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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[14354] viXra:1605.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-30 08:08:56

On the Nature of Ball Lightning

Authors: Anatoly V. Belyakov
Comments: 6 Pages.

The author proposes a model of ball lightning based on a mechanistic interpretation of John Wheeler’s ideas. It is assumed that ball lightning is a quasi-particle that has the Planck mass and consists of closed contours, which in turn are based on the magnetic and gravity force balance. These contours are hard packed in a small volume of ball lightning, forming a multilayer capacitor containing a substantial charge and electrostatic energy. This paper provides calculations of characteristic parameters of ball lightning, which are well consistent with its phenomenology
Category: Classical Physics

[14353] viXra:1605.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-30 08:57:41

Serie Slowly Convergent

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 5 Pages.

We exhibit a serie slowly convergent for pi
Category: General Mathematics

[14352] viXra:1605.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-30 09:01:57

Mathematical Formulas : Part 1

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 19 Pages.

In this paper we give some formulas related with the constant pi
Category: General Mathematics

[14351] viXra:1605.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-30 10:04:38

Loop Quantum Gravity and Event Horizon

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

In principle, nothing that enters a black hole can leave the black hole. This has considerably complicated the study of these mysterious bodies, which generations of physicists have debated since 1916, when their existence was hypothesized as a direct consequence of Einstein's Theory of Relativity. There is, however, some consensus in the scientific community regarding black hole entropy—a measure of the inner disorder of a physical system—because its absence would violate the second law of thermodynamics. [15] "These studies are providing increasingly sensitive results, slowly shrinking the box of parameters where dark matter particles can hide," said Alexander Kashlinsky, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "The failure to find them has led to renewed interest in studying how well primordial black holes-black holes formed in the universe's first fraction of a second-could work as dark matter." [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[14350] viXra:1605.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-29 17:10:26

A Conceptual Design of an Interplanetary Exploration Spaceship with Electric High-Thrust Plasma-Propulsion of “Helios”-Type

Authors: Danny Kirmse
Comments: 8 Pages.

Nowadays and in the near future the spaceflight to the planets and moons of our solar system is one of the great challenges of space-technology. Whether robotic and manned to the Mars or on a large-scale exploration mission to the moons of Jupiter, a new kind of payload demands a next step in development of spaceflight technology. Not satellites but spacious ships have to bring extensive exploration equipment, landing vehicles, ground facilities or even human passengers to their interplanetary targets. Such space-vehicles need new kind of space-propulsion too; more than this, the development of adequate new propulsion is crucial for the realization of this kind of missions.
Category: Classical Physics

[14349] viXra:1605.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-29 18:41:02

A Resonance of Orbitals, Cherenkov Radiation, Bremsstrahlung Ratio for Electron Mass

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

What happens deeper than quantum mechanics? Perhaps deeper quantum mechanics with the same laws. The following paper shows how a possible resonance of Cherenkov Radiation with the ratio of Bremsstrahlung-Parallel Bremsstrahlung under special circumstances with processes that are like the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom could give the mass ratio of the electron to the neutron. It would suggest that all of the activity within the nucleons are powered by a main power driver and that quarks are far from fundamental. When a charged particle travels faster than light it emits Cherenkov radiation. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from pi/2 to -pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung, Cherenkov type radiation, and an orbital type model at a deeper than the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is demonstrated for a rough idea for the electron.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14348] viXra:1605.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-29 19:47:39

Stabilization Principle in Dynamics.

Authors: Michail Zak
Comments: 21 Pages.

This paper introduces and illustrates the Stabilization Principle that provides a strategy for modeling post instability behavior in dynamics, including turbulence and chaos. It starts with investigation of different types of instability with the objective to demonstrate that stability is not a physical invariant since it depends upon the frame to which the motion of fluid is referred, upon the class of functions in which the governing equations are derived, est. The application of the Stabilization Principle to the Navier-Stokes equations is illustrated by closure of the Reynolds equations for the Poiseuille flow. Introduction.
Category: Classical Physics

[14347] viXra:1605.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-29 21:39:29

Climate Change & Energy Policy

Authors: Nettleton, S. J.
Comments: 17 Pages.

Presentation: The Australian Bureau of Statistics has projected that Australia's population will double to 46 million by 2075, which could be as early as 2058 under the high growth scenario. Melbourne and Sydney are expected to each have 7.9 million people by 2053. While efficiencies in energy utilisation may contribute to reducing demand by approximately 0.5%pa, the electrical generation capacity of the Eastern Australian market will need to expand considerably to meet the demands population growth, elimination of fossil fuels from the transport sector (eg through electric and hydrogen fuelled vehicles) and water desalination requirements. Renewable energy and passively safe Generation IV (fast breeder) nuclear power generators such as the “Power Reactor Innovative Small Module” (GE/Hitachi Prism Reactor) have the capacity to complement each other. For example, Generation IV nuclear has the ability to vary power to complement the low capacity factor of renewable energy and to operate at night to produce desalinated water and hydrogen by electrolysis. The complementarity between renewable energy and Generation IV (fast breeder) nuclear power is important for three reasons. The first reason is that these two energy sources have significant potential in providing a differentiated mix of energy production to assure East Australia's energy and water security and achieve a sufficient rate of decarbonisation to meet Australia's commitments under the UNFCCC Paris Agreement (April 2016). The second reason is improved economic efficiency. For example, the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Royal Commission (February 2016) estimated that wholesale South Australian electricity prices would be 24% lower if a single, large, gigawatt-scale nuclear power plant complemented South Australia's predominantly renewable energy by 2030. The third reason is consideration of both the optimal use of land and the remoteness power production. For example, wind farms are necessarily geographically dispersed due to the need for propitious sites and a land area of approximately 300 times that of nuclear energy. Similarly for concentrated solar, which requires approximately 30 times the land area of nuclear energy.
Category: Climate Research

[14346] viXra:1605.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-30 03:24:21

Modification of the Reactor Neutrino Model

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

The measured prompt spectra in the RENO experiment show an excess of reactor electron-antineutrinos around 5 MeV relative to the prediction from a most commonly used model. This observation suggests that we should modify the current reactor neutrino model. Here, applying the atom-like structure of baryons described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show the origin of the excess of reactor electron-antineutrinos around 5 MeV. We also explain why in the average nuclear fission there is released about 4.5% of energy as the radiation of neutrinos. The calculated within SST excess of the ~ 5 MeV events should constitute about 2.6% of the total observed reactor neutrinos. This result is close to the RENO result ~ 3%.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14345] viXra:1605.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-29 10:43:19

Frequential Spacetime

Authors: Ricardo Gil
Comments: 3 Pages.

Einstein merged Space with Time hence Spacetime. Tesla has a Unified Theory based on Fields and Electromagnetism. The logical progression is to merge the two and suggest Frequential Spacetime in which the frequency of matter dictates the shape and speed of entanglement of matter in Spacetime.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[14344] viXra:1605.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-28 17:43:45

A Pulsation Hypothesis Leads a Super String and a Quark Theory.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 5 Pages.

A string theory of the elementary particle size. The defect of the early string theory. A hadron of mass zero. The quark which came close. The theory was not able to explain the state. Quark A and quark B. The vibration of the same thing. Both are not separate existence. A matter wave holds a quark. A matter wave lets a quark vibrate. A matter wave is elastic body. One quark turns into quark A, quark B, quark C. The trip (the horizon) of the wave is three-dimensional space. The trip (the horizon) of the wave is film space. The mass of the hadron is zero in that. All the mass becomes the light in that.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14343] viXra:1605.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-28 22:52:24

A Formalized Implied Integral

Authors: Eric Stucky
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this document, we define a fully formalized notion of the ``Implied Integral'' which works for a broad variety of symbolic expressions. We show that it is equal to the ordinary integral up to a generalized constant term, and we show that this generalized constant is in some sense optimal.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[14342] viXra:1605.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-29 01:30:33

Does Newton's Constant Vary Due to Gravitomagnetic Torsion?

Authors: Brent Jarvis
Comments: 7 Pages.

Periodic oscillations are observed in Newton's gravitational constant (G) which coincide with length of day data obtained from the International Earth Rotation and Reference System. It was determined by Anderson et. al. (2015) that the oscillatory period of G is ≈ 5.9 years (5.899 ± 0.062 years), which is close to one−half the principle period of solar activity. It will be shown, from mathematical analysis, that the variations in G are concomitant with gravitomagnetically induced torsion on the Earth's spin during the ≈ 5.9 year period.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14341] viXra:1605.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-29 02:24:48

Syllabic Networks: Measuring the Redundancy of Associative Syntactic Patterns

Authors: Bradly Alicea
Comments: 6 Pages. 3 figures, 1 table

The self-organization and diversity inherent in natural and artificial language can be revealed using a technique called syllabic network decomposition. The topology of such networks are determined by a series of linguistic strings which are broken apart at critical points and then linked together in a non-linear fashion. Small proof-of-concept examples are given using words from the English language. A criterion for connectedness and two statistical parameters for measuring connectedness are applied to these examples. To conclude, we will discuss some applications of this technique, ranging from improving models of speech recognition to bioinformatic analysis and recreational games.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[14340] viXra:1605.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-28 11:55:33

Dark Matter is Made of Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

"These studies are providing increasingly sensitive results, slowly shrinking the box of parameters where dark matter particles can hide," said Alexander Kashlinsky, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "The failure to find them has led to renewed interest in studying how well primordial black holes-black holes formed in the universe's first fraction of a second-could work as dark matter." [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[14339] viXra:1605.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-28 12:14:20

Doubling Number of Z Bosons While Eliminating H Bosons: Result of Perceived Dark Matter Annihilation

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: My recent publication viXra 1605.0223 indicates that dark matter requires more energy than 34 GEV gamma radiation to annihilate: the best one can do is annihilate -H bosons with the aid of -Z bosons (2(H-Z)). The result doubles the number of -Z bosons very close to the centers of spiral galaxies. This lessens the energy needed to manufacture stars spiraling away from the center of the galaxy.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14338] viXra:1605.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-28 12:26:25

On Inventing a New Manager

Authors: S.P.Srivastava
Comments: 8 Pages.

Management theory has not kept pace with developments of concepts in other fields especially in science. As a result, managers have gone out of tune with modern paradigm. Gerald Holton, a noted philosopher has observed that “…science has always generated an important part of our symbolic vocabulary and provided some of the metaphysical bases and philosophical orientations of our ideology”, in this light, development of management theories has been analyzed in this article in the context of evolving scientific thoughts especially quantum mechanics. It has been argued that there is a need for a new management concept which does not follow traditional style in the classical sense of “control and supervision” but adopts a new style which is in tune with quantum mechanical concept and follow “cooperate and contribute” philosophy.
Category: Social Science

[14337] viXra:1605.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-28 02:10:46

Counting Bits, Numerical Entropy, and Its Relationship to a Presumed Cosmological ‘constant’ and Modified Hup for Initial Inflaton Value

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 6 Pages.

We look at early universe space-time and a linkage between quantum bits of information along the lines of what was done by Yan – Gang Miao, Ying- Jie Zhao , and compare it with quantum computing and cosmology which was brought up by Ganbini, Porto and Pullin. Namely the purported number of quantum computing operations. If the two are equivalent, there is an implied relationship to determine an optimal radial distance. Afterwards, we use that in conjunction with a modified Heisenberg Uncertainty principle to come up with some fundamental cosmological phenomenology. In particular a first ever guess as to the value of an initial inflaton. Key words, Quantum Computing , Cosmological constant, Modified HUP, inflaton
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14336] viXra:1605.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-28 03:56:44

Circular Galactic Formation

Authors: Ivar Nielsen
Comments: 2 Pages.

The standing cosmological understanding of the galactic formation is insufficient. Both the Standard Model and the ideas derived from the Einsteinian hypothesis are inconsistent, contradictive and lacks natural logics. The linear cosmological model with the Big Bang almost demands skills of a mathemagician and all kinds of metaphysical speculations thrives in both areas. The natural and universal process of formation is cyclical, circuital and spherical and the formational process is governed by the electromagnetic forces and qualities, building everything together, dissolving it and re-building everything in eternity.
Category: Astrophysics

[14335] viXra:1605.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-28 04:38:24

Violation of no-Signaling Constraint by Local Quantum Measurement Discrimination with Numerous Eight-Qubit Entangld States

Authors: Youbang Zhan
Comments: 10 Pages.

The discrimination of quantum measurements is an important subject of quantum information processes. In this paper we present a novel protocol for local quantum measurement discrimination (LQMD) with multi-qubit entanglement systems. It is shown that, for two spacelike separated parties, the local discrimination of two different kinds of measurement can be completed via numerous eight-qubit GHZ entangled states and selective projective measurements without help of classical information. This means that no-signaling constraint can be violated by the LQMD.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14334] viXra:1605.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-28 05:56:13

Quantum Annealing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

One of the most striking discoveries of quantum information theory is the existence of problems that can be solved in a more efficient way with quantum resources than with any known classical algorithm. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14333] viXra:1605.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-28 06:50:10

Second Mathematical Model of Ball Lightning \\ Вторая математическая модель шаровой молнии

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 15 Pages. in Russian

Based on the Maxwell's equations and on the understanding of the electrical conductivity of the body of ball lightning, a mathematical model of ball lightning is built; the structure of the electromagnetic field and of electric current in it is shown. Next it is shown (as a consequence of this model) that in a ball lightning the flow of electromagnetic energy can circulate and thus the energy obtained by a ball lightning when it occurs can be saved. Sustainability, luminescence, charge, time being, the mechanism of formation of ball lightning are briefly discussed. \\ На основе уравнений Максвелла и представления об электропроводности тела шаровой молнии строится математическая модель шаровой молнии, показывается структура электромагнитного поля и электротоков в ней. Далее показывается (как следствие этой модели), что в шаровой молнии может циркулировать поток электромагнитной энергии и таким образом может сохраняться энергия, полученная шаровой молнией при ее возникновении. Кратко рассматриваются также устойчивость, свечение, заряд, время существования, механизм образования.
Category: Classical Physics

[14332] viXra:1605.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-28 06:53:26

Second Mathematical Model of Ball Lightning

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 14 Pages.

Based on the Maxwell's equations and on the understanding of the electrical conductivity of the body of ball lightning, a mathematical model of ball lightning is built; the structure of the electromagnetic field and of electric current in it is shown. Next it is shown (as a consequence of this model) that in a ball lightning the flow of electromagnetic energy can circulate and thus the energy obtained by a ball lightning when it occurs can be saved. Sustainability, luminescence, charge, time being, the mechanism of formation of ball lightning are briefly discussed.
Category: Classical Physics

[14331] viXra:1605.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-27 14:59:29

An Attempt to Demonstrate P=NP

Authors: Eli Halylaurin
Comments: 6 Pages. This document is written in french language.

In this document, you will find an attempt to demonstrate P=NP. For this, we will try to show that PSPACE is included in P. Because it is already known that P is included in NP and NP is included in PSPACE, this attempt will allow us to conclude.
Category: General Mathematics

[14330] viXra:1605.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-26 20:38:21

How to Treat Directly Magnetic Fields in First-Principle Calculations and the Possible Shape of the Lagrangian

Authors: Yoshiro Nohara
Comments: 3 Pages.

This work checks the Pauli equation with the description of the magnetic field and found a possible missing term in it. We propose a fixed Pauli equation, where the application in density functional theory explains the observed magnetic susceptibilities for Al, Si, and Au with applying directly magnetic fields. The possible shape of the Lagrangian describing the charged particle with an external magnetic field is also discussed.
Category: Condensed Matter

[14329] viXra:1605.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-26 21:54:50

X-Particle as a Solution for the Cosmological Constant Problem

Authors: Wook Koh
Comments: 10 Pages.

The cosmological constant is a fundamental problem in modern physics, and arises at the intersection between general relativity and quantum field theory. In this paper we show how the cosmological constant problem can be solved by X-particles of dark energy with the repulsive force proportional to energy density.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14328] viXra:1605.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-27 05:25:24

Universal Sequence Of Primes Finding Algorithm {Version I}

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a ‘Universal Sequence Of Primes Finding Algorithm’.
Category: General Mathematics

[14327] viXra:1605.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-26 15:42:23

¿Por Qué se Produce la Bioluminiscencia Del Mar de Ardora?

Authors: José Fernández Caballero
Comments: 4 Pages.

For many centuries, a lot of sailors have insured sight luminous waters. In 1995, a boat registered on his logbook one of these sightings in the northwest Indian Ocean. After check it, some scientists have analyzed photographs taken by a satellite about the area where the luminescence was registered. Indeed, in the photographs they could see a large area of water with light. Applying appropriate filters, they managed to get a picture where the bright is more prominent. This was the first sighting of the so called milky sea from the space. The reason why this luminescence happens has been a mystery for sailors. To try to explain it, they related it to a phenomenon produced by influence of the Moon on the sea water. In this article I pretend to give the lie to this mistaken idea and expose the causes of this luminous water.
Category: Biochemistry

[14326] viXra:1605.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-26 10:03:03

Measuring Galactic Relativistic Velocities a New and Direct Approach

Authors: Alexander F. Jonkeren
Comments: 1 Page. relativistic velocity redshift galaxies recessional expansion

This methods describes a new an direct way of establishing galactic relativistic velocities.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14325] viXra:1605.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-26 04:19:10

Hungarian Fifth Force of Nature?

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Radioactive decay anomaly could imply a new fundamental force, theorists say. [15] Researchers at the University of Southampton have proposed a new fundamental particle which could explain why no one has managed to detect 'dark matter', the elusive missing 85 per cent of the Universe's mass. [14] Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are extreme bursts of radio emission that last for a few milliseconds. They were discovered in 2013, and, in 2014, the number papers on FRBs skyrocketed. The origin of these transients is still uncertain — we can't even agree if they are extraterrestrial! Astrobites has already covered two possible origins: stellar flares and neutron star mergers. Today's paper suggests an even more exotic source: dark matter annihilation of neutron stars. [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[14324] viXra:1605.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-26 07:15:55

Positve And Negative Time Scaling And Time Portal Engineering - II

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a Scheme for ‘Positive And Negative Time Scaling And Time Portal Engineering’
Category: Mathematical Physics

[14323] viXra:1605.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-25 16:25:14

In Search of Reality Part II

Authors: Robert T. Longo
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this paper, I investigate a different way to connect General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics by using their fundamental differences i.e., the background dependence of quantum mechanics and the background independence of general relativity. This is made possible by first adopting a philosophy of how life forms make sense of the physical world and the resulting understanding of space and time. As a result, when applied to the rotation curve of the Milky Way, it is found that the galactic mass of the luminous disk has the quantity of mass that is thought to be the mass of the entire galaxy, including dark matter.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[14322] viXra:1605.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-25 16:28:01

An Unorthodox View on the Foundations of Physical Reality

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 14 Pages.

This paper is telling essentials of the story of the Hilbert Book Test Model without applying the mathematical formulas. The paper cannot avoid the usage of mathematical terms, but these terms will be elucidated such that mathematical novices can still understand most of the story. The Hilbert Book Test Model is a way to investigate the part of the foundation of physical reality that cannot be observed. This foundation is necessarily simple and it can easily be comprehended by skilled scientists. However, this paper is targeted to readers that are not skilled in math.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14321] viXra:1605.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-26 02:16:32

Shouldn't be at Mars of Secrets from us Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. the Atmosphere and Water of Mars Have Once Been Forced Out by an Unknown Comet to His Internal Area!

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The atmosphere and water of Mars have once been forced out by an unknown comet to his internal area!
Category: Astrophysics

[14320] viXra:1605.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-26 03:13:30

I Correct a Contribution in Front, "A Figure of Gravity and the Electromagnetic Force". 

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 2 Pages.

I correct a contribution in front, "a figure of gravity and the electromagnetic force".  This is a right figure.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14319] viXra:1605.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-25 06:19:14

Practical Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14318] viXra:1605.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-25 06:33:21

Next-Generation Electronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, with facilities in Florida and New Mexico, offers scientists access to enormous machines that create record-setting magnetic fields. The strong magnetic fields help researchers probe the fundamental structure of materials to better understand and manipulate their properties. Yet large-scale facilities like the MagLab are scarce, and scientists must compete with others for valuable time on the machines. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[14317] viXra:1605.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-25 06:57:25

Planetesimals in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is reasoned that the accepted notions of planetesimal formation are philosophically backwards. A simple correction of reasoning is provided via stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[14316] viXra:1605.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-25 07:12:14

Teleportation of Information Without Classical Communication Channel

Authors: Iliyan Peruhov
Comments: 7 Pages.

The spin projection expectation value of electrons in magnetic field in direction perpendicular to the magnetic induction B depends on the magnitude of B and the time t, spent by the electron in the field. Consequently choosing the value of the product B.t one can have spin statistics biased to +1/2 or -1/2. The spin statistics of electrons from a quantity of EPR pairs is manipulated this way. The spin statistics of the partner electrons will show the opposite statistics, thus realizing teleportation of information without the use of a classical channel in contrast to the Bennett teleportation protocol [1].
Category: Quantum Physics

[14315] viXra:1605.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-24 22:26:53

The Geometrodynamic Foundation of Electrodynamics: A Brief Summary

Authors: Jay R. Yablon
Comments: 8 Pages.

We summarize how the Lorentz Force motion observed in classical electrodynamics may be understood as geodesic motion derived by minimizing the variation of the proper time along the worldline of test charges in external potentials, while the spacetime metric remains invariant under, and all other fields in spacetime remain independent of, any rescaling of the charge-to-mass ratio q/m. In order for this to occur, time is dilated or contracted due to attractive and repulsive electromagnetic interactions respectively, in very much the same way that time is dilated due to relative motion in special relativity. As such, it becomes possible to lay an entirely geometrodynamic foundation for classical electrodynamics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14314] viXra:1605.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-25 03:07:12

Reaction Less Drive by Anti Maxwell Dead Zone Around a Wire.

Authors: LeoVuyk
Comments: 21 Pages. 21

According to Quantum FFF Theory (Function Follows Form at the quantum level) the magnetic quantum field has always TWO different shaped monopole vector components: a North- and a South vector field component. This is comparable with the electric Quantum field, equipped with Plus and Minus vector components but it is in contrast with all other quantum fields like the neutrino- gravity-or x-gamma ray field. After interference of the magnetic wave with a real spinning propeller shaped Fermion particle, TWO real monopole magnetic waves from opposite direction will collapse and come to life as two real rigid shaped photons, as the result of two individual mutated oscillating Higgs filed particles from the vacuum. These photons should do the magnetic job by interlocking temporarily with the Fermion, and give the Fermion a push to the left respectively a push to the right fully in line and according to the Lorentz force law. However, based on observation of iron powder patterns around wires, it is assumed that if these monopole particle/ wave dualities travel parallel to each other inside the Higgs field, (and not- as normal- in opposition due to the natural opposing curvature of the so called B field) .As a result, the magnetic field strength- created by the wire itself-locally drops down to zero, with a up to zero reduced Lorentz force on the iron powder atoms. This is in contradiction with Maxwell’s magnetic field law around an electric energized wire and I call it the “tubular local magnetic dropping zone” ( dead zone) around the electric wire, which can be used for reaction less drive propulsion and Levitation in combination with different forms of strong tubular or spiral magnets. Magnet optimalisation is suggested to form spiral configurations of high performance magnet platings with a spiralling electric coils in between. The Lorentz force created on the wire by the static magnetic field of the tubular or spiral magnet (s) is supposed to be the only force in the system, by the absence of a reaction force on the magnet due to the local magnetic dropping zone.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14313] viXra:1605.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-24 15:12:41

An Interplay and the Scientific Method

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 4 Pages.

Interplay and methodology
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[14312] viXra:1605.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-24 15:15:40

Candidacy and the Grand Unification Scheme

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

Does any unification candidate necessitate the grand unification scheme?
Category: Mathematical Physics

[14311] viXra:1605.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-24 15:37:12

Wavefunction Collapse Resolved, as a Function of Time Perspective Distortion

Authors: Arthur E Pletcher
Comments: 6 Pages.

"Time Perspective Theory (TPT) predicts that all quantum experimental results will vary with the scale of the instrumentation involved in any measurement. For example; The Davisson-Germer Experiment involved observations between the detectors angular measurements (at the observers scale) and electron behavior (at quantum scales). TPT predicts that if detecting instruments can be scaled and positioned much closer to the point of beam scattering the intensities would become more isotropic, proportionately. This concept of perspectives between scales sheds some light on the Double Slit Experiment. TPT offers an alternate explanation to the "undetermined probability wavefunction Ψ". In TPT, wavefunction is a time perspective distortion between the scale of the observer and the scale of the particle. In the ""Double slit experiment"", the ""collapse"" is resolved when an optical plate (or any measuring instrument) is introduced at the scale of the particle. Subsequently, the measurement becomes no longer between scales, but rather at the same scale. Although TPT is analogous to the distortions of spacial perspective, TPT addresses distortions in the time dimension (perspective vs orthogonal). TPT proposes that the same convex distortions and divergence which occur in space during magnifcation, also occurs in time. Subsequently, if a particle's motion (v) is viewed as pluralistic in time, so then is it's position d/t. TPT has great implications in Macro-space, as well. Time intervals appear to decrease and converge to a single event. Subsequently, decreased time intervals appear as increased velocity. See figure 1. Thus, Photons travelling to an observer from remote past events will appear to arrive with successively decreased time intervals. TPT provides a simple alternative explanation for: wavefunction, the ""Double slit experiment"", accelerated universal expansion, millisecond pulsars and the galaxy outer rim rotation problem. "
Category: Quantum Physics

[14310] viXra:1605.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-24 13:30:32

Spintronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Spintronics In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14309] viXra:1605.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-24 13:39:47

Elementary Particle Pulsation Principle Hypothesis.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 22 Pages.

The author announced the elementary particle pulsation hypothesis in the Physical Society of Japan of 1980. To date, I study an elementary particle pulsation hypothesis. This page is the gravity in the elementary particle pulsation hypothesis and an article about the electromagnetic force.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14308] viXra:1605.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-24 07:23:45

In Epistolam ad Romanos Andreae Knopken Costerinensis Interpretatio: Translation from Latin Into Latvian

Authors: Andreas Knopken, Dainis Zeps
Comments: 100 Pages. Bilingual text: Latin and Latvian

This work Commentary to the Epistle to Romans by Aadreas Knopken is translated From Latin into Latvian by Dainis Zeps. I would like to thank Artūrs Hansons and Līva Bodniece both for their help, and severe criticism in the translation of this work.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[14307] viXra:1605.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-24 04:16:00

The Light

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: statement of light is just one kind of waves.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14306] viXra:1605.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-24 06:17:22

Using Gravo-Electric and Gravo-Magnetic Fields as a Way to Compute Minimum Allowed Initial Frequency, at Start of Universe

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 10 Pages.

Starting off with the Usual Energy Density for Electro-Magnetic fields, we adopt Padmanbhan’s Gravo – Electric and Gravo Magnetic field formulation to come up with an initial frequency, at the start of the universe, and then using work done by the author, take the inverse of this frequency as a way to initiate a practical time step, which will then be related to earlier work the Author did. The miminum time step iteratively relates to a “cosmological constant” initial value, and a range of initial GW frequencies which for a scale factor which would correspond to GW of about 10^36 Hertz, red shifted to 10^4 Hertz in the modern era. If the scale factor were of the order of 10^-55, the GW waves initially would be as high as 10^42 Hertz which would be red shifted to 10^10 Hertz, for relic GW. All this assumes that the graviton rest mass remains invariant about 10^-62 grams in the aftermath of the creation of the universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14305] viXra:1605.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-24 06:21:47

Attosecond Physics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Light waves could in principle be used to drive future transistors. Since the electromagnetic waves of light oscillate approximately one million times in a billionth of a second, i.e. at petahertz (PHz) frequencies, optoelectronic computers could attain switching rates 100,000 times higher than current digital electronic systems. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[14304] viXra:1605.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-24 00:51:23

Some for Erdős-Straus Conjecture

Authors: Hajime Mashima
Comments: 4 Pages.

This is the expectation that "two or more of the natural number 4/n will be represented by the sum of the three unit fractions".
Category: Number Theory

[14303] viXra:1605.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-24 02:19:29

New The Formula For Law Of Gravity

Authors: GuagSan Yu
Comments: 2 Pages.

Newton's second law and Newton's third law has proven to be wrong, then including the law of gravity into account, but also need make the appropriate modification. Following will be given the new formula the law of gravity, corresponding to the new calculations, a lot of specific data astronomical observations, may be subject to change. Such as mass of celestial bodies, and the size of gravity between celestial bodies, are likely to change. So far variety of astronomical data, should all be recalculated.
Category: Classical Physics

[14302] viXra:1605.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-23 13:23:29

An Elementary Particle Pulsation Principle Revises Equation of Einstein, E=mc².(1)

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 4 Pages.

The new equation by the elementary particle pulsation hypothesis. Arrow of time turns. In response to it, mass m changes with +1, 0, -1. Arrow of time turns. It is the same as the arrow of time of the Schrodinger equation. Arrow of time turns. It is the same as a material wave of the elementary particle pulsation hypothesis. Current physics is always +mc²>0. Elementary particle mass m does not change. A pulsation principle suggests a super-high-speed change of elementary particle mass m.
Category: Number Theory

[14301] viXra:1605.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-23 12:59:01

Quantum Controller of Gravity

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 7 Pages.

A new type of device for controlling gravity is here proposed. This is a quantum device because results from the behaviour of the matter and energy at subatomic length scale (10-20m). From the technical point of view this device is easy to build, and can be used to develop several devices for controlling gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14300] viXra:1605.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-23 08:49:48

Continued Radicals , Mathematical Constants

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this note we show continued radicals for some mathematical constants
Category: General Mathematics

[14299] viXra:1605.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-23 08:53:42

Collection of Formulas for pi :Part 1

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 57 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas related with the constant pi
Category: General Mathematics

[14298] viXra:1605.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-23 09:32:06

Asymptotic Behaviors of Normalized Maxima for Generalized Maxwell Distribution Under Nonlinear Normalization

Authors: Jianwen Huang
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this article, the high-order asymptotic expansions of cumulative distribution function and probability density function of extremes for generalized Maxwell distribution are established under nonlinear normalization. As corollaries, the convergence rates of the distribution and density of maximum are obtained under nonlinear normalization.
Category: Statistics

[14297] viXra:1605.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-23 04:23:55

The Second-order Local Formalism for Time Evolution of Dynamical Systems

Authors: I. V. Drozdov
Comments: 25 Pages.

The second-order approach to the entropy gradient maximization for systems with many degrees of freedom provides the dynamic equations of first order and light-like second order without additional ergodicity conditions like conservation laws. The first order dynamics lead to the definition of the conserved kinetic energy and potential energy. In terms of proper degrees of freedom the total energy conservation reproduces the Einstein's mass-energy relation. The newtonian interpretation of the second order dynamic equations suggests the definition for general inertial mass and for the interaction potential.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[14296] viXra:1605.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-23 04:36:30

Theory of Everything=Philosophy of Everything+Physics of Everything

Authors: ssor Abed Peerally
Comments: 24 Pages. Nil. I have a paper in viXra: Relativistic Particle Dynamics and Entropy Explains the Exponential Inflationary Epoch

The paper describes that science now has enough data on which a Theory of Everything. The data accrue from analysing cosmological, physics and philosophical information. However the Theory of Everything must imperatively be based on scientific information that explains the Theory of Everything, and on philosophical information that interprets the why of the Theory of Everything.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14295] viXra:1605.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-22 14:08:10

A Review of Drive

Authors: S Halayka
Comments: 1 Page.

A brief review of life and death drive is given.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[14294] viXra:1605.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-22 14:15:00

∞ Worlds: the Pangeometry of the 5th Dimension.

Authors: Luis Sancho
Comments: 355 Pages.

The 5th dimension is in the discontinuities of the real line, which grow as we look into smaller scales, till becoming infinite. The 5th dimension creates different geometries for each different world. From the human relative frame of reference, the observer has an Euclidean view of its scale, a hyperbolic view of smaller quantum systems and an elliptic view of larger gravitational worlds, according to the ratio between its informative curvature, Tƒ and length of its space quanta Sp. The symmetries that web bidimensional planes of space with tall, cyclical frequencies of time create the 4D Space-time beings of the fractal Universe, constantly moving, generating, growing, reproducing, evolving new fractal scales of the 5th dimension. But as time passes the densities of its frequency of time cycles, Tƒ, grow and the system curves in excess, ageing and finally completing a 0-sum closed curve,, ending a world cycle in which the topological transformations of the being, are seen as its 3 ages each one a phase of its r=evolution as a world-view.
Category: Topology

[14293] viXra:1605.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-22 15:47:43

Two Theorems on Solutions in Eulerian Description

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 8 Pages.

We present two proofs of theorems needed to the major work we are doing on existence and breakdown solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible case in n = 3 spatial dimensions.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[14292] viXra:1605.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-22 18:39:09

FPGA Programming Step by Step

Authors: Edwin Eugene Klingman
Comments: 8 Pages. Embedded Systems Programming

FPGAs and microprocessors are more similar than you may think. Here's a primer on how to program an FPGA and some reasons why you'd want to. Small processors are, by far, the largest selling class of computers and form the basis of many embedded systems. The first single-chip microprocessors contained approximately 10,000 gates of logic and 10,000 bits of memory. Today, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) provide single chips approaching 10 million gates of logic and 10 million bits of memory...
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[14291] viXra:1605.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-22 18:44:43

FPGA Design from the Outside In

Authors: Edwin Eugene Klingman
Comments: 10 Pages. Embedded Systems Programming

FPGAs enable everyone to be a chip designer. This installment shows how to design the bus interface for a generic peripheral chip. When designing with an embedded microprocessor, you always have to take into account, if not begin with, the actual pinout of the device. Each pin on a given microprocessor is uniquely defined by the manufacturer and must be used in a specific manner to achieve a specific function. Part of learning to design with embedded processors is learning the pin definitions. In contrast, field programmable gate array (FPGA) devices come to the design with pins completely undefined (except for power and ground). You have to define the FPGA's pins yourself. This gives you incredible flexibility but also forces you to think through the use of each pin...
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[14290] viXra:1605.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-22 20:06:09

The Problem of Apollonius as an Opportunity for Teaching Students to Use Reflections and Rotations to Solve Geometry Problems via Geometric (Clifford) Algebra

Authors: James A. Smith
Comments: 6 Pages.

The beautiful Problem of Apollonius from classical geometry (``\textit{Construct all of the circles that are tangent, simultaneously, to three given coplanar circles}") does not appear to have been solved previously by vector methods. It is solved here via GA to show students how they can make use of GA's capabilities for expressing and manipulating rotations and reflections. As Viète did when deriving his ruler-and-compass solution, we first transform the problem by shrinking one of the given circles to a point. In the course of solving the transformed problem, guidance is provided to help students ``see" geometric content in GA terms. Examples of the guidance that is given include (1) recognizing and formulating useful reflections and rotations that are present in diagrams; (2) using postulates on the equality of multivectors to obtain solvable equations; and (3) recognizing complex algebraic expressions that reduce to simple rotations of multivectors.
Category: Geometry

[14289] viXra:1605.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-22 20:17:30

Rotations of Vectors Via Geometric Algebra: Explanation, and Usage in Solving Classic Geometric "Construction" Problems (Version of 11 February 2016)

Authors: James A. Smith
Comments: 76 Pages.

Written as somewhat of a "Schaums Outline" on the subject, which is especially useful in robotics and mechatronics. Geometric Algebra (GA) was invented in the 1800s, but was largely ignored until it was revived and expanded beginning in the 1960s. It promises to become a "universal mathematical language" for many scientific and mathematical disciplines. This document begins with a review of the geometry of angles and circles, then treats rotations in plane geometry before showing how to formulate problems in GA terms, then solve the resulting equations. The six problems treated in the document, most of which are solved in more than one way, include the special cases that Viete used to solve the general Problem of Apollonius.
Category: Geometry

[14288] viXra:1605.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-22 20:23:04

A Totally Ordered Set with Cardinality Strictly Between Natural and Real Numbers

Authors: Philip Druck
Comments: 27 Pages.

A totally ordered set is identified with cardinality strictly between natural (N) and real (R) numbers. This set, denoted DS, is essentially an experimental finding, identified in unrelated patented research on nonuniform data sampling and self-stabilizing computer arithmetic. Its theoretical validation here will provide concrete proof that the Continuum Hypothesis (CH) is false. Note that this is distinct from determining whether CH can or cannot be proven from current axioms of set theory, which is settled. Also note that the Generalized Continuum Hypothesis is not addressed. First, Cantor diagonalization is applied isomorphically to prove that DS has strictly more than Cardinality(N) points. Then three (3) distinct proofs are provided to show that DS contains strictly fewer than Cardinality(R) elements. Each proof relies on a distinct property of primes. It is surmised that the considerable research efforts to-date on CH missed this result due to over-generalization, by considering all Alephi sets, i=0.., ∞. Those efforts thereby missed the impact of primes specifically on Aleph0/Aleph1 sets.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[14287] viXra:1605.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-22 21:19:51

Engineering Approach to Explanation of Special Relativity Theory

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 4 Pages. none

In this short note it is shown that the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) is a theory describing the reality correctly providing that certain conditions that are encapsulated in the theory’s assumptions are satisfied. This is demonstrated by using a simple capacitor, which avoids many difficulties of a relatively complex mathematics that leads many physics hobby enthusiasts to a wrong conclusion claiming that the theory cannot be correct and needs to be changed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14286] viXra:1605.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-22 07:48:37

Proving Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: Ricardo Gil
Comments: 1 Page.

As non-trivial Riemann zero's grow larger on the 1/2 critical line so does the distance grow proportionally between 0 and 1. Therefore, a non-trivial Riemann zero will not be outside the critical strip or off of the critical line.
Category: Number Theory

[14285] viXra:1605.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-22 09:32:31

A Roadmap to the Quark and Lepton Mass Ratios

Authors: J. S. Markovitch
Comments: 2 Pages.

The last six years have seen great strides in measuring the neutrino squared-mass splittings and heavy quark masses. It is therefore timely to reconsider the mass formulas introduced by the author in 2010, which then disagreed with the ratio of the neutrino squared-mass splittings.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[14284] viXra:1605.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-22 04:25:55

(Chinese)New The Formula For Law Of Gravity

Authors: GuagSan Yu
Comments: 2 Pages. This paper is Chinese

Newton the second laws with Newton the third laws have been wrong by the proof, include the law of gravity so in the inside, also should be amended accordingly. Below will give new formula of the law of gravity, opposite to new calculation, a lot of particular datas that astronomy observation, all may have the changes. For example celestial body the mass, and the size of the gravitation of heavenly body, all may have the changes. Thereby every kind of astronomy data up to the present, all want afresh the calculation.
Category: Classical Physics

[14283] viXra:1605.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-21 16:11:11

Modern Classical Spin Dynamics

Authors: Edwin Eugene Klingman
Comments: 29 Pages.

Abstract: The near-century-old Stern-Gerlach experiment played an important role in the philosophy of quantum mechanics. 50 years ago Bell drew drastic conclusions about the nature of reality based on a model of Stern-Gerlach, yet most detailed analysis of spin in nonuniform magnetic fields has occurred post-Bell. Recent focus on work in non-equilibrium thermo¬dynamics has potential significance for quantum mechanics so we develop a spin dynamical analysis of work in an inhomogeneous field. A small angle approximation analysis is performed. We derive a novel Stern-Gerlach gradient threshold relation and a decay rate for precession in a non-uniform field. The theory is compared to a quantum analysis and an experiment to test this theory is proposed.
Category: Classical Physics

[14282] viXra:1605.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-22 00:47:28

Dark Energy and Arrow of Time

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

For years, physicists have attempted to explain dark energy - a mysterious influence that pushes space apart faster than gravity can pull the things in it together. But physics isn’t always about figuring out what things are. A lot of it is figuring out what things cause. And in a recent paper, a group of physicists asked this very question about dark energy, and found that in some cases, it might cause time to go forward. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community—it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[14281] viXra:1605.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-22 03:27:18

An Elementary Proof of the Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: V.I.Saenko
Comments: 4 Pages.

It is proved that the point $(x=q, y=t )$ does not lie on a cubic curve $y^2 t^{p-2}-x^3 q^{p-3}=1 $ at any $(t,q) \in Q $ and prime $ p=2 i+1 \geq 3 $ . Therefore $ t^p-q^p=1$ is unsolvable in rational numbers and the Fermat's last theorem holds true.
Category: Number Theory

[14280] viXra:1605.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-21 13:24:14

Dark Energy/Fermion Ratio Matches E8 Symmetry, Cyclic Universe Within 1/2% if Dark Matter Annihilation Gamma Emission Energy is 2(H-Z)

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract: The latest experimentally measured 68.3%/26.8% dark energy/fermion mass ratio matches cyclic universe, E8 symmetry theory to within 1/2% if dark matter annihilation gamma radiation energy is 2 x 33.81 GEV. This is the positive mass-energy of 2(H-Z) bosons, and indicates that the Z dark bosons were not not annihilated but were re-incorporated in positive energy form.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14279] viXra:1605.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-21 15:14:22

The Origin of the Illusory Periodic Changes in the Gravitational Constant

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Anderson et al. have found that experimental values for gravitational constant, G, are oscillatory with a period of P = 5.899 +- 0.062 yr and an amplitude of A = (0.001619 +- 0.000103) F, where F is a factor that is the inverse of the 11 powers of ten expressed in SI Base Units. The period P correlates with the 5.9 year periodic signal in length of day (LOD). Previously it was assumed that changes in LOD follow from fluid core motions and inner-core coupling. But the origin of the G/LOD correlation is still not explained. Next, Schlamminger et al. have found that corrections to the G data reported by Anderson et al. significantly weaken the G/LOD correlation. But in Table III there appears the fit sinusoidal function for G with period fixed at 5.93 year. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show the origin of the periodic changes in LOD and the illusory changes in G and the origin of the experimental amplitude of G that is illusory as well. The calculated period of LOD and illusory period of G are both 5.941 yr whereas illusory amplitude of G is 0.00183 F. Here, the 5.941 year periodic signal in LOD we interpret as due to advection of the virtual cloud, composed of the virtual electron-positron pairs produced by Earth, caused by its interactions with the dark-matter (DM) structures that overlap with the Earth orbit. Such advection follows from the confinement and entanglement of virtual electrons and positrons and DM structures. The advection causes periodic increase in mass of Earth and measuring apparatus. The amplitude of the changes in mass of Earth follows directly from masses of nucleons (we must take into account the nuclear binding energy) and electrons. The changes in mass lead to the illusion of periodic changes in G. The SST results are consistent with experimental data. Moreover, SST shows that the real changes in G can be infinitesimal only.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14278] viXra:1605.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-21 11:18:19

Sudoko (3 X 3 )

Authors: Ricardo Gil
Comments: 1 Page.

The purpose of this paper is to share a simple way to solve a Sodoku in three steps. (P = NP ).
Category: Number Theory

[14277] viXra:1605.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-21 07:30:38

Matter Theory of Maxwell Equations

Authors: Wu Sheng-Ping
Comments: 16 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory. Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the current from electromagnetic field is proposed. and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles. The static properties and decay and scattering are reasoned, all meet experimental data. The momentum-energy tensor of the electromagnetic field coming to the equation of general relativity is discussed. In the end that the conformation elementarily between this theory and QED and weak theory is discussed compatible, except some bias in some analysis.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[6509] viXra:1605.0289 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-30 05:38:06

Does Newton's Constant Vary Due to Gravitomagnetic Torsion?

Authors: Brent Jarvis
Comments: 5 Pages.

Periodic oscillations are observed in Newton's gravitational constant (G) which coincide with length of day data obtained from the International Earth Rotation and Reference System. It was determined by Anderson et. al. (2015) that the oscillatory period of G is ≈ 5.9 years (5.899 ± 0.062 years), which is close to one−half the principle period of solar activity. It will be shown, from mathematical analysis, that the variations in G are concomitant with gravitomagnetically induced torsion on the Earth's spin during the ≈ 5.9 year period.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[6508] viXra:1605.0289 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-30 03:54:20

Does Newton's Constant Vary Due to Gravitomagnetic Torsion?

Authors: Brent Jarvis
Comments: 5 Pages.

Periodic oscillations are observed in Newton's gravitational constant (G) which coincide with length of day data obtained from the International Earth Rotation and Reference System. It was determined by Anderson et. al. (2015) that the oscillatory period of G is ≈ 5.9 years (5.899 ± 0.062 years), which is close to one−half the principle period of solar activity. It will be shown, from mathematical analysis, that the variations in G are concomitant with gravitomagnetically induced torsion on the Earth's spin during the ≈ 5.9 year period.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[6507] viXra:1605.0278 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-28 11:54:12

An Attempt to Demonstrate P=NP

Authors: Eli Halylaurin
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this document, you will find an attempt to demonstrate P=NP. For this, we will try to show that PSPACE is included in P. Because it is already known that P is included in NP and NP is included in PSPACE, this attempt will allow us to conclude.
Category: General Mathematics

[6506] viXra:1605.0268 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-29 16:09:19

An Unorthodox View on the Foundations of Physical Reality

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 16 Pages.

This paper is telling essentials of the story of the Hilbert Book Test Model without applying the mathematical formulas. The paper cannot avoid the usage of mathematical terms, but these terms will be elucidated such that mathematical novices can still understand most of the story. The Hilbert Book Test Model is a way to investigate the part of the foundation of physical reality that cannot be observed. This foundation is necessarily simple and it can easily be comprehended by skilled scientists. However, this paper is targeted to readers that are not skilled in math.
Category: Quantum Physics

[6505] viXra:1605.0259 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-26 09:58:36

The Geometrodynamic Foundation of Classical Electrodynamics: A Brief Summary

Authors: Jay R. Yablon
Comments: 8 Pages.

We summarize how the Lorentz Force motion observed in classical electrodynamics may be understood as geodesic motion derived by minimizing the variation of the proper time along the worldline of test charges in external potentials, while the spacetime metric remains invariant under, and all other fields in spacetime remain independent of, any rescaling of the charge-to-mass ratio q/m. In order for this to occur, time is dilated or contracted due to attractive and repulsive electromagnetic interactions respectively, in very much the same way that time is dilated due to relative motion in special relativity, without contradicting the latter’s well-established experimental content. As such, it becomes possible to lay an entirely geometrodynamic foundation for classical electrodynamics in four spacetime dimensions.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[6504] viXra:1605.0257 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-25 17:47:33

Reaction Less Drive by Anti Maxwell Dead Zone Around a Wire.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 21 Pages. 21

According to Quantum FFF Theory (Function Follows Form at the quantum level) the magnetic quantum field has always TWO different shaped monopole vector components: a North- and a South vector field component. This is comparable with the electric Quantum field, equipped with Plus and Minus vector components but it is in contrast with all other quantum fields like the neutrino- gravity-or x-gamma ray field. After interference of the magnetic wave with a real spinning propeller shaped Fermion particle, TWO real monopole magnetic waves from opposite direction will collapse and come to life as two real rigid shaped photons, as the result of two individual mutated oscillating Higgs filed particles from the vacuum. These photons should do the magnetic job by interlocking temporarily with the Fermion, and give the Fermion a push to the left respectively a push to the right fully in line and according to the Lorentz force law. However, based on observation of iron powder patterns around wires, it is assumed that if these monopole particle/ wave dualities travel parallel to each other inside the Higgs field, (and not- as normal- in opposition due to the natural opposing curvature of the so called B field) .As a result, the magnetic field strength- created by the wire itself-locally drops down to zero, with a up to zero reduced Lorentz force on the iron powder atoms. This is in contradiction with Maxwell’s magnetic field law around an electric energized wire and I call it the “tubular local magnetic dropping zone” ( dead zone) around the electric wire, which can be used for reaction less drive propulsion and Levitation in combination with different forms of strong tubular or spiral magnets. Magnet optimalisation is suggested to form spiral configurations of high performance magnet platings with a spiralling electric coils in between. The Lorentz force created on the wire by the static magnetic field of the tubular or spiral magnet (s) is supposed to be the only force in the system, by the absence of a reaction force on the magnet due to the local magnetic dropping zone.
Category: Quantum Physics

[6503] viXra:1605.0250 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-29 07:23:45

The Light

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: statement of light is just one kind of waves.
Category: Quantum Physics

[6502] viXra:1605.0250 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-27 23:29:15

The Light

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: statement of light is just one kind of waves.
Category: Quantum Physics

[6501] viXra:1605.0238 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-27 09:54:08

A Review of Drive

Authors: Shawn Halayka
Comments: 2 Pages.

A brief review of life drive and death drive is given.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[6500] viXra:1605.0236 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-27 07:05:31

Two Theorems on Solutions in Eulerian Description

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 8 Pages.

We present two proofs of theorems needed to the major work we are doing on existence and breakdown solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible case in n = 3 spatial dimensions.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[6499] viXra:1605.0230 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-27 07:46:44

Engineering Approach to Explanation of Special Relativity Theory

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this short note it is shown that the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) is a theory describing the reality correctly providing that certain conditions, which are encapsulated in the theory’s assumptions, are satisfied. This is demonstrated by using a simple capacitor, which avoids many difficulties of a relatively complex mathematics that leads many physics hobby enthusiasts to a wrong conclusion claiming that the theory cannot be correct and needs to be changed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[6498] viXra:1605.0230 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-25 11:29:03

Engineering Approach to Explanation of Special Relativity Theory

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this short note it is shown that the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) is a theory describing the reality correctly providing that certain conditions, which are encapsulated in the theory’s assumptions, are satisfied. This is demonstrated by using a simple capacitor, which avoids many difficulties of a relatively complex mathematics that leads many physics hobby enthusiasts to a wrong conclusion claiming that the theory cannot be correct and needs to be changed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[6497] viXra:1605.0230 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-24 11:14:43

Engineering Approach to Explanation of Special Relativity Theory

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this short note it is shown that the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) is a theory describing the reality correctly providing that certain conditions that are encapsulated in the theory’s assumptions are satisfied. This is demonstrated by using a simple capacitor, which avoids many difficulties of a relatively complex mathematics that leads many physics hobby enthusiasts to a wrong conclusion claiming that the theory cannot be correct and needs to be changed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[6496] viXra:1605.0220 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-28 13:32:02

Matter Theory of Maxwell Equations

Authors: Wu Sheng-Ping
Comments: 16 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory. Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the current from electromagnetic field is proposed. and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles. The static properties and decay and scattering are reasoned, all meet experimental data. The momentum-energy tensor of the electromagnetic field coming to the equation of general relativity is discussed. In the end that the conformation elementarily between this theory and QED and weak theory is discussed compatible, except some bias in some analysis.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics