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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[18411] viXra:1704.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 09:25:42

Evaluation of Mach’s Principle in a Universe with Four Spatial Dimensions

Authors: Eva Déli
Comments: 16 Pages.

Recent cosmological data shows the Milky Way galaxy being pushed ahead of a void. Independently, laboratory research created matter with negative mass. A possible relationship between these seemingly unrelated results indicates the need to reexamine our understanding of gravity. According to Page and Wootter mechanism, time is globally static, but emergent for ‘internal’ observers. That is, interaction increases the energy-information differences among the constituents of the cosmos. Such temporal evolution engenders polar singularities, known as black and white holes, in accordance with general relativity. The second law of thermodynamics leads to Landauer’s principle, which shows that the emitted heat is proportional to the erased information of the system. Thus, information accumulates heat in black hole horizons, which have been found to be two dimensional; whereas information-free areas are energy rich and cold. The principle of static time dictates an information and dimensionality symmetry between antipodal areas of the universe. Two dimensional, positive curvature black holes must be balanced by negative curvature, four dimensional white holes, which expand space and lead to the experience of ‘dark energy.’ Positive curvature forms great field strength, which stabilizes the universe with a pressure experienced as excess gravity, called dark matter. Enhanced field strength leads to clumping, forming planets, stars, galaxies and galaxy clusters, which slows expansion. The dimensional anisotropy (two in the black holes and four in the white holes) straddle unstable three dimensional galactic environments between them. An object’s position in space corresponds to a freely hanging plumb. Deviations in angle of that plumb (position of the object) – thereby changes the equilibrium of the whole universe and leads to inertia, a force that is proportional to both the mass of the object and the field strength (i.e. radial topological distance from the center). Therefore inertia is greatest in the vicinity of the black holes. On the positively curved polar surfaces of space (such as a planet) a path that curves toward the pole forms the shortest distance. On positive curving temporal surfaces the shortest time is acceleration, which leads to the twin paradox. The hypothesis is congruent with the latest CMB data, satisfies Mach’s principle as well as Occam’s razor by uncovering a surprisingly simple, stable and unified alignment of the universe. This new physical world view is presented without equations, reflecting the futility of a universal calculation method.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18410] viXra:1704.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 09:37:41

On P Versus NP

Authors: Frank Vega
Comments: 7 Pages. Preprint submitted to a peer-reviewed journal

P versus NP is considered one of the great open problems of science. This consists in knowing the answer of the following question: Is P equal to NP? This incognita was first mentioned in a letter written by John Nash to the National Security Agency in 1955. However, a precise statement of the P versus NP problem was introduced independently in 1971 by Stephen Cook and Leonid Levin. Since that date, all efforts to find a proof for this huge problem have failed. Another major complexity class is coNP. Whether NP = coNP is another fundamental question that it is as important as it is unresolved. We prove there exists a problem in coNP that is not in P. In this way, we show that P is not equal to coNP. Since P = NP implies P = coNP, then we also demonstrate that P is not equal to NP.
Category: General Mathematics

[18409] viXra:1704.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 14:05:12

Quranic Relativity النسبية القرآنية

Authors: Ahmida Bendjoudi
Comments: 44 Pages.

We see in this research that the text structure of quran follows general relativity equations.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[18408] viXra:1704.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 15:01:19

Inexhaustible Power Source

Authors: Simon A. Olanipekun
Comments: Pages.

An Inexhaustible Power Source(IPS) that has a power-to-weight ratio of 122Horsepower per kilogram, with an efficiency of about 99% and a lifespan of 70years, and a coefficient of performance that tends to infinity… The IPS produces energy by inducing a magnetic vortex in its vicinity and transducing the energy inherent in the magnetic vortex into classical mechanical energy.
Category: Classical Physics

[18407] viXra:1704.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 23:04:13

One Step Forecasting Model {Version 3}

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented two one step forecasting models.
Category: Statistics

[18406] viXra:1704.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 23:10:04

A Modification of the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner Equation for Predicting Coarsening of γ‘ and Other Precipitates with Compositions Similar to that of Their Matrix

Authors: James A. Smith
Comments: 32 Pages.

The story behind this article is instructive, and even a bit troubling. I wrote it in 1991 as a continuation of part of my Doctoral thesis, which I’d completed a few years earlier. During that research, I’d found that scientists who’d done very fine laboratory work on Ostwald ripening during the 1960s had made a curious error in simple mass balances when deriving a rate equation for Ostwald ripening starting from the minimum-entropy-production-rate (MEPR) principle. That error led the 1960s scientists to reject (with commendable honesty) their hypothesis that the MEPR principle is applicable to Ostwald ripening. Like all the rest of us metallurgists back then, I didn’t catch that error, until I examined the derivation of the MEPR-based rate equation in detail during my thesis work. However, I didn’t manage to re-derive the rate equation fully until I took up the subject again in the early 1990s. The scientists who did such fine lab work in the 1960s would no doubt have been pleased to learn that their empirical results agreed quite well with predictions made by the corrected equation. Thus, those scientists were correct in their hypothesis about the MEPR principle’s applicability. I continue to wonder how we metallurgists overlooked, for more than two decades, the simple error that led those scientists to conclude, mistakenly but honestly, that they’d been wrong. I never did manage to publish this article, but the same derivations and analyses were published by other researchers within a few years. Some of the reviewers’ comments on the article are addressed in the second article in this document, “Comments on ‘Ostwald Ripening Growth Rate for Nonideal Systems with Significant Mutual Solubility’”.
Category: Condensed Matter

[18405] viXra:1704.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 03:13:45

A Neutrosophic Binomial Factorial Theorem with their Refrains

Authors: Huda E. Khalid, Florentin Smarandache, Ahmed K. Essa
Comments: 5 Pages.

The Neutrosophic Precalculus and the Neutrosophic Calculus can be developed in many ways, depending on the types of indeterminacy one has and on the method used to deal with such indeterminacy. This article is innovative since the form of neutrosophic binomial factorial theorem was constructed in addition to its refrains.Two other important theorems were proven with their corollaries, and numerical examples as well. As a conjecture, we use ten (indeterminate) forms in neutrosophic calculus taking an important role in limits. To serve article's aim, some important questions had been answered.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[18404] viXra:1704.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 03:19:00

An Isolated Interval Valued Neutrosophic Graph

Authors: Said Broumi, Assia Bakali, Mohamed Talea, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 14 Pages.

The interval valued neutrosophic graphs are generalizations of the fuzzy graphs, interval fuzzy graphs, interval valued intuitionstic fuzzy graphs, and single valued neutrosophic graphs. Previously, several results have been proved on the isolated graphs and the complete graphs. In this paper, a necessary and sufficient condition for an interval valued neutrosophic graph to be an isolated interval valued neutrosophic graph is proved.
Category: General Mathematics

[18403] viXra:1704.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 03:20:29

Apollonius Circles of Rank -1

Authors: Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this article, we highlight some properties of the Apollonius circles of rank - 1 associated with a triangle.
Category: Geometry

[18402] viXra:1704.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 03:22:04

Applications of Fuzzy and Neutrosophic Logic in Solving Multi-criteria Decision Making Problems

Authors: Abdel Nasser H. Zaied, Hagar M. Naguib
Comments: 9 Pages.

In daily life, decision makers around the world are seeking for the appropriate decisions while facing many challenges due to conflicting criteria and the presence of many alternatives.
Category: General Mathematics

[18401] viXra:1704.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 03:25:49

The 3n + p Conjecture: A Generalization of Collatz Conjecture

Authors: W.b. Vasantha Kandasamy, Ilanthenral Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 6 Pages.

The Collatz conjecture is an open conjecture in mathematics named so after Lothar Collatz who proposed it in 1937. It is also known as 3n 1 conjecture, the Ulam conjecture (after Stanislaw Ulam), Kakutanis problem (after Shizuo Kakutani) and so on. Several various generalization of the Collatz conjecture has been carried.
Category: General Mathematics

[18400] viXra:1704.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 03:33:50

Microworld_36. Axiomatization of Physics

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 19 Pages. English and russian texts

Axiomatization of physics that D. Gilbert hankered after is implemented by methods of the theory of non-linear oscillations, using Mandelstam-Andronov’s applied scientific methodology
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[18399] viXra:1704.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 03:52:27

Fuzzy Logic vs. Neutrosophic Logic: Operations Logic

Authors: Salah Bouzina
Comments: 6 Pages.

The goal of this research is first to show how different, thorough, widespread and effective are the operations logic of the neutrosophic logic compared to the fuzzy logic’s operations logical. The second aim is to observe how a fully new logic, the neutrosophic logic, is established starting by changing the previous logical perspective fuzzy logic, and by changing that, we mean changing the truth values from the truth and falsity degrees membership in fuzzy logic, to the truth, falsity and indeterminacy degrees membership in neutrosophic logic; and thirdly, to observe that there is no limit to the logical discoveries.
Category: General Mathematics

[18398] viXra:1704.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 03:53:42

An Application on Standard Neutrosophic Information Systems

Authors: Nguyen Xuan Thao, Bui Cong Cuong, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 11 Pages.

A rough fuzzy set is the result of approximation of a fuzzy set with respect to a crisp approximation space. It is a mathematical tool for the knowledge discovery in the fuzzy information systems. In this paper, we introduce the concepts of rough standard neutrosophic sets, standard neutrosophic information system and give some results of the knowledge discovery on standard neutrosophic information system based on rough standard neutrosophic sets.
Category: General Mathematics

[18397] viXra:1704.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 03:55:07

Some Aggregation Operators For Bipolar-Valued Hesitant Fuzzy Information

Authors: Tahir Mahmood, Florentin Smarandache, Kifayat Ullah, Qaisar Khan
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this article we define some aggregation operators for bipolar-valued hesitant fuzzy sets. These operations include bipolar-valued hesitant fuzzy ordered weighted averaging (BPVHFOWA) operator, bipolar-valued hesitant fuzzy ordered weighted geometric (BPVHFOWG) operator and their generalized forms. We also define hybrid aggregation operators and their generalized forms and solved a decision-making problem on these operation.
Category: General Mathematics

[18396] viXra:1704.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 08:43:53

Depth-Integrated Characteristics of Nonlinear Water Waves

Authors: Yakov A. Iosilevskii
Comments: 72 pages

This exposition has the following main objects in view. (1) All main depth-integrated time-dependent and time-averaged characteristics, – as the velocity potential, velocity, pressure, momentum flux density tensor, volumetric kinetic, potential, and total energies, Poynting (energy flux density) vector, radiation (wave) stress tensor, etc, – of the ideal (inviscid, incompressible, and irrotational) fluid flow in an imaginary wave-perturbed infinite water layer with an arbitrary shaped bed and with a free upper boundary surface, and also the pertinent depth-integrated time-dependent and time-averaged differential continuity equations, – as those of the mass density, energy density, and momentum flux density (Euler’s and Bernoulli’s equations), etc, – are rigorously deduced from the respective basic local (bulk and surface) characteristics and from the respective bulk continuity equations, with allowance for the corresponding exact kinematic boundary conditions at the upper (free) and bottom surfaces and also with allowance for the corresponding exact dynamic boundary condition at the free surface, which follows from the basic Bernoulli equation. (2) The recursive asymptotic perturbation method with respect to powers of ka that has been developed recently by the present author for the local characteristics and bulk continuity equations of the ideal fluid flow in the presence of a priming (seeding) progressive, or standing, monochromatic gravity water wave (PPPMGWW or PSPMGWW) of a wave number k>0 and of wave amplitude a>0 in an imaginary infinite water layer of a uniform depth d>0 is extended to flow’s momentary and time-averaged (TA), depth-integrated (DI) characteristics and to their continuity equations, particularly to the 3x3 radiation, or wave, stress tensor (RST). (3) The extended recursive method is applied to PPPMGWW’s and PSPMGWW’s with the purpose to obtain their main TADI characteristics in terms of elementary functions. (4) The first non-vanishing asymptotic approximation of a characteristic, particularly that of the 3x3-TADIRST, of a PPPMGWW or PSPMGWW is generalized to a priming progressive, or standing, quasi-pane (PPQP or PSQP) MGWW. (5) The longshore wave–induced sediment transport rate, expressed by the so-called CERC (Coastal Engineering Research Council) formula, is briefly discussed in its relation to the (x,y)-component of the 3x3-TADIRST of the pertinent PPQPMGWW. (6) The presently common 2x2-TADIRST’s of progressive and standing water waves, which have been deduced by various writers from intuitive considerations and have been canonized about 55 years ago, are revised in accordance with the 3x3 ones of the recursive asymptotic theory.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[18395] viXra:1704.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 08:48:27

Heretical Physicsxia Newtons'g'

Authors: John E. Miller
Comments: 6 Pages.

Investigate the source of Newton's 'G' and unexplored dynamic applications beyond value 'g'
Category: Astrophysics

[18394] viXra:1704.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 08:55:12

Biosensor using Magnetic Field

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

A research team led by Professor CheolGi Kim has developed a biosensor platform using magnetic patterns resembling a spider web with detection capability 20 times faster than existing biosensors. [21] Researchers at Columbia University have made a significant step toward breaking the so-called "color barrier" of light microscopy for biological systems, allowing for much more comprehensive, system-wide labeling and imaging of a greater number of biomolecules in living cells and tissues than is currently attainable. [20] Scientists around the Nobel laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now achieved what was for a long time considered impossible – they have developed a new fluorescence microscope, called MINFLUX, allowing, for the first time, to optically separate molecules, which are only nanometers (one millionth of a millimeter) apart from each other. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13]
Category: Physics of Biology

[18393] viXra:1704.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 09:02:56

Study of Tornadoes that Have Reached the State of Paraná

Authors: R. Gobato, A. Gobato, D. F. G. Fedrigo
Comments: 27 Pages. Parana Journal of Science and Education. PJSE v.2, n.1, 1-27(2016). https://sites.google.com/site/pjsciencea/archives. For Full article: https://drive.google.com/file/d/0BxkqIa7R4j_RWjc5MkdaczRnSnM/view?usp=sharing

Several tornadoes have solid recorded in the Midwest, Southeast and South of Brazil. The southern region of Brazil has been hit by several of them in the last decade, highlighted the state of Paraná a to record three tornadoes in 2015. The work is a survey of tornadoes that caused major damage to the Paraná population, relevance those who reached the Balsa Nova counties, Francisco Beltrão, Cafelândia, Nova Aurora and Marechal Cândido Rondon. The main cause because it is related to El Niño which has caused a significant rise in temperature and water vapor present in the atmosphere in the state’s regions in surroundings that influence the climate of the state. Another likely factor is the increase in global temperature of the planet, a ripple effect on the warming of Pacific Ocean waters. The meeting is the possibility of the formation of large storms that funnel and reach the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina. Overall fronts storms fall into two, forming a separation channel as a wave, their crests (storms) and valleys (lull), advancing the state of Paraná.
Category: Climate Research

[18392] viXra:1704.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 11:27:27

Nanoscopic Techniques

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Tromsø have developed a photonic chip that makes it possible to carry out super-resolution light microscopy, also called 'nanoscopy,' with conventional microscopes. In nanoscopy, the position of single fluorescent molecules can be determined with a precision of just a few nano-meters, that is, to a millionth of a millimeter. [21] Researchers at Columbia University have made a significant step toward breaking the so-called "color barrier" of light microscopy for biological systems, allowing for much more comprehensive, system-wide labeling and imaging of a greater number of biomolecules in living cells and tissues than is currently attainable. [20] Scientists around the Nobel laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now achieved what was for a long time considered impossible – they have developed a new fluorescence microscope, called MINFLUX, allowing, for the first time, to optically separate molecules, which are only nanometers (one millionth of a millimeter) apart from each other. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[18391] viXra:1704.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 11:57:50

Chiral Currents in Quantum Hall

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Using an atomic quantum simulator, scientists at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have achieved the first-ever direct observation of chiral currents in the model topological insulator, the 2-D integer quantum Hall system. [22] Physicists at Bielefeld University and the Arctic University of Norway in Tromsø have developed a photonic chip that makes it possible to carry out super-resolution light microscopy, also called 'nanoscopy,' with conventional microscopes. In nanoscopy, the position of single fluorescent molecules can be determined with a precision of just a few nano-meters, that is, to a millionth of a millimeter. [21] Researchers at Columbia University have made a significant step toward breaking the so-called "color barrier" of light microscopy for biological systems, allowing for much more comprehensive, system-wide labeling and imaging of a greater number of biomolecules in living cells and tissues than is currently attainable. [20] Scientists around the Nobel laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now achieved what was for a long time considered impossible – they have developed a new fluorescence microscope, called MINFLUX, allowing, for the first time, to optically separate molecules, which are only nanometers (one millionth of a millimeter) apart from each other. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[18390] viXra:1704.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 04:51:58

One Step Forecasting Model (Version 2)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented two Forecasting Models.
Category: Statistics

[18389] viXra:1704.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 06:54:45

Zhoufang Transformation (Z- Transformation) : The Motion Observation Theory and Theoretical Interpretation for Hubble’s Law

Authors: Fang Zhou
Comments: 62 pages in Chinese

The only objectively existing in nature transformation of space and time for the case of observers’ mutual uniform translatory motion and limited light velocity is first revealed in the article.The discovered transformation ,referred to as Zhoufang Transformation (Z-Transformation), is logically derived, using in derivation the concepts of both the principle of relativity and the postulate of constant light velocity. The Z-Transformation takes the typical form of Galilean Transformation. Moreover, a theoretical interpretation for Hubble’s Law is given firstly by the author as well, utilizing the Z-Transformation revealed .
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18388] viXra:1704.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 06:49:47

Brains Recognize Unseen in a Second

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

In about a tenth of a second—too quickly for us to even be aware it's happening—our brains figure out what we are seeing and make sense of it. [25] A new study out of the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) has found that one part of the neurons in our brains is more active than previously revealed. The finding implies that our brains are both analog and digital computers and could lead to better ways to treat neurological disorders. [24]
Category: Mind Science

[18387] viXra:1704.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 00:38:54

Optical Micro-Oscillator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

A team of engineering researchers from UCLA and OEWaves has developed an optical micro-oscillator, a key time-keeping component of clocks that could vastly improve the accuracy of time-keeping, which is essential for use in spacecraft, automobile sensing or satellite communications. [33] Researchers from the ARC Centre for Ultrahigh bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS) in the University of Sydney's Australian Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology have made a breakthrough achieving radio frequency signal control at sub-nanosecond time scales on a chip-scale optical device. [32] The shrinking of electronic components and the excessive heat generated by their increasing power has heightened the need for chip-cooling solutions, according to a Rutgers-led study published recently in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Using graphene combined with a boron nitride crystal substrate, the researchers demonstrated a more powerful and efficient cooling mechanism. [31] Materials like graphene can exhibit a particular type of large-amplitude, stable vibrational modes that are localised, referred to as Discrete Breathers (DBs). [30] A two-dimensional material developed by Bayreuth physicist Prof. Dr. Axel Enders together with international partners could revolutionize electronics. [29] Researchers have found a way to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, ability of graphene to act as a superconductor-meaning that it can be made to carry an electrical current with zero resistance. [28] Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18386] viXra:1704.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 02:09:56

Никитин В. Н., Никитин И. В. Если раcпадаться, то до конца! Конечный результат распада всего – Вселенское пространство фундаментальных частиц «ничего».

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Конечный результат распада всего – Вселенское пространство фундаментальных частиц «ничего».
Category: Astrophysics

[18385] viXra:1704.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-23 11:14:37

3D Printed Dancing Humanoid Robot “Buddy” for Homecare

Authors: Akshay Potnuru, Mohsen Jafarzadeh, Yonas Tadesse
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper describes a 3D printed humanoid robot that can perform dancing and demonstrate human-like facial expressions to expand humanoid robotics in entertainment and at the same time to have an assistive role for children and elderly people. The humanoid is small and has an expressive face that is in a comfort zone for a child or an older person. It can maneuver in a day care or home care environment using its wheeled base. This paper discusses on the capabilities of the robot to carry and handle small loads like pills, common measurement tools such as pressure and temperature measurement units. The paper also discusses the use of IP camera for color identification and an Arduino based audio system to synchronize music with dance movements of the robot.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[18384] viXra:1704.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-23 11:21:17

Humanoid Robot Path Planning with Fuzzy Markov Decision Processes‏

Authors: Mahdi Fakoor, Amirreza Kosari, Mohsen Jafarzadeh
Comments: 11 Pages.

In contrast to the case of known environments, path planning in unknown environments, mostly for humanoid robots, is yet to be opened for further development. This is mainly attributed to the fact that obtaining thorough sensory information about an unknown environment is not functionally or economically applicable. This study alleviates the latter problem by resorting to a novel approach through which the decision is made according to fuzzy Markov decision processes (FMDP), with regard to the pace. The experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed method.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[18383] viXra:1704.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-23 12:08:04

Formula to Generate a Set of Poulet Numbers from a Poulet Number P and Its Factor D Lesser Than Sqr P

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following observation: Let d be a factor (not necessarily prime) of the Poulet number P such that d < sqr P and m the least number such that m*d*(d – 1) > (P – 1)/2. Let n be equal to P – m*d*(d – 1). Then often exist a set of Poulet numbers Q such that Q mod(m*d*(d – 1)) = n. For example, for P = 2047 = 23*89 and d = 23, where d < sqr 2047, the least m such that m*23*22 > (P – 1)/2 is equal to 3 (1518 > 1023, while, for 2, 1012 < 1023); so, n = 2047 – 3*23*22 = 2047 – 1518 = 529 and indeed there exist a set of Poulet numbers Q such that Q mod 1518 = 529; the formula 1518*x + 529 gives the Poulet numbers 2047, 6601, 15709, 30889 (...) for x = 1, 4, 10, 20 (...).
Category: Number Theory

[18382] viXra:1704.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-23 12:18:12

Study of the Molecular Electrostatic Potential of D-Pinitol an Active Hypoglycemic Principle Found in Spring Flower Three Marys (Bougainvillea Species) in the Mm+ Method

Authors: R. Gobato, A. Gobato, D. F. G. Fedrigo
Comments: 9 Pages. Parana Journal of Science and Education. PJSE, v.2, n.4. 1-9 May 14,(2016)

Diabetes is one of the major causes of premature illness and death worldwide. The prevalence of diabetes has reached epidemic proportions. The work is a study of the molecular electrostatic potential via molecular mechanics of the D-Pinitol found in the Bougainvillea species, a Nyctaginaceae. A computational study of the molecular geometry of the D-pinitol through Mm+ method of the hypoglycemic compounds present in Bougainvillea species is described in a computer simulation. It is a active antidiabetic agent compounds. The study the cyclitol resembles the hooks weed bur plant Asteraceae, it showed up as appearance of a bur molecule. Probably bind to sugar molecules contained in the blood, through hydrogen bonds.
Category: Physics of Biology

[18381] viXra:1704.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-23 09:42:42

Cosmology on the Back of an Envelope

Authors: John R. Berryhill
Comments: 8 Pages. Discussion at unmysticalphysics.com

An explicit closed-form solution applicable to the lambda - CDM model has been known, or perhaps forgotten, for decades. It incorporates zero spatial curvature and a nonzero cosmological constant, as recent observations support. The model incorporating these essential points is presented here in updated form. An explicit, closed-form, solution is displayed, together with useful formulas and graphs. The presentation is accessible with first-year physics and calculus.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18380] viXra:1704.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-23 10:44:47

Wyjaśnienie Wyników Eksperymentu Michelsona-Morleya Przy Pomocy Teorii Z Eterem (In Polish)

Authors: Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman
Comments: 11 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether (in Polish)

Powszechnie uważa się, że eksperymenty Michelson’a-Morley’a z 1887 roku oraz eksperyment Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a z 1932 roku wykazały, że nie istnieje uniwersalny układ odniesienia (eter) oraz, że prędkość światła w próżni jest absolutnie stała. Analiza tych eksperymentów doprowadziła do powstania Szczególnej Teorii Względności (STW). W artykule wyjaśniono dlaczego eksperyment Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a nie były w stanie wykryć uniwersalny układ odniesienia. W tym artykule wyprowadzamy na podstawie geometrycznej analizy eksperymentów Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a inną transformację czasu i położenia niż transformacja Lorentza. Transformację wyprowadzamy przy założeniu, że istnieje uniwersalny układ odniesienia (eter). Eter jest układem odniesienia wyróżniającym się tym, że prędkość światła jest w nim stała w każdym kierunku. W inercjalnych układach odniesienia poruszających się względem eteru, prędkość światła może być inna. W oparciu o nową transformację została stworzona Szczególna Teoria Eteru (STE).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18379] viXra:1704.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 13:45:16

Evidence of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Further evidence of the existence of dark matter – the mysterious substance that is believed to hold the Universe together – has been produced by Cosmologists at Durham University. [27] Researchers at the University of Waterloo have been able to capture the first composite image of a dark matter bridge that connects galaxies together. [26] In an abandoned gold mine one mile beneath Lead, South Dakota, the cosmos quiets down enough to potentially hear the faint whispers of the universe's most elusive material—dark matter. [25] The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17]
Category: Astrophysics

[18378] viXra:1704.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 14:54:00

Mass

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 2 Pages.

I don't believe that the Higgs boson theory is correct, and it's obvious that there is no definite proof that a Higgs boson exists. The discovery of the Higgs boson is only based on data, the data consists of an energy trail of a particle that was found after a particle collision experiment in the LHC accelerator. Physicists were convinced that it was a Higgs boson because the data confirmed that the mass was similar to the mass of a hypothetical Higgs boson, but they cannot prove that the data was real. They didn't prove that the Higgs boson theory is correct, so the Higgs theory remains a theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18377] viXra:1704.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 16:51:50

Multi Criteria Decision Making Based on Projection and Bidirectional Projection Measures of Rough Neutrosophic Sets

Authors: Surapati Pramanik, Rumi Roy, Tapan Kumar Roy
Comments: 15 Pages.

In this paper, we define projection and bidirectional projection measures between rough neutrosophic sets. Then two new multi criteria decision making methods are proposed based on neutrosophic projection and bidirectional projection measures respectively. Then the proposed methods are applied for solving multiple criteria group decision making problems. Finally, two numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed methods.
Category: General Mathematics

[18376] viXra:1704.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 19:23:44

Design and Motion Control of Bioinspired Humanoid Robot Head from Servo Motors Toward Artificial Muscles

Authors: Yara Almubarak, Yonas Tadesse
Comments: 9 Pages.

The potential applications of humanoid robots in social environments, motivates researchers to design, and control biomimetic humanoid robots. Generally, people are more interested to interact with robots that have similar attributes and movements to humans. The head is one of most important part of any social robot. Currently, most humanoid heads use electrical motors, pneumatic actuators, and shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators for actuation. Electrical and pneumatic actuators take most of the space and would cause unsmooth motions. SMAs are expensive to use in humanoids. Recently, in many robotic projects, Twisted and Coiled Polymer (TCP) artificial muscles are used as linear actuators which take up little space compared to the motors. In this paper, we will demonstrate the designing process and motion control of a robotic head with TCP muscles. Servo motors and artificial muscles are used for actuating the head motion, which have been controlled by a cost efficient ARM Cortex-M7 based development board. A complete comparison between the two actuators is presented.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[18375] viXra:1704.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 23:07:54

Smart Wheelchair

Authors: Amit singh, Ravi Kumar Gupta, Aishwarya rajak, Harish Chand Pal
Comments: 5 Pages.

Automatic wheelchair for disabled person
Category: Economics and Finance

[18374] viXra:1704.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 23:35:39

Poulet Numbers Obtained Concatenating Two Primes P and P±30k

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 1 Page.

In a previous paper, “Poulet numbers in Smarandache prime partial digital sequence and a possible infinite set of primes” I conjectured that there exist an infinity of Poulet numbers which admit a deconcatenation in prime numbers. In this paper I conjecture that there exist an infinity of Poulet numbers which admit a deconcatenation in two prime numbers p and q where q = p + 30*k, where k integer.
Category: Number Theory

[18373] viXra:1704.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 23:37:50

Primes Obtained Concatenating Four Consecutive Numbers, the Largest One Being a Poulet Number

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper I conjecture that there exist an infinity of primes obtained concatenating four consecutive numbers, the largest one from them being a Poulet number. For example, 1726172717281729 is such a prime, obtained concatenating the numbers 1726, 1727, 1728 and 1729, where 1729 is a Poulet number (see the sequence A030471 in OEIS for primes which are concatenation of four consecutive numbers).
Category: Number Theory

[18372] viXra:1704.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-23 04:09:15

Poulet Numbers Which Can be Written as X^3±y^3

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is well known the story of the Hardy-Ramanujan number, 1729 (also a Poulet number), which is the smallest number expressible as the sum of two cubes in two different ways, but I have not met yet, not even in OEIS, the sequence of the Poulet numbers which can be written as x^3±y^3, sequence that I conjecture in this paper that is infinite. I also conjecture that there are infinite Poulet numbers which are centered cube numbers (equal to 2*n^3 + 3*n^2 + 3*n + 1), also which are centered hexagonal numbers (equal to 3*n^2 + 3*n + 1).
Category: Number Theory

[18371] viXra:1704.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-23 05:21:47

One Step Forecasting Model

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed two models of One Step Forecasting
Category: General Mathematics

[18370] viXra:1704.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-23 06:13:46

Phonon Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

While the optical laser celebrated its 50th anniversary earlier this year, some scientists have been working on a new type of coherent beam amplifier for sound rather than light. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[18369] viXra:1704.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 12:08:37

Origins and Basis of Life

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

In 1952, chemists Stanley Miller and Harold Urey conducted a famous experimental simulation of the conditions thought to prevail on early Earth in order to determine possible pathways to the creation of life. [23] A Harvard researcher seeking a model for the earliest cells has created a system that self-assembles from a chemical soup into cell-like structures that grow, move in response to light, replicate when destroyed, and exhibit signs of rudimentary evolutionary selection. [22] New research led by Harvard Medical School reveals a critical step in a molecular chain of events that allows cells to mend broken DNA. [21] Now, Barton's lab has shown that this wire-like property of DNA is also involved in a different critical cellular function: replicating DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17]
Category: Physics of Biology

[18368] viXra:1704.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 07:37:34

The Use of Known False Principles in Science

Authors: Clayton James Conway
Comments: 4 Pages.

A criticism of science and the unconscious manner that the Science Establishment use false logic and facts to uphold an adopted worldview to drive and stabilize the whole range of science endeavors. Human consciousness is the main component while the herd mentality is used to achieve popular consensus from the majority of societies non participants. An inability of scientists to accept basic facts and let go of a failed worldview as Kepler did. Illogics: Geologies use of two lengths of periods for one depth measurement. The use of Newton's one time corrective as a general procedure. Failure to use the rules of algebra in Einstein's equation. Faster than light gravity. Materialism requiring solidity that does not exist. The use of attraction that requires charge in a universe denied of having active charge. Denial of repelling that does not require charge. The Earth and Moon having the same charge facing each other that requires charged repelling. The sun and inner planets acting as a unit ignoring Jupiter's mass. Circular logic used to defend the adopted worldview.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[18367] viXra:1704.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 04:49:27

Mathematics for Input Space Probes in the Atmosphere of Gliese 581d.

Authors: R. Gobato, A. Gobato, D. F. G. Fedrigo
Comments: 8 Pages. Parana Journal of Science and Education. v.2, n.5, 6-13(2016). https://sites.google.com/site/pjsciencea/archives

The work is a mathematical approach to the entry of an aerospace vehicle, as a probe or capsule in the atmosphere of the planet Gliese 581d, using data collected from the results of atmospheric models of the planet. GJ581d was the first planet candidate of a few Earth masses reported in the circum-stellar habitable zone of another star. It is located in the Gliese 581 star system, is a star red dwarf about 20 light years away from Earth in the constellation Libra. Its estimated mass is about a third of that of the Sun. It has been suggested that the recently discovered exoplanet GJ581d might be able to support liquid water due to its relatively low mass and orbital distance. However, GJ581d receives 35% less stellar energy than the planet Mars and is probably locked in tidal resonance, with extremely low insolation at the poles and possibly a permanent night side. The climate that demonstrate GJ581d will have a stable atmosphere and surface liquid water for a wide range of plausible cases, making it the first confirmed super-Earth (2-10 Earth masses) in the habitable zone. According to the general principle of relativity, “All systems of reference are equivalent with respect to the formulation of the fundamental laws of physics.” In this case all the equations studied apply to the exoplanet Gliese 581d. If humanity is able to send a probe to Gliese 581d, this has all the mathematical conditions set it down successfully on its surface.
Category: Astrophysics

[18366] viXra:1704.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 14:29:50

Graphene Electronic Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

For the first time, scientists created a tunable artificial atom in graphene. They demonstrated that a vacancy in graphene can be charged in a controllable way such that electrons can be localized to mimic the electron orbitals of an artificial atom. Importantly, the trapping mechanism is reversible (turned on and off) and the energy levels can be tuned. [17] Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10]
Category: Condensed Matter

[18365] viXra:1704.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 17:50:53

Le Comete

Authors: P.F. Nali
Comments: 14 pages, in Italian. This article derived from a school homework written in the late 70s and posted on the author's webpage in 2005. It is now posted here in order to ensure wider diffusion.

As a result of a school homework some historical and physical issues on comets are presented at an amateur level.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[18364] viXra:1704.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 19:21:32

Local Realism Cuts the Quantum Bait

Authors: Andrew P. Yake
Comments: 1 Page. Please see main article: ** http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0078 **

Local realism is now revitalized as a fully viable causal explanation of physical reality including empirical Bell violations according to detailed arguments provided at the link below. Meanwhile, by denying local realism in its account of EPR experiments, quantum theory requires a physical causal signal that is physically discontinuous, leaping out of spacetime from one locality and landing in another, like a fish leaping out of water. Quantum theory thus invokes a physical domain outside spacetime through which its causal signal is logically required to travel -- unobservable, unstoppable, and at infinite speed. It might be tempting to conclude that such domains and such signals are some sort of magic, except that would be exactly wrong. Even magic obeys local realism. A master magician, however, can provide a compelling illusion to the contrary. The causally complete local realistic model given by the article below argues compellingly that the antilocality claims of quantum physics reduce to such illusions. Please see main article: ** http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0078 ** Local Realism Explains Bell Violations (author Andrew P. Yake) - Claims to demonstrate that all empirical evidence taken to support quantum theory over local realism plausibly does the reverse. The article comprises 8 pages, 4 figures, 6 equations, 32 references, 1 graph of testable predictions, and 2 paragraphs that purport to expose how the Bell inequality misrepresents the local realistic predictions for the EPR experiment. Thoughtful feedback appreciated (apyake@gmail.com).
Category: Quantum Physics

[18363] viXra:1704.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 20:25:04

Allocryptopine, Berberine, Chelerythrine, Copsitine, Dihydrosanguinarine, Protopine and Sanguinarine. Molecular Geometry of the Main Alkaloids Found in the Seeds of Argemone Mexicana Linn

Authors: R. Gobato, A. Gobato, D. F. G. Fedrigo
Comments: 10 Pages. Parana Journal of Science and Education. v.1, n.2, 7-16(2015).

The work is a study of the geometry of the molecules via molecular mechanics of the main alkaloids found in the seeds of prickly poppy. A computational study of the molecular geometry of the molecules through molecular mechanics of the main alkaloids compounds present in plant seeds is described in a computer simulation. The plant has active ingredients compounds: allocryptopine, berberine, chelerythrine, copsitine, dihydrosanguinarine, protopine and sanguinarine. The Argemone Mexicana Linn, which is considered one of the most important species of plants in traditional Mexican and Indian medicine system. The seeds have toxic properties as well as bactericide, hallucinogenic, fungicide, insecticide, in isoquinolines and sanguinarine alkaloids such as berberine. The studied alkaloids form two groups having distribution characteristics similar to each other loads, to which they have dipole moments twice higher than in the other group.
Category: Physics of Biology

[18362] viXra:1704.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 20:35:25

Molecular Electrostatic Potential of the Main Monoterpenoids Compounds Found in Oil Lemon Tahiti (Citrus Latifolia Var Tahiti)

Authors: R. Gobato, A. Gobato, D. F. G. Fedrigo
Comments: 10 Pages. Parana Journal of Science and Education, v.1, n.1, November 17, 2015.

The work is a study of the geometry of the molecules via molecular mechanics of the main monoterpenoids found in the oil of Lemon Tahiti. Lemon Tahiti is the result of grafting of Persia file on Rangpur lime and has no seeds. A computational study of the molecular geometry of the molecules through molecular mechanics of the main monoterpenoids compounds present in fruit oil is described in a computer simulation. The fruit has active terpenoids compounds: alfa-pinene, beta-pinene, limonene and gama-terpenine. The studied monotepernoides form two groups of distribution characteristics of fillers and similar electrical potentials between groups. Since alfa-pinene and limonene present, major and minor moment of electric dipoles, respectively.
Category: Physics of Biology

[18361] viXra:1704.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 20:56:48

The Asymptotic Behavior of Defocusing Nonlinear Schrödinger Equations

Authors: En-Lin Liu
Comments: 6 Pages. Quite trivial research XD

This article is concerned with the scattering problem for the defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger equations (NLS) with a power nonlinear |u|^p u where 2/n < p < 4/n. We show that for any initial data in H^{0,1} x the solution will eventually scatter, i.e. U(-t)u(t) tends to some function u+ as t tends to innity.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[18360] viXra:1704.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 23:57:42

What if Entropy Varies Logarithmically Rather Than Linearly with the Area? on the Emergence of Surface Gravity

Authors: A. Klatchko
Comments: 12 Pages. comments are welcome

A constant speed of light implies a hyperbolic spacetime. The “Exponential Explosion” of a hyperbolic geometry at infinity lends itself to the Boltzmann principle, thereby connecting geometry with entropy. We borrow the concept of entropy at a horizon from Bekenstein, but propose instead that it varies logarithmically with the area enclosed by the horizon, S ~ log (A). We use the experimental data from the recent LIGO detected events of coalescing two black holes to verify that our definition of entropy does not violate the generalized second law. We observe that the first law of thermodynamics seems to determine the second law thereby setting an upper limit to the fraction of the mass that can be gravitationally irradiated. Dimensional analysis of black hole entropy requires quantization of its mass in Planck mass quanta. We treat the area enclosed within the horizon as an elastomer membrane thereby showing that its surface tension can be identified as a gravitational force – surface gravity – and its potential is directly proportional to the entropy. As information is lost to heat via, δQ = T dS, we connect the loss process to spacetime fluctuations. Using the Unruh effect we estimate the order of magnitude of these fluctuations for a weak field. We do this by analyzing the famous gravitational redshift experiment of Pound and Rebka. For a strong field we show that the black hole is a quantum heat sink with a gradient inversely proportional to the area.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18359] viXra:1704.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 01:33:53

A 100 Year Task That Involve Seven Impossible Tasks

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 6 Pages.

The First Task.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[18358] viXra:1704.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 03:09:39

An Indirect Nonparametric Regression Method for One-Dimensional Continuous Distributions Using Warping Functions

Authors: Zhicheng Chen
Comments: 4 Pages.

Distributions play a very important role in many applications. Inspired by the newly developed warping transformation of distributions, an indirect nonparametric distribution to distribution regression method is proposed in this article for predicting correlated one-dimensional continuous probability density functions.
Category: Statistics

[18357] viXra:1704.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 11:44:58

Foot Step Power Generation Using Piezoelectric Transducer

Authors: Abdul Kalam, Akash singh, Sachin Yadav, Kuldeep Yadav
Comments: 3 Pages.

It has the ability to produce electric power from mechanical reaction (force) and then it change to electric charges. This kind of technology can be used as the alternative electric power generator. It is impossible to replace the existing electricity generation, but at least to vary and reduce the dependency on the conventional electricity generation. Design concept used in this thesis is to use piezoelectric place at the walking area named as “Foot Step Power Generation System”. When a human walking, jumping or dancing on the surface which contain the piezoelectric, it then will produce sufficient force for energy generation process. This system is very suitable applied at the public spotted area with many people such as walking corridor, shopping mall, in the office, schools and others. Therefore, the continued pressure will provide sufficient resources to be used to produce the electricity required. Keywords—new technology, piezoelectricity, piezoelectric material, generate power, force or pressure
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[18356] viXra:1704.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 11:19:33

Laser Neutron Yield

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

A team of researchers from several institutions in China has developed a new way to produce neutrons that they claim improves on conventional methods by a factor of 100. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[18355] viXra:1704.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 11:49:07

Two Extreme Formulas for Converging to Pi,the Fastest and Most Painful

Authors: François Mendzina Essomba
Comments: 1 Page. extreme fomulas

I present in this small article two algorithms of calculation of pi, they are characterized by two extremities, one is the most convergent and the other the slowest of the imaginable formulas.
Category: Number Theory

[18354] viXra:1704.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 12:51:06

The Quantum Geometric Algebra Algorithm

Authors: Daniel Cordero Grau
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper I set down the Quantum Geometric Algebra Algorithm standing for the Theory of Quantum Computational Complexity
Category: Algebra

[18353] viXra:1704.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 08:40:01

Interference Black Holes, Ball Lightning, Micro Comets, Sprite-Fireballs and Sunspots According to Quantum FFF Theory.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 21 Pages.

FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM in Quantum FFF THEORY. The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Axion- Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS BLACK HOLE, able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprites and Elves, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning. I assume that the largest Interference black holes are produced at star surfaces by Solar Flares and other electric discharge phenomena around Stellar Anchor Black Holes. Recently the NASA-SOHO satellite photos showed clear evidence of multiple hotspots created at the solar surface. I assume that the majority of the hotspots can be compared with Micro Comet- or fireball phenomena related to Sprite interference micro black hole phenomena..
Category: Astrophysics

[18352] viXra:1704.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 08:43:51

Hyper-Complex Quantum Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Physicists use an interferometer to test whether standard quantum mechanics is correct, or whether a more complex version is required. They used the interferometer to send photons around a loop in opposite directions. In this way, photons travelling in one direction interact with objects inside the loop in one order, while photons travelling the opposite direction interact with objects in the opposite order. [26] Physicists at the Institute for Quantum Information and Matter at Caltech have discovered the first three-dimensional quantum liquid crystal—a new state of matter that may have applications in ultrafast quantum computers of the future. [25] For the first time, an experiment has directly imaged electron orbits in a high-magnetic field, illuminating an unusual collective behavior in electrons and suggesting new ways of manipulating the charged particles. [24] Scientists can now detect magnetic behavior at the atomic level with a new electron microscopy technique developed by a team from the The researchers took a counterintuitive approach by taking advantage of optical distortions that they typically try to eliminate. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[18351] viXra:1704.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 08:44:11

Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. Hypothesis of "Star" Disintegration of Galaxies Formation and Evolution of Galaxies is a Result of "Star" Disintegration of Their White Holes and Their Further Transformation Into Black Holes.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Formation and evolution of galaxies is a result of "star" disintegration of their White Holes and their further transformation into Black Holes.
Category: Astrophysics

[18350] viXra:1704.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 09:09:35

Quantum Bilocal Causality

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated the violation of "bilocal causality"—a concept that is related to the more standard local causality, except that it accounts for the precise way in which physical systems are initially generated. The results show that it's possible to violate local causality in an entirely new and more general way, which could lead to a potential new resource for quantum technologies. [10] The microscopic world is governed by the rules of quantum mechanics, where the properties of a particle can be completely undetermined and yet strongly correlated with those of other particles. Physicists from the University of Basel have observed these so-called Bell correlations for the first time between hundreds of atoms. [9] For the past 100 years, physicists have been studying the weird features of quantum physics, and now they're trying to put these features to good use. One prominent example is that quantum superposition (also known as quantum coherence)—which is the property that allows an object to be in two states at the same time—has been identified as a useful resource for quantum communication technologies. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18349] viXra:1704.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 10:01:53

Can Quantum Mechanical Systems Influence the Geometry of the Fiber Bundle/space-Time?

Authors: Victor Atanasov, Hristo Dimov
Comments: 5 Pages.

We suggest that gravitation is an emergent phenomenon which origin is the information signal associated with quantum fields acting like test particles. We have shown how the metric (Lamè) coefficients emerge as position & time operator mean value densities. The scalar curvature of the space-time in the case of a Bose-Einstein condensate or super- fluid/conductor is calculated and an experimentally verifiable prediction of the theory is made.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18348] viXra:1704.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 10:15:27

Soft Starter of Single Phase Pump Motor

Authors: Rai Shailesh, Dubey Jayesh, Gupta Ajay
Comments: 2 Pages. Thank You for providing us platform to explore our project idea.

In single-phase induction motor of ratings beyond a certain limit of withstand take very large currents and low powe factor while being started directly from a 1-phase supply. In order to mitigate the adverse effects of starting torque transients and high inrush currents in induction motors, a popular method is to use electronically controlled soft-starting voltages utilizing TRIAC. Normally soft-starters are used for avoiding this problem and to achieve smooth starting of large capacity induction motors. Soft starters use ac voltage controllers to start the induction motor and to adjust its speed. The performance of a voltage controlled large induction motor soft starter has been improved, resulting in nearly perfect current and torque profiles. Soft starters are used as induction motor controllers in compressors, blowers, fans, pumps, mixers, crushers and grinders, and many other applications. Starting torque pulsations are eliminated by triggering back-to-back-connected TRIAC at proper points on the first supply voltage cycle. The soft starter is connected in motor drive during the starting condition only and once the motor get its rated speed then the soft starter is disconnected from the main motor system so that the motor get protected.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[18347] viXra:1704.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 13:20:56

Laser Polarization Control

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18346] viXra:1704.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 14:42:45

Quantum Liquid Crystals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Physicists at the Institute for Quantum Information and Matter at Caltech have discovered the first three-dimensional quantum liquid crystal—a new state of matter that may have applications in ultrafast quantum computers of the future. [25] For the first time, an experiment has directly imaged electron orbits in a high-magnetic field, illuminating an unusual collective behavior in electrons and suggesting new ways of manipulating the charged particles. [24] Scientists can now detect magnetic behavior at the atomic level with a new electron microscopy technique developed by a team from the The researchers took a counterintuitive approach by taking advantage of optical distortions that they typically try to eliminate. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[18345] viXra:1704.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 18:59:25

Preliminary Evidence That a Neoclassical Model of Physics (L3) Might Be Correct

Authors: Paul J. Werbos
Comments: 15 pages, 36 equations, 34 references

Today’s standard model of physics treats the physical masses of elementary particles as given, and assumes that they have a bare radius of zero, as in the older classical physics of Lorentz. Many physicists have studied the properties of the Yang-Mills-Higgs model of continuous fields in hopes that it might help to explain where elementary particles (and their masses) come from in the first place. This paper reviews some of the important prior work on Yang-Mills-Higgs and solitons in general, but it also shows that stable particles in that model cannot have intrinsic angular momentum (spin). It specifies four extensions of Yang-Mills Higgs, the Lagrangians L1 through L4, which are closer to the standard model of physics, and shows that one of the four (L3) does predict/explain spin from a purely neoclassical theory. The paper begins by summarizing the larger framework which has inspired this work, and ends by discussing two possibilities for further refinement.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[18344] viXra:1704.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 11:11:51

Casimir Effect on a Silicon Chip

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

A new approach to control forces and interactions between atoms and molecules, such as those employed by geckos to climb vertical surfaces, could bring advances in new materials for developing quantum light sources. [30] Quantum mechanics rules. It dictates how particles and forces interact, and thus how atoms and molecules work—for example, what happens when a molecule goes from a higher-energy state to a lower-energy one. But beyond the simplest molecules, the details become very complex. [29] In an article published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences scientists from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg show, however, that under certain conditions, photons can strongly influence chemistry. [28] University of Otago physicists have found a way to control individual atoms, making them appear wherever they want them to. [27] New research shows that a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM), used to study changes in the shape of a single molecule at the atomic scale, impacts the ability of that molecule to make these changes. [26] Physicists are getting a little bit closer to answering one of the oldest and most basic questions of quantum theory: does the quantum state represent reality or just our knowledge of reality? [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18343] viXra:1704.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 07:24:52

Engineering Biology Problems Book

Authors: Ilya Klabukov
Comments: 54 Pages. DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.2898429

The Engineering Biology Problems Book contains the physical, biomedical and engineering tasks with biological solutions will bring benefit to the all mankind. The Problems Book consists of seven chapters according to applications of biological technologies to various parties of actual and perspective human activity: wellness and life extension, transformation of nature and human enhancement. Descriptions of tasks are devoted to biological object modification methods and versions of the application of engineered biosystems for the solution of biomedical, industrial, agricultural, ethical and other problems. Solving of the offered tasks can be based on original use of advanced molecular and cellular technologies, including genome editing systems (CRISPR/Cas9, TALEN, ZFN), synthetic receptors, biomaterials, etc. The Book is intended for students with engineering mentality who are wishing to find oneself in designing of super-systems of the new industry of biotechnological superiority. Notes: Downloadable document is available in Russian. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2898429
Category: Physics of Biology

[18342] viXra:1704.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 07:42:52

Foundations for Molecular and Enzymatic Functional Surgery

Authors: Ilya Klabukov
Comments: 10 Pages. DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.2943526

This paper presents an approach of molecular and enzymatic surgery for treatment of human diseases, including opportunity for use of systemic biology methods in planning of surgical interventions, possible biological components of a “molecular scalpel”, and problems of standardization, medical ethics and clinical trials of the new pharma-surgical toolbox. In conclusions is proposed to consider of molecular and enzymatic surgery methods as realization of the principles of “functional surgery” and also further development of fast track surgery with attaining the modern concept of a personalized approach to surgical treatment of the patient. Klabukov, Ilya, Foundations for Molecular and Enzymatic Functional Surgery (March 30, 2017). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2943526
Category: Physics of Biology

[18341] viXra:1704.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 07:53:36

Fractals and Pi

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 37 Pages.

This note presents a collection of fractals related with constant pi
Category: Number Theory

[18340] viXra:1704.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 07:57:06

Question 2360 : Series For Pi

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 3 Pages.

This note presents some series for pi constant.
Category: Number Theory

[18339] viXra:1704.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 08:02:54

The Ramanujan-GÖLLNITZ-Gordon Continued Fraction

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this research , the autor has detailed about: Numerical evaluation of the Ramanujan-Göllnitz-Gordon continued fraction.
Category: Number Theory

[18338] viXra:1704.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 08:14:31

The Real Root of the Equation: X^5+x^4+x-1=0

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 5 Pages.

this note presents some representations for the real root of the equation: x^5+x^4+x-1=0.
Category: General Mathematics

[18337] viXra:1704.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 09:24:29

An Analysis of Einstein’s Second Postulate to his Special Theory of Relativity

Authors: Edward G. Lake
Comments: Pages.

An analysis of books, presentations and scientific papers about Albert Einstein’s Second Postulate to his Special Theory of Relativity shows that there is a fundamental disagreement between what Einstein wrote and how what he wrote is being interpreted by mathematician-physicists and taught in colleges and universities around the world. An analysis of the evidence shows that Einstein was correct and the interpretations and teachings are incorrect.
Category: Astrophysics

[18336] viXra:1704.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 09:21:46

Ejemplo de Cómo Obtener Los Valores Energéticos de la Partícula en un Pozo de Potencial Infinito Unidimensional

Authors: Roberto Reinosa
Comments: 2 Pages. Spanish

En el presente artículo se va a exponer un ejemplo de la obtención de los valores energéticos de la partícula en un pozo de potencial infinito unidimensional.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18335] viXra:1704.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 09:27:33

Black Hole Heart Beating

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

New data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes has revealed details about this giant black hole, located some 145 million light years from Earth. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[18334] viXra:1704.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 09:28:01

Potential Difference Observed with Magnetic Field Lines

Authors: Ionel DINU, M.Sc.
Comments: 7 pages

Following a theory to be detailed in a work to be published in the near future, an experiment was planned to see whether the potential difference between two points of a current-carrying straight wire can be observed in the magnetic field lines produced around the wire by the electric current. Direct observation seems to show that there is a crowding of the magnetic field lines at the negative side of the wire compared to the positive side.
Category: Classical Physics

[18333] viXra:1704.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 09:57:45

Singularity in the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

A team of scientists at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai, India, have found new ways to detect a bare or naked singularity, the most extreme object in the universe. [16] New data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes has revealed details about this giant black hole, located some 145 million light years from Earth. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[18332] viXra:1704.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 04:18:06

Universal Remote Control

Authors: Sheshmani Yadav, Aditya Asthana, Vishal Jain, Sumit Salunkhe
Comments: 3 Pages.

With most pieces of consumer electronics, from camcorders to stereo equipment, an infrared remote control is always included. Today we all are using mobile phones, and in each mobile devices there is one common communication media through which devices communicate and that common platform is Bluetooth. This Paper connects these two platforms to create a more simplified process to bridge the gap between modern devices.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[18331] viXra:1704.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 06:09:47

The Physicist of an Origin of Forces of Gravitation and Range of S-Radiations in Whom Threats from Space Are Shown

Authors: V.Korniienko
Comments: 18 pages in English and a copy at 19 pages in Russian

In article it is experimentally proved that any body has the quantum electromagnetic field which as a result of deformation generates electromagnetic radiations (S-radiations). The S-radiations properties found by us demonstrates that interaction of quantum electromagnetic fields of different bodies causes their mutual attraction which is gravitation forces. Besides, tension which arises in matter of celestial bodies under the influence of gravitation and forces of other origin, cause deformation of the quantum electromagnetic field of these bodies owing to what they generate space S-radiations which have filled all Universe. Therefore there is a range of S-radiations in which we observed how in the summer of 2003 Earth and the Sun were occupied by a power information field which influence causes all global changes. In this range we also watch a space body which from a terrestrial orbit generates powerful S-radiations. Therefore, for the benefit of early identification of threats from Space, it is necessary to develop astronomical observations in a range of S-radiations.
Category: Astrophysics

[18330] viXra:1704.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 06:46:11

Ejemplo de Obtención de Los Valores Energéticos Del Pozo de Potencial Infinito Unidimensional

Authors: Roberto Reinosa
Comments: 2 Pages. Spanish

En el presente artículo se va a exponer un ejemplo de la obtención de los valores energéticos del caso del pozo de potencial infinito unidimensional.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18329] viXra:1704.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 13:49:06

Superconducting Linear Accelerator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

The international X-ray laser European XFEL has reached one of its final major milestones on the way to scientific user operation. DESY has successfully commissioned the particle accelerator, which drives the X-ray laser along its full length. [17] Physicists at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), in collaboration with researchers in South Korea and Germany, have developed a theoretical framework for improving the stability and intensity of particle accelerator beams. [16] For several decades now, scientists from around the world have been pursuing a ridiculously ambitious goal: They hope to develop a nuclear fusion reactor that would generate energy in the same manner as the sun and other stars, but down here on Earth. [15] It's the particles' last lap of the ring. On 5 December 2016, protons and lead ions circulated in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for the last time. At exactly 6.02am, the experiments recorded their last collisions (also known as 'events'). [14] UNIST has taken a major step toward laying the technical groundwork for developing next-generation high-intensity accelerators by providing a new advanced theoretical tool for the design and analysis of complex beam lines with strong coupling. [13] A targeted way to manipulate beams of protons accelerated using ultrashort and ultraintense laser pulses has been demonstrated by a team of researchers led at the University of Strathclyde. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[18328] viXra:1704.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 19:12:16

Modeling the Strain Monitoring Data in Structural Health Monitoring Using Copulas

Authors: Zhicheng Chen, Hui Li
Comments: 7 Pages.

In Structural Health Monitoring, there are usually many strain sensors installed in different places of a single structure. The raw measurement of a strain sensor is generally a mixed response caused by different excitations such as moving vehicle loads, ambient temperature, etc. Monitoring data collected by different strain sensors are usually correlated with each other, correlation structures of responses caused by different excitations for different sensor pairs are quite diverse and complex. In Structural Health Monitoring, quantitatively describing and modeling complicated dependence structures of strain data is very important in many applications. In this article, copulas are exploited to characterize dependence structures and construct joint distributions of monitoring strain data. The constructed joint distribution is also applied in missing data imputation.
Category: Statistics

[18327] viXra:1704.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 20:55:22

Remark On Variance Bounds

Authors: R. Sharma, R. Bhandari
Comments: 5 Pages.

It is shown that the formula for the variance of combined series yields surprisingly simple proofs of some well known variance bounds.
Category: Statistics

[18326] viXra:1704.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 22:38:15

Heretical Physics Xii

Authors: John E. Miller
Comments: 2 Pages.

A check of the variations required to be produced by the sun 'g' to balance the Newton - Kepler planetary elliptic orbits as theorized by the 'Standard Model'
Category: Astrophysics

[18325] viXra:1704.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 01:46:09

Microscopy for Biological Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Researchers at Columbia University have made a significant step toward breaking the so-called "color barrier" of light microscopy for biological systems, allowing for much more comprehensive, system-wide labeling and imaging of a greater number of biomolecules in living cells and tissues than is currently attainable. [20] Scientists around the Nobel laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now achieved what was for a long time considered impossible – they have developed a new fluorescence microscope, called MINFLUX, allowing, for the first time, to optically separate molecules, which are only nanometers (one millionth of a millimeter) apart from each other. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[18324] viXra:1704.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 03:08:52

Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. the Perm Extinction – a Doomsday Prelude the Most Fissile Mass Cold Snap is the Reason of Mass Extinction of the Permian Period of Existence of Earth.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The most fissile mass cold snap is the reason of mass extinction of the Permian Period of existence of Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[18323] viXra:1704.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 11:18:30

Spin Battery for Spintronics and Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Researchers have shown how to create a rechargeable "spin battery" made out of materials called topological insulators, a step toward building new spintronic devices and quantum computers. [14] Fermions are ubiquitous elementary particles. They span from electrons in metals, to protons and neutrons in nuclei and to quarks at the sub-nuclear level. Further, they possess an intrinsic degree of freedom called spin with only two possible configurations, either up or down. In a new study published in EPJ B, theoretical physicists explore the possibility of separately controlling the up and down spin populations of a group of interacting fermions. [13] An international consortium led by researchers at the University of Basel has developed a method to precisely alter the quantum mechanical states of electrons within an array of quantum boxes. The method can be used to investigate the interactions between various types of atoms and electrons, which is essential for future quantum technologies, as the group reports in the journal Small. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18322] viXra:1704.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 11:32:41

Trigonometric Interpolation Based on Summation of Fourier Series F_{i}^{\delta} with Data-Related Delta-Function Property F_{i}^{\delta}\left(x_{j}\right)=y_{j}\delta_{ij} (Analogy to Lagrange Form of Interpolation Polynomial)

Authors: Andrej Liptaj
Comments: 10 Pages.

Full analogy to the Lagrange form of the interpolation polynomial is constructed for Fourier series. As a straightforward consequence one gets the ability to extend an existing trigonometric interpolation to additional data point(s).
Category: General Mathematics

[18321] viXra:1704.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 11:32:59

Gelfond Constant

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 4 Pages.

This note presents some formulas related with Gelfond constant:exp(pi)
Category: Number Theory

[18320] viXra:1704.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 12:12:50

Quantum Measurement: A New View

Authors: H. J. Spencer
Comments: 24 Pages. Measurement is the bridge between quantum theory and experiment.

This report investigates the flawed foundations of standard quantum theory based on a misunderstanding of the role of measurement. The report is major part of a research programme (UET) based on a new theory of the electromagnetism (EM), centered exclusively on the interaction between electrons. All the previous papers to date in this series have presented a realistic view of the dynamics of two or more electrons as they interact only between themselves. This paper now posits a theory of how this microscopic activity is perceived by human beings in attempting to extract information about atomic systems. The standard theory of quantum mechanics (QM) is constructed on only how the micro-world appears to macro measurements - as such, it cannot offer any view of how the foundations of the world are acting when humans are not observing it (the vast majority of the time) - this has generated almost 100 years of confusion and contradiction at the very heart of physics. All human beings (and all our instruments) are vast collections of electrons, our information about atomic-scale can only be obtained destructively and statistically. This theory now extends the realistic model of digital electrons by adding an explicit measurement model of how our macro instruments interfere with nature's micro-systems when such attempts result in human-scale information. The focus here is on the connection between the micro-world (when left to itself) and our mental models of this sphere of material reality, via the mechanism of atomic measurements. The mathematics of quantum mechanics reflects the eigenvalues of the combined target system plus equipment used for measurement together. Therefore, QM has constructed a theory that inseparably conflates the ontological and epistemological views of nature. This standard approach fails to examine isolated target systems alone. It is metaphysically deficient. This investigation concludes that the Quantum State function (Ψ) is not a representation of physical reality, within a single atom, but a generator function for producing the average statistical results on many atoms of this type. In contrast, the present theory builds on the physical reality of micro-states of single atoms, where (in the case of hydrogen), a single electron executes a series of fixed segments (corresponding to the micro-states) across the atom between a finite number of discrete interactions between the electron and one of the positrons in the nucleus. The set of serial segments form closed trajectories with real temporal periods, contra to Heisenberg’s ‘papal’ decree banning such reality because of his need to measure position and momentum at all times. This is the first paper in the multi-paper series (UET7n), which is dedicated to analyzing, criticizing and replacing existing theories of quantum mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18319] viXra:1704.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 07:46:39

The Krypton Hypothesis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple conclusion is made concerning destroyed worlds with life on them according to stellar metamorphosis theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[18318] viXra:1704.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 09:29:00

Tracking the Diffusion of Signal Proteins in Escherichia Coli

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 6 Pages.

We describe a fast computational model to study the signal transduction in E. coli chemo­taxis. It allows to trace the places and chemical reactions of individual molecules in a cell as a function of time. From the spatial resolution of the model and the known diffusion constant of the proteins, a time step of 3 µs is calculated for the simulation.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[18317] viXra:1704.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 10:09:41

Unrealistic Assumptions Inherent in Maximal Extension

Authors: G.N.N.Martin
Comments: 4 Pages.

I argue that maximal extension makes improbable assumptions about future conditions. I start by looking at the Schwarzschild metric, and showing that it does not quite represent the exterior of a collapsed star, although it is easy to argue that the mismatch is immaterial. I then look at the collapse of a cloud of dust using the Robinson Walker metric, which might seem to justify using the Schwarzschild metric to describe the exterior of a black hole. I then show how the Schwarzschild metric is modified when the interior is a collapsed dust cloud, and finally show how the maximal extension of a Schwarzschild black hole makes unrealistic assumptions about the future.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18316] viXra:1704.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 10:41:43

Time Interval Distortions, Alternative to Dark Matter

Authors: Arthur Eugene Pletcher
Comments: 7 Pages.

This alternative model to Dark Matter, is supported by correlated studies of multiple galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within the same body appears to increase per distance. Time convergence (TC) proposes that time intervals appear to decrease and converge to a single event over great magnitude distance, as viewed from an observer at classic scale. TC explains accelerated expansion to be an illusion, as decreasing time intervals appear equivalent to acceleration. See figure 3. In the last chapter, I provide a vector calculation to distinguish accelerated expansion from (constant expansion with TC). TC provides alternative explanations for: Accelerated expansion, Rotational and recessive velocities approaching c, as well as superluminal velocities. Also, a potential explanation for galaxy rotational curves.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18315] viXra:1704.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 04:54:18

The Mosaic of the Norm

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 4 Pages.

An interrelated study.
Category: Social Science

[18314] viXra:1704.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 05:03:10

Structure of Complex Chemical Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Researchers at Northwestern University have created a new method to extract the static and dynamic structure of complex chemical systems. [10] As our devices get ever smaller, so do the materials we use to make them. And that means you have to get really close to see them. Really close. A new electron microscope unveiled at the UK's national SuperSTEM facility images objects at an unprecedented resolution, right down to the individual atoms. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[18313] viXra:1704.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-18 15:55:52

Not All Clocks Obey to Special Relativity

Authors: Mohammed Mezouar
Comments: 1 Page.

What dominates the other, Special Relativity or light ? Einstein believed to have submitted bodies and light to the same laws. In what follows, we show that there are light-clocks which do not matches with his Special Relativity exigences. The equivalence between bodies and light turns out utopian.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18312] viXra:1704.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-18 21:06:23

Multifractal Analysis and the Dynamics of Effective Field Theories

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 17 Pages.

We show that the flow from the ultraviolet to the infrared sector of any multidimensional nonlinear field theory approaches chaotic dynamics in a universal way. This result stems from several independent routes to aperiodic behavior and implies that the infrared attractor of effective field theories is likely to replicate the geometry of multifractal sets. In particular, we find that the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian is characterized by a single generalized dimension (D = 4), while the Standard Model (SM) Lagrangian is defined by a triplet of generalized dimensions (D = 2, 3 and 4). On the one hand, this finding disfavors any naïve field-theoretic unification of SM and General Relativity (GR). On the other, it hints that the continuous spectrum of generalized dimensions lying between D = 2 and D = 4 may naturally account for the existence of non-baryonic Dark Matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[18311] viXra:1704.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-18 22:23:21

Mass Loss Versus Mass Gain Phenomenon in Nature

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is presented an extremely easy paper to understand to explain that in nature, there are mass gain phenomenon and there are mass loss phenomenon. Clarification is presented so that the nature of these types of phenomenon are well established. This paper utilizes a simple rule of nature concerning physics, the conservation of mass.
Category: Classical Physics

[18310] viXra:1704.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-18 23:39:41

Universal Topology W = P ± iV and Horizon of Dark Fluxions and Thermodynamics

Authors: C. Wei Xu
Comments: 7 pages, part II of Unified Physics (part I at http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0221)

Associated with the virtual or physical manifolds, the Universe Topology aggregates quantum objects and forms the second horizon as the group effects of the flow conservations both physically and virtually, called Dark Fluxions, a dynamics cosmology of energy flows. Inherent to its internal nature, the universe produces each of opposite dualities as a complex conjugate, the statistical representation of dark fluxions dynamically affiliated to bulk entropy, motion continuities, statistical works, and interactive fields, giving rise to the horizon of thermodynamics. As a result, this becomes a groundwork in quest for nature transformations delivered by the life energy of dark fluxions, or the dynamic flows of dark energy...
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[18309] viXra:1704.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-18 08:53:59

Anyons Quantum Quasiparticles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

In an article published today in the journal Nature, physicists report the first ever observation of heat conductance in a material containing anyons, quantum quasiparticles that exist in two-dimensional systems. [15] The formation of quasiparticles, such as polarons, in a condensed-matter system usually proceeds in an extremely fast way and is very difficult to observe. In Innsbruck, Rudolf Grimm's physics research group, in collaboration with an international team of theoretical physicists, has simulated the formation of polarons in an ultracold quantum gas in real time. The researchers have published their findings in the journal Science. [14] When light interacts with matter, it may be deflected or absorbed, resulting in the excitation of atoms and molecules; but the interaction can also produce composite states of light and matter which are neither one thing nor the other, and therefore have a name of their own – polaritons. These hybrid particles, named in allusion to the particles of light, photons, have now been prepared and accurately measured for the first time in the field of hard X-rays by researchers of DESY, ESRF in Grenoble, Helmholtz Institute in Jena and University of Jena. In the journal Nature Photonics, they describe the surprising discoveries they made in the process. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
Category: Condensed Matter

[18308] viXra:1704.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-18 04:35:47

Time Crystals for Quantum Machines

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Harvard physicists have created a new form of matter-dubbed a time crystal-which could offer important insights into the mysterious behavior of quantum systems. [31] Two groups of researchers based at Harvard University and the University of Maryland report March 9 in the journal Nature that they have successfully created time crystals using theories developed at Princeton University. [30] Are time crystals just a mathematical curiosity, or could they actually physically exist? Physicists have been debating this question since 2012, when Nobel laureate Frank Wilczek first proposed the idea of time crystals. He argued that these hypothetical objects can exhibit periodic motion, such as moving in a circular orbit, in their state of lowest energy, or their "ground state." [28] Researchers from the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter and the University of Amsterdam (the Netherlands), together with researchers from the Institute for Materials Science in Tsukuba (Japan), have discovered an exceptional new quantum state within a superconducting material. This exceptional quantum state is characterised by a broken rotational symmetry – in other words, if you turn the material in a magnetic field, the superconductivity isn't the same everywhere in the material. [27], and collaborators have produced the first direct evidence of a state of electronic matter first predicted by theorists in 1964. The discovery, described in a paper published online April 13, 2016, in Nature, may provide key insights into the workings of high-temperature superconductors. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18307] viXra:1704.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-18 05:39:10

Bell Correlations of Million Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Physicists have demonstrated Bell correlations in the largest physical system to date—an ensemble of half a million atoms at an ultracold temperature of 25 µK. [10] The microscopic world is governed by the rules of quantum mechanics, where the properties of a particle can be completely undetermined and yet strongly correlated with those of other particles. Physicists from the University of Basel have observed these so-called Bell correlations for the first time between hundreds of atoms. [9] For the past 100 years, physicists have been studying the weird features of quantum physics, and now they're trying to put these features to good use. One prominent example is that quantum superposition (also known as quantum coherence)—which is the property that allows an object to be in two states at the same time—has been identified as a useful resource for quantum communication technologies. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18306] viXra:1704.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 17:28:46

Conjecture on the Primes Obtained Concatenating Three Numbers, id Est a, B and A+b+n

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following conjecture: For any n positive integer there exist an infinity of primes which can be deconcatenated in three numbers, i.e., from left to right, a, b and a + b + n. Examples: for n = 0, the least such prime is 101 (1 + 0 + 0 = 1); for n = 1, the least such prime is 113 (1 + 1 + 1 = 3); for n = 2, the least such prime is 103 (1 + 0 + 2 = 3); for n = 3, the least such prime is 137 (1 + 3 + 3 = 7); for n = 4, the least such prime is 127 (1 + 2 + 4 = 7); for n = 5, the least such prime is 139 (1 + 3 + 5 = 9); for n = 6, the least such prime is 107 (1 + 0 + 6 = 7); for n = 7, the least such prime is 3313 (3 + 3 + 7 = 13).
Category: Number Theory

[18305] viXra:1704.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 17:31:06

Conjecture on Primes Obtained Concatenating p, N and P+n, Where P and P+n Primes

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following conjecture: For any n even there exist an infinity of primes which can be deconcatenated in three numbers, i.e., from left to right, p, n and p + n, where p and p + n are primes. Examples: for n = 2, the least such prime is 11213 (11 + 2 = 13); for n = 4, the least such prime is 347 (3 + 4 = 7); for n = 6, the least such prime is 11617 (11 + 6 = 17); for n = 8, the least such prime is 5813 (5 + 8 = 13); for n = 10, the least such prime is 31013 (3 + 10 = 13); for n = 12, the least such prime is 51217 (5 + 12 = 17); for n = 14, the least such prime is 51419 (5 + 14 = 19); for n = 16, the least such prime is 431659 (43 + 16 = 59).
Category: Number Theory

[18304] viXra:1704.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 17:50:17

Incalculability

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 2 Pages.

Define and explain Incalculability.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[18303] viXra:1704.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 21:08:25

Uzbek Atom

Authors: Rasulkhozha S. Sharafiddinov
Comments: 61 Pages.

At the availability of a force of an atomic unification, a sharp interconnection of the evrmionic antineutrino and neutron must constitute the antineutrino hydrogen of Al-Fargoniy is one of the two atoms having a crucial value for construction of all the remaining ones. We discuss a theory in which atomic orbit quantization is carried out around the nucleus in the flavor type dependence. Such an orbit quantized succession principle splits in external fields the spectral lines of atoms, confirming the availability in them of the family structure. Thereby, it predicts the existence in nature of 63189 forms of isotopes of 118 types of atomic systems. We derive the united equations, which relate in atoms the radii of boson, lepton and antineutrino orbits including the speeds, energies and rotation periods of their particles. Finding for them estimates express, in the case of each of the five forms of uraniums and two types of hydrogens, the ideas of an intraatomic force quantized by leptonic families. They unite all necessary for steadiness and completeness of an atom connections in a unified whole as a role of gravity in an atomic construction. Therefore, any of the structural particles suffers in it a strong change both in lifetime and in his self radius in the orbit type dependence.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[18302] viXra:1704.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 21:13:25

Universal Topology W = P ± iV and First Horizon of Quantum Fields

Authors: C. Wei Xu
Comments: Three pages, two submission letters, one letter from Nature Physics

The universal topology W = P ± iV is the nature law that intuitively constitutes a duality of Manifolds and Event Operations. Its First Horizon of this framework, naturally comes out with the dual State Equilibrium and dual Motion Dynamics, which replace the empirical “math laws” and give rise to the general quantum fields to concisely include Schrödinger and Klein–Gordon Equations. As a result, it becomes a groundbreaking in the quest for Unified Physics: the workings of a life streaming of physical and virtual dynamics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18301] viXra:1704.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-18 03:24:39

Reproductive Cloning

Authors: Ian von Hegner
Comments: 20 Pages.

Progressiv forkortelse af telomere ved DNA replikation er blevet sat i forbindelse med cellulær ældning. Hvad vil der ske med dyr, fremkommet ved somatisk kerneoverførsel, hvis differentierede celler fra voksne dyr med forkortede teleomerelængde benyttes til at starte embryo udvikling? Vil de forkortede telomere påvirke deres livslængde eller udvikling, eller er de forkortede telomere fra donerceller blevet rekonstrueret til fuld længde i klonede dyr?
Category: Quantitative Biology

[18300] viXra:1704.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 07:18:16

Special Relativity and Wave-Particle Duality.

Authors: Enrique Cantera del Río
Comments: 10 Pages.

A SYMMETRY OF LORENTZ TRANSFORMATION IS PROPOSED FOR THE VISUALIZATION OF THE MOST BASIC PHYSICAL LANDSCAPE DERIVED FROM SPECIAL RELATIVITY. ALTHOUGH BASIC ARGUMENTS ,THE SYMMETRY SHOWS A CLOSE RELATIONSHIP WITH WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY AND THE EXISTENCE OF TWO POSSIBLE STATES FOR THIS PHYSICAL RELATION. THE SPIN AND THE ABRAHAM-MINKOWSKI CONTROVERSY ARE ANALYZED REGARDING THIS IDEAS AND A NEW HYPOTHESIS ON WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY IS PRESENTED.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18299] viXra:1704.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 08:26:16

No Support for Accelerating Expansion `redshift, Dark Energy, Cosmic Radiation Back Ground, Gravitational Waves … not Support Expanding UNIVERSE.”

Authors: Bandaru Ramu
Comments: PAGES:8

ABSTRACT:1. `REDSHIFT, DARK ENERGY, COSMIC RADIATION BACK GROUND, GRAVITATIONAL WAVES … NOT SUPPORT EXPANDING UNIVERSE.” 2. According to RELATIVE PRINCIPLE: MOVING is always RELATIVE. THUS REDSHIFT ALSO RELATIVE. This relative motion or relative red shift cannot say particularly only one both of two: Expanding or contracting universe. 3. To support Accelerating expansion, Dark energy introduced. But equal or unequal rate spread of Dark energy prevailed? If the quantity of Dark energy is not changed in this Universe at early time, whether the influence of Dark energy increased or decreased in course of time because this universe is expanding in this way by consuming the dark energy. Instead of Total Dark energy at early times, GRADUALLY INCREASING DARK ENERGY SHOULD BE REQUIRED FOR ACCELERATING UNIVERSE. BUT MORE ENERGY IS NOT CREATED GRADUALLY IN THIS UNIVERSE with out any more consumption of source. THUS DARK ENERGY CAN NOT SUPPORT ACCELERATING UNIVERSE. WITH OUT DARK ENERGY, ACCELERATING - EXPANDING UNIVERSE NOT WORKS. IF THERE IS NO EXPENDING UNIVERSE, THEN THERE WILL BE NO COTRACTING UNIVERSE. BECAUSE CONTRACTING IS THE POST EVOLUTION OF EXPANDING. SO THERE IS NO CHANCE FOR THE EXISTANCE OF EXPANDING AND CONTRACTING UNIVERSE. 4. Now received the information concerning cosmic microwave radiation is belonging to present time or various times? This cosmic radiation observed at anywhere in this universe. The information from various distant places stand for also various times. At various times the expansion of this universe is also various. The cosmic radiation should be variously cast from different space times. But actually different space times show same cosmic microwaves radiation. This means in different times, no different density of cosmic radiation. So this same radiation reveals not expanding universe. 5. Space time curvature influence the pass of information? WHEN SUN DISAPPEAR, what happened really in relativity
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18298] viXra:1704.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 10:07:19

Negative Mass Created

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Washington State University physicists have created a fluid with negative mass, which is exactly what it sounds like. Push it, and unlike every physical object in the world we know, it doesn't accelerate in the direction it was pushed. It accelerates backwards. [16] When matter is cooled to near absolute zero, intriguing phenomena emerge. These include supersolidity, where crystalline structure and frictionless flow occur together. ETH researchers have succeeded in realising this strange state experimentally for the first time. [15] Helium atoms are loners. Only if they are cooled down to an extremely low temperature do they form a very weakly bound molecule. In so doing, they can keep a tremendous distance from each other thanks to the quantum-mechanical tunnel effect. [14] Inside a new exotic crystal, physicist Martin Mourigal has observed strong indications of "spooky" action, and lots of it. The results of his experiments, if corroborated over time, would mean that the type of crystal is a rare new material that can house a quantum spin liquid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Condensed Matter

[18297] viXra:1704.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 04:57:47

Unit-Jacobian Coordinate Transformations: The Superior Consequence of the Little-Known Einstein-Schwarzschild Coordinate Condition

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 5 Pages.

Because the Einstein equation can't uniquely determine the metric, it must be supplemented by additional metric constraints. Since the Einstein equation can be derived in a purely special-relativistic context, those constraints (which can't be generally covariant) should be Lorentz-covariant; moreover, for the effect of the constraints to be natural from the perspective of observational and empirical physical scientists, they should also constrain the general coordinate transformations (which are compatible with the unconstrained Einstein equation) so that the constrained transformations manifest a salient feature of the Lorentz transformations. The little-known Einstein-Schwarzschild coordinate condition, which requires the metric's determinant to have its -1 Minkowski value, thereby constrains coordinate transformations to have unit Jacobian, and for that reason causes tensor densities to transform as true tensors, which is a salient feature of the Lorentz transformations. The Einstein-Schwarzschild coordinate condition also allows the static Schwarzschild solution's singular radius to be exactly zero; though another coordinate condition that allows zero Schwarzschild radius exists, it isn't Lorentz-covariant.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18296] viXra:1704.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 06:22:35

Puzzling Neutrino Shortfall

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

A puzzling neutrino shortfall seems to be due to faulty predictions, not a new particle. [12] Results from a new scientific study may shed light on a mismatch between predictions and recent measurements of ghostly particles streaming from nuclear reactors—the so-called "reactor antineutrino anomaly," which has puzzled physicists since 2011. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[18295] viXra:1704.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-16 16:11:58

(Version 1.1 23 Pages 16.04.2017) a Cyclic Toy Model of the Universe Predesigned for Life, Based on Preonic Quantized Branes and a Very Strong 2D Gravitational Field as a Candidate for a Unified Primordial Field

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: 23 Pages.

This paper proposes a cyclic toy model of the universe predesigned for life, based on preonic quantized 1-branes (strings), quantized 2-branes (supermembranes/2D surfaces) and the holographic principle. This toy model is based on a few simple hypothesis/assumptions, including the existence of a universal brane quanta (conceived as a basic quantum clock) for any n-brane and a unified primordial field (UPF) defined as equivalent to a very strong 2D gravitational field acting on hypothetical quark/leptonic/bosonic 2-branes.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18294] viXra:1704.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-16 18:05:21

Wind Energy. Electron Jet Generators and Propulsions

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 142 Pages.

In given book considered the topics: utilization wind energy at high altitude, transfer of energy from airborne wind turbines to ground surface, new non turbine electron wind and water electric generators and propulsion system. Ground based, wind energy extraction systems have reached their maximum capability. The limitations of current designs are: wind instability, high cost of installations, and small power output of a single unit. The wind energy industry needs of revolutionary ideas to increase the capabilities of wind installations. This book suggests a revolutionary innovation which produces a dramatic increase in power per unit and is independent of prevailing weather and at a lower cost per unit of energy extracted. The main innovation consists of large free-flying air rotors positioned at high altitude for power and air stream stability, and an energy transmission system between the air rotor and a ground. Author offers a new method of getting electric energy from wind. A special injector injects electrons into the atmosphere. Wind picks up the electrons and moves them in the direction of wind which is also against the direction of electric field. At some distance from injector a unique grid acquires the electrons, thus charging and producing electricity. This method does not require, as does other wind energy devices, strong columns, wind turbines, or electric generators. This proposed wind installation is cheap. The area of wind braking may be large and produces a great deal of energy. Although this electron wind installations may be in a city, the population will not see them. Author offers a new high efficiency propulsion non turbine system using electrons for acceleration of the craft. As this system does not heat the air, it does not have the heating limitations of conventional air ramjet hypersonic engines. Offered engine can produce a thrust from a zero flight speed up to the desired escape velocity for space launch. It can work in any planet atmosphere (gas, liquid) and at high altitude.
Category: Classical Physics

[18293] viXra:1704.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-16 19:36:57

ABC Conjecture–An Ambiguous Formulation

Authors: Zhang Tianshu
Comments: 13 Pages.

Due to exist forevermore uncorrelated limits of values of real number ε≥0, enable ABC conjecture to be able to be both proved and negated. In this article, we find a representative equality 1+2N(2N-2)=(2N-1)2 satisfying (2N-1)2>[Rad(1, 2N(2N-2), (2N-1)2)]1+ε, then both prove the ABC conjecture and negate the ABC conjecture according to two limits of values of ε.
Category: Number Theory

[18292] viXra:1704.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-16 20:04:11

Core Growth Termination During Stellar Evolution in the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

In the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis stars grow iron/nickel cores via vapor deposition and condensation during intermediate stages of evolution. It is proposed that these iron/nickel cores stop growing for a few reasons provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[18291] viXra:1704.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-16 20:26:30

Scienza e Complessità: W. Weaver 1947

Authors: Warren Weaver, P.F. Nali
Comments: 11 pages, in Italian, reproduced under permission of Am. Sc. on Jan. 23, 2004 on the SISSA online magazine "Biblioteca dei 500" in website "ULISSE - nella rete della scienza". It is posted at this time as the website has discontinued service in Jan. 2011.

It is proposed here in the Italian version the seminal paper in which Weaver introduced the concept of complexity in modern science.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[18290] viXra:1704.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-16 21:05:19

The Armageddon Scenario: War-Game

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 4 Pages.

And its resolution.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[18289] viXra:1704.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-16 23:53:15

Ether, Time, and Energy (December 23, 2006).

Authors: Kenneth M. Sasaki.
Comments: 52 pages, 16 figures, 7 labeled equations, and 64 references. Keywords: Ether, Time, and Energy. Author's e-mail address: bicycle_physics@yahoo.com.

This work demonstrates that observation and theory support three properties of classical space-time: The first is smoothness, which holds since gravitational time dilation, at sufficiently high energy densities, gravitationally confines energy, preventing singularities. The second is the relationship between ether and energy, which allows practical experiments to observe the ether. And the third is causal consistency, assuming only the physical laws of current observations. Some associated points of interest are also discussed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18288] viXra:1704.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 01:40:24

Formula Analyzer: Find the Formula by Parameters

Authors: Artur Eduardovich Sibgatullin
Comments: 27 Pages. MIT License, https://figshare.com/articles/Formula_analyzer_Find_the_formula_by_parameters/4880012

Let it be a formula, e.g.: x + y^2 - z = r. It is usually necessary to find a parameter’s value by knowing others’ ones. However, let’s set another problem to find the formula itself, knowing only its parameters. The solution of such a problem we call reverse computing. For that we'll create an algorithm and accomplish it as a program code.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[18287] viXra:1704.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-16 05:37:00

A Fine-Tuning of Special Relativity

Authors: Mohammed Mezouar
Comments: 2 Pages.

The use of Lorentz transformation offers two ways to compare time measures from two moving clocks. We show that the more realistic way leads to discover that absolute rest plays a hidden role and prescribes a boundary on the relativity principle.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18286] viXra:1704.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-15 18:43:45

L'enunciato Del Principio di Inerzia

Authors: Lorenzo Galli, P.F. Nali
Comments: 3 pages, in Italian. Question Answer published on Sep. 28, 2005 on the section "Chiedi a Ulisse" of the SISSA website "ULISSE - nella rete della scienza". It is posted at this time as the website has discontinued service in January 2011.

Why is it incomplete to enunciate the principle of inertia in this form: "a body not subject to forces is either at rest or moves with uniform rectilinear motion"?
Category: Classical Physics

[18285] viXra:1704.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-15 18:43:07

Another One-line Proof of the Infinitude of Primes

Authors: Daniel Dunck Cintra
Comments: 1 Page.

Another one-line proof of the infinitude of primes.
Category: Number Theory

[18284] viXra:1704.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-15 19:16:00

ϖ

Authors: Soerivhe Iriene
Comments: 3 Pages.

Finite.
Category: General Mathematics

[18283] viXra:1704.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-15 12:43:01

Mach's Principle and the Kinetic Dipole

Authors: Mihai Grumazescu
Comments: 9 Pages.

As a departure from Einstein's GR, gravity is described as the cumulative effect of all protons and neutrons in the universe acting as self-propelled particles called nucleon kinetic dipoles. They signal to each other their relative positions through the propagation of gravitational information at a superluminal speed. Mach's principle is interpreted as the reciprocal influence of all masses in the universe because of the propagation of directional information of kinetic dipoles at astronomical distances. Every time we measure big G we find a different value because the gravitational information received by a test mass is changing continuously. Speed of gravity also shapes the universe, as a consequence of Mach's principle.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18282] viXra:1704.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-15 08:20:18

Theory of Exact Trigonometric Periodic Solutions to Quadratic Liénard Type Equations

Authors: J. Akande, D.K.K. Adjaï, L.H. Koudahoun, Y.J.F. Kpomahou, M.D. Monsia
Comments: 16 Pages. 1-16

The problem of finding exact trigonometric periodic solutions to non-linear differential equations is still an open mathematical research field. In this paper it is shown that the inverted Painlevé-Gambier XVIII equation and other quadratic Liénard type equations may exhibit trigonometric functions as exact periodic solutions but with amplitude-dependent frequency. Other inverted Painlevé-Gambier equations are shown to admit exact periodic solutions.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[18281] viXra:1704.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-15 08:50:20

The Origin and Formation Mechanism of Protons

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: showing the viewpoint with regards to the origin and formation mechanism of protons.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[18280] viXra:1704.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-15 10:09:35

Introduction to Complementary Analysis

Authors: François Mendzina Essomba, Gael Dieudonné Essomba Essomba
Comments: 48 Pages. analyse, differentielle, complémentaire, analyse complémentaire

We introduce a new notion in the analysis, the notion of complementarity, which completes the work of Newton-Leibniz by defining all the elements.
Category: General Mathematics

[18279] viXra:1704.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-15 06:48:55

New Approximation Algorithms of Pi, Accelerated Convergence Formulas from N = 100 to N = 2m

Authors: François Mendzina Essomba, Gael Dieudonné Essomba Essomba
Comments: 7 Pages. algorithm, convergence and approximation

We give algorithms for the calculation of pi. These algorithms can be easily developed in a linear manner and allows the calculation of pi with an infinite degree of convergence. Of course, the calculation of the second term passes through the first one, and it is necessary, as this type of algorithms, for a larger memory for calculations contrary to the formula BBP [1] whose execution corresponds to the order of the desired number. The advantage of our formulas in spite of the dificulty associated with extracting sin(x) lies in their degree of convergence, which is infinite, they prove the Borweins brothers hypothesis on the construction of algorithms At any speed as symbolized in our generic formula (8) of this paper. These formulas for the most part are totally new : We had found several other formulas of pi l
Category: Number Theory

[18278] viXra:1704.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 13:41:27

Recognition from Description Through Synthesis and Reduction to Theory and Model

Authors: Andrzej Gecow
Comments: 9 Pages. in Polish

The half a century attempts to transmit the results of the theoretical work on the biological issues which used the methodology of physics, gave an insight into the methodological limitations resulting from the stereotypes of thinking in biology. It is primarily a lack of interest in the pursuit to deductive theory. Abstraction and deduction - the basis of physics, is despised and omitted as speculation, which creates a blockade in the development of theory in biology. The process of this development stops at an analysis that should (and does not do) reduce the sufficient conditions noted in the description to the necessary and sufficient conditions, ie. to determine the reasons for the phenomena being considered. Determination of the necessary conditions is the basis of reduction, which in the applied reductionism is not noticed. This chapter is not a recognized knowledge imparted authoritatively to use, nor fight against the official position of biology, but a collection of arguments against conservative stereotypes, to compare with other more elaborate sources on the reader's own responsibility to work out his own view rather than uncontrolled take over of the defective tradition.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[18277] viXra:1704.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 14:03:45

Fermi Puzzle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

In physics, the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou (FPUT) problem—which found that certain nonlinear systems do not disperse their energy, but rather return to their initial excited states—has been a challenge that scientists have tackled repeatedly since 1955. [15] The likelihood of seeing quantum systems violating the second law of thermodynamics has been calculated by UCL scientists. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[18276] viXra:1704.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 19:06:31

Universal Optimization and Its Application

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 159 Pages.

The book consists of three parts. The first part describes new method of optimization that has the advantages at greater generality and flexibility as well as the ability to solve complex problems which other methods cannot solve. This method, called the “Method of Deformation of Functional (Extreme)”, solves for a total minimum and finds a solution set near the optimum. Solutions found by this method can be exact or approximate. Most other methods solve only for a unique local minimum. The ability to create a set of solutions rather than a unique solution has important practical ramifications in many designs, economic and scientific problems because a unique solution usually is difficult to realize in practice. This method has the additional virtue of a simple proof, one that is useful for studying other methods of optimization, since most other methods can be delivered from the Method of Deformation. The mathematical methods used in the book allow calculating special slipping and breaking optimal curves, which are often encountered in problems of optimal control. The author also describes the solution of boundary problems in optimization theory. The mathematical theory is illustrated by several examples. The book is replete with exercises and can be used as a text-book for graduate courses. In fact the author has lectured on this theory using this book for graduate and post-graduate students in Moscow Technical University. The second part of the book is devoted to applications of this method to technical problems in aviation, space, aeronautics, control, automation, structural design, economic, games, theory of counter strategy and etc. Some of the aviation, aeronautic, and control problems are examined: minimization of energy, exact control, fuel consumption, heating of re-entry space ship in the atmosphere of planets, the problems of a range of aircraft, rockets, dirigibles, and etc. Some of the economic problems are considered, for example, the problems of a highest productivity, the problem of integer programming and the problem of linear programming. Many economic problems may be solved by the application of the Method to the Problems of non-cooperative games. The third part of the book contains solutions of complex problems: optimal thrust angle for different flight regimes, optimal trajectories of aircraft, aerospace vehicles, and space ships, design of optimal regulator, linear problems of optimal control. This book is intended for designers, engineers, researchers, as well as specialists working on problems of optimal control, planning, or the choosing of optimal strategy. For engineers the book provides methods of computation of the optimal construction and control mechanisms, and optimal flight trajectories. In addition, the book will be useful to students of mathematics, general engineering, and economic. English translation is not full. Full text is in Russian referances.
Category: General Mathematics

[18275] viXra:1704.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 22:34:46

A Latent Quantized Force of an Atomic Unification

Authors: Rasulkhozha S. Sharafiddinov
Comments: 60 Pages.

At the availability of a force of an atomic unification, a sharp interconnection of the evrmionic antineutrino and neutron must constitute the antineutrino hydrogen of Al-Fargoniy is one of the two atoms having a crucial value for construction of all the remaining ones. We discuss a theory in which atomic orbit quantization is carried out around the nucleus in the flavor type dependence. Such an orbit quantized succession principle splits in external fields the spectral lines of atoms, confirming the availability in them of the family structure. Thereby, it predicts the existence in nature of 63189 forms of isotopes of 118 types of atomic systems. We derive the united equations, which relate in atoms the radii of boson, lepton and antineutrino orbits including the speeds, energies and rotation periods of their particles. Finding for them estimates express, in the case of each of the five forms of uraniums and two types of hydrogens, the ideas of an intraatomic force quantized by leptonic families. They unite all necessary for steadiness and completeness of an atom connections in a unified whole as a role of gravity in an atomic construction. Therefore, any of the structural particles suffers in it a strong change both in lifetime and in his self radius in the orbit type dependence.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[18274] viXra:1704.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-15 00:49:16

The Omega-Kardeschev Scale

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

An interplay.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[18273] viXra:1704.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-15 01:13:43

Reflection Symmetry and Time

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 3 Pages. reflection symmetry time relativity

Two identical stopwatches moving at the same speed will elapse the same time after moving the same distance. Start one stopwatch later than the other stopwatch. The time difference between these two stopwatches will remain constant after both stopwatches have elapsed the same time. Such time difference will remain constant while both stopwatches are under identical acceleration. Therefore, the elapsed time in an accelerating reference frame is identical to the elapsed time in a stationary reference frame. Consequently, a physical system that exhibits Reflection Symmetry in its motion demonstrates that the time of a moving clock is independent of the relative motion between the clock and its observer.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18272] viXra:1704.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 11:09:27

Local Realism Versus Quantum Mysticism

Authors: Andrew P. Yake
Comments: 1 Page. See main article ** http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0078 **

Local realism has been widely falsely discounted but is recently vindicated according to detailed arguments at the link below. Local realism is ordinary causal determinism. By contrast, quantum theory is mystical causation by indeterminacy. If this claim that quantum theory embeds mystical causation seems at odds with the modal signal in physics right now, we ought to ask why that should be so. In any case, it is a trivial point to establish from the quantum account of the EPR experiment. According to this account, two unmeasured particles at respective separate localities in spacetime have remarkable properties. (A) Neither has measurable properties prior to the first being measured. (B) The instant either is measured, both obtain perfectly correlated outcomes. So where do the physical properties that "decide" those outcomes come from? And how do they coordinate their instant perfect correlation across a spacetime interval, which requires violating Special Relativity? Enter the mystic. Or consider the compelling logic of a new formulation of local realism per below. http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0078 Local Realism Explains Bell Violations (author Andrew P. Yake) - Claims to demonstrate that all empirical evidence taken to support quantum theory over local realism plausibly does the reverse. The article comprises 8 pages, 4 figures, 6 equations, 32 references, 1 graph of testable predictions, and 2 paragraphs that purport to expose how the Bell inequality misrepresents the local realistic predictions for the EPR experiment. Thoughtful feedback appreciated (apyake@gmail.com).
Category: Quantum Physics

[18271] viXra:1704.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 09:50:39

Cell’s DNA Made a Biocomputer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16] For the past 15 years, the big data techniques pioneered by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, have been revolutionizing biomedical research. On Sept. 6, 2016, JPL and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, renewed a research partnership through 2021, extending the development of data science that originated in space exploration and is now supporting new cancer discoveries. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13]
Category: Physics of Biology

[18270] viXra:1704.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 04:42:54

A Mechanistic Model for the Hydrogen Atom

Authors: Norman Graves
Comments: 18 Pages.

A model is proposed for the hydrogen atom in which the orbiting electron is seen as an objectively real particle. The model is based on the postulate that certain velocity terms can be treated as being affected by relativity. The model provides a mechanism which drives the quantization process and so leads to the discrete energy levels of the atom. The Rydberg formula, being empirically derived, represents the yardstick by which any model for the hydrogen atom must be judged. Rather than develop a model and test it against the Rydberg formula, the approach taken here is to use the Rydberg formula itself as the basis for such a model. The model effectively unifies quantum mechanics with classical mechanics as well as providing a simple mechanical explanation of the Somerfield Fine Structure Constant.
Category: Classical Physics

[18269] viXra:1704.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 07:05:01

Conscious Versus Unconscious Life.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 2 Pages.

I give away some further reflections regarding my latest two books on quantum gravity [1, 2] and the issue of life. I present some rather stunning ideas some of which go against common lore in the medical “sciences”.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[18268] viXra:1704.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 13:42:01

Novel Quantum Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

A team of scientists from the Quantum Dynamics Division of Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching near Munich) has now succeeded to make the first steps in this direction. Using a strongly coupled atom-cavity system, they were the first to observe the so-called two-photon blockade: the system emits at most two photons at the same time since its storage capacity is limited to that number. [17] Members of the Faculty of Physics at the Lomonosov Moscow State University have elaborated a new technique for creating entangled photon states. [16] Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15] University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[18267] viXra:1704.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 22:15:25

The Beginning of Homogeneous Nucleation of Iron/Nickel Cores in Homogeneous Young Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

To begin the process of forming homogeneous iron/nickel cores it is required that the young, hot stars be homogeneous in their interiors. To form an iron/nickel core as the star evolves, no nuclear core can be present. It would be too hot for the iron/nickel vapor to clump together and it would get in the way of the differentiation process.
Category: Astrophysics

[18266] viXra:1704.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 02:00:52

Ten Superconducting Qubits Entangled

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

A group of physicists in China has taken the lead in the race to couple together increasing numbers of superconducting qubits. [19] The race to build larger and larger quantum computers is heating up, with several technologies competing for a role in future devices. Each potential platform has strengths and weaknesses, but little has been done to directly compare the performance of early prototypes. Now, researchers at the JQI have performed a first-of-its-kind benchmark test of two small quantum computers built from different technologies. [18] To find out whether quantum computers will work properly, scientists must simulate them on a classical computer. Now a record-breaking experiment has simulated the largest quantum computer yet. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18265] viXra:1704.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 02:20:41

An Outline of Cellular Automaton Universe Via Cosmological KdV Equation

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati
Comments: 6 Pages. This paper has been submitted to CTPNP 2017

It has been known for long time that the cosmic sound wave was there since the early epoch of the Universe. Signatures of its existence are abound. However, such a sound wave model of cosmology is rarely developed fully into a complete framework. This paper can be considered as our second attempt towards such a complete description of the Universe based on soliton wave solution of cosmological KdV equation. Then we advance further this KdV equation by virtue of Cellular Automaton method to solve the PDEs. We submit wholeheartedly Robert Kurucz’s hypothesis that Big Bang should be replaced with a finite cellular automaton universe with no expansion. Nonetheless, we are fully aware that our model is far from being complete, but it appears the proposed cellular automaton model of the Universe is very close in spirit to what Konrad Zuse envisaged long time ago. It is our hope that the new proposed method can be verified with observation data. But we admit that our model is still in its infancy, more researches are needed to fill all the missing details.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18264] viXra:1704.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 04:03:04

Local Realism Versus Quantum Computers & Quantum Information Theory

Authors: Andrew P. Yake
Comments: 1 Page. See also ** http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0078 **

Local realism reduces to the proposition that every physical effect arises exclusively at the spacetime locality where the determinate properties of physical reality determine that it be so. The causal model of quantum theory, however, and thus all prospects for quantum computers, require that local realism is false. The essential argument favoring quantum beliefs is that local realism cannot explain empirical Bell violations, whereas quantum theory can. By contrast, the article cited below offers compelling evidence to the contrary. Furthermore, such alleged refutations of local realism are predicated on an interpretation of the Bell inequality that many researchers reject (the cited article provides specific references). Meanwhile, the causal model of quantum theory reduces to the quantum formalism itself, which distributes outcomes across separate localities without providing enough information to determine what those outcomes are. More specifically, depending on subtleties of interpretation, the quantum formalism requires either: (A) There exists a bit of physical information such that this bit exists as mutually exclusive states, or (B) there exists a bit of physical information such that this bit is not physically informed. They are both contradictions. Pick your poison. Or reconsider local realism. See ** http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0078 ** Local Realism Explains Bell Violations (author Andrew P. Yake) - for a demonstration that all empirical evidence taken to support quantum theory over local realism plausibly does the reverse. The article comprises 8 pages, 4 figures, 6 equations, 32 references, 1 graph of testable predictions, and 2 paragraphs that purport to expose how the Bell inequality misrepresents the local realistic predictions for the EPR experiment. Thoughtful feedback appreciated (apyake@gmail.com).
Category: Quantum Physics

[18263] viXra:1704.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 11:08:43

Trapped Ions and Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

The race to build larger and larger quantum computers is heating up, with several technologies competing for a role in future devices. Each potential platform has strengths and weaknesses, but little has been done to directly compare the performance of early prototypes. Now, researchers at the JQI have performed a first-of-its-kind benchmark test of two small quantum computers built from different technologies. [18] To find out whether quantum computers will work properly, scientists must simulate them on a classical computer. Now a record-breaking experiment has simulated the largest quantum computer yet. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[18262] viXra:1704.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 11:49:24

Materials for Discussion of Methodological Limitations Resulting from the Stereotypes of Biologists Thinking

Authors: Andrzej Gecow
Comments: 18 Pages. in Polish

Attempts to communicate the results of theoretical works on the evolutionary biology using the methodology of physics have not yielded results for half a century, but have led to the recognition of methodological limitations stemming from the stereotypes of thinking in biology. It is primarily a lack of interest in the pursuit of deductive theory. Abstraction and deduction - the basis of physics, are despised and omitted as speculation, which creates a blockade in the development of theory in biology. As a basis for this diagnosis, five reviews of the text addressed to “KOSMOS” have been analyzed, which led to the conclusion that the text, because of the thesis contained therein, is unreadable to biologists. This study is the basis for a wider discussion in a separate publication.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[18261] viXra:1704.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 07:02:31

A P Time Solution to an NP Complete Problem

Authors: Q.P.Wimblik
Comments: 2 Pages.

Vertex Coloring can be reduced to a set of 2 color vertex coloring problems. This is achieved by utilizing an ability to account for every positive integer with a unique pair of smaller integers.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[18260] viXra:1704.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 07:36:08

First Image of Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

After training a network of telescopes stretching from Hawaii to Antarctica to Spain at the heart of our galaxy for five nights running, astronomers said Wednesday they may have snapped the first-ever picture of a black hole. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[18259] viXra:1704.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 08:39:21

Supercomputer Simulation of Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

To find out whether quantum computers will work properly, scientists must simulate them on a classical computer. Now a record-breaking experiment has simulated the largest quantum computer yet. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system,
Category: Quantum Physics

[18258] viXra:1704.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 04:13:42

Mathematics, the Continuous or the Discrete Which is Better to Reality of Things

Authors: Linfan Mao
Comments: 26 Pages.

There are 2 contradictory views on our world, i.e., continuous or discrete, which results in that only partially reality of a thing T can be understood by one of continuous or discrete mathematics because of the universality of contradiction and the connection of things in the nature, just as the philosophical meaning in the story of the blind men with an elephant. Holding on the reality of natural things motivates the combination of continuous mathematics with that of discrete, i.e., an envelope theory called mathematical combinatorics which extends classical mathematics over topological graphs because a thing is nothing else but a multiverse over a spacial structure of graphs with conservation laws hold on its vertices. Such a mathematical object is said to be an action flow. The main purpose of this report is to introduce the powerful role of action flows, or mathematics over graphs with applications to physics, biology and other sciences, such as those of G-solution of non-solvable algebraic or differential equations, Banach or Hilbert G-flow spaces with multiverse, multiverse on equations, and with applications to, for examples, the understanding of particles, spacetime and biology. All of these make it clear that holding on the reality of things by classical mathematics is only on the coherent behaviors of things for its homogenous without contradictions, but the mathematics over graphs G is applicable for contradictory systems because contradiction is universal only in eyes of human beings but not the nature of a thing itself.
Category: General Mathematics

[18257] viXra:1704.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 05:43:41

Neuronal Activity Recording

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

A team led by engineers at the University of California San Diego has developed nanowires that can record the electrical activity of neurons in fine detail. [15] For certain frequencies of shortwave infrared light, most biological tissues are nearly as transparent as glass. Now, researchers have made tiny particles that can be injected into the body, where they emit those penetrating frequencies. The advance may provide a new way of making detailed images of internal body structures such as fine networks of blood vessels. [14] The proposed nano-MRI setup consists of an atomic qubit positioned 2-4 nm below a surface holding a molecule. The qubit acts as both the sensor and source of the magnetic field for encoding the nuclear spins of the molecule. The nuclear density data is then used to generate a 3D image of the molecular structure with angstrom-level resolution. [13] Researchers at the University of Melbourne have developed a way to radically miniaturise a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machine using atomic-scale quantum computer technology. [12] With one in two Australian children reported to have tooth decay in their permanent teeth by age 12, researchers from the University of Sydney believe they have identified some nanoscale elements that govern the behaviour of our teeth. [11] When cryoEM images are obtained from protein nanocrystals the images themselves can appear to be devoid of any contrast. A group of scientists from the Netherlands have now demonstrated that lattice information can be revealed and enhanced by a specialized filter. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[18256] viXra:1704.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 06:05:50

Gravity's Emergence from Electrodynamics

Authors: Stephen H. Jarvis
Comments: 15 Pages.

A new approach to understanding the fundamental particles and associated forces via a new a-priori definition for space and time is forwarded, and is then linked to contemporary equations for Gravity and Electromagnetism; space as an infinitesimal universal “0”-scalar manifold, and “time” as the “feature” that divides and “qualifies” each 0-scalar spatial reference is discussed. Further, the idea of gravity as an emergent quality of electromagnetism (which here is given the spectra of “time” itself) is examined by assuming 3-dimensional space as the “fine-structure 0-scalar manifold” while considering "time" as the “symmetry-breaking” principal of entropy “effecting” space. Consequently, the fundamental idea of an "equation" from one event in time to the next is rendered unreliable owing to the nature of the movement of time and its effect on space (as a process of “symmetrybreaking”), which then opens to a new mathematical method of applying the concept of time as the “Golden Ratio” equation to spatial transformations. By this process a link between gravity and electromagnetism is established, together with an explanation for the genesis of the four field forces via explaining atomic particle congress.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18255] viXra:1704.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 06:12:41

Rare Meson Decay

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Many scientists working on the LHCb experiment at CERN had hoped that the exceptional accuracy in the measurement of the rare decay of the Bs0 meson would at last delineate the limits of the Standard Model, the current theory of the structure of matter, and reveal phenomena unknown to modern physics. [19] While no evidence for new physics has yet been found, these new results have provided crucial input to our theoretical models and has greatly improved our understanding of the Standard Model. [18] A quartet of researchers has boldly proposed the addition of six new particles to the standard model to explain five enduring problems. [17] Symmetry is the essential basis of nature, which gives rise to conservation laws. In comparison, the breaking of the symmetry is also indispensable for many phase transitions and nonreciprocal processes. Among various symmetry breaking phenomena, spontaneous symmetry breaking lies at the heart of many fascinating and fundamental properties of nature. [16] One of the biggest challenges in physics is to understand why everything we see in our universe seems to be formed only of matter, whereas the Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter. CERN's LHCb experiment is one of the best hopes for physicists looking to solve this longstanding mystery. [15] Imperial physicists have discovered how to create matter from light-a feat thought impossible when the idea was first theorized 80 years ago. [14] How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can't… not alone, anyway. [13] The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12] Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[18254] viXra:1704.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 13:32:01

Fluid With Negative Mass

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 8 Pages.

Researchers in the US say they've created a fluid with negative mass in the lab... which is exactly as mind-bending as it sounds. What it means is that, unlike pretty much every other known physical object, when you push this fluid, it accelerates backwards instead of moving forwards. Such an oddity could tell scientists about some of the strange behaviour that happens within black holes and neutron stars. [5] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the gravitational force is basically a magnetic force the matter-antimatter gravitational repulsion makes sense.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18253] viXra:1704.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 15:44:48

The Relativistic Mass Ratio in Ultrarelativistic Photon Rockets

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper we take a closer look at the initial mass relative to the relativistic mass of the payload for an ideal photon rocket travelling at its maximum velocity. Haug has recently suggested that for all known subatomic particles, a minimum of two Planck masses of fuel are needed to accelerate the fundamental particle to its suggested maximum velocity (see [1]). Here we will show how this view is consistent with insight given by Tipler at a NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Workshop Proceedings in 1999 (see [2]). Tipler suggested that the mass ratio of the initial rest mass of an ultra-relativistic rocket relative to the relativistic mass of the payload is likely “just” two. An ultrarelativistic rocket is one travelling at a velocity very close to the speed of light. We will here show that the Tipler factor is consistent with results derived from Haug’s suggested maximum velocity for any known observed subatomic particle. However, we will show that the Tipler factor of two is unlikely to hold for ultra-heavy subatomic particle payloads. With ultra-heavy particles, we think of subatomic particles with mass close to that of the Planck mass. Our analysis indicates that the initial mass relative to the relativistic mass of the payload for any type of subatomic particle rocket must be between one and two. Remarkably, the mass ratio is only one for a Planck mass particle. This at first sounds absurd until we understand that the Planck mass particle is probably the very collision point between two photons. Even if a photon’s speed “always is” considered to be the speed of light, we can think of it as standing still at the instant it collides with another photon (backscattering). The mass ratio to accelerate a particle that only exists at velocity zero is naturally one. This is true since no fuel is needed to go from zero to zero velocity. Remarkably this indicates that the Planck mass particle and the Planck length likely are invariant. This can only happen if the Planck mass particle only lasts for an instant before it bursts into energy, which is what we could expect for the collision between two photons.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18252] viXra:1704.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 22:23:53

Local Realism Versus Volumes of Quantum Nonsense

Authors: Andrew P. Yake
Comments: 1 Page. See also ** http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0078 **

Local realism must predict empirical Bell violations in a reasonable way to become a compelling causal explanation of physical reality. According to the paper at the link given below, it can now do that. On the other hand, quantum theory, despite its wonderful statistical predictions, must transcend its infamous paradoxes to become a compelling causal explanation of anything. Unfortunately, quantum paradoxes reduce to quantum contradictions, and thus to nonsense. Take "quantum superposition". Is this the simultaneous existence of mutually exclusive states or not? If it is, then we have a contradiction, and all further claims from quantum theory fail to have meaningful interpretations. If quantum superposition is something other than that contradiction, then what -- exactly -- is quantum superposition? And let's take "physical reality" while we are at it. Defending quantum theory as a causal explanation of physical reality requires that physical reality is not exclusively physical reality! Whoops. What -- exactly -- is so difficult about simply admitting when we have no sensible causal explanation for certain phenomena like Bell violations in EPR(B) experiments? In psychology, we know the answer to such questions. Our beliefs are evidence resistant. We thus predict that the rational threat from local realism to widespread beliefs -- its implication that physical reality might be mostly explained without appeal to antilocal mysticism -- will continue to be buried under reams of empirical observations stitched together by nonsense insinuations that that paradoxes are assets rather than contradictions. In any case, the paper below arguably formulates a theory of local realism that constitutes a causally valid description of physical reality. No nonsense required. Or, it could just be wrong. But it is waiting to be tested. Indeed, even existing data could bear on the empirical question if the theory is sound enough. See ** http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0078 ** Local Realism Explains Bell Violations (author Andrew P. Yake) - for a demonstration that all empirical evidence taken to support quantum theory over local realism plausibly does the reverse. The article comprises 8 pages, 4 figures, 6 equations, 32 references, a graph of testable predictions, and two paragraphs that purport to expose how the Bell inequality misrepresents the local realistic predictions for the EPR experiment. Thoughtful feedback appreciated (apyake@gmail.com).
Category: Quantum Physics

[18251] viXra:1704.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 23:00:49

Lattice Mismatches of Vertical 2D/3D Semiconductor Heterostructures

Authors: Donghwi Park
Comments: 11 Pages.

Various lattice mismatches at room temperature and 750 °C in van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures of semiconductors were calculated. These calculations propose new substrate for 2D semiconductor synthesis. It is reported that aligned vertical 2D/3D semiconductor heterostructure is synthesysed in lattice matched system. In this article, Various lattice mismatch at room temperature and 750 °C in van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures of semiconductor was calculated. The calculation proposes new substrate for 2D semiconductor synthesis. This calculation suggests MoSe2/ZnO is a lattice-matched 2D/3D semiconductor heterostructure with low mismatch.
Category: Condensed Matter

[18250] viXra:1704.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 03:51:02

The Number Density Paradox

Authors: Ken Seton
Comments: 6 Pages. Enjoy

In the world of transfinite cardinality, any talk of number density, dart-board hits, proportions or probability is just a pouring from the empty into the void. Transfinite cardinality is unrelated to any normal concept of proportion or density over an interval and no understanding of it can obtained from probabilistic analogies. This is demonstrated by comparing extremely sparse and extremely dense collections of reals which are normally understood as uncountable and countable respectively. Should this incline one to think that Cantor’s equivalence definition is inappropriate for identifying the “size” of an infinite collection ?
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[18249] viXra:1704.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 11:11:40

Image of a Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Waterloo have been able to capture the first composite image of a dark matter bridge that connects galaxies together. [26] In an abandoned gold mine one mile beneath Lead, South Dakota, the cosmos quiets down enough to potentially hear the faint whispers of the universe's most elusive material—dark matter. [25] The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16]
Category: Astrophysics

[18248] viXra:1704.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 11:28:30

Why Do Planets Rotate Around Themselves ?

Authors: Ahmida Bendjoudi
Comments: 4 Pages. Submitted to IJMPD

It is commonly believed that the self-rotation angular momentum of planets is due to an original angular momentum of dense interstellar clouds at the formation stage of the stars. However, the study shows something completely dierent: a test planet in free-fall, in fact, follows two geodesics; the rst is the usual Schwarzschild path, and the second is a Schwarzschild-like path, dened (spatially) locally: an elliptical orbit in the plane (U(1)-variable, azimuthal angle). The analysis leads to the fact that: the motion along these geodesics (physically) is exactly the self-rotation of a charged test planet in Reissner-Nordstrom spacetime. The results reveal a more general understanding of Einstein equivalence principle: locally, gravitational eld can be (in the Reissner- Nordstrom space) replaced with an accelerated and rotated local frame.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18247] viXra:1704.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 08:05:19

Atom Interferometers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

The atom interferometer uses the quantum 'wave-like' nature of atoms to make precise measurements. [31] A new approach to control forces and interactions between atoms and molecules, such as those employed by geckos to climb vertical surfaces, could bring advances in new materials for developing quantum light sources. [30] Quantum mechanics rules. It dictates how particles and forces interact, and thus how atoms and molecules work—for example, what happens when a molecule goes from a higher-energy state to a lower-energy one. But beyond the simplest molecules, the details become very complex. [29] In an article published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences scientists from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg show, however, that under certain conditions, photons can strongly influence chemistry. [28] University of Otago physicists have found a way to control individual atoms, making them appear wherever they want them to. [27] New research shows that a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM), used to study changes in the shape of a single molecule at the atomic scale, impacts the ability of that molecule to make these changes. [26] Physicists are getting a little bit closer to answering one of the oldest and most basic questions of quantum theory: does the quantum state represent reality or just our knowledge of reality? [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation,
Category: Quantum Physics

[18246] viXra:1704.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 08:50:23

About pi as a Function of State of Nature

Authors: Valery B. Smolensky
Comments: 3 Pages.

The article, according to the author, sheds new light on the nature of PI. The original output of PI as a function of States of nature.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[18245] viXra:1704.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 09:13:38

Nonlocal Correlations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

In the quantum realm, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle states that accurately measuring a pair of properties of an atom puts a limit to the precision of measurement you can obtain on the same properties of another atom. [20] Scientists have pushed quantum entanglement to new levels in two experiments. In one study, researchers linked up millions of atoms, and in another, intertwined hundreds of large groups consisting of billions of atoms. [19] Researchers have devised an improved method for checking whether two particles are entangled. [18] A group of researchers from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw has shed new light on the famous paradox of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen after 80 years. They created a multidimensional entangled state of a single photon and a trillion hot rubidium atoms, and stored this hybrid entanglement in the laboratory for several microseconds. [17] Members of the Faculty of Physics at the Lomonosov Moscow State University have elaborated a new technique for creating entangled photon states. [16] Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15] University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18244] viXra:1704.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 09:34:59

Collapse of the Waves on “soft” DNA Sites Can be a Physical Basis of the Regulation of Genes Expression

Authors: Denis Semyonov
Comments: 14 Pages.

NMR data demonstrate the existence of Hoogsteen base pairs in double-stranded DNA. In this work, a possibility of implication of these pairs in regulation of genes expression is discussed. The author suggests a physical mechanism for switch between different states of regulatory DNA sites as the result of collapse of rotational waves at these sites.
Category: Physics of Biology

[18243] viXra:1704.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 10:31:11

Controlling Particles' Spin Configurations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Fermions are ubiquitous elementary particles. They span from electrons in metals, to protons and neutrons in nuclei and to quarks at the sub-nuclear level. Further, they possess an intrinsic degree of freedom called spin with only two possible configurations, either up or down. In a new study published in EPJ B, theoretical physicists explore the possibility of separately controlling the up and down spin populations of a group of interacting fermions. [13] An international consortium led by researchers at the University of Basel has developed a method to precisely alter the quantum mechanical states of electrons within an array of quantum boxes. The method can be used to investigate the interactions between various types of atoms and electrons, which is essential for future quantum technologies, as the group reports in the journal Small. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18242] viXra:1704.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 10:33:52

Animatus

Authors: Ian von Hegner
Comments: 189 Pages.

Philip M. Emrus er taget på en sidste rejse til Firenze. Den verdenskendte palæoantropolog er lige så skarp og åndsfrisk som han altid har været. Men hans krop er gammel, og helbredet skrøbeligt efter at have levet et langt og rigt liv. Emrus har ingen illusioner om, at hans dage er talte, og det havde han egentlig affundet sig med. Men en bekendt fra fortiden har sat ham stævne her i Renæssancens oprindelsessted. En bemærkelsesværdig kvinde fra fortiden ønsker at give ham et tilbud der kan forandre alt. Det er et dristigt tilbud, der ikke alene kan redde ham og give en ny chance i livet. Det er også et tilbud, der vil rokke ved manges opfattelse af hvad det vil sige at være menneske. Emrus kan genvinde livets gave, men også vende op og ned på mange indgroede forestillinger om det levede liv. Det vil udfordre manges opfattelse af grænser, og hvor langt mennesker egentlig har ret til at gå med at bestemme over egne liv.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[18241] viXra:1704.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 04:55:54

Current Return to Lamarck in Agreement with Darwin

Authors: Andrzej Gecow
Comments: 11 Pages. in Polish

The terms ‘Darwinism’ and ‘Lamarckism’ mean different things to different people. Nowadays, they are rarely used in a historically correct way – clime Jablonka and Lamb, the scientists that mainly contribute to proving than not only genes can curry hereditary information and new hereditary channels show characteristic of Lamarckian mechanisms. Especially Lamarckism was seen in false and superficial way in lot of aspects. The inheritance of acquired characters was connected to Lamarck. It was rejected too radically. Today it revives but mainly not basing on epigenetic inheritance. Generally Lamarckian mechanisms increase in the complex and diverse ways the chances of accurate adaptive changes, so they no longer look like a random, appear as ‘effects of instructions’ or ‘directed variations’ but these ‘instructions’ have been previously acquired through Darwinian natural selection. The richness of these phenomena causes great difficulty of their brief describtion. Lamarckian dimension of evolution is now known better. This phenomena cannot be explained in the range of Modern Synthesis assumptions. It does not mean, that MS is false and should be rejected. Lamarckian mechanisms are created by Darwinian natural selection, but their explanations need wider assumptions, than are a basis of MS, means Extended Evolutionary Synthesis is necessary. This theme is one of the main in current discussion.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[18240] viXra:1704.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 05:09:40

The Origin of Life and the Need for a Rigid String Propeller Fermion Model Combined with a Chiral Vacuum Lattice.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 38 Pages.

The discovery of glycine in a comet supports the idea that the fundamental building blocks of life are prevalent in space, and is a strong argument that life in the Universe may be common rather than rare. Glycine molecules (Amino Acids) are found inside materials ejected from comets like Wild 2 ( 2004) and 67P-CG ( 2015-2016) which is reason to support the idea that new physics magnetic micro interference black holes postulated by Quantum FFF Theory are the origin of life creating comets and (ball) lightning all over the universe. . Quantum FFF ( Function Follows Form) new physics theory states, that the vacuum is seeded with fast opposite oscillating massless 3-Dimensional torus shaped rigid but transformable massless strings called Axion- Higgs (AH) particles. Colliding AH particles are responsible for pair production ( e- and e+) and even quarks around micro and macro black hole nuclei present in the splitting Big Bang down to Comets and Ball Lightnings. Black hole nuclei are supposed to be AH knots compressed by the in falling AH vacuum lattice. Two AHs should be able to change form by real high energy collision into two entangled electron positron propeller strings with opposite pitch and spin. Such high energy is supposed to be present at black hole event/photon horizons and inside particle colliders like the LHC at Geneva. The propeller form of fermions is assumed to be the origin of a new physics black hole model. All black holes attract (eat) the local AH vacuum but repel all fermions by spin polarisation effects, which make black holes pair producing and fermion producing phenomena observed in Quasars, Herbig Haro objects, Comets and even ball lightning. Thus the variable FORM of all particles is based on real internal joints and gears, responsible for the FUNCTION even for composite Quarks and Photons. However all new particles pairs are assumed to be instant entangled and guided in a dual mirror multiversal way. Massless transformed Axion particles are also assumed to be responsible for all compound quantum knots like quarks and massive Higgs particles of 126 GeV and Higher energy recently observed in the LHC at CERN. The oscillating AH vacuum system is the messenger medium of all Photon, Gluon and Neutrino information. Black Holes are equipped with a nucleus of compacted Axion particles, compressed by the oscillating AH vacuum and acting as dark matter point sources called “Dark Matter Black Holes”( DMBHs).
Category: Astrophysics

[18239] viXra:1704.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 07:47:23

Progressive Fourier (Or Trigonometric) Interpolation

Authors: Andrej Liptaj
Comments: 11 Pages.

Method of progressive trigonometric interpolation is presented.
Category: General Mathematics

[18238] viXra:1704.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-11 13:40:31

Way of Ten Times Increase Efficiency of Geological Branch and Row Stok Safety of Mankind

Authors: Feliks Royzenman
Comments: 6 Pages.

Because of exhaustion of stocks of deposits on the Earth's surface, new deposits can be discovered mainly in depth. But confidence of deep earth prognosis of industrial deposits in the modern geology is for most of the minerals just 5-10% (90-95% error!). It threatens the world economy and development of the mankind. To solve this crucial issue, the author developed and successfully used for 40 year a new system of high-precision deep earth prognosis of deposits [3]. This system of prognosis makes the mining and geological industry more than 10-fold efficient, provides mineral and raw-stock supply security and creates the basis for efficient development of civilization. Key words: deposits, deep earth prognosis, high confidence of prognosis, discovery of deposits.
Category: Geophysics

[18237] viXra:1704.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-11 13:45:25

The New Socioeconomic Formation “Solidarism” Would in 2015-25 Years

Authors: Feliks Royzenman
Comments: 6 Pages.

As it is shown by the author on basis of the discovered law of acceleration of development in the nature and society, the financial crisis getting underway is a prologue to a fundamental crisis of the mankind related to the latest changeover of socioeconomic formations which, according to the formula acceleration of public development, shall occur in 2015-25. But if the formations changeover occurs sporadically, as before, it may turn out into a bloody revolution which can lead to extinction of the human civilization. To avoid it, a model of the new society and strategy of urgent construction of this model were developed. Key words: acceleration of development, systemic crisis, socioeconomic formation, model of the future formation, strategy of formation construction.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[18236] viXra:1704.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-11 14:33:49

Discrete Mellin Convolution and Its Extensions, Perron Formula and Explicit Formulae

Authors: Jose Javier garcia Moreta
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper we define a new Mellin discrete convolution, which is related to Perron's formula. Also we introduce new explicit formulae for arithmetic function which generalize the explicit formulae of Weil.
Category: Number Theory

[18235] viXra:1704.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-11 21:09:40

Accretion Friction Braking in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is required in stellar metamorphosis to brake material so that it loses the momentum that would prevent coalescence. In order to do any sort of accretion in outer space, the material has to clump together slowly and be pulled together and heated significantly. Even the slightest momentum with gaseous matter, dust, 1 cm sized particles or 1 km sized asteroids would prevent accretion and result in a further disintegration or deflection of the material. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[18234] viXra:1704.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-11 21:20:48

An Experiment to Measure the Speed of Alternating Electricity

Authors: Tsao Chang, Kongjia Liao,Jing Fan
Comments: 7 Pages. This is a new-type experiment

Our experiment to measure the speed of alternating electricity is briefly reported here. It is found that the speed of alternating electricity within the metal wire is not constant, which is depended on the circuit parameters. In most cases, the speed of alternating electricity is less than the speed of light. However, our recent experimental results show that at less than 3 MHz frequency region and under our circuit parameters, the speed of alternating electric field can be 20 times more than the speed of light.
Category: Classical Physics

[18233] viXra:1704.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-11 23:59:12

Ether, Time, and Energy (November 29, 2006).

Authors: Kenneth M. Sasaki.
Comments: 30 pages, 16 figures, 7 labeled equations, and 62 references. Keywords: Ether, Time, and Energy. Author's e-mail address: bicycle_physics@yahoo.com.

This work demonstrates that observation and theory support three properties of classical space-time: The first is smoothness, which holds since gravitational time dilation, at sufficiently high energy densities, gravitationally confines energy, preventing singularities. The second is the relationship between ether and energy, which allows practical experiments to observe the ether. And the third is causal consistency, assuming only the physical laws of current observations. Some associated points of interest are also discussed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18232] viXra:1704.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 01:35:41

Apparent Paradoxes in Apparent Source Theory

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 9 Pages.

According to Apparent Source Theory ( AST ), the position of a light source changes apparently relative to a co-moving observer, if the light source (and observer) is in absolute motion. Apparent Source Theory successfully explains almost all light speed experiments. However, there are some (apparent ) paradoxes in AST. In this paper, these paradoxes are described and solutions will be proposed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18231] viXra:1704.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 02:07:14

The Dark side of Gravity vs MOND/DM

Authors: Henry-Couannier Frederic
Comments: 16 Pages.

This article continues the exploration of the Dark Gravity Theory which foundationsand some consequences we have detailed in two previous article
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

Replacements of recent Submissions

[7828] viXra:1704.0281 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-23 10:58:34

What if Entropy Varies Logarithmically Rather Than Linearly with the Area? on the Emergence of Surface Gravity

Authors: Asher Klatchko
Comments: 12 Pages. comments are welcome

A constant speed of light implies a hyperbolic spacetime. The “Exponential Explosion” of a hyperbolic geometry at infinity – ∂H, lends itself to the Boltzmann principle, thereby connecting geometry with entropy. We borrow the concept of entropy at a horizon from Bekenstein, but propose instead that it varies logarithmically with the area enclosed by the horizon, S ~ log (A). We use the experimental data from the recently LIGO detected events of two coalescing black holes to verify that our definition of entropy does not violate the generalized second law. We propose that the 1st law of thermodynamics seems to determine the 2nd law thereby setting an upper limit to the fraction of the mass that can be gravitationally irradiated. Dimensional analysis of black hole entropy requires quantization of its mass in Planck mass quanta. We treat the area enclosed within the horizon as an elastomer membrane thereby showing that its surface tension can be identified as a gravitational force – surface gravity – and its potential is directly proportional to the entropy. As information is lost to heat via, δQ = T dS, we connect the loss process to spacetime fluctuations. Using the Unruh effect we estimate the order of magnitude of these fluctuations for a weak field. We do this by analyzing the famous gravitational redshift experiment of Pound and Rebka. For a strong field we show that the black hole is a quantum heat sink with a gradient inversely proportional to the area.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7827] viXra:1704.0278 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-22 20:06:18

A 100 Year Task That Involve Seven Impossible Task

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 7 Pages.

The First Task.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[7826] viXra:1704.0274 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-22 06:37:27

Two Extreme Formulas for Converging to Pi,the Fastest and Most Painful

Authors: François Mendzina Essomba
Comments: 1 Page. extreme fomulas

I present in this small article two algorithms of calculation of pi, they are characterized by two extremities, one is the most convergent and the other the slowest of the imaginable formulas.
Category: Number Theory

[7825] viXra:1704.0247 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-24 10:16:46

Modeling the Strain Monitoring Data in Structural Health Monitoring Using Copulas

Authors: Zhicheng Chen, Hui Li
Comments: 8 Pages.

In Structural Health Monitoring, there are usually many strain sensors installed in different places of a single structure. The raw measurement of a strain sensor is generally a mixed response caused by different excitations such as moving vehicle loads, ambient temperature, etc. Monitoring data collected by different strain sensors are usually correlated with each other, correlation structures of responses caused by different excitations for different sensor pairs are quite diverse and complex. In Structural Health Monitoring, quantitatively describing and modeling complicated dependence structures of strain data is very important in many applications. In this article, copulas are exploited to characterize dependence structures and construct joint distributions of monitoring strain data. The constructed joint distribution is also applied in missing data imputation.
Category: Statistics

[7824] viXra:1704.0235 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-20 09:51:08

Time Interval Distortions, Alternative to Dark Matter

Authors: Arthur E Pletcher
Comments: 7 Pages.

This alternative model to Dark Matter, is supported by correlated studies of multiple galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within the same body appears to increase per distance. ”Time interval distortion” rewrites accelerating expansion, alternatively, as constant expansion with apparent decreasing time intervals. TC is a corollary of Minkowski’s assertion that ”Whatever happens to space also happens to time”, and can be conceptualized as a linear perspective in the time dimension. Time convergence (TC) proposes that time intervals appear to decrease and converge to a single event over great magnitude distance, as viewed from an observer at classic scale. Thus, Accelerated expansion is interpreted to be an illusion, as decreasing time intervals appear equivalent to acceleration. See figure 3. In the last chapter, I provide a vector calculation to distinguish accelerated expansion from constant expansion with TC. TC provides alternative explanations for: Accelerated expansion, Rotational and recessive velocities approaching c, as superluminal velocities. Also, a potential explanation for galaxy rotational curves.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7823] viXra:1704.0221 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-18 21:18:24

Universal Topology W = P ± iV and First Horizon of Quantum Fields

Authors: C. Wei XU
Comments: 7 Pages. Restored original introduction and Converted to the 1 column style

The universal topology W = P ± iV is the nature law that intuitively constitutes a duality of Manifolds and Event Operations. Its First Horizon of this framework, naturally comes out with the dual State Equilibrium and dual Motion Dynamics, which replace the empirical “math laws” and give rise to the general quantum fields to concisely include Schrödinger and Klein– Gordon Equations. As a result, it becomes a groundbreaking in the quest for Unified Physics: the workings of a life streaming of physical and virtual dynamics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[7822] viXra:1704.0199 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-17 09:28:29

Theory of Exact Trigonometric Periodic Solutions to Quadratic Liénard Type Equations

Authors: J. Akande, D.K.K. Adjaï, L.H. Koudahoun, Y.J.F. Kpomahou, M.D. Monsia
Comments: 16 pages

The problem of finding exact trigonometric periodic solutions to non-linear differential equations is still an open mathematical research field. In this paper it is shown that the Painlevé-Gambier XVIII equation and its inverted version may exhibit exact trigonometric periodic solutions as well as other quadratic Liénard type equations but with amplitude-dependent frequency. Other inverted Painlevé-Gambier equations are also shown to admit exact periodic solutions.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[7821] viXra:1704.0198 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-16 08:24:29

The Origin and Formation Mechanism of Protons

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: showing a viewpoint regards to the originand formation mechanism of protons.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[7820] viXra:1704.0188 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-16 05:52:07

The Omega-Kardeschev Scale

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 4 Pages.

An interplay.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[7819] viXra:1704.0169 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-15 08:38:12

Gravity's Emergence from Electrodynamics

Authors: Stephen H. Jarvis
Comments: 16 Pages.

A new approach to understanding the fundamental particles and associated forces via a new a-priori definition for space and time is forwarded, and is then linked to contemporary equations for Gravity and Electromagnetism; space as an infinitesimal universal “0”-scalar manifold, and “time” as the “feature” that divides and “qualifies” each 0-scalar spatial reference is discussed. Further, the idea of gravity as an emergent quality of electromagnetism (which here is given the spectra of “time” itself) is examined by assuming 3-dimensional space as the “fine-structure 0-scalar manifold” while considering "time" as the “symmetry-breaking” principle of entropy “effecting” space. Consequently, the fundamental idea of an "equation" from one event in time to the next is rendered unreliable owing to the nature of the movement of time and its effect on space (as a process of “symmetry-breaking”), which then opens to a new mathematical method of applying the concept of time as the “Golden Ratio” equation to spatial transformations. By this process a link between gravity and electromagnetism is established, together with an explanation for the genesis of the four field forces via explaining atomic particle congress.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7818] viXra:1704.0165 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-21 09:23:53

Direct Observational Test of a Proposed Cosmological Model

Authors: Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen
Comments: 7 Pages.

A simple observational test of a proposed cosmological model with radial time and spherical space is introduced. It is shown briefly how the proposed model which can solve many problems of cosmology is wrongly excluded.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7817] viXra:1704.0151 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-19 12:54:03

Current Return to Lamarck in Agreement with Darwin

Authors: Andrzej Gecow
Comments: 12 Pages. in Polish

The terms ‘Darwinism’ and ‘Lamarckism’ mean different things to different people. Nowadays, they are rarely used in a historically correct way – clime Jablonka and Lamb, the scientists that mainly contribute to proving than not only genes can curry hereditary information and new hereditary channels show characteristic of Lamarckian mechanisms. Especially Lamarckism was seen in false and superficial way in lot of aspects. The inheritance of acquired characters was connected to Lamarck. It was rejected too radically. Today it revives but mainly not basing on epigenetic inheritance. Generally Lamarckian mechanisms increase in the complex and diverse ways the chances of accurate adaptive changes, so they no longer look like a random, appear as ‘effects of instructions’ or ‘directed variations’ but these ‘instructions’ have been previously acquired through Darwinian natural selection. The richness of these phenomena causes great difficulty of their brief describtion. Lamarckian dimension of evolution is now known better. This phenomena cannot be explained in the range of Modern Synthesis assumptions. It does not mean, that MS is false and should be rejected. Lamarckian mechanisms are created by Darwinian natural selection, but their explanations need wider assumptions, than are a basis of MS, means Extended Evolutionary Synthesis is necessary. This theme is one of the main in current discussion.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[7816] viXra:1704.0150 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-14 05:25:26

The Origin of Life and the Need for a Rigid String Propeller Fermion Model Combined with a Chiral Vacuum Lattice and Micro Interference Black Holes

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 40 Pages.

The discovery of glycine in a comet supports the idea that the fundamental building blocks of life are prevalent in space, and is a strong argument that life in the Universe may be common rather than rare. Glycine molecules (Amino Acids) are found inside materials ejected from comets like Wild 2 ( 2004) and 67P-CG ( 2015-2016) which is reason to support the idea that new physics magnetic micro interference black holes postulated by Quantum FFF Theory are the origin of life creating comets and (ball) lightning all over the universe. . Quantum FFF ( Function Follows Form) new physics theory states, that the vacuum is seeded with fast opposite oscillating massless 3-Dimensional torus shaped rigid but transformable massless strings called Axion- Higgs (AH) particles. Colliding AH particles are responsible for pair production ( e- and e+) and even quarks around micro and macro black hole nuclei present in the splitting Big Bang down to Comets and Ball Lightnings. Black hole nuclei are supposed to be AH knots compressed by the in falling AH vacuum lattice. Two AHs should be able to change form by real high energy collision into two entangled electron positron propeller strings with opposite pitch and spin. Such high energy is supposed to be present at black hole event/photon horizons and inside particle colliders like the LHC at Geneva. The propeller form of fermions is assumed to be the origin of a new physics black hole model. All black holes attract (eat) the local AH vacuum but repel all fermions by spin polarisation effects, which make black holes pair producing and fermion producing phenomena observed in Quasars, Herbig Haro objects, Comets and even ball lightning. Thus the variable FORM of all particles is based on real internal joints and gears, responsible for the FUNCTION even for composite Quarks and Photons. However all new particles pairs are assumed to be instant entangled and guided in a dual mirror multiversal way. Massless transformed Axion particles are also assumed to be responsible for all compound quantum knots like quarks and massive Higgs particles of 126 GeV and Higher energy recently observed in the LHC at CERN. The oscillating AH vacuum system is the messenger medium of all Photon, Gluon and Neutrino information. Black Holes are equipped with a nucleus of compacted Axion particles, compressed by the oscillating AH vacuum and acting as dark matter point sources called “Dark Matter Black Holes”( DMBHs).
Category: Astrophysics

[7815] viXra:1704.0146 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-25 10:45:44

Discrete Mellin Convolution and Its Extensions, Perron Formula and Explicit Formulae

Authors: Jose Javier Garcia Moreta
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper we define a new Mellin discrete convolution, which is related to Perron's formula. Also we introduce new explicit formulae for arithmetic function which generalize the explicit formulae of Weil.
Category: Number Theory

[7814] viXra:1704.0141 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-14 04:32:14

This Article Continues the Exploration of the Dark Gravity Theory Which Foundations and Some Consequences We Have Detailed in Two Previous Articles

Authors: Henry-Couannier Frederic
Comments: 16 Pages.

This article continues the exploration of the Dark Gravity Theory which foundationsand some consequences we have detailed in two previous article
Category: Relativity and Cosmology