1/2}\epsilon^{-2}\Bigr)$ for the finite sum case. The computational complexity is consistent with proximal version proposed in \cite{zhang2019multi}, but our algorithm can solve more general problem when the proximal mapping of the penalty is not easy to compute.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[32353] viXra:1911.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 14:45:07

Relativism as a Special Case of Newton's Classical Mechanics

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 11 Pages, 2 Figures

This article was published by me in English 2000 in a separate brochure: “Four Reports on the Theory of Elastic Quantized Medium.” in the materials of the Sixth International Conference "Modern Problems of Natural Science", August 21-25, 2000, St.-Petersburg, Russia, pp. 14-23. In this article I set out the basic principles of the theory of Superunification, which was completed by me in 1999 in the period 1996-1999. It was only ten years later the theory of Superunification was published in the UK in English in 2010 with a volume of over 700 pages: V. S. Leonov. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, 745 pgs. In the theory of Superunification, I have unified relativism and classical mechanics as unique properties of quantized space-time.
Category: Quantum Physics

[32352] viXra:1911.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 14:52:55

How does Measurement Affect the Real Result?

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

The real mass of the W boson is 80.423 GeV but we explain why experiments should give 80.388 GeV - this result is consistent with the PDG experimental value 80.379(12) GeV. We also answered the question of how measurements change the real masses of particles.
Category: Quantum Physics

[32351] viXra:1911.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 15:31:04

Spherical Invariance in the Development of Absolute Cosmological Model

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 12 Pages, 6 Figures

This article was published by me in English 2000 in a separate brochure: “Four Reports on the Theory of Elastic Quantized Medium.” in the materials of the Sixth International Conference "Modern Problems of Natural Science", August 21-25, 2000, St.-Petersburg, Russia, pp. 24-35. In this article I set out the basic principles of the theory of Superunification, which was completed by me in 1999 in the period 1996-1999. It was only ten years later the theory of Superunification was published in the UK in English in 2010 with a volume of over 700 pages: V. S. Leonov. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, 745 pgs. In the end, I came to the conclusion that the principle of relativity is a fundamental property of quantized space-time. I found that every object of the universe from an elementary particle to cosmological objects obeys the principle of spherical invariance and it behaves as an independent center a relatively of quantized space-time, being its part.
Category: Quantum Physics

[32350] viXra:1911.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 18:41:08

Quantum Entanglement and Application

Authors: Zibo Wang
Comments: 5 Pages.

Quantum entanglement, a phenomenon occurring when states of pairs or groups of particles cannot be described independently, is one of the most ‘spooky action’ but truly exists. In this paper, entangled states and few of its application is introduced.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[32349] viXra:1911.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 18:42:52

Quantum Game Theory

Authors: Zibo Wang
Comments: 10 Pages.

Game theory has wide implementation on many fields of study. With more recent development in quantum computation and quantum information, we are able to study games with rule of quantum mechanics. This paper consists two part: in first part, basic knowledge of game theory is briefly recalled, and prisoner’s dilemma is introduced; in second part, how quantum version game is differ from classical is discussed, and an analysis quantum version of prisoner’s dilemma is presented.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[32348] viXra:1911.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-07 23:52:06

Quanglebit and Hopf Fiber Fields - Two Projects in Progress

Authors: Jennifer Lorraine Nielsen
Comments: 1 Page.

A description of two related proposed projects in mathematical quantum physics are presented, each involving the Hopf fibration, one providing steps towards defining a unit measure of quantum information, a quanglebit, and the other towards redefining the fields [EM and QFT] and Schrodinger equation on the Hopf fiber bundle.
Category: Quantum Physics

[32347] viXra:1911.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 01:01:16

Report on Visit of Architects Sitka and Kaserer in Saalfelden, and Social Center Pillertal in Fieberbrunn Near St. Johann, in Tyrol, Austria, We. 13 Mar. 2019

Authors: Eckhard Hitzer
Comments: 6 Pages. 15 figures (mostly photos).

Part I. At the architect’s office Sitka and Kaserer, describes a meeting with Mr. A. Planegger, the architect of the Social Center Pillerseetal in Fieberbrunn, which is constructed with prefabricated modern cross laminated timber (CLT) modules, sustainable, cost efficient, and highly energy efficient. Part II: Visit of the Social Center Pillerseetal, describes a tour through the Social Center, guided by Director of Care Mr. Herbert Breitmayer. The biggest discovery is the unbelievable success of consequently putting Dr. Maria Riedl's "Integrative Care Concept" into practice.
Category: Social Science

[32346] viXra:1911.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 04:45:16

Universe, Multiverse and TIME.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 14 Pages. Reality of our existence in time.

The concept of time in multiverse.
Category: Classical Physics

[32345] viXra:1911.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 07:31:00

Role of Superstrong Interaction in Synthesis of Elementary Particles

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 11 Pages, 8 Figures

This article was published by me in English in a separate brochure: “Four Reports on the Theory of Elastic Quantized Medium.” in the materials of the Sixth International Conference "Modern Problems of Natural Science", August 21-25, 2000, St.-Petersburg, Russia, pp. 3-13. In this article I set out the basic principles of the theory of Superunification, which was completed by me in 1999 in the period 1996-1999. It was only ten years later the theory of Superunification was published in the UK in English in 2010 with a volume of over 700 pages: V. S. Leonov. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, 745 pgs.
Category: Quantum Physics

[32344] viXra:1911.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 07:33:56

Prime Quadruplet Conjecture

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 4 Pages.

Prime Quadruplet and Twin Primes have exactly the same dynamics. All Prime Quadruplet are executed in hexagonal circulation. It does not change in a huge number (forever huge number). In the hexagon, Prime Quadruplet are generated only at (6n -1)(6n+5). [n is a positive integer] When the number grows to the limit, the denominator of the expression becomes very large, and primes occur very rarely, but since Prime Quadruplet are 16/3 of the fourth power distribution of primes, the frequency of occurrence of Prime Quadruplet is very equal to 0. However, it is not 0. Therefore, Cousin Primes continue to be generated. If Prime Quadruplet is finite, the Primes is finite. The probability of Prime Quadruplet 16/3 of the fourth power probability of appearance of the Prime. This is contradictory. Because there are an infinite of Primes. That is, Prime Quadruplet exist forever.
Category: Number Theory

[32343] viXra:1911.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 07:37:42

Nanophotonic Synchrotron-Like Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Vacuum fluctuations just a few nanometres from the surface of a material can cause a passing beam of relativistic electrons to emit X-rays and other high-frequency electromagnetic radiation — according to calculations done by scientists in the US, Israel and Singapore. [31] A simple, passive photonic structure made only of glass and air bubbles could perform artificial neural computing for applications in areas like facial recognition. [30] Most artificial intelligence (AI) systems try to replicate biological mechanisms and behaviors observed in nature. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32342] viXra:1911.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 07:59:07

Machine Learning Light-Beam

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Nishimura said that the buzzwords "artificial intelligence" seem to have trended in and out of the research community for many years, though, "This time it finally seems to be something real." [27] Navid Borhani, a research-team member, says this machine learning approach is much simpler than other methods to reconstruct images passed through optical fibers, which require making a holographic measurement of the output. [26] Scientists from the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have developed a way to use machine learning to dramatically accelerate the design of microbes that produce biofuel. [25]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[32341] viXra:1911.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 08:44:37

Floating Atoms Measure Gravity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

A team of researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, has found a new way to measure gravity—by noting differences in atoms in a supposition state, suspended in the air by lasers. [20] An international group of astronomers, including physicists at the University of St Andrews, has revived a previously debunked theory of gravity, arguing that motions within dwarf galaxies would be slower if close to a massive galaxy. [19] While last year's discovery of gravitational waves from colliding neutron stars was earth-shaking, it won't add extra dimensions to our understanding of the universe—not literal ones, at least. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32340] viXra:1911.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 09:29:02

Mass Spectrum for Leptons and Quarks

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

I hypothesize that the mass spectrum of the standard model is infinite, and I try to evaluate a simple formula for the masses.
Category: Classical Physics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[12487] viXra:1911.0297 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-18 20:45:10

Planetarium of the Historical Sciences

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 4 Pages.

Planetariums are scientific instruments for the education of physical astronomy.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[12486] viXra:1911.0275 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-17 23:52:46

Exponential Factorization and Polar Decomposition of Multivectors in $Cl(p,q)$, $p+q \leq 3$

Authors: Eckhard Hitzer, Stephen J. Sangwine
Comments: 18 Pages. Submitted to Adv. in Appl. Cliff. Algs., 2019.

In this paper we consider general multivector elements of Clifford algebras $Cl(p,q)$, $n=p+q \leq 3$, and study multivector equivalents of polar decompositions and factorization into products of exponentials, where the exponents are frequently blades of grades zero (scalar) to $n$ (pseudoscalar).
Category: Algebra

[12485] viXra:1911.0239 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-16 07:38:49

Solution to the New Paradox of Special Relativity

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 3 Pages.

Albert Einstein said against Quantum Physics: "God does not play dice''. Einstein has never accepted the Quantum Physics. So, there can be contradiction between the Theory of Relativity and Quantum Physics. That mean, that one or more of these two theories are incomplete. Just like the Gödel incompleteness theorem says, that formal arithmetic is incomplete.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[12484] viXra:1911.0223 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-16 19:53:33

Формальное доказательство, что математика, на которой основывается Специальная Теория Относительности неверно истолкована (In Russian)

Authors: Szostek Roman
Comments: 36 Pages. This article presents formal proof that STR is a wrong theory (in Russian).

В статье представлено формальное доказательство того, что математика, на которойосновывается Специальная Теория Относительности (СТО), в настоящее время неверно истолкована. Доказательство опирается на анализ значения параметра e(v).Понимание значения этого параметра возможно благодаря анализу общей формы преобразования, для которого преобразование Лоренца является лишь частным случаем. Если e(v) ≠ 0, тогда часы в инерциальных системах отсчета рассинхронизированы. Величины, например, однонаправленной скорости при использовании таких часов не дают реальных значений.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[12483] viXra:1911.0219 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-14 17:59:07

Minimal Fractal Manifold as Foundation of Quantum Information Theory

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 7 Pages.

Derived from the mathematics of the Renormalization Group, the minimal fractal manifold (MFM) represents a spacetime continuum endowed with arbitrarily small deviations from four dimensions. The geometrical structure of the MFM can be conveniently formulated using the concept of dimensional quaternion, a vector-like entity built from component deviations along the four spacetime coordinates. Our analysis shows that dimensional quaternions form a natural basis for qubit systems and Quantum Information Theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[12482] viXra:1911.0219 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-13 21:08:19

Minimal Fractal Manifold as Foundation of Quantum Information Theory

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 7 Pages.

Derived from the mathematics of the Renormalization Group, the minimal fractal manifold (MFM) represents a spacetime continuum endowed with arbitrarily small deviations from four dimensions. The geometrical structure of the MFM can be conveniently formulated using the concept of dimensional quaternion, a vector-like entity built from component deviations along the four spacetime coordinates. Our analysis shows that dimensional quaternions form a natural basis for qubit systems and Quantum Information Theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[12481] viXra:1911.0214 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-14 13:20:33

An Extension of the Dynamics of the Core of Baryons

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

Presented here an extension of the dynamics of the core of baryons reduces the initial 3 iterative numbers in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) to 2. Now SST starts from 7 parameters and 2 iterative numbers which are derived after formulation of the theory. We calculated mass of the central condensate which is responsible for the nuclear weak interactions, the coupling constant for such interactions, the binding energy of the torus/electric-charge and central condensate, and masses of charged and neutral core. We showed also how important are the axial symmetries in weak interactions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12480] viXra:1911.0209 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-13 01:16:29

Dynamics of the Core of Baryons

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

In 2017, scientists from Osaka University measured unexpected gamma-ray energy spectrum of the lithium reaction with the 246-MeV protons. Here, using the dynamics of the core of baryons described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we showed that the two absorption lines follow from such dynamics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12479] viXra:1911.0207 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-17 10:07:45

Analysis of Natural Lightning Phenomena and Method for Laboratory Study

Authors: Stoyan Sarg Sargoytchev
Comments: 12 Pages. Reported at International conference on Nanotechnology and Materials Science, 2019, Rome, Italy

On Earth, the lightning frequency is approximately 44 times per second, or nearly 1.4 billion flashes per year. The average lightning duration is a few hundred milliseconds made up from a number of shorter strokes. Lightning is a transient process producing very high frequency pulses mostly in MHZ range. The analysis of lightnings using the BSM-SG models indicates that theoretically predicted and experimentally proved “Heterodyne Resonance Mechanism” (HRM) is involved in the transient process of lightning. The physics of HRM effect permits a new understanding on the energy of lightning. This article is focused mainly on lightnings between clouds and ground in which an avalanche process takes place. The enormous energy released during this process could not be only from the potential energy accumulated in clouds. A new technical method for a laboratory study of the lightning is proposed.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[12478] viXra:1911.0203 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-12 02:43:47

Yes, P = NP=NP-Complete=NP-hard, says the NP-hard Traveling Salesman Problem

Authors: A. A. Frempong
Comments: 38 Pages. Copyright © by A. A. Frempong

The solution of the traveling salesman problem (TSP) in this paper makes this problem no longer an NP-hard problem, but rather, a P problem. The TSP was solved in polynomial time and its solution was also correctly checked in polynomial time. Also solved were an NP-Complete TSP, and six other NP-Complete problems. The TSP solution killed two (three) birds with one stone, because its solution made the NP-hard problems and NP-Complete problems become P problems. The shortest route as well as the longest route for the salesman to visit each of nine cities once and return to the base city was determined. In finding the shortest route, the first step was to arrange the data of the problem in increasing order, since one's interest is in the shortest distances; but in finding the longest route, the first step was to arrange the data of the problem in decreasing order, since one's interest is in the longest distances. For the shortest route, the main principle is that the shortest route is the sum of the shortest distances such that the salesman visits each city once and returns to the starting city; but for the longest route, the main principle is that the longest route is the sum of the longest distances such that the salesman visits each city once and returns to the starting city. Since ten cities are involved, ten distances would be needed for the salesman to visit each of nine cities once and return to the starting city. One started the construction of the shortest route using only the shortest ten distances; and if a needed distance was not among the set of the shortest ten distances, one would consider distances longer than those in the set of the shortest ten distances. For the longest route, the construction began using only the longest ten distances; and if a needed distance was not among the set of the longest ten distances, one would consider distances shorter than those in the set of the longest ten distances. It was found out that even though, the length of the shortest or the longest route is unique, the sequence of the cities involved is not unique. The approach used in this paper can be applied in work-force project management and hiring, as well as in a country's work-force needs and immigration quota determination. Since approaches that solve the TSP and NP-Complete problems can also solve other NP problems, and the TSP and NP-Complete problems have been solved, all NP problems can be solved. If all NP problems can be solved, then all NP problems are P problems, and therefore, P is equal to NP. The CMI Millennium Prize requirements have been satisfied
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[12477] viXra:1911.0201 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-15 16:55:20

Prime Triplet Conjecture

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 4 Pages.

Prime Triplet and Twin Primes have exactly the same dynamics. All Prime Triplet are executed in hexagonal circulation. It does not change in a huge number (forever huge number). In the hexagon, Prime Triplet are generated only at (6n -1)(6n+1). [n is a positive integer] When the number grows to the limit, the denominator of the expression becomes very large, and primes occur very rarely, but since Prime Triplet are 35/12 times of the 3th power distribution of primes, the frequency of occurrence of Prime Triplet is very equal to 0. However, it is not 0. Therefore, Prime Triplet continue to be generated. If Prime Triplet is finite, the Primes is finite. The probability of Prime Triplet 35/12 times of the 3th power probability of appearance of the Prime. This is contradictory. Because there are an infinite of Primes. That is, Prime Triplet exist forever.
Category: Number Theory

[12476] viXra:1911.0201 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-15 04:20:33

Prime Triplet Conjecture

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 5 Pages.

Prime Triplet and Twin Primes have exactly the same dynamics. All Prime Triplet are executed in hexagonal circulation. It does not change in a huge number (forever huge number). In the hexagon, Prime Triplet are generated only at (6n -1)(6n+1). [n is a positive integer] When the number grows to the limit, the denominator of the expression becomes very large, and primes occur very rarely, but since Prime Triplet are 35/12 times of the 3th power distribution of primes, the frequency of occurrence of Prime Triplet is very equal to 0. However, it is not 0. Therefore, Prime Triplet continue to be generated. If Prime Triplet is finite, the Primes is finite. The probability of Prime Triplet 35/12 times of the 3th power probability of appearance of the Prime. This is contradictory. Because there are an infinite of Primes. That is, Prime Triplet exist forever.
Category: Number Theory

[12475] viXra:1911.0186 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-12 18:58:52

Tutorial: Binary Star Masses from Newton's Laws

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 4 Pages.

By Newton's Third Law the gravitational forces on the two stars of a binary system are equal and opposite, so the acceleration of each star is inversely proportional to its mass, which yields the ratio of the two stars' masses. However the difference of the two stars' gravitational accelerations is proportional to the sum of their masses; it is also inversely proportional to the square of their vector separation, so that vector separation traces out an elliptical orbit. The orbit's period plus its major axis length yields the sum of the stars' masses. The complete orbit isn't required; five or more of the points which lie on an ellipse determine it, and the orbit sweeps out the area enclosed by the ellipse at a constant rate.
Category: Astrophysics

[12474] viXra:1911.0180 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-15 06:50:44

Prime Sextuplet Conjecture

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 4 Pages.

Prime Sextuplet and Twin Primes have exactly the same dynamics. All Prime Sextuplet are executed in hexagonal circulation. It does not change in a huge number (forever huge number). In the hexagon, Prime Sextuplet are generated only at (6n -1)(6n+5). [n is a positive integer] When the number grows to the limit, the denominator of the expression becomes very large, and primes occur very rarely, but since Prime Sextuplet are 48/3 times of the sixth power distribution of primes, the frequency of occurrence of Prime Quintuplet is very equal to 0. However, it is not 0. Therefore, Prime Sextuplet continue to be generated. If Prime Sextuplet is finite, the Primes is finite. The probability of Prime Sextuplet 48/3 times of the sixth power probability of appearance of the Prime. This is contradictory. Because there are an infinite of Primes. That is, Prime Sextuplet exist forever.
Category: Number Theory

[12473] viXra:1911.0180 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-11 16:09:29

Prime Sextuplet Conjecture

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 4 Pages.

Prime Sextuplet and Twin Primes have exactly the same dynamics. All Prime Sextuplet are executed in hexagonal circulation. It does not change in a huge number (forever huge number). In the hexagon, Prime Sextuplet are generated only at (6n -1)(6n+5). [n is a positive integer] When the number grows to the limit, the denominator of the expression becomes very large, and primes occur very rarely, but since Prime Sextuplet are 48/3 times of the sixth power distribution of primes, the frequency of occurrence of Prime Quintuplet is very equal to 0. However, it is not 0. Therefore, Prime Sextuplet continue to be generated. If Prime Sextuplet is finite, the Primes is finite. The probability of Prime Sextuplet 48/3 times of the sixth power probability of appearance of the Prime. This is contradictory. Because there are an infinite of Primes. That is, Prime Sextuplet exist forever.
Category: Number Theory

[12472] viXra:1911.0179 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-15 18:54:39

Prime Quintuplet Conjecture

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 5 Pages.

Prime Quintuplet and Twin Primes have exactly the same dynamics. All Prime Quintuplet are executed in hexagonal circulation. It does not change in a huge number (forever huge number). In the hexagon, Prime Quintuplet are generated only at (6n -1)(6n+5). [n is a positive integer] When the number grows to the limit, the denominator of the expression becomes very large, and primes occur very rarely, but since Prime Quintuplet are 96/3 times of the 5th power distribution of primes, the frequency of occurrence of Prime Quintuplet is very equal to 0. However, it is not 0. Therefore, Prime Quintuplet continue to be generated. If Prime Quintuplet is finite, the Primes is finite. The probability of Prime Quintuplet 96/3 times of the 5th power probability of appearance of the Prime. This is contradictory. Because there are an infinite of Primes. That is, Prime Quintuplet exist forever.
Category: Number Theory

[12471] viXra:1911.0179 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-15 04:45:08

Prime Quintuplet Conjecture

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 5 Pages.

Prime Quintuplet and Twin Primes have exactly the same dynamics. All Prime Quintuplet are executed in hexagonal circulation. It does not change in a huge number (forever huge number). In the hexagon, Prime Quintuplet are generated only at (6n -1)(6n+5). [n is a positive integer] When the number grows to the limit, the denominator of the expression becomes very large, and primes occur very rarely, but since Prime Quintuplet are 96/3 times of the 5th power distribution of primes, the frequency of occurrence of Prime Quintuplet is very equal to 0. However, it is not 0. Therefore, Prime Quintuplet continue to be generated. If Prime Quintuplet is finite, the Primes is finite. The probability of Prime Quintuplet 96/3 times of the 5th power probability of appearance of the Prime. This is contradictory. Because there are an infinite of Primes. That is, Prime Quintuplet exist forever.
Category: Number Theory

[12470] viXra:1911.0177 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-15 17:13:24

Sexy Primes Conjecture

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 4 Pages.

Sexy Primes Conjecture were prooved. Sexy Primes and Twin Primes and Cousin Primes have exactly the same dynamics. All Primes are executed in hexagonal circulation. It does not change in a huge number (forever huge number). In the hexagon, Sexy Primes are generated only at (6n+1)(6n -1). [n is a positive integer] When the number grows to the limit, the denominator of the expression becomes very large, and primes occur very rarely, but since Sexy Primes are 8/3 times the square of the distribution of primes, the frequency of occurrence of Sexy Primes is very equal to 0. However, it is not 0. Therefore, Sexy Primes continue to be generated. If Sexy Primes is finite, the Primes is finite. Because, Sexy Primes are 8/3 times the square of the distribution of primes. This is contradictory. Since there are an infinite of Primes. That is, Sexy Primes exist forever.
Category: Number Theory

[12469] viXra:1911.0176 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-13 00:38:23

Energy Analysis of a Null Electromagnetic Wave

Authors: ‪Moshe Segal‬‏
Comments: 23 Pages.

This article summarizes a research based on a thinking exercise relating to electric charges, electromagnetic traveling waves and energy, which results in surprising, new and important insights into the nature of electric charges, electromagnetic traveling waves, photons, and energy. This thinking exercise started with the attempt to provide an answer to the following question: is it possible to detect a Null electromagnetic traveling wave, which is a wave that does not contain any electric or magnetic fields? Analysis of the above question shows that any answer to that question provides surprising and important new insights. The article provides a description of how to implement such a Null electromagnetic wave, and it also provides a description of how to carry on a lab experiment which might provide answers to the above question. As already mentioned above, any answer to the above question results in providing surprising and new insights to issues such as: Photons, which are the particle manifestation of electromagnetic traveling waves, oscillate between two states, an oscillation that is synchronized to the oscillations of the electric and magnetic fields in the electromagnetic traveling wave which carries this photon. This also explains why the energy embedded in a photon is proportional to the frequency of oscillation of the electromagnetic traveling wave which carries this photon. Energies embedded in electric charges, electric or magnetic fields and photon, can, in certain circumstances, seem as annihilating each other, but actually exist together as potential Energy Pairs that only disable each other from operation, which only seemingly, or apparently, looks as annihilating each other. The Dark Energy might be consolidating electromagnetic waves which consolidate and continue to travel in the same direction. The Energy Pairs theory mentioned above provide an explanation to the charge disappearance mystery in electron positron collisions. Electric Charges are a form of energy as Mass is recognized being a form of energy. There is no such thing as Complete Emptiness. Complete Emptiness is actually a state containing Energy Pairs that disable each other, which only seem to be a state that does not contain any energy.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[12468] viXra:1911.0158 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-11 10:26:07

Space is Open But Time is Closed-Topologically

Authors: Kaushal Timilsina
Comments: 5 Pages. I have no basis for saying whether these things are correct. I just try to explore creative ideas.

The main idea in String theory is that particles are not points but a self-evolving (vibrating) quantum of fields. From this idea, we explore how this means that particles can feel their own fields and what that might mean topologically. We also see that the central idea in any theory of quantum gravity should perhaps be that the quantum of fields is not static but rather dynamic.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[12467] viXra:1911.0144 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-15 16:58:49

Prime Quadruplet Conjecture

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 4 Pages.

Prime Quadruplet and Twin Primes have exactly the same dynamics. All Prime Quadruplet are executed in hexagonal circulation. It does not change in a huge number (forever huge number). In the hexagon, Prime Quadruplet are generated only at (6n -1)(6n+5). [n is a positive integer] When the number grows to the limit, the denominator of the expression becomes very large, and primes occur very rarely, but since Prime Quadruplet are 16/3 of the fourth power distribution of primes, the frequency of occurrence of Prime Quadruplet is very equal to 0. However, it is not 0. Therefore, Cousin Primes continue to be generated. If Prime Quadruplet is finite, the Primes is finite. The probability of Prime Quadruplet 16/3 of the fourth power probability of appearance of the Prime. This is contradictory. Because there are an infinite of Primes. That is, Prime Quadruplet exist forever.
Category: Number Theory

[12466] viXra:1911.0144 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-12 01:21:56

Prime Quadruplet Conjecture

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 6 Pages.

Prime Quadruplet and Twin Primes have exactly the same dynamics. All Prime Quadruplet are executed in hexagonal circulation. It does not change in a huge number (forever huge number). In the hexagon, Prime Quadruplet are generated only at (6n -1)(6n+5). [n is a positive integer] When the number grows to the limit, the denominator of the expression becomes very large, and primes occur very rarely, but since Prime Quadruplet are 16/3 of the fourth power distribution of primes, the frequency of occurrence of Prime Quadruplet is very equal to 0. However, it is not 0. Therefore, Cousin Primes continue to be generated. If Prime Quadruplet is finite, the Primes is finite. The probability of Prime Quadruplet 16/3 of the fourth power probability of appearance of the Prime. This is contradictory. Because there are an infinite of Primes. That is, Prime Quadruplet exist forever.
Category: Number Theory

[12465] viXra:1911.0144 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-08 19:03:42

Prime Quadruplet Conjecture

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 4 Pages.

Prime Quadruplet and Twin Primes have exactly the same dynamics. All Prime Quadruplet are executed in hexagonal circulation. It does not change in a huge number (forever huge number). In the hexagon, Prime Quadruplet are generated only at (6n -1)(6n+5). [n is a positive integer] When the number grows to the limit, the denominator of the expression becomes very large, and primes occur very rarely, but since Prime Quadruplet are 16/3 of the fourth power distribution of primes, the frequency of occurrence of Prime Quadruplet is very equal to 0. However, it is not 0. Therefore, Cousin Primes continue to be generated. If Prime Quadruplet is finite, the Primes is finite. The probability of Prime Quadruplet 16/3 of the fourth power probability of appearance of the Prime. This is contradictory. Because there are an infinite of Primes. That is, Prime Quadruplet exist forever.
Category: Number Theory

[12464] viXra:1911.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-11 17:03:06

Mass Spectrum for Leptons and Quarks

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

I hypothesize that the mass spectrum of the standard model is infinite, and I try to evaluate a simple formula for the masses.
Category: Classical Physics