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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[9422] viXra:1411.0586 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-28 15:09:23

The Frustration Effect: Behavioral and Emotional Reactions to Unanswered Voice

Authors: Liraz Margalit, Ramzi Suleiman, Yuval Samid
Comments: 18 Pages.

The frustration effect refers to situations in which, despite an individual’s option to express an opinion, the decision maker does not take that opinion into consideration. Theories of justice predict that, compared with having no voice, an unanswered voice will result in more frustration, dissatisfaction, and negative evaluations of outcome and procedural fairness. We tested these predictions experimentally, using an ultimatum and dictator games in which all participants played the role of recipients, while the allocators were fictitious players, who ostensibly offered them low shares. We found strong support to the frustration-effect hypothesis. Relative to recipients in the no-voice condition, in the unanswered-voice condition recipients in the two games perceived the situation as less fair and expressed more frustration and dissatisfaction from their low outcomes. Moreover, compared with the dictator condition, in the ultimatum game a significantly higher percentage of the recipients rejected the low offers under the unanswered-voice condition than under the no-voice condition. The results also revealed an interesting gender difference in the participants' responses to unanswered voice. Compared to women, men reported higher frustration levels, and rejected low offers with a significantly higher rate when their voice was ignored.
Category: Social Science

[9421] viXra:1411.0585 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-28 06:36:59

Physics and Philosophy Beyond the Standard Model

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 26 Pages.

Many of the subjects mentioned in “Outstanding questions: physics beyond the Standard Model" by John Ellis (“Philosophical Transactions A” of the Royal Society, January 2012 -http://rsta.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/370/1961/818) fascinate me. Is the origin of mass due to the Higgs boson? What is the nature of dark matter? How do we unify fundamental interactions? How do we quantize gravity? As well as the subjects of extra dimensions, black holes and E=mc^2. What happens when all these are addressed in one reply?
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9420] viXra:1411.0584 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-28 06:56:33

The Cosmological Constant is not a Constant

Authors: Antonio A. Colella
Comments: 10 Pages.

Our universe’s composition was established by 100 s after the big bang and remained constant for the next 13.8 billion years. Atomic/subatomic matter constituted 4.9%, dark matter 27%, and dark energy 68% of our university’s total energy/mass. Since the cosmological constant was proportional to dark energy density, as our universe expanded both dark energy density and the cosmological constant decreased with time. The cosmological constant problem existed because the Super Universe’s volume was E120 larger than our universe. Proof of the Super Universe’s parallel universes was via two advanced optical and gravitational observatory techniques.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[9419] viXra:1411.0583 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-28 00:24:59

The Paradox in General Relativity

Authors: Cheng Tianren
Comments: 14 Pages.

This is a research paper which review the former series “From ptolemy theorem to non-Euclidean geometry”. In this paper, we introduce the geometric model basing on relativity theory of that series. We also apply the trigonometry techniques in projective geometry, to give some new estimate for field equation. And our final goal is to propose a reasonable explanation for the essential property of the 4 dimension space-time in general relativity, especially for the well-known twin and clock paradox.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[9418] viXra:1411.0582 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-28 03:01:34

Holographic Two-Steps Gravito-Electromagnetic Interaction

Authors: Francis M. Sanchez
Comments: 3 Pages.

It is shown how misleading is the Einstein propagating photon, while the gravitation - electricity symmetry is patent in the holographic two-step intaraction scheme. in accordance with Coherent Cosmology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[9417] viXra:1411.0581 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-27 13:31:56

Dependence of Gravitational Constant on Gravitational-Mass Density

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), the constancy of gravitational constant is discussed. For gravitational-mass density about 48 powers of ten higher than density of the Einstein spacetime, the gravitational constant is equal to zero. Such increase in mass density causes that the Einstein spacetime decays into the modified Higgs field. In our Cosmos, the maximum change in the gravitational constant can be about one part in 37 powers of ten parts i.e. the possible changes are very, very small.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9416] viXra:1411.0580 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-27 13:43:04

Alternative Classical Mechanics III

Authors: Alejandro A. Torassa
Comments: 13 Pages.

This paper presents an alternative classical mechanics which establishes the existence of a new universal force of interaction (called kinetic force) and which can be applied in any reference frame without the necessity of introducing fictitious forces.
Category: Classical Physics

[9415] viXra:1411.0579 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-27 09:52:30

A Useful Criterion to Identify Candidate Twin Primes

Authors: Prashanth R. Rao
Comments: 2 Pages.

In a previous paper we derived that if p, p+2 are twin-primes then 2p-2 is of the form (pz+y) where z, y must have unique solutions. We extend this result to derive a single criterion that we believe is novel that may be useful to screen for candidate twin primes.
Category: Number Theory

[9414] viXra:1411.0578 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-27 07:38:16

Division of Labor in Hand Usage is Associated with Higher Hand Performance in Free-Ranging Bonnet Macaques, Macaca Radiata

Authors: Madhur Mangalam, Nisarg Desai, Mew Singh
Comments: 19 Pages.

A practical approach to understanding lateral asymmetries in body, brain, and cognition would be to examine the performance advantages/disadvantages associated with the corresponding functions and behavior. In the present study, we examined whether the division of labor in hand usage, marked by the preferential usage of the two hands across manual operations requiring maneuvering in three-dimensional space (e.g., reaching for food, grooming, and hitting an opponent) and those requiring physical strength (e.g., climbing), as described by Mangalam et al. [1], is associated with higher hand performance in free-ranging bonnet macaques, Macaca radiata. We determined the extent to which (a) the macaques exhibit laterality in hand usage in an experimental unimanual and a bimanual food-reaching task, and (b) manual laterality is associated with hand performance in an experimental hand-performance-differentiation task. We found strong negative relationships between (a) the performance of the preferred hand in the hand-performance-differentiation task (measured as the latency in food extraction; lower latency = higher performance), the preferred hand determined using the bimanual food-reaching task, and the normalized difference in the performance between the two hands (measured as the difference in the latency in food extraction between them normalized by the latency in food extraction using the preferred hand), and (b) the normalized difference in the performance between the two hands and the manual specialization (measured as the absolute difference in the laterality in hand usage between the unimanual and the bimanual food-reaching tasks; lesser difference = higher manual specialization). These observations demonstrate that the division of labor between the two hands is associated with higher hand performance.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[9413] viXra:1411.0577 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-27 07:41:38

Division of Labor: A Democratic Approach to Understanding Manual Asymmetries in Non-Human Primates

Authors: Madhur Mangalam, Nisarg Desai, Mewa Singh
Comments: 37 Pages.

A consequence of the ‘gold rush’ like hunch for human-like handedness in non-human primates has been that researchers have been continually analyzing observations at the level of the population, ignoring the analysis at the level of an individual and, consequently, have potentially missed revelations on the forms and functions of manual asymmetries. Recently, consecutive studies on manual asymmetries in bonnet macaques, Macaca radiata [Mangalam et al., 2014a; Mangalam et al., 2014b] revealed both the functional and the adaptive significance of manual asymmetries respectively, and pointed towards the division of labor as being the general principle underlying the observed hand-usage patterns. We review the studies on manual asymmetries in capuchin monkeys, Cebus spp. and argue that the observed hand-usage patterns might reflect specialization of the two hands for accomplishing tasks that require different dexterity types (i.e., maneuvering in three dimensional space or physical strength). To this end, we do a step-by-step analysis of the various tasks used in the studies on manual asymmetries in capuchin monkeys, wherein we: (a) analyze the different manual tasks that have been used to study manual asymmetries in non-human primates on the basis of the attributes such as the number of hands required to solve a given task (i.e., unimanual, pseudo unimanual, or bimanual) and the spatiotemporal progression of manual actions (i.e., sequential or concurrent). (b) Determine the forms and functions of manual asymmetries that these tasks can potentially elicit within the broader scope of the behavioral repertoire of an individual, a population, or a species. (c) Qualify the scope of the inter-individual, -population, or -species comparisons. We then describe the division of labor as a general principle underlying manual asymmetries in non-human primates, and propose experimental designs that would elaborate the forms and functions of manual asymmetries in non-human primates, and the associated adaptive value.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[9412] viXra:1411.0576 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-27 08:37:26

The Perceived Image of Time: Unraveling The Special Relativity Misconceptions

Authors: Radwan M. Kassir
Comments: 53 pages - A simplified physical approach using basic concepts leading to the exposure of the Special Relativity misconceptions.

Applying basic classical physics concepts of time and space, while considering event information is ultimately communicated through light—or electromagnetic—signals, it was shown that proper time interval measured in an inertial reference frame (labeled as traveling “object frame”) between two co-local events occurring at the frame origin undergoes apparent alteration and perceived as a “time image” in another inertial frame (labeled as stationary “image frame”), when the two frames are in relative motion. The same “time image” was perceived by either frame due to the change of the light speed relative to the reference frames. Under certain conditions of events spatial coordinates, it was shown through obtained modified Galilean transformations that “apparent” length contraction and expansion were associated with “apparent” time dilation and contraction, respectively. In the case the Emission Theory of light was considered, symmetry in regard to the time and space alteration factors between the frames was shown (i.e., time and space in the traveling “object frame” were perceived in the stationary “image frame” altered by the same factors as for the case when the frame “labels” were swapped). The known classical Doppler Effect was readily derived from the established alteration factors. For all classical approaches, and in the case of light, the wave length was invariant. In the case the Special Relativity approach was considered, i.e. when the speed of light was assumed constant with respect to all inertial reference frames, inconsistent time “images” were perceived, so an ad hoc assumption was required, imposing an artificial transformation distorting the Emission Theory “time image” dimension by the inverse of the relativistic factor "gamma" leading to the Lorentz transformation, applicable under special conditions of the space coordinates in the direction of motion. Misconceptions in the Special Relativity interpretation of the Lorentz transformation were systematically revealed. Time alteration was perceived as a dilated “image” for receding frames, and contracted for approaching ones. However, when the frames receded and then approached during equal proper time intervals, the net time interval was perceived as an “image” dilated by "gamma" for the Special Relativity approach, as opposed to "gamma^2" for the Light Emission theory. For the Ether Theory assumption, either time dilation or time invariance was obtained depending on whether the traveling “object frame” was taken to be the ether frame. The “inverse” transformation was shown to be different from the “opposite” transformation in the way that the former had “image” arguments—returning “object” entities—whereas the latter had “object” arguments in the swapped frame “labels” scenario. Furthermore, they have opposite coordinate domains in the motion direction, although they exhibited the same form; “symmetry” misconceptions were revealed. The known relativistic Doppler Effect was readily derived. For the case of light, the perceived frequency exhibiting a blue shift (frequency increase) in the case of approaching frames, is in line with the established time contraction in this study, contradicting the Special Relativity prediction of time dilation irrespective of whether the frames are receding or approaching. In addition, the wavelength exhibited an increase in the case of receding frames, whereas it decreased when the source was approaching. Available experimental data related to [apparent] time dilations, Doppler Effect, and non-existence of preferred reference frame for light propagation (Michelson-Morley experiment) could then be analyzed vis-à-vis the classical theories in terms of time and space transformations.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[9411] viXra:1411.0575 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-27 04:40:04

Cosmic Quantization with Respect to the Conservation of Upper-Limit Energy (2)

Authors: Essam E Maroun
Comments: 9 Pages. email: emaroun85@hotmail.com

The conditions of the early universe are not known with any measure of certainty — they are only theories. Therefore, using the assumption that the estimated total energy of the observable universe is conserved, we propose a different lower limit for the gravitational energy; we attempt to unify the subatomic and the large scale universe into one coherent whole; thus, showing that the cosmos behaves like a quantum object. It uses a form of Bohr’s quantization to strengthen the unification of quantum gravity. Our model is simple, yet comprehensive.
Category: Quantum Physics

[9410] viXra:1411.0574 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-26 16:13:06

Re-evaluating the Local Equivalence Principle

Authors: Karl Birjukov
Comments: 27 Pages.

In removing the flaws inherent in the local equivalence principle, and subsequently re-forming it, it is inevitable that how the macrocosm is viewed is changed completely, to the extent that the boundaries of science itself become suspect as they produce reifications in its ultimate forms that most probably have no real existence.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[9409] viXra:1411.0573 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-26 16:50:05

Numeric Formula for the Masses of Baryons

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 3 Pages.

A numeric formula for the masses of composite particles made of three quarks is presented. The formula, which uses “discontinuous” quantum numbers, predicts the masses of 13 baryons and one lepton (the tau particle), with an accuracy of, at least, 3 decimal places. The maximum accuracy of the formula is 5 decimal places. The formula suggests the existence of a general formula for the mass of all known particles, which is yet, to be discovered.
Category: Quantum Physics

[9408] viXra:1411.0572 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-27 02:57:28

The New Mechanism and a New Method of Spent Fuel Reprocessing

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

put the new mechanism and a new method of spent fuel reprocessing
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[9407] viXra:1411.0571 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-27 03:35:47

Recurrent Formulas Which Conduct to Probably Infinite Sequences of Primes and a Generalization of a Cunningham Chain

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper I define few formulas which conduct from any odd prime respectively from any pair of distinct odd primes to an infinity of probably infinite sequences of primes, also to such sequences of a certain kind of semiprimes, and I also make a generalization of a Cunningham chain of primes of the first kind, respectively of the second kind.
Category: Number Theory

[9406] viXra:1411.0570 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-26 12:42:05

Searching for Dark Photons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Researchers have studied electron-positron (e+e-) collisions for interactions that produce a normal photon γ and a dark photon A′ that interacts with ordinary matter particles. The dark photon can potentially decay into an e+e- pair (shown here) or a μ+μ- pair (not shown). However, the latest results from the BaBar collaboration offer no sign of dark photons, thus placing new limits on these types of models. [13] Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[9405] viXra:1411.0569 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-26 09:36:47

A Probably Infinite Sequence of Primes Formed Using Carmichael Numbers, the Number 584 and Concatenation

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make a conjecture which states that there exist an infinity of primes of the form N/3^m, where m is positive integer and N is the number formed concatenating to the left a Carmichael number with the number 584. Such primes are 649081 = 5841729/3^2, 1947607 = 5842821/3, 1948867 = 5846601/3 etc. I also make few comments about a certain kind of semiprimes.
Category: Number Theory

[9404] viXra:1411.0568 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-26 10:27:34

A Process for Making Nuclear Fusion Energy

Authors: R. Wayte.
Comments: 19 Pages.

A process is described for producing regular nuclear fusion at room temperature by compressing a deuteride mixed with catalytic material. The reaction is explosive beyond any possible chemical reaction for these materials. An attempt at explaining the nuclear processes in terms of soft X-ray emission has been made by deriving models of a deuteron and alpha-particle. Future development for commercial energy production is discussed.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[9403] viXra:1411.0567 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-26 12:09:33

L'évolution de L'onde électromagnétique Sur de Très Grandes Distances

Authors: Pierre Réal Gosselin
Comments: Français, 27 pages, http://phrenocarpe.org/zhp/index.html

Nous expliquons le décalage vers le rouge " ℤ " de la radiation provenant des galaxies éloignées moyennant les équations classiques de Maxwell et le principe de conservation de l'énergie. La loi de Hubble émerge naturellement comme conséquence de la transformation progressive de l'onde électromagnétique selon la distance. Nous évaluons le paramètre " H0 " (84,3 Km s-1 Mpc-1) à partir des données du satellite Pioneer expliquant ainsi l'anomalie de comportement attribuée à ce satellite. Nous résolvons certaines situations inexpliquées par la cosmologie actuelle. Nous présentons la formule corrigée du module de distance et évaluons la distance limite d'observation des phénomènes cosmologiques.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[9402] viXra:1411.0566 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-26 12:25:26

On the Limitations of Wilson's Renormalization Group Program

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 5 Pages. First draft.

This informal report surveys several lesser-known limitations of Wilson’s Renormalization Group program. The account is not intended to be either rigorous or complete as our sole purpose is to stimulate further discussions and research.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[9401] viXra:1411.0565 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-26 07:32:07

Modelo de Materia Oscura Por Vacío Cuántico Dark Matter Model by Quantum Vacuum

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernández
Comments: 21 Pages.

The idea of the model is quite simple: The physical vacuum is a quantum system with a minimum energy when it is in his ground state. When the space has a gravitational field the space state increase his energy levels and the mass of the space begin to increase as well. The mass of the space would be the dark matter (D.M.). Model refers to the same conception about ‘vacuum’ as the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), which consider the space full of virtual electrons and virtual positrons. Similarly, the Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) consider the space full of virtual particles, called gluons. Therefore it is easy to think that there is virtual particles which feel the gravitational forces named virtual gravitons. It is logical to think that the gravitational field excites the vacuum states in a way that “the vacuum would be heavier, the more intense gravitational field”. The hypothesis of this DM model is that virtual gravitons are Dark Matter. The paper is organised in four parts: The first one explains the model theoretically in a simple way because in my opinion the ultimate theory of DM will be explain by the Quantum Gravity, which there is not exist yet. The second one studies the spin speed star on galaxies. It is got the density formula for DM.Also it is got the formula, which connects DM density with intensity gravitational field. The third one explains the coherence between the DM model and experimental evidences known about DM. The fourth one proposes five experimental test to check the model with astronomical measures. The purpose this paper is to introduce the model. To show a new origin of DM and try to convince the reader that it is worth to check the model with experimental evidences.
Category: Astrophysics

[9400] viXra:1411.0564 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-26 08:21:09

Relatividade Ondulatória

Authors: Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia
Comments: 117 Pages. §23 Curvatura do Espaço e Tempo

Resumo A Teoria da Relatividade Especial conduz a dois resultados, considerados incompreensíveis por vários renomados físicos, que são a dilatação do tempo e a denominada contração espacial de Lorentz. A solução desses paradoxos me conduziu ao desenvolvimento da Relatividade Ondulatória onde a variação temporal é devida à diferença nos percursos de propagação da luz e o espaço é constante entre os observadores.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[9399] viXra:1411.0563 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-26 05:00:31

Proof of the Riemann Hypothesis and an Upper Bound for the Divisor Sum Function

Authors: Vincenzo Oliva
Comments: 7 Pages.

Robin's theorem asserts that Robin's inequality (RI) sum_{d|n}d := sigma(n) < e^{gamma} n loglog n, where gamma is the Euler-Mascheroni constant and n>5040, is equivalent to the Riemann Hypothesis. We prove by contradiction there are no counterexamples to RI, consequently providing an immediately ensuing sharper upper bound for sigma(n), odd n.
Category: Number Theory

[9398] viXra:1411.0562 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-26 05:08:12

The Class of Q-Cliqued Graphs: Eigen-bi-Balanced Characteristic, Designs and an Entomological Experiment

Authors: Paul August Winter, Carol Lynne Jessop, Costas Zachariades
Comments: 32 Pages.

Much research has involved the consideration of graphs which have sub-graphs of a particular kind, such as cliques. Known classes of graphs which are eigen-bi-balanced, i.e. they have a pair a,b of non-zero distinct eigenvalues, whose sum and product are integral, have been investigated. In this paper we will define ta new class of graphs, called q-cliqued graphs, on vertices, which contain q cliques each of order q connected to a central vertex, and then prove that these q-cliqued graphs are eigen-bi-balanced with respect to a conjugate pair whose sum is -1 and product 1-q. These graphs can be regarded as design graphs, and we use a specific example in an entomological experiment. AMS Classification: 05C50 Key words: cliques, eigen-bi-balanced graphs, conjugate pair, designs.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[9397] viXra:1411.0561 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-25 12:26:52

Influence of Tides on the Earth's Crust

Authors: Allen Graycek
Comments: 4 Pages.

Abstract: Results of research so far indicate that convection currents likely do not play a major role in continental drift. [1] However, it is known that moon and sun tidal forces are sufficient to distort the shape of the planet and likely is the energy source for continental drift in the form of tidal forces. This concept outlines those tidal forces at work on the ocean’s ridges, such as the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Magma entering fissures plus flexure at the ocean’s ridges mechanically generates sufficient movement to force the crust plates away from the ridges.
Category: Geophysics

[9396] viXra:1411.0560 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-25 09:47:20

On Filter Alpha-Convergence and Exhaustiveness of Function Nets in Lattice Groups and Applications

Authors: Antonio Boccuto, Xenofon Dimitriou
Comments: 8 Pages.

We consider (strong uniform) continuity of the limit of a pointwise convergent net of lattice group-valued functions, (strong weak) exhaustiveness and (strong) alpha-convergence with respect to a pair of filters, which in the setting of nets are more natural than the corresponding notions formulated with respect to a single filter. Some comparison results are given between such concepts, in connection with suitable properties of filters. Moreover, some modes of filter (strong uniform) continuity for lattice group-valued functions are investigated, giving some characterization. As an application, we get some Ascoli-type theorem in an abstract setting, extending earlier results to the context of filter alpha-convergence.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[9395] viXra:1411.0559 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-24 13:36:22

Characterization of Human Thioredoxin System and the Potential Cellular Responses Encoded to Observe the Thioredoxin-Trx1 Reversibly Regulated Redox Sites.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 19 Pages.

Txn1 is a pleiotropic cellular causative gene factor which has numerous functions. Here the following reaction is the possible mechanisms of the thioredoxin-catalyzed reduction and re-oxidation of its characteristic cystine residues.
Category: Biochemistry

[9394] viXra:1411.0558 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-24 14:08:40

Catalase, the Antioxidant Heme Enzyme One of Three Subgroups Related to Catalase Deficiency in Humans Modulating the Normal Catalase Reaction Dependent on Nadph-Binding Catalases for Function.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 7 Pages.

Catalase protects the cell from oxidative damage by the accumulation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation systems, those peroxisomal enzymes that breaks down hydrogen peroxide after H(2)O(2) exposure, and thereby mitigates* (some contradictory* results) the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide.
Category: Biochemistry

[9393] viXra:1411.0557 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-24 09:25:14

Field Gyroscope and Its Social Impact

Authors: Mark Krinker
Comments: 48 Pages.

This publication is a presentation, made by the author at CityTech College of New York in October 2014. The Presentation reveals some specific features of the Field Gyroscope (FG) -the phenomenon of a localized spinning electromagnetic field. As any spinning object, this field produces another profound phenomenon of Physics- Torsion Fields. The Presentation considers analytic relations between parameters of FG. In particular, it shows origination a torque of FG. FG phenomenon can be both dangerous and useful for the Mankind, depending on its manifestations. In particular, it can negatively affect blood vessels and manifests itself in Geo-Pathogenic zones and, on the other hand, can be used for a new type of telecommunication.
Category: Classical Physics

[9392] viXra:1411.0556 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-24 09:39:57

Unlocking the Mystery of Interference Patterns in Electron and Photon Double-Slit Experiments and the Puzzle of ‘Waves Without Medium’

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 9 Pages.

The formidable problem with double-slit experiments (and with Quantum Mechanics as a whole) is: if electrons and photons exhibit wave properties (seen as interference patterns), then what is waving? What is the medium for transmission of ‘electron waves’? Does it give sense at all to talk about ‘interference’ of a particle? The hypothesis of existence of a medium (the ether) was already disproved experimentally by the Michelson-Morley experiment, in the case of the photon (light). For the electron, such a medium is not even conceivable. Despite the success of Schrodinger’s wave function in predicting and explaining the results of experiments, what physical quantity the wave function actually represents is still unknown. Erwin Schrodinger was on the right track with his view of the electron as a ‘smeared’ object, rather than as a point particle, and with his rejection of the Copenhagen interpretation. Yet he was still far from the ultimate mystery. Then how is a wave possible without a medium? How can a wave property and a particle property co-exist in a single physical entity (the electron and the photon)? Nature uses a simple and subtle trick : the electron mass density at a given point of space is directly proportional to the intensity of oscillation of the electron (the electron wave) at that point. The instantaneous mass density of the electron at a given point is directly proportional to the instantaneous vibrational velocity of the electron at that point. This resolves the central mystery in Quantum Mechanics: electron interference pattern. The photon energy density at a given point is directly proportional to the intensity of vibration (oscillation) of the electric and magnetic fields at that point. The new theory provides a hint on the mystery behind Planck’s relation: E=h.f. Higher frequency photons have higher energy than lower frequency photons just because higher frequency photons also have higher amplitudes of electric and magnetic fields.
Category: Quantum Physics

[9391] viXra:1411.0554 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-24 12:11:31

Gravitons, the Speed of Gravity, and the Generalized Newton Gravitational Law

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 6 Pages. none

In many publications and web forum discussions the claims are constantly being made that in order for the orbits of planets around the Sun to be stable the gravity must propagate at much higher speeds than the speed of light c. In this paper it is shown on a simple and extreme example of two stars orbiting around each other in a circular orbit that this is not the case and that the assumption about the necessity for the large speed of gravity is unfounded. The explanation is based on the recognition that the Newton gravitational force has two components that are not necessarily collinear. This new fundamental finding is supported by modeling the field by gravitons that mediate the force of the field. This model finally leads to the generalization of Newton gravitational law that correctly accounts for the finite speed of gravity. From this result it is also found that the gravitational aberration angle is identical with the aberration angle of light, but is aiming in the opposite direction, lagging behind the source of the gravitational attraction.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[9390] viXra:1411.0553 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-24 07:39:42

The Light Wave Equation and the Special Relativity

Authors: José Francisco García Juliá
Comments: 3 Pages.

In a recent paper, it is asserted that the wave equation for the light in the vacuum cannot be used in the special relativity. However, it might be refuted.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[9389] viXra:1411.0552 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-23 17:34:38

Dirac Monopoles, Gauge Symmetry, Orientation-Entanglement, and the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

Authors: Jay R. Yablon
Comments: 11 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to explain the pattern of fill factors observed in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE), which appears to be restricted to odd-integer denominators as well as the sole even-integer denominator of 2. The method is to use the mathematics of gauge theory to develop Dirac monopoles without strings as originally taught by Wu and Yang, while accounting for orientation / entanglement relationships between spinors and their environment in the physical space of spacetime. We find that the odd-integer denominators are included and the even-integer denominators are excluded if we regard two fermions as equivalent only if both their orientation and their entanglement are the same, i.e., only if they are separated by 4π not 2π. We also find that the even integer denominator of 2 is permitted because unit charges can pair into boson states which do not have the same entanglement considerations as fermions, and that all other even-integer denominators are excluded because only integer charges, and not fractional charges, can be so-paired. We conclude that the observed FQHE fill factor pattern can be fundamentally explained using nothing other than the mathematics of gauge theory in view of how orientation / entanglement applies to fermions but not to bosons, while restricting all but unfractionalized fermions from pairing into bosons.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[9388] viXra:1411.0551 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-24 06:03:45

How to Eliminate the Messy Mathematical Methods from Physics and Cosmology?

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

The gauge invariance of equations follows from constancy of charges. There appear arbitrary functions so to obtain quantized values we must apply approximations, mathematical tricks and free parameters. The second messy mathematical method applied in physics follows from the wrong assumption that the bare particles are sizeless and that there are in existence interactions with infinite range (it follows from the massless carriers of interactions). In such method, to obtain theoretical results consistent with experimental data, there must appear the mathematical indeterminate forms so they are incoherent as well. Such messy method cannot be eliminate via vibrating flexible strings, as it is in the M/string theory, because such assumption cannot lead to constancy of physical constants. What we should do to eliminate the arbitrary functions, sizeless bare particles, infinite ranges of forces and flexible strings? And some extension to the General Relativity is the answer.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9387] viXra:1411.0549 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-23 09:46:32

`spooky Action at a Distance' in the Micropolar Electromagnetic Theory

Authors: Algirdas Antano Maknickas
Comments: 7 Pages.

Still now there are no theoretical background for explanation of physical phenomena of `spooky action at a distance' as a quantum superposition of quantum particles. Several experiments shows that speed of this phenomena is at least four orders of magnitude of light speed in vacuum. The classical electromagnetic field theory is based on similarity to the classic dynamic of solid continuum media. The today's experimental data of spin of photon is not reflected reasonable manner in Maxwell's equations of EM. So, new proposed micropolar extensions of electromagnetic field equations cloud explain observed rotational speed of electromagnetic field, which experimentally exceed speed of light at least in four order of magnitude.
Category: Classical Physics

[9386] viXra:1411.0548 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-23 10:10:13

New Infnite Series and Integral Representations for Error Function

Authors: Edigles Guedes
Comments: 9 pages.

I proved some infinity series power and integral representations for error function and relations for special functions.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[9385] viXra:1411.0547 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-23 08:12:20

Structure of Noetically Perceived Columnar Vortices

Authors: Jeffrey S. Keen
Comments: 23 Pages, 38 Figures, 16 Tables

Usually earth energies diverge or associated subtle energy lines meander over the Earth’s surface. This paper explores the structure of those mind detected subtle energies that have a cylindrical envelope and possess special properties that keep their 3-dimensional field boundaries parallel and prevent them from diverging. The findings include a complex structure of fractal geometry involving different subtle energy types, together with a newly discovered subtle energy that forms a web pattern providing the “cross bracing” that keeps columnar vortices parallel and stable over long distances and time. Another surprising finding is that the structure of columnar vortices, emanating from sun spots, is identical to the structure of mind created Psi-lines. A conclusion is that the mind is detecting universal laws of physics together with universal constants and ratios. This phenomenon is not just a figment of the imagination, but requires further scientific investigation. Key Words Mind, noetics, dowsing, vortices, subtle energies, psi-lines, fractal geometry, structure
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[9384] viXra:1411.0546 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-23 09:13:07

The Origin of the 30 and 18 Million-Light-Year Separation of Single Galaxies and Clusters of Galaxies in the Filamentary Cosmic Network

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), the origin of the 30 and 18 million-light-year separation of single galaxies and clusters of galaxies in the filamentary cosmic network is presented. It follows from the atom-like structure of the Steinhauer black holes with two horizons described within S-SET. The calculated dominating time-length of the pattern is around 30 million light-years (for h = 0.75). There as well should appear a weaker signal for 18 million light-years and much weaker signals for about 43 and 68 million light-years. The two first results are consistent with the observational facts whereas the two last results are some predictions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9383] viXra:1411.0545 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-22 21:46:43

Conjecture Which States that an Iterative Operation of Any Pair of Two Odd Primes Conducts to a Larger Prime

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make a conjecture which states that from any two odd primes p1 and p2 can be obtained, through an iterative and very simple operation, a prime p3 larger than p1 and also larger than p2.
Category: Number Theory

[9382] viXra:1411.0544 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-23 02:35:37

Did Atlas CMS Cern Find the Last Elementary Particle?

Authors: Claude Michael Cassano
Comments: 8 Pages.

The evidence from the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN announced 4 July 2012; suggest, at the very least, some interesting equations, standard model architecture, and a possible "heavier charged Higgs-like".
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[9381] viXra:1411.0542 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-22 13:23:00

Dark Matter and Other Astrophysical Problems of Alien Civilisations

Authors: Wolfgang Westenberger
Comments: 4 Pages.

Two foreign civilisations ask for help on behalf of astrophysical problems. The most urgent problem is called “the missing mass problem“. We should be able to help them.
Category: Astrophysics

[9380] viXra:1411.0541 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-22 13:30:24

The Secret of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

Invisibility — like time travel, teleportation, flying, and super-speed — has been a fixture in science fiction ever since science fiction has existed. The most well-known examples range from the one used by the Romulans in Star Trek, Harry Potter’s deathly hallows cloaking device, and the eleven cloak Frodo and Sam used to evade Sauron’s army at the gates of Mordor. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of other mentions in books, movies and television. Over the years, many scientists have come up with inventive ways to hide objects from sight (one includes a 3D printer); only the process is certainly much more complex than science fiction makes it look. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[9379] viXra:1411.0540 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-22 12:05:36

The Mass of the Electron

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 5 Pages.

A formula for the mass of the electron is obtained postulating that the ratio between the mass of the electron to the mass of the muon equals the ratio between the mass of the down quark to the mass of the charm quark. The values of the quark masses used in this formula fall into the experimental limits published by reference [1].
Category: Quantum Physics

[9378] viXra:1411.0539 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-22 08:38:35

All Pythagorean Triple Formula

Authors: Maik Becker-Sievert
Comments: 1 Page.

Formula to generate all Pythagorean Triple
Category: Number Theory

[9377] viXra:1411.0537 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-22 04:45:28

All Pythagorean Triple Formulas

Authors: Maik Becker-Sievert
Comments: 1 Page.

Pythagorean Triple Formulas
Category: Number Theory

[9376] viXra:1411.0536 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 15:18:07

Cosmic Reonisation in the Accelerating Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 9 Pages.

The universe was born in the Big Bang some 13.8 billion years ago. In its earliest epochs, it was filled with a hot 'soup' of charged protons and electrons. As the newborn universe expanded, its temperature decreased uniformly. When the universe was 400,000 years old, conditions were cool enough to allow the protons and electrons to bond and form neutral hydrogen atoms. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[9375] viXra:1411.0535 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 10:34:49

Microworld 02. Magnetism, Lorentz Force, Electron Structure

Authors: N.N. Leonov
Comments: 12 Pages. English and russian texts

It has been found that magnetic field around a current conductor is induced by the motion of electrical charge carriers own magnetic fields rather than by the motion of electrical charges itself. There has been the generation mechanism of Lorentz forces applied to electrons moving across the external magnetic field lines identified. It has been found that electrons and neutrons have tornadic ethereal structures which stability is due to magnetic interactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[9374] viXra:1411.0534 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 10:49:59

The Matter-Antimatter Asymmetry: Is Our Universe the One and Only in Our Cosmos?

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Some extension of the General Relativity leads to the superluminal nontransparent infinitesimal pieces of space (plenums/tachyons). Due to their dynamic viscosity, in the infinite cosmos can appear pieces of space with different sizes and velocities. Due to collisions of very big pieces of space, there can appear cosmoses with stable boundary. Inside some of them can appear universes. Here, I discuss the possibility that in our Cosmos, our Universe is the one and only. We can calculate the period of the oscillations of our Universe. We as well can explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry in our Universe. It follows from the transitions of the electron-positron pairs into the electron-proton pairs in a vortex with left-handed internal helicity produced in the Einstein spacetime.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9373] viXra:1411.0533 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 11:33:37

Form of Intensity of the Moving Charge Electric Field is Asymmetrical.

Authors: Lubomir Vlcek
Comments: 15 Pages. From the asymmetrical form of the intensity of the moving charge we can derive Gauss law, Faraday's law and derive the 4th Maxwell's equation,

Relationship Lorentz derived from the asymmetrical form of the intensity of the moving charge. To derive it we do not need Lorentz's transformations equations, that is we do not need SPACE-TIME. We do not need local time, or covariant equations or physical simultaneity definition or invariant interval From the asymmetrical form of the intensity of the moving charge we can derive Gauss law, Faraday's law and derive the 4th Maxwell's equation, fictional by Maxwell and not to be derived.Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values: in direction of motion as own kinetic energy of charge and against direction of motion of charge represents the wave energy, which creates charge in transmision medium.
Category: Classical Physics

[9372] viXra:1411.0532 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 11:25:59

Information Flow Direction in the Brain

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Sometimes, you can picture something so vividly in your head that it feels as though you’re actually looking at what you’re imagining. But no matter how good your imagination is, information will flow through your brain in the opposite direction compared to when you actually perceive something. That’s the conclusion of a new study, published in NeuroImage, which looked at brain activity in participants when they were either watching clips or recalling them in their heads. [7] The hypothesis that there may be something quantum-like about the human mental function was put forward with “Spooky Activation at Distance” formula which attempted to model the effect that when a word’s associative network is activated during study in memory experiment; it behaves like a quantum-entangled system. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[9371] viXra:1411.0531 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 11:46:11

Form of the Interference Field is Non-Linear

Authors: Lubomir Vlcek
Comments: 13 Pages. Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values.

The main differences between incompetent Einstein's theory[1] and the latest knowledge[2]are: 1.Form of Intensity of the Moving Charge Electric Field is asymmetrical, 2. Form of the interference field is non-linear, 3. Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values: Kinetic energy of electron , (proton) Tkin id =mc2 [ln |1-v/c|+ (v/c) / (1-v/c) ] in direction of motion of electron, (proton) where v is velocity of electron, (proton). Kinetic energy of electron , (proton) Tkin ad = mc2 [ln |1+v/c|- (v/c) / (1+v/c) ] against direction of motion of electron, (proton) where v is velocity of electron, (proton). These are the main differences between incompetent Einstein's theory and the latest knowledge.
Category: Classical Physics

[9370] viXra:1411.0530 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 12:08:28

Kinetic Energy of a Charge Moving at the Velocity of V Has Two Different Values

Authors: Lubomir Vlcek
Comments: 5 Pages. Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values

Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values: Kinetic energy of electron , (proton) Tkin id =mc2 [ln |1-v/c|+ (v/c) / (1-v/c) ] in direction of motion of electron, (proton) as particle, where v is velocity of electron, (proton). Kinetic energy of electron , (proton) Tkin ad = mc2 [ln |1+v/c|- (v/c) / (1+v/c) ] against direction of motion of electron, (proton) as wave, where v is velocity of electron, (proton).
Category: Classical Physics

[9369] viXra:1411.0529 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 07:00:54

New Techniques to Analyse the Prediction of Fuzzy Models

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache, Ilanthenral K.
Comments: 242 Pages.

In this book the authors for the first time have ventured to study, analyse and investigate fuzzy and neutrosophic models and the experts opinion. To make such a study, innovative techniques and defined and developed. Several important conclusions about these models are derived using these new techniques. Open problems are suggested in this book.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[9368] viXra:1411.0528 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 07:02:15

Pseudo Lattice Graphs and their Applications to Fuzzy and Neutrosophic Models

Authors: Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache, Ilanthenral K.
Comments: 275 Pages.

In this book the authors for the first time have merged vertices and edges of lattices to get a new structure which may or may not be a lattice but is always a graph. This merging is done for graph too which will be used in the merging of fuzzy models. Further merging of graphs leads to the merging of matrices; both these concepts play a vital role in merging the fuzzy and neutrosophic models. Several open conjectures are suggested.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[9367] viXra:1411.0527 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 03:48:23

Single-Valued Neutrosophic Minimum Spanning Tree and Its Clustering Method

Authors: Jun Ye
Comments: 14 Pages.

Clustering plays an important role in data mining, pattern recognition, and machine learning. Then, single-valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs) are a useful means to describe and handle indeterminate and inconsistent information, which fuzzy sets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets cannot describe and deal with. To cluster the data represented by single-value neutrosophic information, the article proposes a single-valued neutrosophic minimum spanning tree (SVNMST) clustering algorithm. Firstly, we defined a generalized distance measure between SVNSs. Then, we present an SVNMST clustering algorithm for clustering single-value neutrosophic data based on the generalized distance measure of SVNSs. Finally,two illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the application and effectiveness of the developed approach.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9366] viXra:1411.0526 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 03:54:48

Use of Elements of Semiotic Language in Tourism Marketing

Authors: Michal Kolcun, Sebastian Kot, Iwona Grabara
Comments: 6 Pages.

Tourism marketing has developed a semiotic tourism language to promote and introduce touristic destinations, a language that is sometimes even called touristic language, and which uses signs and images to define destinations or describe the expectations that we may have in various touristic locations. The correct use of the signs and the markers by the tourism industry may represent the difference between a dreamlike holiday and a touristic nightmare, when there’s no account of regional characteristics, social or cultural, of the chosen target segment.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9365] viXra:1411.0525 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 03:55:52

A Schema for Protecting the Integrity of Databases

Authors: Ibrahim Kamel
Comments: 12 Pages.

Unauthorized changes to databases can result in significant losses for organizations as well as individuals. Watermarking can be used to protect the integrity of databases against unauthorized alterations. Prior work focused on watermarking database tables or relations. Malicious alteration cannot be detected in all cases. In this paper we argue that watermarking database indexes in addition to the database tables would improve the detection of unauthorized alterations. Usually, each database table in commercial applications has more than one index attached to it. Thus, watermarking the database table and all its indexes improve the likelihood of detecting malicious attacks. In general, watermarking different indexes like R-trees, B-trees, Hashes, require different watermarking techniques and exploit different redundancies in the underlying data structure. This diversity in watermarking techniques contributes to the overall integrity of the databases.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9364] viXra:1411.0524 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 03:57:19

A Robust Software Watermarking for Copyright Protection

Authors: Ibrahim Kamel, Qutaiba Albluwi
Comments: 15 Pages.

This paper advocates protecting software copyright through hiding watermarks in various data structures used by the code, e.g., Bþ-trees, R-trees, linked lists, etc. Prior proposals hide the watermarks in dummy data structures, e.g., linked lists and graphs that are created, solely for this reason, during the execution of the hosting software. This makes them vulnerable to subtractive attacks, because the attacker can remove the dummy data structures without altering the functionality or the semantic of the software program. We argue that hiding watermarks in one or more data structures that are used by the program would make the watermark more robust because disturbing the watermark would affect the semantic and the functionality of the underlying software. The challenge is that the insertion of the watermark should have a minimal effect on the operations and performance of the data structure.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9363] viXra:1411.0523 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 04:09:18

The Weird World of Nonstandard Analysis (NSA), the GD and the GID (General Intelligent Design) Models

Authors: Robert A. Herrmann
Comments: 18 Pages.

The very unusual symbolic aspects of Nonstandard Analysis are discussed. Most formal constructions are not presented. The definitions, interrelations and symbolic manipulations of six distinct NSA symbolic languages are presented. Examples are given for these interrelations and manipulations. These symbolic forms are interpreted theologically relative to the characterizing of Divine attributes and relative to the intelligent design of the General Grand Unification Model produced physical universe. The predicted theological conclusions are summarized by numbered statements in Sections 5 and 6 of this article. This article is intended to present the necessary material that should make these statements fully comprehensible.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[9362] viXra:1411.0522 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 03:58:18

Landmarks of Corporate Social Responsibilities in Romania

Authors: Mirela Teodorescu
Comments: 10 Pages.

STRACT Currently, the image of a company, its corporate identity and culture have become of fundamental importance. Involvement in the community is necessary for a company that wants to ensure not only commercial success but also the respect in which society operates. Donations, sponsorship and corporate social responsibility are forms that companies can interact with the community in which it operates. The difference between a company's social responsibility and philanthropy is that the former involves the development of a strategy for community involvement and partnerships in which the company has in turn gain, while in the case of philanthropy, NGO strategy is oriented towards solving the problems of beneficiaries. Corporate Social Responsibility is a concept increasingly more present in Romanian business society.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9361] viXra:1411.0521 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 03:59:40

Vector Similarity Measures of Simplified Neutrosophic Sets and Their Application in Multicriteria Decision Making

Authors: Yun Ye
Comments: 10 Pages.

Neutrosophic set is a powerful general formal framework, which generalizes the concept of the classic set, fuzzy set, interval valued fuzzy set, intuitionistic fuzzy set, and interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set from philosophical point of view. However, it will be difficult to apply in real science and engineering areas, while a simplified neutrosophic set (SNS) is a subclass of a neutrosophic set and includes the concepts of a single valued neutrosophic set (SVNS) and an interval neutrosophic set (INS), which can be used in real science and engineering applications with the incomplete, indeterminate and inconsistent information which exists commonly in real situations.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9360] viXra:1411.0520 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 04:04:35

Tourism – Dynamising Element in the Sustainable Development of South-West Oltenia Region

Authors: Cerasela Vintilescu
Comments: 11 Pages.

The study examines the touristic potential of South-West Oltenia region. It proves that on territorial profile, the South-West Oltenia region might substitute for the problems of development of the National economy, through a good touristic capitalization. Natural touristic resources, being inexhaustible and uniformly distributed in the territory, become the defining elements of the analyzed geographical space. Their role can be maintained in superior parameters, having a polarizing effect of the territorial organization phase.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9359] viXra:1411.0519 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 04:05:40

A Study on the Non –Awareness and Impact of Right to Information Act Among People in Tamil Nadu Region Using Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps (Ncms)

Authors: T. Bharathi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper we analyzed the impact of Right to Information Act among public people using Neutrosophic Cognitive Map (NCM) which is the generalization of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs). This paper has five sections. First section gives the information about the development of FCM and NCM. Second section gives the preliminaries of FCM’s, NCM’s and methods of determining the hidden pattern of NCM’s. In section three, we give the description of the social issues regarding the non-awareness and impact of RTI. Section four gives adaption of NCM’s to the problem and the final section gives the conclusion based on our study.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9358] viXra:1411.0518 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 04:06:52

A Study on Miracles Through the Holy Bible Using New Triangular Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps(trncms).

Authors: A.Rajkuma, A.Victor Devadoss
Comments: 9 Pages.

Our main objective of this paper is to the studying at length the various reasons for miracles with incidents from the Holy Bible adopting the new fuzzy tool called Triangular Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps to analyze the social problem. Usually in NCM we analyze the measure not only the existence of causal relation between concepts or the absence of causal relations between two concepts but also gives representation to the indeterminacy of relations between any two concepts.. But this new model gives ranking for the causes and indeterminacy of relations between any two concepts of the problem. The presence study deals studying at length the various reasons for miracles with incidents from the Holy Bible using Triangular Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps (TrNCMs). This paper consist five sections. In first section, we give the brief introduction to Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps, Section two gives the basic definitions of TrNCM. In Section three, we presented hidden pattern of the Triangular Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps (TrNCMs) dynamical system. In Fourth section we analyzed the concept of the problem using Triangular Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (TrNCMs). In Final section we give the conclusion based on our study.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9357] viXra:1411.0517 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 04:13:41

Some Results of Interval Valued Fuzzy Neotrosophic Soft Sets

Authors: L. Arockiarani, I.R. Sumathi
Comments: 21 Pages.

The paper proposes the notion of interval valued neutrosophis soft sets and some of its operation are defined.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9356] viXra:1411.0516 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 04:15:03

The Role of Information System Flows in Fulfilling Customers’ Individual Orders

Authors: Paula Bajdor, Iwona Grabara
Comments: 11 Pages.

Being aware of the role that an information system in the company plays and its impact on individual processes, this article presents an information system used in the selected company. The first part discusses the essence of an information system, while in the second part of the article all the processes occurring in the studied company have been described, together with the information accompanying them.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9355] viXra:1411.0515 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 04:16:17

Some Generalized Neutrosophic Number Hamacher Aggregation Operators and Their Application to Group Decision Making

Authors: Peide Liu, Yanchang Chu, Yanwei Li, Yubao Chen
Comments: 14 Pages.

The neutrosophic set (NS) can be better to express the incomplete, indeterminate and inconsistent information,and Hamacher aggregation operators extended the Algebraic and Einstein aggregation operators and the generalized aggregation operators can generalize the arithmetic, geometric, and quadratic aggregation operators.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9354] viXra:1411.0514 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-20 23:33:46

An Alternative Economic Paradigm: How Redistribution would Drive the Economy An Alternative Economic Paradigm: How Redistribution would Drive the Economy

Authors: Piero BENAZZO
Comments: 10 Pages.

In 1943 in Bengal, inequality together with the inelasticity of supply led to an increase of entitlements for some citizens that generated inflation in the subsistence sector and decreased entitlements for others. These latter experienced tragic famine. This shows that distribution matters. A subdivision of the economy between subsistence sector and wealth sector brings such arguments in the whole economy. The analysis specifies aggregates of variables and conditions whereby these dynamics currently remain hidden behind aggregation. For example, a decoupling between demand side, which remains local, and supply side, which may be delocalised, shuffles rankings hiding dynamics. Increase in inequality would generate an inequality trap inflating the subsistence sector in relation to the wealth sector and bringing recession in this latter, overcasting increased efficiency. Some policy options are discussed.
Category: Economics and Finance

[9353] viXra:1411.0513 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 01:45:59

Automatic Aircraft Recognition using DSmT and HMM

Authors: Xin-de Li, Jin-dong Pan, Jean Dezert
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper we propose a new method for solving the Automatic Aircraft Recognition (AAR) problem from a sequence of images of an unknown observed aircraft. Our method exploits the knowledge extracted from a training image data set (a set of binary images of different aircrafts observed under three different poses) with the fusion of information of multiple features drawn from the image sequence using Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) coupled with Hidden Markov Models (HMM).
Category: General Mathematics

[9352] viXra:1411.0512 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 01:47:42

Improvement of the Walking Robot Dynamic Stability Using the DSmT and the Neutrosophic Logic

Authors: Luige Vladareanu, Alexandru Gal, Hongnian Yu, Mincong Deng
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper presents an innovative algorithm for improvement of the walking robot dynamic stability, using the Desert Smarandache Theory (DSmT) and the neutrosophic logic set. Starting from the hybrid force-position control, by applying the Robot Neutrosophic Control (RNC) method we extend the fuzzy control for walking robot stability motion on uneven terrain and in unstructured environments. Results analysis through virtual experimentation for motion control of a mobile walking robot proves that the neutrosophic logic leads to performance improvement of real time control through robustness, adaptation to robot's environment, efficient control and fast and clear identification of robot states.
Category: General Mathematics

[9351] viXra:1411.0511 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 01:49:12

Texture Feature Extraction for Mammogram Images Using Biorthogonal Wavelet Filter via Lifting Scheme

Authors: Shobha Jose
Comments: 5 Pages.

Feature extraction is an important part in Content-based image retrieval (CBIR).It is an active research area over the past few decades. In this paper texture feature extraction of mammogram images are done. Biorthogonal wavelet filter via lifting scheme is used for the extraction of texture features. Maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) is used for texture feature estimation. Here Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM) is used as the database. Here biorthogonal wavelets are used in the lifting scheme to get texture feature vectors of mammogram images. By using lifting scheme in all biorthogonal wavelets, predict and update filter coefficients are also got. These coefficients will be adapted later and thus we can find the optimal wavelet filter bank for increasing the retrieval performance of the retrieval system. By using lifting scheme methodology decomposition of images are done and thus got approximation and detail coefficients of image.
Category: General Mathematics

[9350] viXra:1411.0510 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 01:51:51

URREF Self-Confidence in Information Fusion Trust

Authors: Erik Blasch, Audun Jøsang, Jean Dezert, Paulo C. G. Costa, Anne-Laure Jousselme
Comments: 8 Pages.

The Uncertainty Representation and Reasoning Evaluation Framework (URREF) includes an ontology that represents concepts and criteria needed to evaluate the uncertainty management aspects of a fusion system. The URREF ontology defines self-confidence as a measure of the information credibility as evaluated by the sensor itself. The concept of confidence, which is not explicitly defined in the ontology at URREF, has been extensively explored in the literature about evaluation in information fusion systems (IFS). In this paper, we provide a discussion on confidence as it relates to the evaluation of IFS, and compare it with the existing concepts in the URREF ontology.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9349] viXra:1411.0509 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 01:54:47

Algorithm of Nature

Authors: Ulrich E. Bruchholz
Comments: 4 Pages.

Numerical simulations of elementary gravitation and electromagnetic elds are done with an amazingly simple algorithm. But this algorithm renders nature correctly. As well, the material world is revealed to be completely Riemannian-geometrical without exception. Mathematics is based on the Geometric theorie of elds, which refers to Einstein and Rainich. The correctness of the theory is manifested in it that known particles appear as discrete solutions of geometric eld equations. The results involve new understanding of mathematical principles.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9348] viXra:1411.0508 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 01:56:22

Clustering Methods Using Distance-Based Similarity Measures of Single-Valued Neutrosophic Sets

Authors: Jun Ye
Comments: 11 Pages.

Clustering plays an important role in data mining, pattern recognition, and machine learning. Singlevalued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs) are useful means to describe and handle indeterminate and inconsistent information that fuzzy sets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets cannot describe and deal with. To cluster the data represented by single-valued neutrosophic information, this article proposes single-valued neutrosophic clustering methods based on similarity measures between SVNSs. First, we define a generalized distance measure between SVNSs and propose two distance-based similarity measures of SVNSs. Then, we present a clustering algorithm based on the similarity measures of SVNSs to cluster single-valued neutrosophic data. Finally, an illustrative example is given to demonstrate the application and effectiveness of the developed clustering methods.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9347] viXra:1411.0507 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 01:58:19

Coronary Arteries Segmentation based on the 3D Discrete Wavelet Transform and 3D Neutrosophic Transform

Authors: Shuo-Tsung Chen, Tzung-Dau Wang, Wen-Jeng Lee, Tsai-Wei Huang, Pei-Kai Hung, Cheng-Yu Wei, Chung-Ming Chen, Woon-Man Kung
Comments: 27 Pages.

Most applications in the field of medical image processing require precise estimation. To improve the accuracy of segmentation, this study aimed to propose a novel segmentation method for coronary arteries using computed tomography angiography (CTA) data sets to allow for the automatic and accurate detection of coronary pathologies.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9346] viXra:1411.0506 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 02:01:13

Design and Implementation of Neutrosophic Data Operations Using Object Oriented Programming

Authors: A. A. Salama, Mohamed Abdelfattah, H. A. El-Ghareeb, A. M. Manie
Comments: 13 Pages.

It is of great interest to develop a framework containing a library of the main building blocks of common use to neutrosophic data. This framework would save much of the routine work that is needed to build most types of neutrosophic data. In this paper, we would like to introduce model neutrosophic data sets. The use of object oriented programming techniques and concepts as they may apply to the design and development a new framework to implement neutrosophic data operations.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9345] viXra:1411.0505 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 02:03:22

Florentin Smarandache: Law of Included Multiple-Middle. Book Review

Authors: Jozef Novak-Marcincin, Daniela Gîfu, Mirela Teodorescu
Comments: 6 Pages.

Florentin Smarandache is known as scientist and writer. He writes in three languages: Romanian, French, and English. He graduated the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science at the University of Craiova in 1979 first of his class, earned a Ph. D. in Mathematics from the State University Moldova at Kishinev in 1997, and continued postdoctoral studies at various American Universities such as University of Texas at Austin, University of Phoenix, etc. after emigration.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9344] viXra:1411.0503 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 02:06:13

Correlation of Neutrosophic Sets in Probability Spaces

Authors: I.m. Hanafy, A. A. Salama, O. M. Khaled, K. M. Mahfouz
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce and study the concepts of correlation and correlation coefficient of neutrosophic data in probability spaces. In the case of finite spaces, these results give the results due to Salama et al. [16, 17, 18] and study some of their properties.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9343] viXra:1411.0502 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 02:23:43

Florentin Smarandache & Ştefan Vlăduţescu: Neutrosophic Emergences and Incidences in Communication and Information – Book Review

Authors: Mirela Teodorescu, Dan Ionescu
Comments: 6 Pages.

Neutrosophic emergences and incidences in communication and information, published in Germany/Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing in 2013, is a book that constitutes a new trend, a new approach in the science of logic, philosophy, communication theory, information, an approached and exemplification that it was wanted, it was intuited, it was expected but it has no mathematical foundation, that is neutrosophy. It is a book that presents avant-garde information. It is written by two appreciated researchers and inexhaustible perpetual idea machines: Professors Florentin Smarandache and Ştefan Vlăduţescu. First of them is professor of mathematics at University of New Mexico/ USA, the second is professor of communication theory at University of Craiova/ Romania. Both of them have published a lot of books and papers in domain of philosophy, communication, sociology, psychology, mathematics and literature. Logic started in Ancient with Classical Logic of Aristotle, developed and covered by Three Valued Logic of Lukasiewicz, next ring being Fuzzy Logic of Zadech, finally the comprehensive Neutrosophic Logic of Smarandache.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9342] viXra:1411.0501 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 02:27:32

The Stability and Radioactivity of Atomic Nucleus

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

put forward the causes and mechanism of radioactivity of unstable nucleus
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[9341] viXra:1411.0500 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 03:01:09

Interval Neutrosophic Multiple Attribute Decision-Making Method Considering Credibility

Authors: Jun Ye
Comments: 18 Pages.

Considering corresponding credibility on every evaluation value of interval neutrosophic numbers (INNs) in interval neutrosophic decision making, we put forward two interval neutrosophic weighted aggregation operators considering credibility, including a credibility-induced interval neutrosophic weighted arithmetic averaging (CIINWAA) operator and a credibility-induced interval neutrosophic weighted geometric averaging (CIINWGA) operator, and investigate their properties. Based on the Dice similarity measure, we introduce a ranking method for INNs, and then establish a decision-making method based on the CIINWAA and CIINWGA operators and the ranking method to handle multiple attribute decision-making problems with interval neutrosophic information and credibility information. Finally, an illustrative example of investment alternatives and the comparative analysis are provided to demonstrate the application and effectiveness of the developed approach.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9340] viXra:1411.0499 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 03:02:37

Interval-Valued Neutrosophic Soft Sets and Its Decision Making

Authors: Irfan Deli, Naim Cagman
Comments: 25 Pages.

In this paper, the notion of the interval valued neutrosophic soft sets (ivn−soft sets) is defined which is a combination of an interval valued neutrosophic sets [36] and a soft sets [30]. Our ivn−soft sets generalizes the concept of the soft set, fuzzy soft set, interval valued fuzzy soft set, intuitionistic fuzzy soft set, interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft set and neutrosophic soft set. Then, we introduce some definitions and operations on ivn−soft sets sets. Some properties of ivn−soft sets which are con- nected to operations have been established. Also, the aim of this paper is to investigate the decision making based on ivn−soft sets by level soft sets. Therefore, we develop a decision making methods and then give a example to illustrate the developed approach.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9339] viXra:1411.0498 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 03:04:09

Intuitionistic Fuzzy Multicriteria Group Decisionmaking Approach to Quality Clay-Brick Selection Problems Based on Grey Relational Analysis

Authors: Kalyan MONDAL, Surapati PRAMANIK
Comments: 16 Pages.

This paper presents quality Clay-Brick selection process based on intuitionistic fuzzy multi criteria group decision making through grey relational analysis. Brick plays an important role in construction field. Intuitionistic fuzzy weighted averaging operator is used to aggregate individual opinions of decision makers into a group opinion. Six criteria are considered for selection process and the criteria are obtained from expert opinions. The criteria are namely solidity, color, size and shape, strength of Brick, cost of Bricks and carrying cost. Weights of the criteria are obtained from domain experts by using a questionnaire. The rating of an alternative with respect to certain criterion offered by decision maker is represented by linguistic variable that can be expressed by intuitionistic fuzzy sets. An intuitionistic fuzzy set, which is characterized by membership function (degree of acceptance), non-membership function (degree of rejection) and the degree of indeterminacy or the degree of hesitancy, is a more general and suitable way to deal with imprecise information. Grey relational analysis is used for ranking and selection of alternatives. An illustrative numerical example for quality Brick selection is solved to show the effectiveness of the proposed model.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9338] viXra:1411.0497 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 03:08:13

Intuitionistic Neutrosophic Set

Authors: Monoranjan Bhowmik, Madhumangal Pal
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this paper, we define intuitionistic neutrosophic set (INSs) and truth-value based INSs. In fact, all INSs are neutrosophic set but all neutrosophic sets are not INSs. We define some new operations on INSs with examples for the implementation of the operations in real life problems. Also, we studied some properties of INSs.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9337] viXra:1411.0496 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 03:09:28

Intuitionistic Neutrosophic Set Relations and Some of Its Properties

Authors: Monoranjan Bhowmik, Madhumangal Pal
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper, we define intuitionistic neutrosophic set (INSs). In fact, all INSs are neutrosophic set but all neutrosophic sets are not INSs. We have shown by means of example that the definition for neutrosophic sets the complement and union are not true for INSs also give new definition of complement, union and intersection of INSs. We define the relation of INSs and four special type of INSs relations. Finally we have studied some properties of INSs relations.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9336] viXra:1411.0495 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 03:11:09

Lean Manufacturing: a Concept Towards a Sustainable Management

Authors: Alina Ţenescu, Mirela Teodorescu
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this paper, we will analyze the concept of lean manufacturing, starting from the example illustrated by TPS (Toyota Production System) which is renowned for its focus on the reduction of the original Toyota seven waists in order to improve overall customer value, in spite of the existence of varying perspectives on how this is best achieved. The steady growth of Toyota, from a small company to the world’s largest automaker (Bailey, 2008) has focused its attention on how it has achieved this success. It is a starting template that was also developed by other automotive makers, and not only. We will also identify the main elements of lean philosophy and propose a typology of the fundamental concepts of lean, using data analysis from research findings across studies on lean manufacturing and lean production published in the past two decades.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9335] viXra:1411.0494 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 03:22:18

Monomial Geometric Programming with Fuzzy Relation Inequality Constraints with Max-Product Composition

Authors: Elyas Shivanian, Esmaile Khorram
Comments: 7 Pages.

Monomials function has always been considered as a significant and most extensively used function in real living. Resource allocation, structure optimization and technology management can often apply these functions. In optimization problems the objective functions can be considered by monomials. In this paper, we present monomials geometric programming with fuzzy relation inequalities constraint with max-product composition. Simplification operations have been given to accelerate the resolution of the problem by removing the components having no effect on the solution process. Also, an algorithm and a few practical examples are presented to abbreviate and illustrate the steps of the problem resolution.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9334] viXra:1411.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 03:29:45

Multiple-attribute Decision-Making Method under a Single-Valued Neutrosophic Hesitant Fuzzy Environment

Authors: Jun Ye
Comments: 14 Pages.

On the basis of the combination of single-valued neutrosophic sets and hesitant fuzzy sets, this article proposes a single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set (SVNHFS) as a further generalization of the concepts of fuzzy set, intuitionistic fuzzy set, single-valued neutrosophic set, hesitant fuzzy set, and dual hesitant fuzzy set. Then, we introduce the basic operational relations and cosine measure function of SVNHFSs. Also, we develop a single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy weighted averaging (SVNHFWA) operator and a single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy weighted geometric (SVNHFWG) operator and investigate their properties. Furthermore, a multiple-attribute decision-making method is established on the basis of the SVNHFWA and SVNHFWG operators and the cosine measure under a single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy environment. Finally, an illustrative example of investment alternatives is given to demonstrate the application and effectiveness of the developed approach.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9333] viXra:1411.0491 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 03:30:47

Neutrosophic Ideals of ¡-Semirings

Authors: Debabrata Mandal
Comments: 11 Pages.

Neutrosophic ideals of a ¡-semiring are introduced and studied in the sense of Smarandache[14], along with some operations such as intersection, composition, cartesian product etc. on them. Among the other results/characterizations, it is shown that all the operations are structure preserving.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

Replacements of recent Submissions

[4144] viXra:1411.0576 [pdf] replaced on 2014-11-28 05:22:47

The Perceived Image of Time: Unraveling The Special Relativity Misconceptions

Authors: Radwan M. Kassir
Comments: 53 pages - A simplified physical approach using basic concepts leading to the exposure of the Special Relativity misconceptions. [v2] added paragraph under LT section.

Applying basic classical physics concepts of time and space, while considering event information is ultimately communicated through light—or electromagnetic—signals, it was shown that proper time interval measured in an inertial reference frame (labeled as traveling “object frame”) between two co-local events occurring at the frame origin undergoes apparent alteration and perceived as a “time image” in another inertial frame (labeled as stationary “image frame”), when the two frames are in relative motion. The same “time image” was perceived by either frame due to the change of the light speed relative to the reference frames. Under certain conditions of events spatial coordinates, it was shown through obtained modified Galilean transformations that “apparent” length contraction and expansion were associated with “apparent” time dilation and contraction, respectively. In the case the Emission Theory of light was considered, symmetry in regard to the time and space alteration factors between the frames was shown (i.e., time and space in the traveling “object frame” were perceived in the stationary “image frame” altered by the same factors as for the case when the frame “labels” were swapped). The known classical Doppler Effect was readily derived from the established alteration factors. For all classical approaches, and in the case of light, the wave length was invariant. In the case the Special Relativity approach was considered, i.e. when the speed of light was assumed constant with respect to all inertial reference frames, inconsistent time “images” were perceived, so an ad hoc assumption was required, imposing an artificial transformation distorting the Emission Theory “time image” dimension by the inverse of the relativistic factor "gamma" leading to the Lorentz transformation, applicable under special conditions of the space coordinates in the direction of motion. Misconceptions in the Special Relativity interpretation of the Lorentz transformation were systematically revealed. Time alteration was perceived as a dilated “image” for receding frames, and contracted for approaching ones. Self-contradiction in the Lorentz transformation was revealed in connection with the time contraction for approaching frames. When the frames receded and then approached during equal proper time intervals, the net time interval was perceived as an “image” dilated by "gamma" for the Special Relativity approach, as opposed to "gamma^2" for the Light Emission theory. For the Ether Theory assumption, either time dilation or time invariance was obtained depending on whether the traveling “object frame” was taken to be the ether frame. The “inverse” transformation was shown to be different from the “opposite” transformation in the way that the former had “image” arguments—returning “object” entities—whereas the latter had “object” arguments in the swapped frame “labels” scenario. Furthermore, they have opposite coordinate domains in the motion direction, although they exhibited the same form; “symmetry” misconceptions were revealed. The known relativistic Doppler Effect was readily derived. For the case of light, the perceived frequency exhibiting a blue shift (frequency increase) in the case of approaching frames, was in line with the established time contraction in this study, contradicting the Special Relativity prediction of time dilation irrespective of whether the frames were receding or approaching. In addition, the wavelength exhibited an increase in the case of receding frames, whereas it decreased when the source was approaching. Available experimental data related to [apparent] time dilations, Doppler Effect, and non-existence of preferred reference frame for light propagation (Michelson-Morley experiment) could then be analyzed vis-à-vis the classical theories in terms of apparent time and space transformations.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[4143] viXra:1411.0566 [pdf] replaced on 2014-11-27 21:14:29

On the Limitations of Wilson's Renormalization Group Program

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 5 Pages. First draft.

This informal report surveys several lesser-known limitations of Wilson’s Renormalization Group program. The account is not intended to be either rigorous or complete as our sole purpose is to stimulate further discussions and research.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[4142] viXra:1411.0536 [pdf] replaced on 2014-11-22 05:58:11

Cosmic Reionisation in the Accelerating Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 9 Pages.

The universe was born in the Big Bang some 13.8 billion years ago. In its earliest epochs, it was filled with a hot 'soup' of charged protons and electrons. As the newborn universe expanded, its temperature decreased uniformly. When the universe was 400,000 years old, conditions were cool enough to allow the protons and electrons to bond and form neutral hydrogen atoms. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[4141] viXra:1411.0523 [pdf] replaced on 2014-11-27 05:44:44

The Weird World of Nonstandard Analysis (NSA), the GD and the GID (General Intelligent Design) Models

Authors: Robert A. Herrmann
Comments: 18 Pages.

The very unusual symbolic aspects of Nonstandard Analysis (NSA) are discussed. Most formal constructions are not presented. The definitions, interrelations and symbolic manipulations of six distinct NSA symbolic languages are presented. Examples are given for these interrelations and symbolic manipulations. These symbolic forms are interpreted theologically relative to the characterizing of Divine attributes and relative to the design of a General Grand Unification Model produced physical universe. The predicted theological conclusions are summarized by the numbered statements in Sections 5 and 6 of this article. This article is intended to present the necessary material that should make these statements fully comprehensible.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[4140] viXra:1411.0514 [pdf] replaced on 2014-11-22 11:50:48

An Alternative Economic Paradigm: How Redistribution would Drive the Economy

Authors: Piero BENAZZO
Comments: 10 Pages.

In 1943 in Bengal, inequality together with the inelasticity of supply led to an increase of entitlements for some citizens that generated inflation in the subsistence sector and decreased entitlements for others. These latter experienced tragic famine. This shows that distribution matters. A subdivision of the economy between subsistence sector and wealth sector brings such arguments in the whole economy. The analysis specifies aggregates of variables and conditions whereby these dynamics currently remain hidden behind aggregation. For example, a decoupling between demand side, which remains local, and supply side, which may be delocalised, shuffles rankings hiding dynamics. Increase in inequality would generate an inequality trap inflating the subsistence sector in relation to the wealth sector and bringing recession in this latter, overcasting increased efficiency. Some policy options are discussed.
Category: Economics and Finance

[4139] viXra:1411.0501 [pdf] replaced on 2014-11-26 21:15:43

The Stability and Radioactivity of Atomic Nucleus

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

put the causes and mechanism for unstable atomic nucleus has radioactivity
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[4138] viXra:1411.0501 [pdf] replaced on 2014-11-23 01:34:43

The Stability and Radioactivity of Atomic Nucleus

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

put forward the causes and mechanism of radioactivity of unstable nucleus
Category: High Energy Particle Physics