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Any replacements are listed further down

[11465] **viXra:1509.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-04 14:32:56*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

По программе «Starfish» 9 июля 1962 США взорвали в космосе над Тихим океаном водородную бомбу с тротиловым эквивалентом 1.4 Мт. Взрыв сопровождался возникновением электрического импульса с большой напряженность электрического поля и малой длительностью. В работе проведены эксперименты по обнаружению и исследованию электрического импульса, возникающего при разрядах через разрядники конденсаторов большой ёмкости. Показано, что и при таких разрядах возникает импульс электрического поля, что свидетельствует о возникновении в разогретой плазме унитарного заряда. Данный факт противоречит не только классическим, но и релятивистским преобразованиям электромагнитного поля при переходе от одной инерциальной системы отсчета к другой и свидетельствует о том, что абсолютная величина электрического заряда, в отличие от его полярности, не является инвариантом скорости.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[11464] **viXra:1509.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-04 11:42:46*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

According to the program “Starfish” 1962 the USA exploded in space above Pacific Ocean H-bomb. Explosion was accompanied by the appearance of electric pulse with the large the tension of electric field and by short duration. In the work the experiments on detection and study of the electric pulse, which appears with the discharges through the dischargers of the capacitors of great capacity, are carried out. It is shown that also with such discharges appears the pulse of electric field, whiches indicate appearance in the heated plasma of unitary charge. This fact contradicts the laws of the classical electrodynamics and special theory of relativity and attests to the fact that the charge is not the invariant of speed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[11463] **viXra:1509.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-04 09:59:42*

**Authors:** D. G. Taylor

**Comments:** Pages.

This paper reasons, using the same logic that there is in Special Relativity, that in General Relativity logic that there is a light speed limit to escape velocity. It makes a very abbreviated argument for the version of the full paper. That full paper is at at http://vixra.org/abs/1502.0107

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11462] **viXra:1509.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-04 09:55:37*

**Authors:** Shinsuke Hamaji

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

My previous research involved representing energies (gravitational mass, inertial mass, and Planck’s constant) of different particle speeds as an equivalence for quantum (Mc = ΔmΔw = hf/c). In addition, E = Mc2 (kinetic energy is changed to mass) does not indicate that the total energy change is always proportional to particle speed. Therefore, “energy representation of a mathematical action,” and “energy change of a physical interaction” are not similar. The actual physical phenomenon should distinguish between these actions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[11461] **viXra:1509.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-04 05:40:14*

**Authors:** L. Martino, F. Louzada

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The adaptive rejection sampling (ARS) algorithm is a universal random generator for drawing samples efficiently from a univariate log-concave target probability density function (pdf). ARS generates independent samples from the target via rejection sampling with high acceptance rates. Indeed, ARS yields a sequence of proposal functions that converge toward the target pdf, so that the probability of accepting a sample approaches one. However, sampling from the proposal pdf becomes more computational demanding each time it is updated. In this work, we propose a novel ARS scheme, called Cheap Adaptive Rejection Sampling (CARS), where the computational effort for drawing from the proposal remains constant, decided in advance by the user. For generating a large number of desired samples, CARS is faster than ARS.

**Category:** Statistics

[11460] **viXra:1509.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-04 04:53:39*

**Authors:** Subhayan Sahu

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This report contains a short review of the thermal WIMP model of Dark matter, followed by an improved numerical analysis that takes into account the evolution of effective degrees of freedom for Standard Model particles to solve the evolution equation. The result dictates that for low-mass WIMPs, the cross section required to match the current Dark Matter relic density is significantly different from the oft-quoted value.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11459] **viXra:1509.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-03 17:47:17*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Solution of the Time’s Problem. Robert Yusupov Sep 4, 2015

In the present article the uniform, joint solution of the phenomena of the matter, the Universe, the Singularity and the time is given./В настоящей статье дается единая, совместная разгадка явлений материи, Вселенной, Сингулярности и времени.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[11458] **viXra:1509.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-03 15:30:46*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The quantum gravitational formula for the mass of the electron suggests the existence of a super light particle yet to be observed. However, it is not clear whether this particle is an electrino, a new type of neutrino, a neutralino (a neutral particle that is neither a neutrino nor a darkino) or a darkino (a neutral particle “responsible” for the mysterious dark matter contents of the Universe). The formula also suggests four possible values for the rest mass of this super light particle.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[11457] **viXra:1509.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-03 09:40:53*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Secret of the time and its solution, Robert Yusupov, Sep 4, 2015

In the present article the solution of phenomena of matter, the Universe, the Singularity and time is given./В настоящей статье дается разгадка феномена материи, Вселенной, Сингулярности и времени.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[11456] **viXra:1509.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-03 09:47:00*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Secret of the time and its solution Robert Yusupov, Sep 4, 2015

In the present article the solution of the phenomena of a matter, the Universe, the Singularity and a time is given.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[11455] **viXra:1509.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-03 04:42:34*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper presents an unusual submarine fountain [1]. Its mathematical model is created and it is demonstrated that its shape may be attributed to the existence of gravitomagnetic forces (similar to Lorentz forces), significant in magnitude, and gravitomagnetic energy flow (similar to electromagnetic energy flow).

**Category:** Classical Physics

[11454] **viXra:1509.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-02 22:37:07*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Comments/Criticism are wellcomed

In this paper, a comparison is made between the standard cosmological model and a proposed model with spherical space and radial time and the field equation with the average density of the universe as another constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11453] **viXra:1509.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-02 22:59:29*

**Authors:** Louai Hassan Elzein Basheir

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show the mathematical proof of the Lorentz-Fitzgerald length contraction to be an eect of the Doppler factor instead of the Lorentz factor.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11452] **viXra:1509.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-03 01:46:35*

**Authors:** Louai Hassan Elzein Basheir

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show that we can derive the Lorentz transformation and the Doppler transformation directly from Galilean transformation by using the experiment fact of the constancy of the speed of light in the relative frames of references.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11451] **viXra:1509.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-03 02:45:10*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

The author makes the assumption that essence, a unique substance of the nature is the matter. The atom of the matter (AM) is the universal, unique carrier of a concrete "pure" matter in the nature (within our Universe). The matter of the nature is reflected in the physics theory as key concept. Matter is entered and defined into a bosom of physics as the basic, unique physics quantity. The author also offers the model of a universe. In the present article it is investigated, as acceptance for a basis this model of a universe offered by the author, and introduction of concept and physics quantity of the matter into a bosom of physics, allow it is strictly axiomatic and logically consistently to construct the base of the new materialistic theory of physics and cosmology, to construct all building of physics.
Keywords: nature, matter, atom of the matter, fundamental particle, model of a universe, physics quantity, fine structure constant, elementary units of the nature, the Universe./Автором сделано предположение, что сущностью, уникальной субстанцией природы является материя. Определена крупица материи, как универсальный, уникальный носитель конкретной «чистой» материи в природе (в пределах нашей Вселенной). Материя природы отображается в теории физики как ключевое понятие. Материя вводится в лоно физики и определяется, как основная, уникальная физическая величина. Автором также предложена своя модель мироздания. В настоящей статье исследовано, как принятие за основу этой модели мироздания, предложенной автором, и введение понятия и физической величины материя в лоно физики, позволяют строго аксиоматически и логически непротиворечиво построить фундамент новой материалистической теории физики и космологии, построить все здание физики

**Category:** Classical Physics

[11450] **viXra:1509.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-03 03:10:51*

**Authors:** Jeff Yee

**Comments:** 10 pages

A new structure is proposed for the organization of subatomic particles, based on a format familiar to science, the Periodic Table of Elements. When particles are organized into a periodic structure, similarities are found between subatomic particles and atomic elements. This paper introduces the new Periodic Table of Particles, which includes particles from the neutrino to the Higgs boson, and how to read and use the table.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[11449] **viXra:1509.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-03 03:52:57*

**Authors:** Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Aiden J. Pons

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Cordus nuclear theory, table showing proposed structures of the atomic nuclei for all nuclides from Hydrogen to Neon.
Online supplement to:
Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., & Pons, A. J. (2013). Explanation of the Table of Nuclides: Qualitative nuclear mechanics from a NLHV design. Applied Physics Research, 5(6), 145-174. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v5n6p145

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[11448] **viXra:1509.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-02 18:26:23*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: In this paper I will be arguing why I believe Dr. Earle’s point of view on preserving the Ocean as our top priority is completely absurd through reason and statistical facts. I believe her claims can be refuted when you look at the overwhelming statistics that state otherwise or look to the Deontological argument, of treating the Ocean as our top priority. I will also be pointing out what I believe to be better alternatives than Ocean preservation.

**Category:** Climate Research

[11447] **viXra:1509.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-02 15:36:09*

**Authors:** Amrit Sorli

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Bijective epistemology requires that each element in the scientific model correspond exactly one element in the physical world. Bijective epistemology is based on bijective function of set theory where each element in a given set model correspond exactly one element in a given set physical world. Higgs boson is an artificially made particle with extremely short life time and has no existence in physical world. Higgs mechanism is an element of set model which has no Higgs boson as an element in set physical world because Higgs boson does not exist in physical world. Higgs mechanism as an element of set model has its counterpart in set physical world in some other element which generates inertial and gravitational mass which are inseparable.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[11446] **viXra:1509.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-02 11:33:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[11445] **viXra:1509.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-02 12:34:03*

**Authors:** Shinsuke Hamaji

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The mass in Einstein’s energy-mass equivalence equation has two possible interpretations, whether it is limited to the rest mass, or it applies to all energy. This paper argues that all of the energy (kg m2 s−2) has a mass (kg: a degree of weight and inertial resistance). The inertial mass is a mass that was further scaled the gravitational mass to be increased with kinetic energy. The inertial mass of elementary particle in an atomic system also varies similarly by scaling. Thereby the scalable inertial masses of elementary particles constituting the atomic add the gravitation that cannot be ignored as compared with the Coulomb force. We call this effect “Short-range gravity” to distinguish it from universal gravitation of the universal gravitational constant. Using these mechanisms, we explain the proton radius puzzle and the statistical error found with the muon anomalous magnetic moment. This paper demonstrates a new way of integrating general relativity and quantum theory by separating the scalable inertial mass and the gravitational mass.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11444] **viXra:1509.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-02 04:10:16*

**Authors:** Diego Liberati

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A more restrictive conjecture with respect of the Legendre's one is proposed in order to hopefully easy its proof. Moreover, a second even more restrictive conjecture is also proposed, with the same aim

**Category:** Number Theory

[11443] **viXra:1509.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-02 04:15:45*

**Authors:** Yusupov Robert/Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

В настоящей статье исследуется вопрос о научности физики на основе принципов научности теории, сформулированных автором. Принципы научности, по мнению автора неразрывно связаны с природой, с признанием материи основой природы. Критерием научности теории следует считать адекватное отражение природы и ее основы материи в понятийном аппарате теории. Это же конечно предполагает, что есть модель природы, модель мироздания, где определена материя. Это должно быть конкретным представлением материи в природе в чистом виде. Автор предлагает гипотезу, согласно которой материя представляет собой элементарные шарообразные сгустки, крупицы материи, содержащие вполне определенное постоянное минимальное количество материи. Второй основной характеристикой крупицы материи является диаметр.
In the present article the question on scientific character of physics on the basis of principles of scientific character of the theory, formulated by the author is investigated. Scientific character principles, according to the author inseparably linked with the nature, with a recognition of a matter as a nature basis. It is necessary to consider as criterion of scientific character of the theory adequate reflection of the nature and its basis of a matter in the conceptual device of the theory. Same certainly assumes that there is a nature model, universe model where the matter is defined. It should be concrete representation of a matter in the nature in the pure state. The author offers a hypothesis according to which the matter represents elementary spherical clots, the particles of a matter containing quite certain constant minimum quantity of a matter. The second basic characteristic of a particle of a matter is diameter.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[11442] **viXra:1509.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-02 04:23:55*

**Authors:** Valeriy Nikolaevich Nikitin, Igore Valereevich Nikitin

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Созданный нами независимый творческий коллектив «НИКИ» инициативным порядком занимается решением актуальных задач в фундаментальных отраслях науки и техники. Результаты наших исследований понятны и не требуют каких-то допущений, догадок и ограничений. В основе наших исследований лежит оригинальный и нетрадиционный подход к решению поставленной задачи.
На сегодняшний день нами создан внушительный научный задел. До настоящего момента времени результаты наших исследований не публиковались, не защищены и не рекламировались.
Для нас процесс исследований начинается с создания законченной теории (не гипотезы!) и поэтому все известные загадки природы и науки являются доказательствами (подтверждениями) и следствиями правильности наших идей. «ГЛУПЫЕ» ИДЕИ ИНОГДА СТАНОВЯТСЯ ВЕЛИКИМИ И НАОБОРОТ!

**Category:** Astrophysics

[11441] **viXra:1509.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-02 04:25:24*

**Authors:** Valeriy Nikolaevich Nikitin, Igore Valereevich Nikitin

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Созданный нами независимый творческий коллектив «НИКИ» инициативным порядком занимается решением актуальных задач в фундаментальных отраслях науки и техники. Результаты наших исследований понятны и не требуют каких-то допущений, догадок и ограничений. В основе наших исследований лежит оригинальный и нетрадиционный подход к решению поставленной задачи.
На сегодняшний день нами создан внушительный научный задел. До настоящего момента времени результаты наших исследований не публиковались, не защищены и не рекламировались.
Для нас процесс исследований начинается с создания законченной теории (не гипотезы!) и поэтому все известные загадки природы и науки являются доказательствами (подтверждениями) и следствиями правильности наших идей. «ГЛУПЫЕ» ИДЕИ ИНОГДА СТАНОВЯТСЯ ВЕЛИКИМИ И НАОБОРОТ!

**Category:** Astrophysics

[11440] **viXra:1509.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 09:37:14*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This article begins by defining two sets of related constants: The first set is used to define a nonstandard cubic equation. The second set is used to define equations that constrain a pair of rotation matrices. Curiously, these sets each contain an angle, each defined much like the other, where these angles separately play a central role in identifying solutions to their respective, very different equations. In this way these similarly-defined angles provide good evidence of a non-coincidental relationship between the nonstandard cubic equation and the pair of matrices. Moreover, a special case of this nonstandard cubic neatly combines with these matrices to produce values that map over to multiple physical constants
(the fine structure constant reciprocal, the Weinberg angle, and the quark and lepton mixing angles), providing further evidence of a non-coincidental relationship.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[11439] **viXra:1509.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 04:15:51*

**Authors:** Thomas Scott Zolotor

**Comments:** 1 Page. Yellow orange galaxies may be the most common

Yellow orange galaxies may be the most common 1-4 billion years from Earth.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[11438] **viXra:1509.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 04:52:05*

**Authors:** Suleyman Senyurt

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, we found the Darboux vector of the spatial quaternionic curve according to the Frenet frame. Then, the curvature and torsion of
the spatial quaternionic smarandache curve formed by the unit Darboux vector with the normal vector was calculated. Finally; these values are
expressed depending upon the spatial quaternionic curve.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11437] **viXra:1509.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 04:54:22*

**Authors:** Samaneh Ghandali, Bijan Alizadeh, Masahiro Fujita, Zainalabedin Navabi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper describe a system-level approach to improve the area and delay of datapath designs that perform polynomial computations over Z2m, which are used in many applications such as computer graphics and digital signal processing domains.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11436] **viXra:1509.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 04:55:38*

**Authors:** Shahrezad Jasim Mohammed

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, we define the concepts of a Q-Smarandache n-fold strong ideal and a Q-Smarandache fuzzy (strong, n-fold strong) ideal of a BH- algebra .Also, we study some properties of these fuzzy ideals.

**Category:** Algebra

[11435] **viXra:1509.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 04:57:09*

**Authors:** Chang-Wei Hu

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The physical phenomena what modern physics describes seem all very peculiar, which results from the quantitative effects deviating from the absolute space-time theory.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[11434] **viXra:1509.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 04:59:04*

**Authors:** Linfan MAO

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

As a powerful technique for holding relations in things, combinatorics has experienced rapidly development in the past century, particularly,
enumeration of configurations, combinatorial design and graph theory.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11433] **viXra:1509.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:01:00*

**Authors:** Linfan MAO

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to extend Banach spaces on topological graphs with operator actions and show all of these extensions are also Banach space with a bijection with a bijection between linear continuous functionals and elements, which enables one to solve linear functional equations in such extended space, particularly, solve algebraic, differential or integral equations on a topological graph, find multi-space solutions on equations, for instance, the Einstein’s gravitational equations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11432] **viXra:1509.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:02:09*

**Authors:** Linfan MAO

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to extend Banach spaces on topological graphs with operator actions and show all of these extensions are also Banach space with a bijection with a bijection between linear continuous functionals and elements, which enables one to solve linear functional equations in such extended space, particularly, solve algebraic, differential or integral equations on a topological graph, find multi-space solutions on equations, for instance, the Einstein’s gravitational equations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11431] **viXra:1509.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:02:57*

**Authors:** Linfan MAO

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A natural behavior is used to characterize by differential equation established on human
observations, which is assumed to be on one particle or one field complied with reproducibility.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11430] **viXra:1509.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:10:47*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Let us consider here the question relative to gravitational field of second type, to elliptical orbits and to precessional motions that happen in this type of gravitational filed. Here the cause of precessional phenomena is identified with conic motions of axes of rotation of Sun and of planets, that are not perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic but they have an angle of inclination. These inclinations are due to reciprocal interactions of central star and of orbital planets. The paper reaches the necessity to define a new law that in the event of the Sun system is the fourth law that has to be added to Kepler's three well-known laws.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11429] **viXra:1509.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:06:34*

**Authors:** Oliver Kullmann, Xishun Zhao

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

We establish a new bridge between propositional logic and elementary number theory. A full clause contains all variables, and we study them in minimally unsatisfiable clause-sets (MU); such clauses are strong structural anchors, when combined with other restrictions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11428] **viXra:1509.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:08:26*

**Authors:** M.A.Gopalan, S. Vidhyalakshmi, N.Thiruniraiselvi, R.Presenna

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Number is the essence of mathematical calculation. Varieties of numbers have variety of range and
richness, many of which can be explained very easily but extremely difficult to prove.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11427] **viXra:1509.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:09:54*

**Authors:** N. Kannappa, Hirudayaraj

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

New notions are introduced in algebra to study more about the congruence in number theory by Florentin smarandache.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11426] **viXra:1509.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:10:56*

**Authors:** K. Jayshree, P. Gajivaradhan

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper non abstract finite semigroups which satisfy classical Lagrange’s Theorem is analysed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11425] **viXra:1509.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:12:50*

**Authors:** N. Kannappa, B.fairosekani

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, we introduced Samarandache-2-algebraic structure of Soft Neutrosophic-Near ring namely Smarandache-Soft Neutrosophic-Near ring.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11424] **viXra:1509.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:14:04*

**Authors:** Mumtaz Ali

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, the notions of smarandache soft semigroups (SS-semigroups) introduced for the
first time. An SS-semigroup (F, A) is basically a parameterized collection of subsemigroups which has atlest a proper soft subgroup of (F, A) . Some new type of SS-semigroup is also presented here such as smarandache weak commutative semigroup, smarandache weak cyclic semigroup, smarandache hyper subsemigroup etc. Some of their related properties and other notions have been discussed with sufficient amount of examples.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11423] **viXra:1509.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:17:16*

**Authors:** K. Jayshree, P. Gajivaradhan

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper group semirings using distributive lattices as semirings is studied. The condition on the distributive lattices as well as on the groups are given for the group semiring to have zero divisors, idempotents, S-zero divisors, S-anti zero divisors and S-idempotents. This is the first time such analysis has been carried out on these group
semirings.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11422] **viXra:1509.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:18:27*

**Authors:** Victor VLĂDĂREANU

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

To be able to manipulate the outcomes of situations which represent contradictory problems, we need to have in place a representation, as well as a set of
tools and an environment model in which to do so. This section will briefly explain the theoretical basis of Extenics and describe the general model of thought in an Extenics problem. The three pillars of Extenics Theory are Basic Element, Extension Set and Extension Logic.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11421] **viXra:1509.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:19:58*

**Authors:** Stanislav I. Konstantinov

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The paper presents an unconventional view of physics within non-equilibrium systems, of irreversible, nonintegrable processes the matter birth.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[11420] **viXra:1509.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 05:22:09*

**Authors:** M. Clement Joe Anand, M. Lathamaheswari

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The objective of this paper is to find out the peak age of Men affected by cardiovascular disease in Chennai. For that we have collected the data and analyzed the same disease.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11419] **viXra:1509.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 02:43:34*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated for an isoscalar target and electrons the total neutrino and antineutrino charged-current (CC) cross-sections divided by neutrino energy as a function of neutrino energy. Obtained results are very close to experimental data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11418] **viXra:1509.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-01 03:26:09*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Atomic electron binding energies, nuclear binding energies and the gravitational binding energies of celestial bodies are all connected to Planck scale within a coherent model based on the geometry of a standard string theory background.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11417] **viXra:1508.0431 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 16:06:33*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The fact that a red shift of galaxies is observed to increase with the galaxies approaching the cosmic horizon is taken as plain evidence that the universe is acceleratedly expanding, hopefully perpetually. That implication does however not take into account the gravitational effects of the cosmic horizon on the universe; the cosmic horizon is the center of mass of our universe, and taking this into account, a very different picture of the state of our universe results:
Based on [1] it is shown that the observed red shift, implies a huge deceleration of the universe, already. Whether the cosmos is currently before, at, or after the turn from expansion to collapse, this could only be answered by repeated red shift measurements over the next decades.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[11416] **viXra:1508.0430 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 20:38:15*

**Authors:** Marco Ripà, Gabriele Tessaro, Andrea Forti

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper we study for which m ∈ N_0 there is a finite number of distinct k ∈ ℕ-{0} such that [k, k+99] contains m primes. On the contrary, we prove that the distinct values of k are not finite if m≤1, while there is no k for any m>26. In conclusion, we will discuss the current state of research in this field, advancing also a few speculations as regards to the above-mentioned subject.

**Category:** Number Theory

[11415] **viXra:1508.0429 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 13:52:22*

**Authors:** Robert Kardien Vanderhoek

**Comments:** 2 Pages. An amplified four particle oscillating system?

The conformation of Four and five quark hadrons at the LHC would be expected if the fundamental components of a four particle oscillating proton model were amplified by high energy collisions.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[11414] **viXra:1508.0427 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 06:24:58*

**Authors:** Gülnur Şaffak Atalay, Emin Kasap

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this paper, we analyzed the problem of consructing a family of surfaces from a given some special Smarandache curves in Euclidean 3-space. Using the Bishop frame of the curve in Euclidean 3-space, we express the family of surfaces as a linear combination of the components of this frame, and derive the necessary
and sufficient conditions for coefficents to satisfy both the asymptotic and isoparametric
requirements. Finally, examples are given to show the family of surfaces with common Smarandache asymptotic curve.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11413] **viXra:1508.0426 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 09:22:58*

**Authors:** Diego Liberati

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A proof of the conjecture in the title is offered

**Category:** Number Theory

[11412] **viXra:1508.0425 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:45:02*

**Authors:** Lauro Snidaro, Ingrid Visentini, Karna Bryan

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The concepts of event and anomaly are important building blocks for developing a situational picture of the observed environment.
We here relate these concepts to the JDL fusion model and demonstrate the power of Markov Logic Networks (MLNs) for encoding uncertain knowledge and compute inferences according to observed evidence.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11411] **viXra:1508.0424 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:46:06*

**Authors:** Abdul Salam Shah, M. N. A. Khan, Asadullah Shah

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Biometrics is being commonly used nowadays for the identification and verification of humans everywhere in the world. In biometrics humans unique characteristics like palm, fingerprints, iris etc. are being used.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11410] **viXra:1508.0423 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:47:15*

**Authors:** Desmond Adair, Hosam Emara-Shabaik

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Quite often, during long-distance pipe leakage, critical decisions have to be made quickly and with as much certainty as possible using conflicting and uncertain sources of information. Key to providing quality decision options is an appropriate method of combining, or fusing, these heterogeneous evidence sources.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11409] **viXra:1508.0422 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:48:19*

**Authors:** Julien Moras, Jean Dezert, Benjamin Pannetier

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this contribution, we propose to improve the grid map occupancy estimation method developed so far based on belief function modeling and the classical Dempster’s rule of combination. Grid map offers a useful representation of the perceived world for mobile robotics navigation.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11408] **viXra:1508.0421 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:51:13*

**Authors:** A. Tchamova, J. Dezert

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Abstract:
The objective of this paper is to present and to evaluate the performance of particular
fusion rules based on fuzzy T-Conorm/T-Norm operators for two tracking applications:
(1) Tracking object's type changes, supporting the process of objects' identication (e.g. ghter against cargo, friendly aircraft against hostile ones), which, consequently is essential for improving the quality of generalized data association for targets' tracking; (2) Alarms identication and prioritization in terms of degree of danger relating to a set of a priori dened, out of the ordinary dangerous directions.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11407] **viXra:1508.0420 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:52:33*

**Authors:** Farid Messelmi

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to development a general theory of dual-complex numbers. We start by de…ne the notion of dual-
complex and their algebraic properties. In addition, we develop a simple mathematical method based on matrices, simplifying manipulation of dual-complex numbers. Inspired from complex analysis, we generalize the concept of holo-
morphicity to dual-complex functions. Moreover, a general representation of holomorphic dual-complex functions has been obtained. Finally and as concrete examples, some usual complex functions have been generalized to the algebra of dual-complex numbers.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11406] **viXra:1508.0419 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:54:14*

**Authors:** Ion SOARE

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Născut la 10 decembrie 1954 în comuna (azi – oraşul)
Bălceşti din judeţul Vâlcea, Florentin Smarandache este,indubitabil, unul dintre cei mai cunoscuţi olteni din lume! „Serialul” său memorialistic Frate cu meridianele şi paralelele, ajuns la cel de-al VIII-lea volum, ar avea darul să convingă
singur pe oricine s-ar îndoi de îndreptăţirea aprecierii noastre.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[11405] **viXra:1508.0417 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:56:20*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Generalized and hybrid set can be created with neutrosophy and quad-stage method. Firstly the generalized and hybrid neutrosophic set is discussed. Based on this, the concepts of "problem set", "solution set", "principle set", "law set", "theory set", "formula set", and the like are presented;

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11404] **viXra:1508.0416 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:57:31*

**Authors:** Kanika Mandal, Kajla Basu

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Neutrosophic set is very useful to express uncertainty,impreciseness, incompleteness
and inconsistency in a more general way.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11403] **viXra:1508.0415 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 03:58:50*

**Authors:** Jozef Novak-Marcincin, Adrian Nicolescu, Mirela Teodorescu

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

“Communication Neutrosophic Routes” by Florentin Smarandache and Ştefan Vlăduţescu was
published by Education Publishing, Ohio, USA, on May 2014. Florentin Smarandache and Ştefan
Vlăduţescu are two remarcable professors, first at University of New Mexico/ USA, the second at
University of Craiova/ Romania, with many researches in neutrosophical, communication,
mathematic, literature, journalism, social sciencies. Neutrosophy had been in the emergence phase since 1995.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11402] **viXra:1508.0412 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:16:51*

**Authors:** Khalid M. Amin, Mohamed Abd Elfattah, Aboul Ella Hassanien, Gerald Schaefer

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper, an improved thresholding approach
based on neutrosophic sets (NSs) and adaptive thresholding is proposed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11401] **viXra:1508.0411 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:17:49*

**Authors:** A.A.A. Agboola, S.A. Akinleye

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The objective of this paper is to study neutrosophic hypervector spaces. Some basic denitions and properties of the hypervector spaces are generalized.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11400] **viXra:1508.0409 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:20:00*

**Authors:** Swati Aggarwal, Ranjit Biswas, A.Q.Ansari

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Quite recently, Neutrosophic Logic has been
proposed by Florentine Smarandache which is based on nonstandard analysis that was given by Abraham Robinson in 1960s.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11399] **viXra:1508.0408 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:21:23*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Irfan Deli

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, the correlation measure of neutrosophic refined(multi-) sets is proposed. The concept of this correlation measure of neutrosophic refined sets is the extension of correlation measure of neutrosophic sets and intuitionistic fuzzy multi sets. Finally, using the correlation of neutrosophic refined set measure, the application of medical diagnosis and pattern recognition are presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11398] **viXra:1508.0407 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:22:19*

**Authors:** Surapati Pramanik, Kalyan Mondal

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, we define a rough cosine similarity measure between two rough neutrosophic sets. The notions of rough neutrosophic sets (RNS) will be used as vector representations in 3D-vector space.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11397] **viXra:1508.0406 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:23:18*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Said Broumi, S. A. Alblowi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Neutrosophic set is a power general formal framework, which generalizes the concept of the classic set, fuzzy set, interval valued fuzzy set, intuitionistic fuzzy set, and interval intuitionistic fuzzy set from philosophical point of view.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11396] **viXra:1508.0403 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:27:09*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Based on the combination of single valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs) and fuzzy numbers, this
paper proposes the concepts of a neutrosophic number and a trapezoidal neutrosophic number (TNN) as the extension of an intuitionistic fuzzy number and an intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy number (ITFN), the basic operational relations of TNNs and the score function of TNN.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11395] **viXra:1508.0402 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:28:18*

**Authors:** Irfan Deli

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this paper, we firstly defined neutrosophic parameterized neutrosophic soft sets(npn¡soft sets) which is combination of a neutrosophic sets and a soft sets.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11394] **viXra:1508.0399 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:31:35*

**Authors:** Irfan Deli, Yusuf Subas

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The single valued triangular neutrosophic number (SVTrN-number) is simply an ordinary number
whose precise value is somewhat uncertain from a philosophical point of view, which is a generalization of triangular fuzzy numbers and triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11393] **viXra:1508.0398 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:32:26*

**Authors:** Hong-yu Zhang, Pu Ji, Jian-qiang Wang, Xiao-hong Chen

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

The paper presents a new correlation coefficient measures satisfying the requirement that the correlation coefficient measure equals one if and only if two interval neutrosophic sets (INSs) are same and the weighted correlation coefficient measure of INSs based on the extension of the correlation coefficient measures of intuitionstic fuzzy sets (IFSs).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11392] **viXra:1508.0396 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:34:36*

**Authors:** C. Ramkumar, R. Ravanan, A. Lourdusamy, S. Narayanamoorthy

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the society there are several poor people are living. One of the sympathetic poor people is gypsies. They are moving from one place to another place towards survive of life because of not having any permanent place to live.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11391] **viXra:1508.0395 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:35:57*

**Authors:** Tanushree Mitra Basu, Shyamal Kumar Mondal

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of Neutrosophic Soft Matrix(NS-Matrix). We have proposed different types of NS-Matrix along with various operations on them.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11390] **viXra:1508.0394 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:37:05*

**Authors:** Yanhui Guo, Abdulkadir Sengür, Jun Ye

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Image thresholding is an important field in image processing. It has been employed to segment
the images and extract objects.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11389] **viXra:1508.0393 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:38:19*

**Authors:** Mehmet Şahin, Shawkat Alkhazaleh, Vakkas Uluçay

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In some real-life problems in expert system, belief system, information fusion and so on, we must consider the truth-membership as well as the falsity-membership for proper description of an object in uncertain, ambiguous environment.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11388] **viXra:1508.0392 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:39:44*

**Authors:** Juan-juan Peng, Jian-qiang Wang, Hong-yu Zhang, Xiao-hong Chen

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

tIn this paper, a new outranking approach for multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problems is devel-oped in the context of a simplified neutrosophic environment, where the truth-membership degree,indeterminacy-membership degree and falsity-membership degree for each element are singleton sub-sets in [0,1].

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11387] **viXra:1508.0390 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:42:02*

**Authors:** A.A.A. Agboola, B. Davvaz

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce the concept of neutrosophic BCI/BCK-algebras. Elementary properties of neutrosophic BCI/BCK algebras
are presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11386] **viXra:1508.0389 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:43:03*

**Authors:** Debabrata Mandal

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to define several operations such as Intersection, Union, OR, AND operations of intuitionistic (resp. generalized) neutrosophic soft sets in the sense of Maji and
compare these with intuitionistic (resp. generalized) neutrosophic soft sets in the sense of Said et al via examples.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11385] **viXra:1508.0388 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:43:45*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Irfan Deli

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, the correlation measure of neutrosophic refined(multi-) sets is proposed.
The concept of this correlation measure of neutrosophic refined sets is the extension of
correlation measure of neutrosophic sets and intuitionistic fuzzy multi-sets. Finally, using the
correlation of neutrosophic refined set measure, the application of medical diagnosis and pattern
recognition are presented.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11384] **viXra:1508.0384 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:47:38*

**Authors:** Tudor Marin, Gheorghe SĂvoiu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In terms of the criteria used, and also comprehensively, a classification of education, considered already classical in the light of its
fundamental dimensions, is slightly ambiguous, even if it easy to state; education issues today demonstrate that the structural make-up of education as formal, nonformal and informal presents many aspects of interference, overlapping and transfer, inevitably leading to vague areas.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11383] **viXra:1508.0381 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:51:14*

**Authors:** Irfan Deli, Said Broumi

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, we have firstly redefined the notion of neutrosophic soft set and its operations in a new way to handle the indeterminate information and inconsistent information which exists commonly in belief systems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11382] **viXra:1508.0380 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 04:52:07*

**Authors:** Rıdvan Şahin, Mesut Karabacak

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce an inclusion measure for interval neutrosophic sets, which is one of information measures of interval neutrosophic theory.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11381] **viXra:1508.0377 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:13:21*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In pattern recognition and medical diagnosis, similarity measure is an important mathematical tool. To overcome some disadvantages of existing cosine similarity measures of simplified neutrosophicsets (SNSs) in vector space, this paper proposed improved cosine similarity measures of SNSs based oncosine function, including single valued neutrosophic cosine similarity measures and interval neutro-sophic cosine similarity measures.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11380] **viXra:1508.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:14:31*

**Authors:** V. Jaiganesh, P. Rutravigneshwaran

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Neutrosophic logic has been applied to network intrusion processing problems recently. A novel approach for intrusion thresholding is proposed by defining neutrosophic set in network domain. Neutrosophic is applied to network processing by
defining a neutrosophic domain.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11379] **viXra:1508.0373 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:17:29*

**Authors:** Jun Ye

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

As a neutrosophic number, which consists of a determinate part and an indeterminate part, can
more easily and better express incomplete and indeterminate information that exists commonly in real situations.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11378] **viXra:1508.0372 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:18:44*

**Authors:** Yanbing Ju, Dawei Ju, Wenkai Zhang, Xia Li

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

In engineering design, the decision to select an optimal material has become a challenging task
for the designers, and the evaluation of alternative materials may be based on some multiple
attribute group decision making (MAGDM) methods.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[11377] **viXra:1508.0371 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-31 05:19:34*

**Authors:** Surapati Pramanik, Kalyan Mondal

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Similarity measure plays an important role in medical diagnosis. In this paper, a new rough
cotangent similarity measure between two rough neutrosophic sets is proposed.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[5289] **viXra:1509.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-03 16:16:02*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: In this paper I will be arguing why I believe Dr. Earle’s point of view on preserving the Ocean as our top priority is completely absurd through reason and statistical facts. I believe her claims can be refuted when you look at the overwhelming statistics that state otherwise or look to the Deontological argument, of treating the Ocean as our top priority. I will also be pointing out what I believe to be better alternatives than Ocean preservation.

**Category:** Climate Research

[5288] **viXra:1509.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-03 15:45:21*

**Authors:** Shinsuke Hamaji

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The mass in Einstein’s energy-mass equivalence equation has two possible interpretations, whether it is limited to the invariant mass, or it applies to all energy. This paper argues that all of the energy (kg m2 s−2) has a mass (kg: a degree of weight and inertial resistance). The inertial mass is a mass that was further scaled the gravitational mass to be increased with kinetic energy. The inertial mass of elementary particle in an atomic system also varies similarly by scaling. Thereby the scalable inertial masses of elementary particles constituting the atomic add the gravitation that cannot be ignored as compared with the Coulomb force. We call this effect “Elementary gravity” to distinguish it from universal gravitation of the universal gravitational constant. Using these mechanisms, we explain the proton radius puzzle and the statistical error found with the muon anomalous magnetic moment. This paper demonstrates a new way of integrating general relativity and quantum theory by separating the scalable inertial mass and the gravitational mass.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5287] **viXra:1509.0031 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-02 10:58:19*

**Authors:** Diego Liberati

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A conjecture is proposed, stronger than many of the existing conjectures that are themselves stronger than Legendre's one

**Category:** Number Theory

[5286] **viXra:1509.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-03 05:16:08*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Within the Standard Model (SM) it is assumed that neutrinos are scattered on quarks and that quark and gluon contributions to the proton’s spin are the same. Such assumptions lead to conclusion that cross section for neutrino is about two times higher than for antineutrinos (the cross-section problem) - it is consistent with experimental data. On the other hand, the RHIC experiment shows that the gluon and quark contributions to proton’s spin, in some approximation, indeed are the same, about 20-30 percent of the total proton’s spin but we can see that it does not solve the proton spin crisis so the SM assumptions concerning the neutrinos are not clear. Here we solved the cross-section problem in a different way. According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) the baryons have an atom-like structure and the spin and charge of the core of baryons are both directly associated with the torus composed of the carriers of gluons i.e. of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs. In centre of the torus is the condensate composed as well of such pairs. Structure of the bare electrons is similar. The phenomena concerning the condensates solve the cross-section problem. Here, within SST, we calculated as well for an isoscalar target and electrons the total neutrino and antineutrino charged-current (CC) cross-sections divided by neutrino energy as a function of neutrino energy. Obtained results are very close to experimental data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory