All Submission Categories

Previous months:
2007 - 0702(58) - 0703(50) - 0704(5) - 0705(1) - 0706(8) - 0707(2) - 0708(3) - 0709(3) - 0710(1) - 0711(6) - 0712(3)
2008 - 0801(4) - 0802(4) - 0803(2) - 0804(9) - 0805(4) - 0806(1) - 0807(12) - 0808(6) - 0809(3) - 0810(16) - 0811(5) - 0812(9)
2009 - 0901(3) - 0902(7) - 0903(6) - 0904(5) - 0907(48) - 0908(109) - 0909(61) - 0910(66) - 0911(64) - 0912(54)
2010 - 1001(46) - 1002(51) - 1003(265) - 1004(138) - 1005(110) - 1006(67) - 1007(55) - 1008(91) - 1009(71) - 1010(61) - 1011(76) - 1012(52)
2011 - 1101(100) - 1102(55) - 1103(119) - 1104(82) - 1105(40) - 1106(59) - 1107(52) - 1108(48) - 1109(56) - 1110(69) - 1111(110) - 1112(84)
2012 - 1201(98) - 1202(79) - 1203(89) - 1204(92) - 1205(107) - 1206(89) - 1207(97) - 1208(221) - 1209(95) - 1210(159) - 1211(136) - 1212(138)
2013 - 1301(170) - 1302(143) - 1303(194) - 1304(146) - 1305(181) - 1306(203) - 1307(150) - 1308(138) - 1309(187) - 1310(237) - 1311(160) - 1312(197)
2014 - 1401(182) - 1402(139) - 1403(840) - 1404(247) - 1405(322) - 1406(171) - 1407(202) - 1408(213) - 1409(217) - 1410(183) - 1411(478) - 1412(236)
2015 - 1501(224) - 1502(213) - 1503(238) - 1504(209) - 1505(210) - 1506(200) - 1507(197) - 1508(349) - 1509(257) - 1510(449) - 1511(271) - 1512(434)
2016 - 1601(343) - 1602(339) - 1603(363) - 1604(322) - 1605(289) - 1606(306) - 1607(474) - 1608(403) - 1609(393) - 1610(361) - 1611(391) - 1612(394)
2017 - 1701(557) - 1702(306) - 1703(302) - 1704(371) - 1705(343)

Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[18785] viXra:1705.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-25 07:26:26

Atomistic Insights into Ferroelectric Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

At first glance, biomedical imaging devices, cell phones, and radio telescopes may not seem to have much in common, but they are all examples of technologies that can benefit from certain types of relaxor ferroelectrics— ceramics that change their shape under the application of an electric field. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16]
Category: Condensed Matter

[18784] viXra:1705.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-25 08:47:15

We Are Living in a Computer Simulation

Authors: Ding-Yu Chung
Comments: 18 Pages. Published in Journal of Modern Physics, 2016, 7, 1210-1227

This paper posits that we are living in a computer simulation to simulate physical reality which has the same computer simulation process as virtual reality (computer-simulated reality). The computer simulation process involves the digital representation of data, the mathematical computation of the digitized data in geometric formation and transformation in space-time, and the selective retention of events in a narrative. Conventional physics cannot explain physical reality clearly, while computer-simulated physics can explain physical reality clearly by using the computer simulation process consisting of the digital representation component, the mathematical computation component, and the selective retention component. For the digital representation component, the three intrinsic data (properties) are rest mass-kinetic energy, electric charge, and spin which are represented by the digital space structure, the digital spin, and the digital electric charge, respectively. The digital representations of rest mass and kinetic energy are 1 as attachment space for the space of matter and 0 as detachment space for the zero-space of matter, respectively, to explain the Higgs field, the reverse Higgs field, quantum mechanics, special relativity, force fields, dark matter, and baryonic matter. The digital representations of the exclusive and the inclusive occupations of positions are ½ spin fermion and integer spin boson, respectively, to explain spatial translation by supersymmetry transformation and dark energy. The digital representations of the allowance and the disallowance of irreversible kinetic energy are integral electric charges and fractional electric charges, respectively, to explain the confinements of quarks and quasiparticles. For the mathematical computation component, the mathematical computation involves the reversible multiverse and oscillating M-theory as oscillating membrane-string-particle whose space-time dimension (D) number oscillates between 11D and 10D and between 10D and 4D to explain cosmology. For the selective retention component, gravity, the strong force, electromagnetism, and the weak force are the retained events during the reversible four-stage evolution of our universe, and are unified by the common narrative of the evolution.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18783] viXra:1705.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-25 08:55:15

The Accurate Mass Formulas of Leptons, Quarks, Gauge Bosons, the Higgs Boson, and Cosmic Rays

Authors: Ding-Yu Chung
Comments: 16 Pages. Published in Journal of Modern Physics, 2016, 7, 1591-1606

One of the biggest unsolved problems in physics is the particle masses of all elementary particles which cannot be calculated accurately and predicted theoretically. In this paper, the unsolved problem of the particle masses is solved by the accurate mass formulas which calculate accurately and predict theoretically the particle masses of all leptons, quarks, gauge bosons, the Higgs boson, and cosmic rays (the knees-ankles-toe) by using only five known constants: the number (seven) of the extra spatial dimensions in the eleven-dimensional membrane, the mass of electron, the masses of Z and W bosons, and the fine structure constant. The calculated masses are in excellent agreements with the observed masses. For examples, the calculated masses of muon, top quark, pion, neutron, and the Higgs boson are 105.55 MeV, 175.4 GeV, 139.54 MeV, 939.43 MeV, and 126 GeV, respectively, in excellent agreements with the observed 105.65 MeV, 173.3 GeV, 139.57 MeV, 939.27 MeV, and 126 GeV, respectively. The theoretical base of the accurate mass formulas is the periodic table of elementary particles. As the periodic table of elements is derived from atomic orbitals, the periodic table of elementary particles is derived from the seven principal mass dimensional orbitals and seven auxiliary mass dimensional orbitals. All elementary particles including leptons, quarks, gauge bosons, the Higgs boson, and cosmic rays can be placed in the periodic table of elementary particles. The periodic table of elementary particles is based on the theory of everything as the computer simulation model of physical reality consisting of the mathematical computation, digital representation, and selective retention components. The computer simulation model of physical reality provides the seven principal mass dimensional orbitals and seven auxiliary mass dimensional orbitals for the periodic table of elementary particles.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[18782] viXra:1705.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-25 08:58:46

The Unified Theory of Physics: Symmetry Physics and Yinyang Physics

Authors: Ding-Yu Chung
Comments: 13 Pages.

The unified theory of physics is based on both symmetry physics and yinyang physics to unify all physical laws and phenomena, all four fundamental forces, and all elementary particles. Conventional symmetry physics preserves the physical features of a system under transformation by a symmetry operator. In unconventional yinyang physics, yin and yang constitute a binary yinyang system of opposite physical properties by yin and yang operators. The three fundamental symmetry operators transform the three fundamental yinyang systems (inclusiveness-exclusiveness, rest-movement, and composite-individual) into the unified theory of physics. In the inclusiveness-exclusiveness system, a particle is transformed into boson with inclusive occupation of position by the integer spin operator, while a particle is transformed into fermion with exclusive occupation of position by the ½ spin operator. The fundamental symmetry operator is supersymmetry to result in M-theory and cosmology. In the rest-movement system, a moving massless particle (kinetic energy) is transformed into a resting massive particle (rest mass) by the attachment space (denoted as 1) operator to explain the Higgs field, while a resting massive particle is transformed into a moving massless particle by the detachment space (denoted as 0) operator to explain the reverse Higgs field. The fundamental symmetry operator is the symmetrical combination of attachment space and detachment space to bring about the three space structures: binary partition space, (1)n(0)n, for wave-particle duality, binary miscible space, (1+0)n, for relativity, and binary lattice space, (1 0)n, for virtual particles in quantum field theory. In the composite-individual system, particles are transformed into fractional charge quark composite by the fractional electric charge operator, while particles are transformed into integral charge particle individuals by the integral electric charge operator. The fundamental symmetry operator is the symmetrical combination of quarks, leptons, and bosons to constitute the periodic table of elementary particles which calculates accurately the particle masses of all elementary particles.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18781] viXra:1705.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-25 10:02:16

Biological Cells using Laser Holographic

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

A research team led by Professor YongKeun Park of the Physics Department at KAIST has developed an optical manipulation technique that can freely control the position, orientation, and shape of microscopic samples having complex shapes. [25] Rutgers researchers have developed a new way to analyze hundreds of thousands of cells at once, which could lead to faster and more accurate diagnoses of illnesses, including tuberculosis and cancers. [24] An international team including researchers from MIPT has shown that iodide phasing—a long-established technique in structural biology—is universally applicable to membrane protein structure determination. [23] Scientists in Greece have devised a new form of biometric identification that relies on humans' ability to see flashes of light containing just a handful of photons. [22] A research team led by Professor CheolGi Kim has developed a biosensor platform using magnetic patterns resembling a spider web with detection capability 20 times faster than existing biosensors. [21] Researchers at Columbia University have made a significant step toward breaking the so-called "color barrier" of light microscopy for biological systems, allowing for much more comprehensive, system-wide labeling and imaging of a greater number of biomolecules in living cells and tissues than is currently attainable. [20] Scientists around the Nobel laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now achieved what was for a long time considered impossible – they have developed a new fluorescence microscope, called MINFLUX, allowing, for the first time, to optically separate molecules, which are only nanometers (one millionth of a millimeter) apart from each other. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17]
Category: Physics of Biology

[18780] viXra:1705.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-25 10:37:57

The Notion “speed” and the Lorentz Transformations

Authors: Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky
Comments: 8 Pages.

In the paper a few problems relating to the special relativity theory are considered, real SRT problems that arise from the self-inconsistence of the theory, and so limit its correct application; and imaginary, when at some “refuting of SRT” the notion “relatives speed” is erroneously applied, first of all the “(c±V)” problem.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18779] viXra:1705.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-25 10:44:51

Magnetic Topological Insulators

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

In the world of electronics, where the quest is always for smaller and faster units with infinite battery life, topological insulators (TI) have tantalizing potential. [24] At first glance, biomedical imaging devices, cell phones, and radio telescopes may not seem to have much in common, but they are all examples of technologies that can benefit from certain types of relaxor ferroelectrics— ceramics that change their shape under the application of an electric field. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16]
Category: Condensed Matter

[18778] viXra:1705.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-25 10:44:59

Price Uncertainty Principle

Authors: Chuanli Chen
Comments: 13 Pages.

In modern economy science, there are many theories that discuss the equilibrium. This convention was originally come from two famous economists Walras and Afred Marshall. Walras firstly finished the general equilibrium theory in 1874 in the book the mere economics to iustice. While Afred Marshall put forward the partial equilibrium in 1920. However, by observance, there was never the evidence for the existence of equilibrium. In this paper, I will put forward a new theory, which is named Price Uncertainty Principle. I will point out the flaws of these two equilibrium theories and discuss why the price mechanism is not the invisible hand, then further discuss why partial equilibrium and general equilibrium are not existent. I will prove that there is no equilibrium point for the price and prices are always fluctuant in the market.
Category: Economics and Finance

[18777] viXra:1705.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-25 11:19:05

Fermi–Hubbard Antiferromagnet

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

A team at Harvard University has found a way to create a cold-atom Fermi– Hubbard antiferromagnet, which offers new insight into how electrons behave in solids. [33] NIST scientists have devised a novel hybrid system for cooling superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPD) – essential tools for many kinds of cutting-edge research – that is far smaller than those previously demonstrated and that eliminates the need for conventional cryogens-such as liquid helium. [32] The research team recently succeeded for the first time in precisely controlling the transition temperature of superconducting atomic layers using organic molecules. [31] For the first time, physicists have experimentally validated a 1959 conjecture that places limits on how small superconductors can be. [30] A new finding by physicists at MIT and in Israel shows that under certain specialized conditions, electrons can speed through a narrow opening in a piece of metal more easily than traditional theory says is possible. [29] Researchers have found a way to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, ability of graphene to act as a superconductor-meaning that it can be made to carry an electrical current with zero resistance. [28] Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[18776] viXra:1705.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-25 03:53:34

Artificial Intelligence by Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17] The closer we can get a machine translation to be on par with expert human translation, the happier lots of people struggling with translations will be. [16] Researchers have created a large, open source database to support the development of robot activities based on natural language input. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[18775] viXra:1705.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-25 04:37:17

Superconducting Nanowire

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

NIST scientists have devised a novel hybrid system for cooling superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPD) – essential tools for many kinds of cutting-edge research – that is far smaller than those previously demonstrated and that eliminates the need for conventional cryogens-such as liquid helium. [32] The research team recently succeeded for the first time in precisely controlling the transition temperature of superconducting atomic layers using organic molecules. [31] For the first time, physicists have experimentally validated a 1959 conjecture that places limits on how small superconductors can be. [30] A new finding by physicists at MIT and in Israel shows that under certain specialized conditions, electrons can speed through a narrow opening in a piece of metal more easily than traditional theory says is possible. [29] Researchers have found a way to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, ability of graphene to act as a superconductor-meaning that it can be made to carry an electrical current with zero resistance. [28] Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[18774] viXra:1705.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-25 05:19:12

y^n FLT Identity Proof

Authors: Maik Becker-Sievert
Comments: 1 Page. Identity Proof FLT

This Identity proofs direct Fermats Last Theorem
Category: Number Theory

[18773] viXra:1705.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-25 07:12:28

Metallurgy in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is observed that stars evolve into what are called “planets/exoplanets”, this meaning planets/exoplanets are simply evolved/evolving stars. The theoretical foundations for explaining how this occurs is outlined in the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis. As a principle of this still developing theory the plasma to rock and metal principle is mentioned with how it relates to metallurgy.
Category: Astrophysics

[18772] viXra:1705.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-24 13:09:34

Construction of the Lovas-Andai Two-Qubit Function $\tilde{\chi}_2 (\varepsilon )=\frac{1}{3} \varepsilon ^2 \left(4-\varepsilon ^2\right)$ Verifies the $\frac{8}{33}$-Hilbert Schmidt Separability Probability Conjecture

Authors: Paul B. Slater
Comments: 35 pages, 26 figures

We investigate relationships between two forms of Hilbert-Schmidt two-re[al]bit and two-qubit "separability functions''--those recently advanced by Lovas and Andai (arXiv:1610.01410), and those earlier presented by Slater ({\it J. Phys. A} {\bf{40}} [2007] 14279). In the Lovas-Andai framework, the independent variable $\varepsilon \in [0,1]$ is the ratio $\sigma(V)$ of the singular values of the $2 \times 2$ matrix $V=D_2^{1/2} D_1^{-1/2}$ formed from the two $2 \times 2$ diagonal blocks ($D_1, D_2$) of a randomly generated $4 \times 4$ density matrix $D$. In the Slater setting, the independent variable $\mu$ is the diagonal-entry ratio $\sqrt{\frac{d_ {11} d_ {44}}{d_ {22} d_ {33}}}$--with, importantly, $\mu=\varepsilon$ or $\mu=\frac{1}{\varepsilon}$ when both $D_1$ and $D_2$ are themselves diagonal. Lovas and Andai established that their two-rebit function $\tilde{\chi}_1 (\varepsilon )$ ($\approx \varepsilon$) yields the previously conjectured Hilbert-Schmidt separability probability of $\frac{29}{64}$. We are able, in the Slater framework (using cylindrical algebraic decompositions [CAD] to enforce positivity constraints), to reproduce this result. Further, we similarly obtain its new (much simpler) two-qubit counterpart, $\tilde{\chi}_2(\varepsilon) =\frac{1}{3} \varepsilon ^2 \left(4-\varepsilon ^2\right)$. Verification of the companion conjecture of a Hilbert-Schmidt separability probability of $\frac{8}{33}$ immediately follows in the Lovas-Andai framework. We obtain the formulas for $\tilde{\chi}_1(\varepsilon)$ and $\tilde{\chi}_2(\varepsilon)$ by taking $D_1$ and $D_2$ to be diagonal, allowing us to proceed in lower (7 and 11), rather than the full (9 and 15) dimensions occupied by the convex sets of two-rebit and two-qubit states. The CAD's themselves involve 4 and 8 variables, in addition to $\mu=\varepsilon$. We also investigate extensions of these analyses to rebit-retrit and qubit-qutrit ($6 \times 6$) settings.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[18771] viXra:1705.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-24 16:04:15

A Review of Two Derivations of Maxwell-Dirac Isomorphism and a Few Plausible Extensions

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 5 Pages. this paper has been submitted to MDPI - Mathematics

The problem of the formal connection between electrodynamics and wave mechanics has attracted the attention of a number of authors, especially there are some existing proofs on Maxwell-Dirac isomorphism. Here the author will review two derivations of Maxwell-Dirac isomorphism i.e. by Hans Sallhofer and Volodimir Simulik. A few plausible extensions will be discussed too.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[18770] viXra:1705.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-25 02:23:57

Никитин В.Н., Никитин И.В. ГИПОТЕЗА О ТОМ, ЧТО ЯВЛЯЕТСЯ ИСТОЧНИКОМ ЭНЕРГИИ ГАЛАКТИК ВСЕЛЕННОЙ Источником энергии галактик является Вселенская Белая дыра. Галактики возникли в результате галактического распада Белой дыры Вселенной.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Источником энергии галактик является Вселенская Белая дыра. Галактики возникли в результате галактического распада Белой дыры Вселенной.
Category: Astrophysics

[18769] viXra:1705.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-25 02:51:48

Theoretical-Heuristic Derivation Sommerfeld's Fine Structure Constant by Feigenbaum's Constant (Delta): Perodic Logistic Maps of Double Bifurcation

Authors: Angel Garcés Doz
Comments: 7 Pages. Fixed error writing in final equation

In an article recently published in Vixra: http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0365. Its author (Mario Hieb) conjectured the possible relationship of Feigenbaum's constant delta with the fine-structure constant of electromagnetism (Sommerfeld's Fine-Structure Constant). In this article it demonstrated, that indeed, there is an unequivocal physical-mathematical relationship. The logistic map of double bifurcation is a physical image of the random process of the creation-annihilation of virtual pairs lepton-antilepton with electric charge; Using virtual photons. The probability of emission or absorption of a photon by an electron is precisely the fine structure constant for zero momentum, that is to say: Sommerfeld's Fine-Structure Constant. This probability is coded as the surface of a sphere, or equivalently: four times the surface of a circle. The original, conjectured calculation of Mario Hieb is corrected or improved by the contribution of the entropies of the virtual pairs of leptons with electric charge: muon, tau and electron. Including a correction factor due to the contributions of virtual bosons W and Z; And its decay in electrically charged leptons and quarks.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18768] viXra:1705.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-25 03:18:41

Quantized Magneto-Electric Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

The 'quantized magneto-electric effect' has been demonstrated for the first time in topological insulators at TU Wien, which is set to open up new and highly accurate methods of measurement. [21] In a recent experiment at EPFL, a microwave resonator, a circuit that supports electric signals oscillating at a resonance frequency, is coupled to the vibrations of a metallic micro-drum. [20] Researchers at the Institute of Solid State Physics map out a radically new approach for designing optical and electronic properties of materials in Advanced Materials. [19] Now MIT physicists have found that a flake of graphene, when brought in close proximity with two superconducting materials, can inherit some of those materials' superconducting qualities. As graphene is sandwiched between superconductors, its electronic state changes dramatically, even at its center. [18] EPFL scientists have now carried out a study on a lithium-containing copper oxide and have found that its electrons are 2.5 times lighter than was predicted by theoretical calculations. [17] Washington State University physicists have created a fluid with negative mass, which is exactly what it sounds like. Push it, and unlike every physical object in the world we know, it doesn't accelerate in the direction it was pushed. It accelerates backwards. [16] When matter is cooled to near absolute zero, intriguing phenomena emerge. These include supersolidity, where crystalline structure and frictionless flow occur together. ETH researchers have succeeded in realising this strange state experimentally for the first time. [15] Helium atoms are loners. Only if they are cooled down to an extremely low temperature do they form a very weakly bound molecule. In so doing, they can keep a tremendous distance from each other thanks to the quantum-mechanical tunnel effect. [14] Inside a new exotic crystal, physicist Martin Mourigal has observed strong indications of "spooky" action, and lots of it. The results of his experiments, if corroborated over time, would mean that the type of crystal is a rare new material that can house a quantum spin liquid. [13]
Category: Condensed Matter

[18767] viXra:1705.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-24 07:25:20

Alternative Method of RGB Channel Spectroscopy Using a CCD Reader

Authors: Ricardo Gobato, Manuel Simões Filho
Comments: 8 Pages. Ciência e Natura. v.39, n2. (459-466). http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/2179460X25617. https://periodicos.ufsm.br/cienciaenatura/article/view/25617

Spectroscopy is a technique for collecting physicochemical data through the transmission, absorption or reflection of incident radiant energy in a sample. Our work is used in common low cost and easy access devices that have a CCD reader. Our idea is a set of devices, such as a cell phone, which contains an optical CCD reader, where these equipment materials, materials, compounds, simplifying the image obtained by these optical devices. As filming obtained by optical CCD reader theses hardware, form decoded and separated into their quantified RGB color channels. Our initial technique consists of the analysis of the pixels of the images of primary light sources, such as: the sun, incandescent lamps, fire, candle flames, matchestick flame, wood combustion, etc. We conclude that it is possible to do a spectroscopic analysis using our technique.
Category: Condensed Matter

[18766] viXra:1705.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-24 05:41:58

Threat of Emergence of Accidents of Nuclear and Other Power Plants Because of Deep Underground Explosions

Authors: Korniienko V
Comments: 15 Pages. In Russian

In article it is shown that property of generators of power plants to develop S-radiations, cause formation of underground tunnels on which under power units hydrocarbons migrate and there is a synthesis of explosives from them. Their deep explosions cause severe accidents of power units about which reasons experts have no consensus. The provided schemes confirm this hypothesis, and growth of volumes of migration of hydrocarbons on tunnels which happens in recent years, increases probability of explosions under power units, increases probability of severe accidents, up to education on the place of reactors of huge holes in the earth. Measures which are capable to prevent such explosions are proposed.
Category: Geophysics

[18765] viXra:1705.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-23 13:06:29

Blackbody Force

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

In 2013, a group of physicists from Austria proposed the existence of a new and unusual force called the "blackbody force." [18] Researchers have shown how singularities – which are normally only found at the centre of black holes and hidden from view – could exist in highly curved three-dimensional space. [17] A team of scientists at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai, India, have found new ways to detect a bare or naked singularity, the most extreme object in the universe. [16] New data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes has revealed details about this giant black hole, located some 145 million light years from Earth. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[18764] viXra:1705.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-23 15:57:08

Shapiro-Like Step Patterns Due to Femtometer-Scale Charge Motions: Evidence from Experimental Data for the Baryons.

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: 9 Pages. This is an interdisciplinary paper. Since evidence for flux quantization as a function of magnetic moment is the main result this can be compared to quantized voltage steps as a function of current in Josephson Junctions.

Aharonov and Bohm predicted ( and Chambers measured) interference patterns related to phase differences in the wavefunctions of two coherent electron beams traveling around a concentrated magnetic field source. The phase difference is proportional to the magnetic flux linked between the beams, and should be an integer number n of flux quanta hc/e in the case the wave functions are single-valued around a closed path of integration. This latter condition would occur in the case of a closed ring of moving charge instead of two independent beams, a situation that should be inaccessible experimentally in ordinary conditions. If such experiment could actually be undertaken magnetic flux should form quantized, Shapiro-like steps in a plot of confined flux against some variable. The objective of this paper is to display evidence for such flux quantization from the examination of rest masses and magnetic moments data for baryon octet particles, which would play the role of rings of current. Our main result is a Shapiro-like step plot of flux against the magnetic moments of baryons.
Category: Condensed Matter

[18763] viXra:1705.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-23 19:58:32

Einstein's Key to Hubble Redshift

Authors: W.Q. Sumner
Comments: 2 Pages.

In 1907 Einstein discovered the key to understanding accelerating Hubble redshifts. By assuming that acceleration and gravity are equivalent (“The Happiest Thought of my Life”), he proved that Maxwell’s equations are the same in every acceler- ated reference frame but that vacuum permittivity depends on the acceleration. Vacuum permittivity is the scalar in Maxwell’s equations that determines the speed of light and the strength of electrical fields. Maxwell’s equations are valid in every coordinate sys- tem in general relativity. Vacuum permittivity depends on the spacetime curvature. For Friedmann spacetime, vacuum permittivity is proportional to the radius of the universe. When the radius changes, changing electrical fields in atoms change the wavelengths of emitted photons by about twice as much as photon wavelengths change. This is the key Einstein left us: The evolution of both photons and atoms must be used together to understand Hubble redshift. When this is done, the physics of Maxwell, Einstein, Bohr, and Friedmann fits modern Hubble redshift observations beautifully.
Category: Astrophysics

[18762] viXra:1705.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-24 00:04:07

Man Vs. Computer: Difference of the Essences. the Problem of the Scientific Creation

Authors: Temur Z. Kalanov
Comments: 26 Pages.

The critical analysis of the problem of creation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and of Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) is proposed. The unity of formal logic and of rational dialectics is the methodological basis of the analysis. The main results of the analysis are as follows: (1) the model of man represents the unity of the two material aspects: “physiological body” (controllable aspect) and “psychical body” (controlling aspect); (2) the “psychical body” is the subsystem “subconsciousness + consciousness”; (3) in the comprehensive sense of the word, the thinking is an attribute of the complete system “physiological body + psychical body + environment”. (3) in the broad sense of the word, thinking and creativity are an essential feature of the subsystem “subconsciousness + consciousness”; (4) in the narrow (concise) sense of the word, thinking and creativity are the attribute of the instinct of the conservation (preservation, retention, maintenance) of life (i.e., the self-preservation instinct, the survival instinct); the instinct of the conservation of life exists in subconsciousness; (5) the instinct of the conservation of life is a system of elementary (basic) instincts; thinking is the attribute of the each elementary instinct; (6) the mechanism of thinking and the essence of creation cannot be cognized by man; (7) a computer as a device cannot think and create (in particular, it cannot prove theorems) because a computer does not have the subconsciousness; (8) the modeling of human thinking, Human Intellect, and the creation of AI and AGI are the impossible because the essential properties of the complete system “man + environment” cannot be cognized and modeled; (9) the existence of AI and AGI conflicts with the essence of the thinking; (10) the existence of AI and AGI contradict to formal-logical and rational-dialectical laws.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[18761] viXra:1705.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-24 01:33:15

About Physical Inadequacy of the Three-Dimensional Navier-Stokes Equation for Viscous Incompressible Fluid.

Authors: Preobrazhenskiy Andrey
Comments: 10 Pages.

ABSTRACT. This paper deals with the analysis of physically possible constructions of a viscous incompressible fluid model. Physical principles that allow to create the only possible construction of this model were found. The new model does not use new constants that characterize properties of the fluid and coincides with the Stokes model only in the plane case. Within the framework of this model, new equations for fluid motion were obtained. The new equations coincide with Navier-Stokes system in the plane case, but do not coincide in the three-dimensional one. The model makes it possible to see why the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations cannot physically adequately describe fluids motion, and obliquely confirms the finite time for the existence of its regular solutions.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[18760] viXra:1705.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-23 12:05:10

A Study on the Time Dependence of the Equation-of-State Parameter Using Brans-Dicke Theory of Gravitation

Authors: Sudipto Roy
Comments: 7 pages, 2 figures

The time dependence of the equation of state (EoS) parameter of the cosmic fluid, for a space of zero curvature, has been determined in the framework of the Brans-Dicke (BD) theory of gravity, using FRW metric. For this purpose, empirical expressions of the scale factor, scalar field and the dimensionless BD parameter have been used. The constant parameters involved in these expressions have been determined from the field equations. The dependence of the scalar field upon the scale factor and the dependence of the BD parameter upon the scalar field have been explored to determine the time dependence of the EoS parameter. Its rate of change with time has been found to depend upon a parameter that governs the time dependent behavior of the scalar field. Time dependence of the EoS parameter has been graphically depicted.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18759] viXra:1705.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-23 07:52:50

The Magnetic Nature of the Solar System

Authors: Fenton John Doolan
Comments: 16 pages

Since Isaac Newton first described gravity as a force of attraction between masses in the late seventeenth century mankind has been trying to explain the mechanism which creates it. Albert Einstein in 1915 proposed that matter tells space and time how to bend in his mathematical theory of General Relativity. Since then scientists have suggested the existence of the graviton a particle that creates the force of attraction between two objects. This paper suggests that gravity is a by-product of electromagnetism. The Sun and the Earth are acting like inverter magnets which creates an attractive and repulsive force.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18758] viXra:1705.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-23 06:48:51

DNA Data Storage to Its Cloud

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22] Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17]
Category: Physics of Biology

[18757] viXra:1705.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-22 13:32:15

Some Formulas Related with Theta Functions and pi Constant

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 4 Pages.

This note presents some formulas for pi constant
Category: Number Theory

[18756] viXra:1705.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-22 13:36:50

The Number Z=lambertw(sqrt(-1))

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 16 Pages.

This note presents some formulas related with the number z=LambertW(i),where LambertW(x) is the Lambert function.
Category: Number Theory

[18755] viXra:1705.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-22 14:39:03

A Joint Language-Cognitive Computational Approach to WITTGENSTEIN’S Tractatus

Authors: Arturo Tozzi
Comments: 4 Pages.

Here we make clear a striking correlation between Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, that assesses the logical relationships between language and world, and the successful Perlovsky’s joint language-cognitive model, that assesses the relationships between language by one side, and the knowledge instinct correlated with basic and aesthetic emotions by another side. This allows us to appraise the invaluable but dismissed Tractatus’ content in terms of the neurocomputational, mathematical techniques at hand. Therefore, the second Wittgenstein, who abandoned his previous philosophical framework, was wrong: the human language and the cognitive world can still be assessed in terms on the logic armor described by the Tractatus.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[18754] viXra:1705.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-22 19:18:05

Verifying the Validity of a Conformant Plan is co-NP-Complete

Authors: Alban Grastien, Enrico Scala
Comments: 3 Pages.

The purpose of this document is to show the complexity of verifying the validity of a deterministic conformant plan. We concentrate on a simple version of the conformant planning problem (i.e., one where there is no precondition on the actions and where all conditions are defined as sets of positive or negative facts) in order to show that the complexity does not come from solving a single such formula.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[18753] viXra:1705.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-22 12:37:32

Scattering Behavior of Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15]
Category: Condensed Matter

[18752] viXra:1705.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-22 13:04:04

The Prognostics Equation for Biogeochemical Tracers Has no Unique Solution.

Authors: Han Geurdes
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this paper a tracer prognostic differential equation related to the marine chemistry HAMOC model is studied. Recently, the present author found that the Navier Stokes equation has no exact solution. The following question can therefore be justified. Do numerical solutions from prognostic equations provide unique information about the distribution of nutrients in the ocean.
Category: Geophysics

[18751] viXra:1705.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-22 07:22:25

Naked Singularity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Researchers have shown how singularities – which are normally only found at the centre of black holes and hidden from view – could exist in highly curved three-dimensional space. [17] A team of scientists at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai, India, have found new ways to detect a bare or naked singularity, the most extreme object in the universe. [16] New data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes has revealed details about this giant black hole, located some 145 million light years from Earth. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[18750] viXra:1705.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-22 07:35:58

On the Origin of Spiritual Disruptions.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 3 Pages. temporary notes about laws behind consciousness.

I give away two simple principles indicating the cause for spiritual disruptions of different kinds of severity.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18749] viXra:1705.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-22 08:00:19

Entanglement in Isolated Quantum Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

The physicists in Göttingen are part of a German-Italian collaboration which has now published an amazing discovery in Nature Communications: even quantum systems can synchronize through self-organization, without any external control. This synchronization manifests itself in the strangest property of the quantum world – entanglement. [17] The quantum internet, which connects particles linked together by the principle of quantum entanglement, is like the early days of the classical internet – no one can yet imagine what uses it could have, according to Professor Ronald Hanson, from Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, whose team was the first to prove that the phenomenon behind it was real. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[18748] viXra:1705.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-22 08:47:38

Tails Around Globular Cluster

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Astronomers have found tidal tails around a distant globular cluster known as NGC 7492. The newly discovered features could provide important information about the nature of globular clusters. [15] Late last year, an international team including researchers from the Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics (KIAA) at Peking University announced the discovery of more than 60 extremely distant quasars, nearly doubling the number known to science-and thus providing dozens of new opportunities to look deep into our universe's history. [14] Fuzzy pulsars orbiting black holes could unmask quantum gravity. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[18747] viXra:1705.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-22 09:05:28

Popular Review of new Concepts, Ideas and Innovations in Space Launch and Flight

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 159 Pages.

New macro-projects, concepts, ideas, methods, and innovations are explored here, but hardly developed. There remain many problems that must be researched, modeled, and tested before these summarized research ideas can be practically designed, built, and utilized—that is, fully developed and utilized. Most ideas in our book are described in the following way: 1) Description of current state in a given field of endeavor. A brief explanation of the idea researched, including its advantages and short comings. No eny equations. Some of them have only the results of estimation and computations. But all ideas contains the links in initial scientific articles contains detail proofs, equtions and computations. 2) A brief description of possible applications—candidate macro-projects, including estimations of the main physical parameters of such economic developmental undertakings. The parts are in a popular form accessible to the wider reading public. The many original articles of this book will require some mathematical and scientific knowledge, such as may be found amongst technical school graduate students. The book gives the main physical data which will help researchers, engineers, dedicated students and enthusiastic readers make estimations for their own macro-projects. Also, inventors will find an extensive field of inventions and innovations revealed in our book.
Category: Classical Physics

[18746] viXra:1705.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-22 04:12:29

The Scale-Symmetric Theory as the Origin of the Standard Model

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

Here we showed that the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) gives rise to the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics. We calculated the SM gauge couplings - we obtained g’ = 0.3576, g = 0.6534 (these two gauge couplings lead to an illusion of electroweak unification), and g(s) = 1.2156 +- 0.0036. We as well described the mechanism that leads to the mass of muon. The other SM parameters we calculated in earlier papers. SST is based on 7 parameters only which, contrary to SM, lead also to the 3 masses of neutrinos (they are beyond SM) and to the 4 basic physical constants (i.e. to the reduced Planck constant, to gravitational constant (gravity is beyond SM), to speed of light in “vacuum” and electric charge of electron). We can see that in SST there is 2.7 times less parameters, SST leads to the 19 initial parameters in SM, and SST describes phenomena beyond SM. It leads to conclusion that SST is a more fundamental theory than SM.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[18745] viXra:1705.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-22 05:05:19

Quantum Emitter Arrays

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Quantum light emitters, or quantum dots, are of interest for many different applications, including quantum communication and networks. [12] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18744] viXra:1705.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-22 05:15:16

Nonlinearity, Entropy and Chaos in Music

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 11 Pages.

This article explores the nonlinear aspects underlying music , particularly focusing on melody. By using the concept of scale as the basis, the article explores ways to formulate and study the features and 'feature richness' of a given melody or Raga, and to do this, the Raga scale is represented as a 1-Dimensional array. The Signature graph of a Raga plotted as Interval as a function of Note position, established a graphic visualization of the Raga. The progression and trend of intervals was computed using the Second Level Interval Array. This trend graph reveals the complexity in a Raga structure, through looping, crowded and intricate curves in the graph. Next, the concept of chaos in the context of melody is explored, fundamentally by performing a sensitivity test, which analyzes that given a Raga, and a particular evolution path, how starting at two nearby Swaras results in two entirely different ending Swaras, when sampled after a certain period in time. As a measure of the complexity in a Raga, the entropy, a measure of uncertainty is proposed, and computed using the interval arrays as bases for an occurrence array yielding empirical probabilities. The entropy is seen as a measure of richness, a measure of variety of inter-Swara intervals that a given Raga possesses. One notes that Ragas with high entropy, on account of their interval richness, usually fall under the category of pleasant, appealing and melodious Ragas. These are also the Ragas one finds being employed in film music, clearly owing to their pleasant feel.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[18743] viXra:1705.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-22 06:51:57

Magnetic Molecular Chessboard

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Achieving magnetic order in low-dimensional systems consisting of only one or two dimensions has been a research goal for some time. [34] The electron microscope, a powerful tool for science, just became even more powerful, with an improvement developed by Cornell physicists. Their electron microscope pixel array detector (EMPAD) yields not just an image, but a wealth of information about the electrons that create the image and, from that, more about the structure of the sample. [33] An innovative new technique to produce the quickest, smallest, highest-capacity memories for flexible and transparent applications could pave the way for a future golden age of electronics. [32] The shrinking of electronic components and the excessive heat generated by their increasing power has heightened the need for chip-cooling solutions, according to a Rutgers-led study published recently in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Using graphene combined with a boron nitride crystal substrate, the researchers demonstrated a more powerful and efficient cooling mechanism. [31] Materials like graphene can exhibit a particular type of large-amplitude, stable vibrational modes that are localised, referred to as Discrete Breathers (DBs). [30] A two-dimensional material developed by Bayreuth physicist Prof. Dr. Axel Enders together with international partners could revolutionize electronics. [29] Researchers have found a way to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, ability of graphene to act as a superconductor-meaning that it can be made to carry an electrical current with zero resistance. [28] Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[18742] viXra:1705.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-21 13:47:48

Consciousness and Quantum Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

New research proposes a way to test whether quantum entanglement is affected by consciousness. [26] Using atomic-scale quantum defects in diamonds known as nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers to detect the magnetic field generated by neural signals, scientists working in the lab of Ronald Walsworth, a faculty member in Harvard's Center for Brain Science and Physics Department, demonstrated a noninvasive technique that can image the activity of neurons. [25] Neuroscience and artificial intelligence experts from Rice University and Baylor College of Medicine have taken inspiration from the human brain in creating a new "deep learning" method that enables computers to learn about the visual world largely on their own, much as human babies do. [24]
Category: Mind Science

[18741] viXra:1705.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-21 14:20:30

Calcolo Teorico Del Raggio e Dello Spin di un Protone Attraverso un Isomorfismo Elementare Delle Relazioni Fisiche Fondamentali

Authors: Ferdinando Vino
Comments: 8 Pages.

La ricerca di principi primi dai quali discendono i molteplici comportamenti della materia concentra oggi una fetta grande delle energie nel campo della ricerca teorica. Di seguito si propone, mediante l'uso di un Gedankenexperiment, un approccio unificato alla determinazione della forza elettrodebole, elettromagnetica e gravitazionele. Le intuizioni formalizzate all'inizio del paper sono confermate attraverso il calcolo del raggio dello spin del protone i cui valori dimostrano accordarsi perfettamente con quelli attualmente accettati dalla comunitá scientifica. Si dimostra inoltre, nell'ambito della risoluzione del sistema di equazioni emergenti, che le ipotesi fatte generano soluzioni che collimano perfettamente con i valori oggi accettati per la costante di gravitazione universale. Il presente lavoro é da ritenersi non conclusivo, probabilmente speculativo, un “work in progress” nonché un umile contributo (da verificare e validare) teso a definire modelli piú generali e semplici di quelli contemporanei.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[18740] viXra:1705.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-21 15:19:36

New Particle Physics with Electronic

Authors: Luca Nascimbene
Comments: 10 Pages.

This particle that take my last name was discovered in the lab by using electronic instrumentation with various electronic components,Applying a physical formula I invented corresponds to a new form of particles. The electronic instrumentation i have use Oscilloscope, amplificator operational (LM741),capacitor 100nf, 2 resistor 1kohm and sensor photomultipler → rilevator of particle and photodiode
Category: Classical Physics

[18739] viXra:1705.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-21 15:22:44

The Rope Hypothesis

Authors: Bill Gaede
Comments: 14 Pages.

The wave model of light was born in the 17th Century and was quickly abandoned in favor of the old Corpuscular Hypothesis on the strength of Newton’s authority. It flourished again in the 19th Century only to be eclipsed once again by the Corpuscular Hypothesis at the turn of the century. The participants at the 5th Solvay Conference reached a compromise in 1926 and finally merged the wave and the corpuscle into an unfathomable concoction known as ‘wave-packet’. This is the official model today, but now it rests on the authority of Niels Bohr. However, the Wave-Packet Hypothesis is not about architecture. The mathematical establishment has turned the argument upside down and incongruously states that light ‘behaves’ as a wave or as a particle depending on the circumstances. There is, therefore, no formal physical configuration of light in Mathematical Physics that a theorist can challenge. Many in the establishment even argue that a mediator is unnecessary and dispose of one entirely in their talks. We compare the wave, particle, field, and wave-packet models championed by Classical Mechanics, Quantum Mechanics, and General Relativity against the Rope Hypothesis to underscore that a new paradigm has emerged in the centuries-old debate.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[18738] viXra:1705.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-21 16:06:50

Speed of Microwave in Standing Wave

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages. microwave speed relativity reference frame

A standing wave consists of two identical waves moving in opposite direction. A frequency detector moving toward the standing wave will detect two different frequencies. One is blueshifted, the other is redshifted. The distance between two adjacent nodes in the standing wave is equal to half of the wavelength of both waves. Consequently, the wave detector will detect different speeds from both waves due to the same wavelength and the different frequencies. The calculation of speed is demonstrated with a typical household microwave oven which emits microwave of frequency range around 2.45 GHz and wavelength range around 12.2 cm.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18737] viXra:1705.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-21 16:24:20

A System Effect of Human Touch. Physical Aspects.

Authors: Mark Krinker, Galina Pana
Comments: 10 Pages.

The paper deals with a synergistic effect caused by a contact of two persons. New originated system manifests itself in spikes of energy and oscillating processes. The effective energy of the process for various combinations of human pairs has been calculated.
Category: Physics of Biology

[18736] viXra:1705.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-21 18:45:35

A New Quantum Algorithm in Case of a Special Function (New Version)

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura, Han Geurdes, Ahmed Farouk, Josep Batle, Soliman Abdalla, Germano Resconi
Comments: 4 Pages

We present a new quantum algorithm. It determines the property of a function. It is $f(x)=f(-x)$. How fast can we succeed? The quantum algorithm does not use the Hadamard transformation. All we need is of evaluating $|\overbrace{0,0,...,1}^N\rangle$. And we can know the global property, that is, we can realize $f(x)=f(-x)$ for numbers. Our quantum algorithm overcomes a classical counterpart by a factor of $O(2^N)$.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18735] viXra:1705.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-21 19:45:25

How a Setting of the Vacuum Energy Density, to Today’s Value in the Early Universe, Leads to an Initial Hubble Radius for the Early Universe. I.e. How the Early Universe Partly Mimics a Black Hole.

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 6 Pages.

First we review what was done by Klauber, in his quantum field theory calculation of the Vacuum energy density, and in doing so, use, instead of Planck Mass, which has 10^19 GeV, which leads to an answer 10 ^ 122 times too large, a cut off value of instead, a number, N, of gravitons , times graviton mass (assumed to be about 10^-43 GeV) to get a number, N, count of about 10^31 if the vacuum energy is to avoid an overshoot of 10^122, and instead have a vacuum energy 10^-47GeV^4. Afterwards, we use the results of Mueller and Lousto, to compare the number N, of 10^31, assumed to be entropy using Ng’ infinite quantum statistics , to the ratio of the square of (the Hubble (observational ) radius over a calculated grid size which we call a) . Here, a ~ a minimum time step we call delta t, times the speed of light. Now in doing so we use a root finder procedure to obtain were we use an inflaton value due to use of a scale factor if we furthermore use as the variation of the time component of the metric tensor in Pre-Planckian Space-time up to the Planckian space-time initial values.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18734] viXra:1705.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-21 21:54:46

Collective Low Energy Nuclear Reaction May Cause Overunity in Graneau’s Water Explosion

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 6 pages, 0 figure. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.29478.73286

The Russian scientists D.V. Filippov and L.I. Urutskoev pioneered experimental research and theory exploration and they named such reactions as transformation, or C-LENR (Collective Low Energy Nuclear Reaction). In this paper, I present some comments for the intrinsic mechanism, and at last, my conjecture is proposed for alternative explanation on the overunity phenomenon in Graneau’s water explosion experiment.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[18733] viXra:1705.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-21 23:04:19

Adam Smith: an Intellectual Giant Ignored in Latin America

Authors: Guillermo A Rios
Comments: 33 Pages.

This philosophical essay contrasts the difference in industrial/social development between the Latin-American nations and those of the developed First World, and attributes the origin of such differences to the lack of relevance that the teaching of Adam Smith lessons have been given in such nations Academia. It starts with a good summary of Smith economic ideas as expressed in his book "The Wealth of Nations." Then some of them were extrapolated such as analyzing the survival value of the "trading gene" present in our species and no other, and also introducing the conception of modeling wide trading as a neural network leading to the concept of "supraintelligence" as the product of such network. Also, the philosophical battle with those that along history have sought to equate poverty with virtue is examined, as well as the philosophical duel at the times of the Economics Enlightenment between Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Voltaire, another intellectual giant rather ignored by Latin-American Academia. At the end we retake Adam Smith ideas as the conclusion of such philosophical duel.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[18732] viXra:1705.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-22 00:14:36

On the Correct Formulation of the Starting Point of Classical Mechanics

Authors: Temur Z. Kalanov
Comments: 26 Pages.

The correct scientific and critical analysis of the generally accepted foundations of classical mechanics is proposed. The methodological basis for the analysis is the unity of formal logic and of rational dialectics. The main results of the analysis are as follows: (1) the correct starting point of kinematics is formulated: the informational definition of the concept of time; definitions of the concepts of motion, speed, and acceleration of material point in the metric system of coordinates; the principle of motion of quantum particle (photon); proof of the mathematical, physical, and formal-logical erroneousness (fallaciousness) of Lorentz transformations; (2) the correct starting point of dynamics is formulated: the definition of force as a physical property of the structure of the system of the interacting objects; (3) the correct starting point of the theory of gravitation is formulated: the condition of existence of the gravitational interaction which represents the condition of existence of the region of overlap (superposition, intersection) of the gravitational fields of the material objects; (4) the correct formulation of the law of gravitation within the framework of the system approach is given (the formulation represents the system of the proportions); (5) it is proved that the formulation of Newton’s empirical law of gravitation represents the formal-logical and dialectical errors.
Category: Classical Physics

[18731] viXra:1705.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-22 02:14:41

On the BOSON’S Range of the Weak Nuclear Force

Authors: Antonio Puccini
Comments: 3 Pages.

As known the Weak Nuclear Force (WNF) acts between quarks (Qs) and leptons. The action of the WNF is mediated by highly massive gauge bosons. How does a Q emit such a massive particle, approximately 16.000 or 40.000 times its mass? Who provides so much energy to a up Q or a down Q? However, it must be considered that according to Quantum Mechanics it is possible to loan temporarily some energy, but to a precise and binding condition, established by the Uncertainty Principle: the higher the energy borrowed, the shorter the duration of the loan. Our calculations show that the maximum distance these bosons can travel, i.e. the upper limit of their range, corresponds to 1.54310-15 [cm] for particles W+ and W- and 1.3610-15[cm] for Z° particles.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[18730] viXra:1705.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-22 02:58:33

Никитина Н.Н., Никитин В.Н., Никитин И.В. ГРАВИТАЦИЯ ПОБЕДИТ! По мере движения галактик к окраинам Вселенной гравитация будет возрастать и, в конечном итоге, победит, раздавит всё и превратится в «ничего»

Authors: Nikitina N.N., Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

По мере движения галактик к окраинам Вселенной гравитация будет возрастать и, в конечном итоге, победит, раздавит всё и превратится в «ничего».
Category: Astrophysics

[18729] viXra:1705.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-21 07:59:43

Interaction Between Dark and Ordinary Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Statistical analysis of mini-spiral galaxies shows an unexpected interaction between dark matter and ordinary matter. [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[18728] viXra:1705.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-21 09:43:28

Rematch of Man vs Machine

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17] The closer we can get a machine translation to be on par with expert human translation, the happier lots of people struggling with translations will be. [16] Researchers have created a large, open source database to support the development of robot activities based on natural language input. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[18727] viXra:1705.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-21 10:34:05

One-Sided Magnet Unexpected Turn

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Of the many 'white whales' that theoretical physicists are pursuing, the elusive magnetic monopole-a magnetic with only one pole-is one of the most confounding. [14] The transformation of a quantum monopole into a Dirac monopole has been observed for the first time by physicists at Amherst College in the US and Aalto University in Finland. [13] Scientists at Amherst College (USA) and Aalto University (Finland) have made the first experimental observations of the dynamics of isolated monopoles in quantum matter. [12] Building on his own previous research, Amherst College professor David S. Hall '91 and a team of international collaborators have experimentally identified a pointlike monopole in a quantum field for the first time. The discovery, announced this week, gives scientists further insight into the elusive monopole magnet, an elementary particle that researchers believe exists but have not yet seen in nature. [11] For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18726] viXra:1705.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-21 06:18:46

Electro-Strong Interaction

Authors: Wan-Chung Hu
Comments: 5 Pages.

Here, I will use Higgs mechanism to unite gluons and photon to explain the origin of mass of gluons in strong interaction. This is the electro-strong unification which can explain the mass of neutron and proton.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[18725] viXra:1705.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-20 13:20:43

Cancer Antibody

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

While studying the underpinnings of multiple sclerosis, investigators at Brigham and Women's Hospital came across important clues for how to treat a very different disease: cancer. [21] A major challenge in truly targeted cancer therapy is cancer's suppression of the immune system. Northwestern University synthetic biologists now have developed a general method for "rewiring" immune cells to flip this action around. [20] Scientists at the University of Bonn have succeeded in observing an important cell protein at work using a method that measures structural changes within complex molecules. [19] Scientists have now explored a modified form that can produce light-generated electrons and store them for catalytic hydrogen production even after the light has been switched off. They present this biomimetic photosynthesis approach in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [18] Scientists at The Australian National University (ANU) have designed a nano crystal around 500 times smaller than a human hair that turns darkness into visible light and can be used to create lightweight night-vision glasses. [17] Magnets instead of antibiotics could provide a possible new treatment method for blood infection. [16] One of the biggest challenges in cognitive or rehabilitation neurosciences is the ability to design a functional hybrid system that can connect and exchange information between biological systems, like neurons in the brain, and human-made electronic devices. [15] Wearable terahertz scanning device for inspection of medical equipment and the human body. [14] Optical microscopy experts at Colorado State University are once again pushing the envelope of biological imaging. [13] Researchers at the University of Melbourne have developed a way to radically miniaturise a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machine using atomic-scale quantum computer technology. [12] With one in two Australian children reported to have tooth decay in their permanent teeth by age 12, researchers from the University of Sydney believe they have identified some nanoscale elements that govern the behaviour of our teeth. [11]
Category: Physics of Biology

[18724] viXra:1705.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-20 17:00:31

Simplified Mathematical Method to Compare the Ordinary R&D Teams and Single Experts

Authors: Roman Vinokur
Comments: 4 Pages.

The human factor is very important if the high-level R&D skills are needed (“Intellectuals solve problems, geniuses prevent them.” - Albert Einstein). Many people believe more in the power of teamwork than in “myths” of the lone genius [1]. However, if a project goal can be successfully achieved just by one high-skilled professional, it is not wise to delegate this duty to a group of low-skilled persons (“A great engineer is worth 100 average engineers.” - Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg [2]). Generally, the dilemma “ordinary team or single expert” is of frequent interest for R&D organizations. In this paper, an approximate mathematical approach has been developed to estimate the critical (minimum) size of an ordinary R&D team that can be more successful than a single expert. As a result, this method could help to resolve the “hire or not hire” issue.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[18723] viXra:1705.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-20 20:27:04

Unification

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 4 Pages.

There is a reason why general relativity cannot be unified with quantum mechanics, physicists don't realize that Einstein's reason for gravity is not real. Einstein's gravity is a mathematical gravity, you cannot unify something that is based on mathematical fiction (general relativity) with reality (quantum mechanics). I will show you how I unified general relativity with quantum mechanics, I was able to do it because I found the origin of gravity and time.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18722] viXra:1705.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-21 00:53:45

Simultaneity and Non-Simultaneity of Events is Absolute and Independent of Reference Frames

Authors: Fang Zhou
Comments: 10 pages in Chinese

The article presents several physical models for thinking experiment to evidence the Absolute of simultaneity and non-simultaneity of events in reference frames. The Time Transformation of Zhoufang Transformation (Z-Transformation) actually underlies the Absolute of simultaneity and non-simultaneity of events in reference frames in constant-speed translational motion.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18721] viXra:1705.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-21 03:06:51

Anti-Ethics and Pseudoscience: on Albert Einstein’s Theory of Relativity

Authors: Yin Zhu
Comments: 17 Pages.

1.All of the conclusions are directly from or based on the arguments and discussions in the researchgate.net. Sometimes, the arguments are very intense and sharp. Till now, these conclusions seem solidly standing. 2.The problems discussed here are easily understood. Only the simple mathematics is used. From the literatures, it is clearly shown that Einstein did have no original work in the theory of relativity. It just is a faked story that Einstein independently presented all the conclusions of the theory of relativity. 3.The conclusions are radically violent. It is certainly declared that Einstein’s theory of relativity is only pseudoscience and the pseudoscience is produced from the anti-ethics: Einstein did have no original work in the theory of relativity. But, now, all of the results in the theory of relativity are ascribed to Einstein. 4.General readers may not believe the conclusions. But, as you know that the theory of relativity is filled with faked stories, you should know what it means. 5.The arguments in the researchgate.net showed that, at least, no relativist can disprove the conclusions. And, some of the rational relativists have to agree some of these conclusions. But, most of the relativists only can select silent. 6.Maybe, relativists will close their eyes on the conclusions to continue the declaration that the theory of relativity is a great theory as they did in the past. But, now, it is the internet time. The conclusions cannot be concealed and shielded as did before internet time. Now, they can be generally and quickly spread and transformed. Relativists shall lose their public credibility quickly if they could not have a valid response. 7.We clearly know, it is risk to criticize Einstein. But, the scientists, including relativists, want to know scientific truth. And, we believe, we have the clear and simple arguments. Therefore, we hope, some of the mainstream physicists should accept the conclusions.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18720] viXra:1705.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-20 11:37:01

History of Galaxies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Each galaxy has a fado—a narrative of its biography since the birth of its first stars. This fate is written in its electromagnetic spectrum, which contains the fossil records of multiple stellar populations that formed over several billion years, as well as the gas that those stars ionize with their radiation. [8] The Earth is constantly jostled by low-frequency gravitational waves from supermassive black hole binaries in distant galaxies. Astrophysicists are using pulsars as a galaxy-sized detector to measure the Earth's motion from these waves. [7] Last week's announcement that Gravitational Waves (GW) have been detected for the first time—as a result of the merger of two black holes—is huge news. But now a Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) originating from the same place, and that arrived at Earth 0.4 seconds after the GW, is making news. Isolated black holes aren't supposed to create GRB's; they need to be near a large amount of matter to do that. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[18719] viXra:1705.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-20 07:42:57

Gravitational Theory of Entropy

Authors: LeiGuanji
Comments: 6 Pages.

Abstract:From Einstein,we knowed the relation between gravity and time.We know time and entropy have a relation from thermodynamics.So gravity must have a relation with entropy.In fact,some experments have proved it.So I write this paper to describe this relation between gravity and entropy.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18718] viXra:1705.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-20 08:16:29

Tetrahedron Model of a "Theory of Everything"

Authors: John A. Gowan, August T. Jaccaci
Comments: 1 Page. model revised May 2017

A model of a "Theory of Everything" as a tetrahedron of relationship is presented with short explanatory text.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18717] viXra:1705.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-20 09:03:43

New Season at the LHC

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

Last week, the detectors of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) witnessed their first collisions of 2017. [8] As physicists were testing the repairs of LHC by zipping a few spare protons around the 17 mile loop, the CMS detector picked up something unusual. The team feverishly pored over the data, and ultimately came to an unlikely conclusion—in their tests, they had accidentally created a rainbow universe. [7] The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[18716] viXra:1705.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-20 09:41:01

Mnozenje Vektora I Struktura 3D Euklidskog Prostora

Authors: Miroslav Josipović
Comments: 79 Pages.

This is translation of the article "Multiplication of Vectors and Structure of 3D Euclidean Space" to Croatian.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[18715] viXra:1705.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-20 10:04:50

Acerca de la Gravedad

Authors: Norberto Meyer Robsrto Morales
Comments: 2 Pages.

se reescribe la ley de newton según un enfoque más matemático.
Category: Classical Physics

[18714] viXra:1705.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-20 10:18:25

Analyze Many Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Rutgers researchers have developed a new way to analyze hundreds of thousands of cells at once, which could lead to faster and more accurate diagnoses of illnesses, including tuberculosis and cancers. [24] An international team including researchers from MIPT has shown that iodide phasing—a long-established technique in structural biology—is universally applicable to membrane protein structure determination. [23] Scientists in Greece have devised a new form of biometric identification that relies on humans' ability to see flashes of light containing just a handful of photons. [22] A research team led by Professor CheolGi Kim has developed a biosensor platform using magnetic patterns resembling a spider web with detection capability 20 times faster than existing biosensors. [21] Researchers at Columbia University have made a significant step toward breaking the so-called "color barrier" of light microscopy for biological systems, allowing for much more comprehensive, system-wide labeling and imaging of a greater number of biomolecules in living cells and tissues than is currently attainable. [20] Scientists around the Nobel laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now achieved what was for a long time considered impossible – they have developed a new fluorescence microscope, called MINFLUX, allowing, for the first time, to optically separate molecules, which are only nanometers (one millionth of a millimeter) apart from each other. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16]
Category: Physics of Biology

[18713] viXra:1705.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-20 04:27:04

A Perfect Candidate for Dark Matter. 

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 3 Pages.

If the mystery of the pioneer anomaly is "gravitational action by photon Group of Sunlight", The mass of the pulsating photon particle process is a perfect candidate for dark matter. The photon of the particle pulsation hypothesis is a perfect candidate for dark matter. * Ultra-high-speed and pulsating photons in the particle pulsation hypothesis are moving in the surplus dimension at a very high speed, with great kinetic energy. It is a particle with mass in the surplus dimension though it is a wave of the light of mass zero propagating at the speed of light. This is a particle of Caruia-Klein state. The mass is hidden in the surplus dimension. The photon is full of space, equipped with a sufficient amount to constitute 23% of the universe, and is everywhere in the vacuum space around us. It can be said to be the perfect candidate for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[18712] viXra:1705.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-20 04:45:05

The Recursive Future And Past Equation Based On The Ananda-Damayanthi Normalized Similarity Measure Considered To Exhaustion

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a Recursive Past Equation and a Recursive Future Equation based on the Ananda-Damayanthi Normalized Similarity Measure considered to Exhaustion [1].
Category: Statistics

[18711] viXra:1705.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-19 14:06:52

Combining Genetic Similarities Among Known Relatives that Connect to an Unknown Relative

Authors: Stephen P. Smith, Cambrian Lopez, Nicole Lam
Comments: 15 Pages.

Various DNA testing companies promise their customers a collection of genetic matches to facilitate finding family members. The matches are in centimorgans (cM), where the higher the cM value the closer the relationship to a customer (R). Unless the relationship is close, such as parent-offspring or among 1st cousins, a single cM value is not that informative if the goal is to locate family. This paper describes a statistical method that combines a collection cM values from a cluster of unknown relatives of R, but where the cluster members are known among themselves being for example 2rd and 3th cousins. A presumed envoy is attached to the cluster, where R is a descendant of the envoy, and the various cM values are combined to provide an overall cM value between R and the envoy. The envoy’s cM comes with a statistical error to judge significance. Unlike a single cM value on a typical unknown relative, the envoy’s cM can be quite large and indicative of a real genetic path to R that has previously been undiscovered. This paper describes the method for two sisters, where the path from the envoy led to their lost father, a father that was later discovered.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[18710] viXra:1705.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-19 11:18:33

If P is Any Odd Prime Number and C is Any Odd Number Less Than p, Then there Must Exist a Positive Number C’ Less Than p, Such that Cc’= 2modp

Authors: Prashanth Rao
Comments: 1 Page.

If p is any odd prime number and c is any odd number less than p, then there must exist a positive number c’ less than p, such that cc’= -2modp
Category: Number Theory

[18709] viXra:1705.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-19 07:22:38

Ballistic Nanowire Connections

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

IBM scientists have achieved an important milestone toward creating sophisticated quantum devices that could become a key component of quantum computers. [17] While technologies that currently run on classical computers, such as Watson, can help find patterns and insights buried in vast amounts of existing data, quantum computers will deliver solutions to important problems where patterns cannot be seen because the data doesn't exist and the possibilities that you need to explore to get to the answer are too enormous to ever be processed by classical computers. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Condensed Matter

[18708] viXra:1705.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-19 07:40:16

Undulating Relativity + §24 Variational Principle Continuacion

Authors: Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia
Comments: 122 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know: -The dilatation of time, and -The contraction of the Lorentz Length. The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18707] viXra:1705.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-19 07:49:07

Relatividade Ondulatória + §24 Princípio Variacional Continuação

Authors: Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia
Comments: 122 Pages.

A Teoria da Relatividade Especial conduz a dois resultados, considerados incompreensíveis por vários renomados físicos, que são a dilatação do tempo e a denominada contração espacial de Lorentz. A solução desses paradoxos me conduziu ao desenvolvimento da Relatividade Ondulatória onde a variação temporal é devida à diferença nos percursos de propagação da luz e o espaço é constante entre os observadores. Da análise do desenvolvimento da Relatividade Ondulatória podemos sintetizar as seguintes conclusões: -é uma teoria com princípios totalmente físicos, -as transformações são lineares, -matem intactos os princípios Euclidianos, -considera a transformação de Galileu distinta em cada referencial, -une a velocidade da luz e o tempo em um único fenômeno, -desenvolve uma translação real entre os referenciais
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18706] viXra:1705.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-19 07:56:37

Distribution of the Residues and Cycle Counting

Authors: Helmut Preininger
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this paper we take a closer look to the distribution of the residues of squarefree natural numbers and explain an algorithm to compute those distributions. We also give some conjectures about the minimal number of cycles in the squarefree arithmetic progression and explain an algorithm to compute this minimal numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[18705] viXra:1705.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-19 08:21:45

Searching for WIMP Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

"The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[18704] viXra:1705.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-19 08:30:11

Crackpot Behavior of the Yark Theory of Gravitation

Authors: Christian Corda
Comments: 6 Pages. I insert this comment to avoid further confusion on gravitational theory and equivalence principle by Mr. T. Yarman, Mr. A. Kholmetskii and collaborators

Despite it is well known at the elementary level of university courses that completely non-metric gravitational theories macroscopically violate Einstein's equivalence principle, in a series of recent papers published also in Canadian Journal of Physics, T. Yarman and collaborators claimed that the so-called YARK theory of gravitation (the name has been self-created by T. Yarman and collaborators from the initials of their proper surnames), which is completely non-metric, should replace Einstein's general theory of relativity as the correct theory of gravitation. Here we ultimately show the crackpot behavior of the YARK theory of gravitation by using Einstein's equivalence principle which has today a strong, unchallengeable empiric evidence. Hence, we formally request the Editors of Canadian Journal of Physics to ultimately withdraw the papers of T. Yarman and collaborators for the sake of scientific correctness. In addition, we formally request the Editors of Canadian Journal of Physics to ultimately stop the publication of other papers on the unscientific and non-viable YARK theory of gravitation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18703] viXra:1705.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-19 09:06:12

Mapping Super Massive Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[18702] viXra:1705.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-19 09:52:25

Electromagnetism Win Over the Strong Force

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

The atomic nucleus offers a unique opportunity to study the competition between three of the four fundamental forces known to exist in nature, the strong nuclear interaction, the electromagnetic interaction and the weak nuclear interaction. [11] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines also the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[18701] viXra:1705.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-19 04:31:59

Particle-Free Quantum Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Particle-free quantum communication is achieved in the lab. [18] In the non-intuitive quantum domain, the phenomenon of counterfactuality is defined as the transfer of a quantum state from one site to another without any quantum or classical particle transmitted between them. [17] The quantum internet, which connects particles linked together by the principle of quantum entanglement, is like the early days of the classical internet – no one can yet imagine what uses it could have, according to Professor Ronald Hanson, from Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, whose team was the first to prove that the phenomenon behind it was real. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18700] viXra:1705.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-19 05:39:30

Transforming Magnetic Monopoles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

The transformation of a quantum monopole into a Dirac monopole has been observed for the first time by physicists at Amherst College in the US and Aalto University in Finland. [13] Scientists at Amherst College (USA) and Aalto University (Finland) have made the first experimental observations of the dynamics of isolated monopoles in quantum matter. [12] Building on his own previous research, Amherst College professor David S. Hall '91 and a team of international collaborators have experimentally identified a pointlike monopole in a quantum field for the first time. The discovery, announced this week, gives scientists further insight into the elusive monopole magnet, an elementary particle that researchers believe exists but have not yet seen in nature. [11] For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18699] viXra:1705.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-18 13:41:39

Dance of Electrons in Space

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

You can't see them, but swarms of electrons are buzzing through the magnetic environment—the magnetosphere—around Earth. [18] When NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale—or MMS—mission was launched, the scientists knew it would answer questions fundamental to the nature of our universe—and MMS hasn't disappointed. [17] Magnetic reconnection, a universal process that triggers solar flares and northern lights and can disrupt cell phone service and fusion experiments, occurs much faster than theory says that it should. [16] A surprising new class of X-ray pulsating variable stars has been discovered by a team of American and Canadian astronomers led by Villanova University's Scott Engle and Edward Guinan. [15] Late last year, an international team including researchers from the Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics (KIAA) at Peking University announced the discovery of more than 60 extremely distant quasars, nearly doubling the number known to science-and thus providing dozens of new opportunities to look deep into our universe's history. [14] Fuzzy pulsars orbiting black holes could unmask quantum gravity. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times.
Category: Astrophysics

[18698] viXra:1705.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-18 16:45:31

Focused Neutrinos and Alt-Superconductor Catalyzed Betavoltaic Nuclear Reactor

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 6 pages, 3 figures. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.27195.62248

My recent deep researches have fruited many great discoveries and inventions: 1. thermal solar neutrinos can be focused by special heavy metal lens, and the focused neutrinos can catalyze nuclear beta decay in exponential effect. 2. it is possible to mimic superconductor by dyno-capacitor module to cheaply realize same effects but working in room temperature even higher hundreds Celsius degree. By combining above 2 catalysis technologies, we expect to build a powerful high voltage DC betavoltaic nuclear reactor by using Lutetium fuel 176Lu. Although energy density is far less than conventional fission fuel 235U, however it is very clean nuclear energy, because of non-toxic material and no harmful waste.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[18697] viXra:1705.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-18 16:48:24

Which Elements Can be Candidates of Concatenating ββ Decay Nuclear Fuel?

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 4 pages. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.33906.50884

With the catalysis of focused neutrinos and other special means, some of those 2β isotopes can be outstood for fuel, provided it becomes possible for 2 sequential events of concatenating β1β2 with total energy Q(β1) + Q(β2) positive balance. This research paper at least proposes molybdenum 100Mo as promising candidate.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[18696] viXra:1705.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-18 17:36:05

Model of Emerging Intelligence in Universe

Authors: Michail Zak
Comments: 11 Pages.

The paper proposes a scenario of origin and emerging of intelligent life in Universe based upon the mathematical discovery of a new class of dynamical systems described by ODE coupled with their Liouville equation. These systems called self-controlled since the role of actuators is played by the probability produced by the Liouville equation. Following the Madelung equation that belongs to this class, non-Newtonian and quantum-like properties such as randomness, entanglement, and probability interference typical for quantum systems have been described. At the same time, these systems expose properties of livings: decomposition into motor and mental dynamics, the capability of self-identification and self-awareness, as well as self-supervision. But the most surprising discovery is the existence of a special sub-class, in which the dynamical systems can violate the second law of thermodynamics, and that makes them different from both Newtonian and quantum physics. This sub-class should be associated with intelligent livings due to capability to move from disorder to order without external help. Based upon the mathematical discovery described above, on can assume that there are good chances that similar dynamical systems representing intelligent livings exist in real physical world. This provides a reason for a “rehabilitation “of the Maxwell demon and put it into physics of intelligent systems. Indeed, the Maxwell demon is implemented by the feedback from the Liouville equation to the original ODE while this feedback is capable to rearrange the probability distribution against the second law of thermodynamics. In addition to that, the same feedback removes the entropy paradox by explaining high order in our surrounding by “intelligent life support”. Two-steps transition: from the Newtonian physics to the linear model of Life, and from the latter to the model of Intelligent life are analyzed. The first transition is triggered by the Hadamard instability of the Newtonian physics with respect to small random disturbances in linear terms of the Liouville feedback. The second transition is triggered by instability of linear model of Life with respect to small random disturbances of non-linear terms of Liouville feedback. This transition could be implemented by such physical phenomena as shock waves or negative diffusion in probability space. Both transitions can be associated with catastrophe theory, in which sudden shifts in behavior arises from small changes in parameters of the model.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18695] viXra:1705.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-19 01:01:55

Analytic Demonstrations on the Fourfold Root Topics of Primes

Authors: Shaban A. Omondi Aura
Comments: 30 Pages. Preferably for journals, academies and conferences

This paper is concerned with formulation and demonstration of new versions of equations that can help us resolve problems concerning maximal gaps between consecutive prime numbers, the number of prime numbers at a given magnitude and the location of nth prime number. There is also a mathematical argument on why prime numbers as elementary identities on their own respect behave the way they do. Given that the equations have already been formulated, there are worked out examples on numbers that represent different cohorts. This paper has therefore attempted to formulate an equation that approximates the number of prime numbers at a given magnitude, from N=3 to N=〖10〗^25. Concerning the location of an nth prime number, the paper has devised a method that can help us locate a given prime number within specified bounds. Nonetheless, the paper has formulated an equation that can help us determine extremely bounded gaps. Lastly, using trans-algebraic number theory method, the paper has shown that unpredictable behaviors of prime numbers are due to their identity nature.
Category: Number Theory

[18694] viXra:1705.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-19 01:41:04

Simple Theory of Electromagnetic Waves and Biaxial Birefringence: from Lorentz Force to Conical Refraction in 37 Pages

Authors: Gavin R. Putland
Comments: 41 pages (main text: 37 pages).

A time-variation in magnetic flux density B may occur because the field changes and/or because the field moves relative to the observation point. Faraday's law for a fixed circuit makes no distinction between these causes. But the latter cause is isolated by the magnetic term in the Lorentz force law, which, in a reference frame fixed with respect to the particle, implies that a field B moving at velocity r induces an electric field E = −r × B. In the case of a traveling electromagnetic wave, r is the ray velocity (hence the symbol).

Similarly, a time-variation in the electric displacement field D may occur because the field changes and/or because the field moves. The Maxwell-Ampère law makes no distinction between these causes. But, by analogy with the Lorentz force law, the latter cause can be isolated by saying that a D field moving at velocity r induces a magnetizing field H = r × D.

The two "moving field" laws, combined with the relations between D and E and between B and H, yield an unusually simple theory of electromagnetic waves, including a derivation of Fresnel's equation for the ray-velocity surface of a non-chiral birefringent crystal. Taking cross-products of the "moving field" laws with the wave-slowness vector, we obtain two more "moving field" equations in terms of wave slowness (generalizing the conventional formulation in terms of the wave vector). The last two equations, by analogy with the first two, yield Hamilton's wave-slowness surface. Comparing the results, we can conclude that the ray-velocity and wave-slowness surfaces of a biaxial crystal have curves of contact with tangent planes, and deduce the associated polarizations. Eigenvectors are introduced to show that, in general, the permitted polarizations for a given propagation direction are orthogonal. A coordinate transformation (simpler than Hamilton's) shows that the curves of contact are circles and yields their linear and angular diameters.

Among the footnotes are interpretations of the Poynting vector and the Minkowski momentum density. The text includes introductory material intended to make it comprehensible to high-school graduates.

(P.S.: In this abstract, vectors are shown in italics because boldface is not permitted.)
Category: Classical Physics

[18693] viXra:1705.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-18 13:29:52

Minimum Energy Transfer Orbit

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

I try to obtain the theoretical minimum for the energy transfer orbit for a spaceship
Category: Astrophysics

[18692] viXra:1705.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-18 09:56:01

From 'cogito Ergo Sum' to E=mc^2

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 46 Pages.

Using the cogito ergo sum as a starting point, I introduce a methodology which allows non-trivial knowledge to be obtained without the formal introduction of axioms. Using this methodology which I formalize, I then obtain a theory of everything (ToE) in physics. This method allows me to avoid the self-referential problem of a ToE which I argue is the core difficulty of any ToE built upon formal axioms. The theory obtained has enough generality to recover both general relativity and quantum field theory. Some of the new physics derived herein include a hard arrow time, an explanation of the quantum mechanical measurement, and a thermodynamic proof that the speed of light is maximal.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[18691] viXra:1705.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-18 10:06:56

Google Latest Tech Tricks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17] The closer we can get a machine translation to be on par with expert human translation, the happier lots of people struggling with translations will be. [16] Researchers have created a large, open source database to support the development of robot activities based on natural language input. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[18690] viXra:1705.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-18 10:44:33

Weakly-Interacting Supersymmetric Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Weakly-interacting sparticles are produced at lower rates and lead to less striking signatures, making them more difficult to distinguish from Standard Model background processes. [18] Supersymmetry (SUSY) is one of the most attractive theories extending the Standard Model of particle physics. [17] If researchers at Florida Institute of Technology, employing pioneering new methods, are able to determine the top quark's mass at a level of precision as yet unachieved, they will move science closer to understanding whether the universe is stable, as we have long believed to be the case, or unstable. [16] Last February, scientists made the groundbreaking discovery of gravitational waves produced by two colliding black holes. Now researchers are expecting to detect similar gravitational wave signals in the near future from collisions involving neutron stars—for example, the merging of two neutron stars to form a black hole, or the merging of a neutron star and a black hole. [15] In a new study published in EPJ A, Susanna Liebig from Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, and colleagues propose a new approach to nuclear structure calculations. The results are freely available to the nuclear physicists' community so that other groups can perform their own nuclear structure calculations, even if they have only limited computational resources. [14] The PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory uniquely capable of measuring how a proton's internal building blocks — quarks and gluons — contribute to its overall intrinsic angular momentum, or "spin." [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[18689] viXra:1705.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-18 11:07:11

Should Consensus Suppress the Individual ?

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 27 Pages.

Consider two cases: First Case ( pages 4-20 ): Our Universe: Is it Stable ? Consensus = NO (only metastable) Individual = YES Second Case ( pages 21-27 ): Dark Energy and Dark Matter Consensus = Unknown Individual = Known Segal Conformal Structure This paper is a brief description of interactions between Consensus and Individual in each of those two cases. Since I, the author, have been directly involved, you should read this paper bearing in mind possible bias in my point of view that might also be present in this paper. Bearing that in mind, you should decide for yourself the answer 
to the question posed in the title of this paper. In each case: Consensus = the Physics Establishment including: Fermilab, CDF, and D0 Collaborations (pages 8-14); the Cornell arXiv (pages 13; 21-22); CERN CDS (pages 14; 22); LHC, ATLAS, and CMS Collaborations (pages 15-20); the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study (page 20); and the Simons Center for Geometry and Physics (page 20) and Individual = I, a Georgia lawyer with a 1963 AB in math from Princeton and some physics study at Georgia Tech with David Finkelstein as adviser, but, having at age 50 failed the Fall 1991 Georgia Tech Comprehensive Exam ( a 3-day closed book exam ), I have no physics degree
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[18688] viXra:1705.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-18 06:20:19

Graphene Quantum Bits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

In the race to produce a quantum computer, a number of projects are seeking a way to create quantum bits—or qubits—that are stable, meaning they are not much affected by changes in their environment. [18] The global race towards a functioning quantum computer is on. With future quantum computers, we will be able to solve previously impossible problems and develop, for example, complex medicines, fertilizers, or artificial intelligence. [17] The Tohoku University research group of Professor Keiichi Edamatsu and Postdoctoral fellow Naofumi Abe has demonstrated dynamically and statically unpolarized single-photon generation using diamond. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18687] viXra:1705.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-18 06:40:53

The Wikiversity Hilbert Book Model Project

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 2 Pages.

This document introduces the Wikiversity Hilbert Book Model Project and describes its current state.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18686] viXra:1705.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-17 13:12:14

Quantum Monopole Destruction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Scientists at Amherst College (USA) and Aalto University (Finland) have made the first experimental observations of the dynamics of isolated monopoles in quantum matter. [12] Building on his own previous research, Amherst College professor David S. Hall '91 and a team of international collaborators have experimentally identified a pointlike monopole in a quantum field for the first time. The discovery, announced this week, gives scientists further insight into the elusive monopole magnet, an elementary particle that researchers believe exists but have not yet seen in nature. [11] For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18685] viXra:1705.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-17 13:30:31

Testing in Quantum Simulator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Quantum field theories are often hard to verify in experiments. Now, there is a new way of putting them to the test. [13] Scientists at Amherst College (USA) and Aalto University (Finland) have made the first experimental observations of the dynamics of isolated monopoles in quantum matter. [12] Building on his own previous research, Amherst College professor David S. Hall '91 and a team of international collaborators have experimentally identified a pointlike monopole in a quantum field for the first time. The discovery, announced this week, gives scientists further insight into the elusive monopole magnet, an elementary particle that researchers believe exists but have not yet seen in nature. [11] For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18684] viXra:1705.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-17 14:58:18

Bosonization Causes Free Neutrons Halflife Capricious When Measuring by Different Methods

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 7 pages, 2 figures. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.26828.62084

Many country’s standards management departments have struggled for long time to accurately calibrate the halflife of free neutrons with different methods, unfortunately they are all obsessed by the mysterious unexplainable discrepancy: in-beam method longer than bottle method by 1%, so as to question whether there is undiscovered new physics therein. In this paper, I assert that nothing is new and the puzzle can be explained by the so-defined spontaneous Bosonization effect acting on dense colonized neutrons. At last, some inspired researches and possible applications are presented.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[18683] viXra:1705.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-18 01:47:51

As Spinor χ = a| ↑> +b| ↓> is Physical in SU (2) Spin Space, Then Why is Isospinor ψ = A|p > +b|n > Unphysical in SU (2) Isospin Space?

Authors: Syed Afsar Abbas
Comments: 9 Pages.

A spin angular momentum state with a polarization orientation in any ar- bitrary direction can be constructed as a spinor in the SU(2)-spin space as χ = a| ↑> +b| ↓>. However the corresponding isospinor in the SU(2)-isospin space, ψ = a|p > +b|n > is discarded on empirical grounds. Still, we do not have any sound theoretcal understanding of this phenomenon. Here we provide a consistent explanation of this effect.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[18682] viXra:1705.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-18 03:29:30

An Extension to the Theory of Trigonometric Functions as Exact Periodic Solutions to Quadratic Liénard Type Equations

Authors: D. K. K. Adjaï, L. H. Koudahoun, J. Akande, Y. J. F. Kpomahou, M. D. Monsia
Comments: 11 Pages. 1-11

This paper slightly extends the theory of exact trigonometric periodic solutions to quadratic Liénard type equations introduced earlier by the authors of the present contribution. The extended theory is used to determine the general periodic solutions to the Duffing equation and to some Painlevé-Gambier equations as illustrative examples. Finally the mathematical equivalence between the Duffing equation and the Painlevé-Gambier XIX equation has been highlighted by means of the proposed extended theory.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[18681] viXra:1705.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-18 03:29:03

On the Complex Function Basis of Maxwell Equations

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 14 Pages. Include Chinese version

In this paper, we propose a concept of vector complex function to prove that the whole world can be reduced to a very simple function f(Z) = F + iG by introducing the knowledge of complex function theories. We can also derive Maxwell equations through the differential and integral analysis of the vector complex function.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[18680] viXra:1705.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-18 03:55:34

A Tide Loading Driving for Plate Motion

Authors: Yongfeng Yang
Comments: 18 Pages. Please see the following version for a detailed description of this work.

A significant progress in the geophysics field in the last century is the confirmation of plate motion. But the force behind this motion remains unknown so far, regardless of the continuous efforts by scientific community. Here we propose, the daily tide loading yields a liquid pressure onto continental slope via ocean water, this pressure further contributes a horizontal force to push continent’s side and thus move continent and the plate it sites on. The resultant horizontal force based on ideal parameters determines a motion of 39.72, 48.98, and 53.26 mm/year respectively for African, Indian, and Australian plate, and a rotation of 6.84*10-9 rad/year for American plate.
Category: Geophysics

[18679] viXra:1705.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-17 07:21:45

Fast Wave–Wave–Particle Triality

Authors: Tamas Lajtner
Comments: 7 Pages.

The de Broglie wavelength describes the wave-particle duality. The de Broglie wavelength formula and the Planck law seem to be contradicted in the University of Rochester's experiment of fast light. The fast light has longer wavelengths than the "normal" light. According to the de Broglie formula, longer wavelength means smaller momentum (smaller energy) and/or increasing Planck constant. But the fast light has the same amount of energy as the normal light. It is a contradiction between the de Broglie function and the Planck law. Here we show that the 'rest action', 'rest energy' of the fast light can resolve this contradiction. This 'rest action' of the light is a new concept that hasn't been considered. It is hidden in the Planck constant. In uncovering this part we find that the Planck constant has two parts; one part shows the 'rest action', 'rest energy' of the fast light and an other part shows the 'kinetic action', 'kinetic energy' of fast light. Fast light is a kind of fast wave. The Fast Wave–Wave–Particle Triality describes a new kind of metamorphosis of matter, for example how tunneling electrons travels faster than light without violating the special relativity. Using the Fast Wave–Wave–Particle Triality, we can realize that the speed of light is not a speed limit for particles with mass, since they can be transformed into fast waves. This model allows us to preserve the special relativity while we can accept particles with mass that may travel faster than light.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18678] viXra:1705.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-17 07:36:10

Access to Metaspace And The Metamorphic Ratio

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 2 Pages.

Access to metaspace and the metamorphic ratio.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[18677] viXra:1705.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-17 07:42:21

Quantum Squeezer and Gravitational Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Physicist Professor Chunnong Zhao and his recent PhD students Haixing Miao and Yiqiu Ma are members of an international team that has created a particularly exciting new design for gravitational wave detectors. [9] A proposal for a gravitational-wave detector made of two space-based atomic clocks has been unveiled by physicists in the US. [8] The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[18676] viXra:1705.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-17 08:12:52

Dark Matter Collisions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Two teams working independently have conducted studies with similar results suggesting the possibility that some of the cosmic rays striking the Earth arise from dark matter particles colliding with one another. [29] A mysterious gamma-ray glow at the center of the Milky Way is most likely caused by pulsars – the incredibly dense, rapidly spinning cores of collapsed ancient stars that were up to 30 times more massive than the sun. [28] Further evidence of the existence of dark matter – the mysterious substance that is believed to hold the Universe together – has been produced by Cosmologists at Durham University. [27] Researchers at the University of Waterloo have been able to capture the first composite image of a dark matter bridge that connects galaxies together. [26] In an abandoned gold mine one mile beneath Lead, South Dakota, the cosmos quiets down enough to potentially hear the faint whispers of the universe's most elusive material—dark matter. [25] The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[18675] viXra:1705.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-17 08:56:39

Superpartner of the Top Quark

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Supersymmetry (SUSY) is one of the most attractive theories extending the Standard Model of particle physics. [17] If researchers at Florida Institute of Technology, employing pioneering new methods, are able to determine the top quark's mass at a level of precision as yet unachieved, they will move science closer to understanding whether the universe is stable, as we have long believed to be the case, or unstable. [16] Last February, scientists made the groundbreaking discovery of gravitational waves produced by two colliding black holes. Now researchers are expecting to detect similar gravitational wave signals in the near future from collisions involving neutron stars—for example, the merging of two neutron stars to form a black hole, or the merging of a neutron star and a black hole. [15] In a new study published in EPJ A, Susanna Liebig from Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, and colleagues propose a new approach to nuclear structure calculations. The results are freely available to the nuclear physicists' community so that other groups can perform their own nuclear structure calculations, even if they have only limited computational resources. [14] The PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory uniquely capable of measuring how a proton's internal building blocks — quarks and gluons — contribute to its overall intrinsic angular momentum, or "spin." [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[18674] viXra:1705.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-17 06:34:34

One Black Hole, Two Stars and Residual Dust

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: showing a viewpoint with regards to the image.
Category: Astrophysics

[18673] viXra:1705.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-16 13:34:53

Stars Test Foundations of Physics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Stars, quasars, and other celestial objects generate photons in a random way, and now scientists have taken advantage of this randomness to generate random numbers at rates of more than one million numbers per second. [18] UBC physicists may have solved one of nature's great puzzles: what causes the accelerating expansion of our universe? [17] A team of scientists at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai, India, have found new ways to detect a bare or naked singularity, the most extreme object in the universe. [16] New data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes has revealed details about this giant black hole, located some 145 million light years from Earth. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[18672] viXra:1705.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-16 13:56:59

Energy Dissipation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Energy dissipation is a key ingredient in understanding many physical phenomena in thermodynamics, photonics, chemical reactions, nuclear fission, photon emissions, or even electronic circuits, among others. [15] The likelihood of seeing quantum systems violating the second law of thermodynamics has been calculated by UCL scientists. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[18671] viXra:1705.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-16 19:11:11

Six Easy Pieces in Computational Physics

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 39 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal

The present book consists of 6 papers that I and some colleagues developed throughout the last 3-4 years. The subjects discussed cover wireless energy transmission, soliton model of DNA, cosmology, and also solutions of Navier-Stokes equations both in 2D and 3D. Some additional graphical plots for solution of 3D Navier-Stokes equations are also given. Hopefully the readers will find these papers at least interesting to ponder.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[18670] viXra:1705.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-17 02:27:13

On the Higgs Boson’s Range

Authors: Antonio Puccini
Comments: 4 Pages.

The discovery of the Higgs boson (HB) has revealed a highly massive particle, the value of which lies between 125 and 126.5 GeV/c2. Bearing in mind the basic concepts of Quantum Field Theory, and in full compliance with the Heisemberg Uncertainy Principle, we were able to calculate the maximum limit of the HB’s range: in perfect agreement with its high mass, it presents a value really very small, of slightly less than 10-15[cm], namely 9.8828 ∙ 10-16[cm].
Category: Quantum Physics

[18669] viXra:1705.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-16 08:26:20

Decomposition of Exponential Function Into Derivative Ring. Derivative Ring: Suitable Basis for Derivative-Matching Approximations.

Authors: Andrej Liptaj
Comments: 6 Pages.

A set of functions which allows easy derivative-matching is proposed. Several examples of approximations are shown.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[18668] viXra:1705.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-16 09:00:51

Interaction Between Atomic Nucleus and Electron

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Precision measurement on heavy ions contradicts theory of interaction between atomic nucleus and electron. [15] For the first time, scientists have succeeded in studying the strength of hydrogen bonds in a single molecule using an atomic force microscope. [14] International team solves mystery of colloidal chains. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18667] viXra:1705.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 13:53:47

Solving Accelerating Expansion of the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

UBC physicists may have solved one of nature's great puzzles: what causes the accelerating expansion of our universe? [17] A team of scientists at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai, India, have found new ways to detect a bare or naked singularity, the most extreme object in the universe. [16] New data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes has revealed details about this giant black hole, located some 145 million light years from Earth. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[18666] viXra:1705.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 14:14:41

Nokton Theory v2.0

Authors: L.saidani
Comments: 8 Pages.

The nokton theory is an attempt to construct a theory adapted to every physical phenomenon. Space and time have been discretized. Its laws are iterative and precise. Probability plays an important role here. At first I defined the notion of image function and its mathematical framework. The notion of nokton and its state are the basis of several definitions. I later defined the canonical image function and the canonical contribution. Two constants have been necessary to define the dynamics of this theory. With its combinatorial complexity, the theory has at present given no result which seems to me interesting. The document is only a foundation. Among the merits of this theory the absence of the infinites and its interpretation that is contrary to the quantum mechanics or the general relativity does not strike the common sense of the physicist.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18665] viXra:1705.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 16:37:35

Pioneer Anomaly

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 4 Pages.

A difference in orbits has formed by a gravity action of the photon crowd of sunlight who keeps applying an investigation satellite according to a pulsation hypothesis. In that pioneer Mary, the orbit calculation of the space exploration satellite pioneer is led by gravitation action by the sun mass. The gravitation by the light of the sun is not included in orbit calculation there. A mystery pulled little by little in the direction of the sun is not untied every year for 30 years by an effort equivalent to gravitational 1/100 hundred million from the orbit which a pioneer calculated. According to the analogy from an elementary particle pulsation principle, I think that a group of photons of the light of the sun to arrive in the exploration satellite is the gravitation by a gravity child carried by a material wave from the sun. It is vacuum space between a space probe and the sun, and there is not the atmosphere inhibiting a light of the sun ingredient. It should always go away by radiation pressure (photon rocket) of the light of the sun from the sun because photon group of enormous numerical high energy collides with a space probe. On the contrary, the top is past repulsive force of the radiation pressure, and, as for what is drawn into the sun direction, gravity by the photon group can understand that it is bigger and acts. A mystery to deviate from the original track that I calculated by gravity by the mass of the sun.
Category: Astrophysics

[18664] viXra:1705.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 17:48:18

The Simplest Deduction for Space-Time Transformation and ‘Law of Equi-Status for Reference Systems’

Authors: Fang Zhou
Comments: 13 pages in Chinese

The Galilean Transformation is, strictly speaking, applicable only in assumed case of unlimited light velocity. The Galilean Transformation describes the composition of observers’ observation vectors. The author of the article, utilizing this inherent property of Galilean Transformation, presents the simplest deduction for space-time transformation objectively existing in motion observation under the circumstances of limited light velocity, and revealed the ‘Law of Equi-Status for Reference Systems’ as well.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18663] viXra:1705.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 21:31:08

Cherish Renewable Aerial Water Vapor as it is a Huge Hidden Energy Resource

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 13 pages, 3 figures. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.15595.75045

This paper emphasizes how great energy hidden in ubiquitous aerial water vapor and how spectacular and subtle in natural evaporation by visualizing tedious thermodynamic data in vivid macroscopic and microscopic scale with different gauges such as kj/kg, eV/molecule, photonic wavelength per single step of water molecular clusterization during condensation for energy density estimation, mm/day, nm/s for evaporation rate average calculation. Condensation is first time described as special invisible infrared combustion, and it is proved that it is theoretically possible to convert its latent heat to high grade thermal energy.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[18662] viXra:1705.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-16 03:47:59

Conjecture on the Pairs of Primes Obtained Inserting N with Digit Sum 12 After the First Digit of Twin Primes

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I conjecture that for any pair of twin primes [p, q], p ≥ 11, there exist a number n having the sum of its digits equal to 12 such that inserting n after the first digit of p respectively q are obtained two primes (almost always twins, as in the case [1481, 1483] where n = 48 is inserted in [11, 13], beside the case that the first digit of twins is different, as in the case [5669, 6661] where n = 66 is inserted in [59, 61]).
Category: Number Theory

[18661] viXra:1705.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 10:36:47

Quantum Reservoir

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

In a recent experiment at EPFL, a microwave resonator, a circuit that supports electric signals oscillating at a resonance frequency, is coupled to the vibrations of a metallic micro-drum. [20] Researchers at the Institute of Solid State Physics map out a radically new approach for designing optical and electronic properties of materials in Advanced Materials. [19] Now MIT physicists have found that a flake of graphene, when brought in close proximity with two superconducting materials, can inherit some of those materials' superconducting qualities. As graphene is sandwiched between superconductors, its electronic state changes dramatically, even at its center. [18] EPFL scientists have now carried out a study on a lithium-containing copper oxide and have found that its electrons are 2.5 times lighter than was predicted by theoretical calculations. [17] Washington State University physicists have created a fluid with negative mass, which is exactly what it sounds like. Push it, and unlike every physical object in the world we know, it doesn't accelerate in the direction it was pushed. It accelerates backwards. [16] When matter is cooled to near absolute zero, intriguing phenomena emerge. These include supersolidity, where crystalline structure and frictionless flow occur together. ETH researchers have succeeded in realising this strange state experimentally for the first time. [15] Helium atoms are loners. Only if they are cooled down to an extremely low temperature do they form a very weakly bound molecule. In so doing, they can keep a tremendous distance from each other thanks to the quantum-mechanical tunnel effect. [14] Inside a new exotic crystal, physicist Martin Mourigal has observed strong indications of "spooky" action, and lots of it. The results of his experiments, if corroborated over time, would mean that the type of crystal is a rare new material that can house a quantum spin liquid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons - thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature - to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Condensed Matter

[18660] viXra:1705.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 11:18:45

The Early Universe's Lack of Dark Matter Explained Using Cyclic Universe E8 Symmetry Theory

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract: The early universe's deficit of of dark matter is simply explained using up-to-date theory: dark matter entered new recycled active galaxies at their supermassive black holes at an overall steady rate that has continued unchanged to the present day
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18659] viXra:1705.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 12:12:07

The Hydrogen Paradox of Earth and Rocky Body Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

The velocity of hydrogen gas at temperatures hypothesized to have been on Earth and other rocky bodies during their formation is well beyond the escape velocity of Earth and other smaller bodies. So there is a paradox, how exactly did rocks, minerals and water oceans form, which contain hydrogen, if hydrogen would have escaped Earth’s and other bodies’ gravitational fields?
Category: Astrophysics

[18658] viXra:1705.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 07:23:33

Nanoscale Machines

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Research from The University of Manchester has thrown new light on the use of miniaturised 'heat engines' that could one day help power nanoscale machines like quantum computers. [15] The likelihood of seeing quantum systems violating the second law of thermodynamics has been calculated by UCL scientists. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[18657] viXra:1705.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 08:24:39

Is Mass a Real Physical Quantity?

Authors: Gordon Liu
Comments: 8 pages

Although mass is a very common and fundamental concept, but the problem of mass is still one of the key problems of modern Physics, up to the present, the experts are not able to reach a consensus. In this paper, we have discussed the problems relating to mass, energy and matter, and been aware that mass is neither the amount of matter an object has, nor the measure of inertia and the source of gravitational field, whereas energy is. As before, that mass is used to measure the inertia and to calculate gravitational force is just an approximate method, only for very slowly moving objects and particles for which the rest energy is much larger than the kinetic energy. Actually, the concept of mass is a superfluous artificial concept, just rest energy divided by a constant (If selecting c=1, the mass is exactly equal to the rest energy), does not has any other meaning. If the concept of mass is completely superseded by energy(or more precisely, rest energy), the physical equations are completely perfect, their meanings are clearer, and the puzzles such as the relationship of mass and energy, nature of matter, the essence of the weak equivalence principle, the physical meaning of Higgs mechanism, etc., can be made clearer.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18656] viXra:1705.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 08:53:13

A New Approach to Special Relativity

Authors: Gordon Liu
Comments: 20 pages, PHYSICS ESSAYS 27, 1 (2014)

The success of Special Relativity (SR) comes from the requirement of Lorentz co-variance to all physical equations. The explanation with regard to the Lorentz co-variance is based on two hypotheses, namely the principle of special relativity and the constancy of the speed of light. However, the statements of the principle of special relativity are various and confusing. The co-variance of physical equations and the equality of inertial frames of reference are mixed up. The equality of inertial frames of reference is obvious, but the co-variance of the physical equations is a more advanced requirement. Additionally, the way that the propagation property of light is placed in a central position of SR has caused people misunderstandings towards space-time, and also there is a logical circularity between the measurement of speed of light and the synchronization of clocks. These have obstructed to correctly extend the theory of space-time from an inertial frame of reference to a non-inertial frame of reference. These are the main reasons why many people criticize SR. In present paper, the two hypotheses have been discussed in detail and a new requirement to the equations of Physics has been proposed. The requirement is the Requirement of Special Completeness, namely, the physical equations used to describe the dynamics of matter and/or fields should include the descriptions that not only the matter and/or fields are at rest relative to an inertial frame of reference, but also they move relative to this frame. Basing on this requirement and the equality of the inertial frames of reference, we can approach to SR. Thereby let the theory of Lorentz co-variance has a clear and solid foundation. The constancy of the speed of light is just a deduction, not a premise. The Lorentz co-variance is just a characteristic of the Special Complete equations. Maxwell equations automatically satisfy the Lorentz trans-formations without any modification, while Newton law of gravity does not, because Newton law of gravity is not Special Complete and Maxwell equations are. The new approach has paved a road leading towards the generalizing of the theory of space-time from the inertial frame of reference to non-inertial frame of reference without considering gravitation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18655] viXra:1705.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 08:55:07

Solution of Biomolecule Structures

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

An international team including researchers from MIPT has shown that iodide phasing—a long-established technique in structural biology—is universally applicable to membrane protein structure determination. [23] Scientists in Greece have devised a new form of biometric identification that relies on humans' ability to see flashes of light containing just a handful of photons. [22] A research team led by Professor CheolGi Kim has developed a biosensor platform using magnetic patterns resembling a spider web with detection capability 20 times faster than existing biosensors. [21] Researchers at Columbia University have made a significant step toward breaking the so-called "color barrier" of light microscopy for biological systems, allowing for much more comprehensive, system-wide labeling and imaging of a greater number of biomolecules in living cells and tissues than is currently attainable. [20] Scientists around the Nobel laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now achieved what was for a long time considered impossible – they have developed a new fluorescence microscope, called MINFLUX, allowing, for the first time, to optically separate molecules, which are only nanometers (one millionth of a millimeter) apart from each other. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15]
Category: Physics of Biology

[18654] viXra:1705.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 09:18:05

The Spacetime of Noninertial Frame of Reference Without Gravitation

Authors: Gordon Liu
Comments: 6 pages

We have discussed the characteristics of the space-time of non-inertial frame of reference (NFR)and proposed the Requirement of General Completeness (RGC) and the Principle of Equality of All Frames of Reference (PEAFR) in present paper. The RGC is that the physical equations used to describe the dynamics of matter should include the descriptions that the matter rest and move (uniformly rectilinearly and acceleratedly) relative to a frame of reference, and consider the structure of the space-time of frame of reference. The PEAFR is that any frame of reference can be used to describe the motion of matter and the equations of General Completeness in all frames of reference are identical. According to the RGC and the PEAFR, we can deduce that the general complete physical equations are covariant. The descriptions of the space-time of NFR can be dealt without gravitation. The space-time of NFR is inhomogeneous and/or anisotropic caused by the accelerating motion. The inertial force is the manifestation of the deformed space-time. The Riemann curvature tensor of the space-time of NFR equals zero, but the affine connection does not vanish no matter what coordinate system be selected in the NFR. Mach’s principle is incorrect.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18653] viXra:1705.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 10:03:23

Riemannian Space-Time, de Donder Conditions and Gravitational Field in Flat Space-Time

Authors: Gordon Liu
Comments: 12 Pages. International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 2013, 3, 8-19

Let the coordinate system of flat space-time to absorb a second rank tensor field of the flat space-time deforming into a Riemannian space-time, namely, the tensor field is regarded as a metric tensor with respect to the coordinate system . After done this, is not the coordinate system of flat space-time anymore, but is the coordinate system of the new Riemannian space-time. The inverse operation also can be done. According to these notions, the concepts of the absorption operation and the desorption operation are proposed. These notions are actually compatible with Einstein's equivalence principle. By using these concepts, the relationships of the Riemannian space-time, the de Donder conditions and the gravitational field in flat space-time are analyzed and elaborated. The essential significance of the de Donder conditions (the harmonic conditions or gauge) is to desorb the tensor field of gravitation from the Riemannian space-time to the Minkowski space-time with the Cartesian coordinates. Einstein equations with de Donder conditions can be solved in flat space-time. Base on Fock's works, the equations of gravitational field in flat space-time are obtained, and the tensor expression of the energy-momentum of gravitational field is found. They all satisfy the global Lorentz covariance.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18652] viXra:1705.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 10:06:53

Spectroscopy Detect Art Fraud

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

When we look at a painting, how do we know it's a genuine piece of art? [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[18651] viXra:1705.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 06:37:31

Precision Control of Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

The research team recently succeeded for the first time in precisely controlling the transition temperature of superconducting atomic layers using organic molecules. [31] For the first time, physicists have experimentally validated a 1959 conjecture that places limits on how small superconductors can be. [30] A new finding by physicists at MIT and in Israel shows that under certain specialized conditions, electrons can speed through a narrow opening in a piece of metal more easily than traditional theory says is possible. [29] Researchers have found a way to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, ability of graphene to act as a superconductor-meaning that it can be made to carry an electrical current with zero resistance. [28] Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18650] viXra:1705.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-14 14:57:38

The Reality of the Application of e-DMS in Governmental Institutions - an Empirical Study on the PPA

Authors: Al-Shobaki1, Mazen J.;Abu-Naser, Samy S.; Kassab, Mohammed khair I.
Comments: 15 pages

The research aims to identify the status of the application of electronic document management system in governmental institutions – the study was applied on the Palestinian Pension Agency. The population of this study is composed of all employees in the Palestinian Pension Agency. In order to achieve the objectives of the study, the researchers used the descriptive and analytical approach, through which try to describe the phenomenon of the subject of the study, analyze the data and the relationship between the components and the views put around it. Census method was used due to the small size of the study population and ease of access to the target group. (108) questionnaires were distributed to all members of the study population, were (65) employees in the Gaza Strip and (43) employees in the West Bank. All questionnaires were recovered. The study found the following results: There were no statistically significant differences in the members of the population in response to differences in the study about the reality of the application of electronic document management system in governmental institutions - case study on the Palestinian Pension Authority due to the age. There are no statistically significant differences in population members in response to the reality of the application of electronic document management system in governmental institutions - case Study on the Palestinian Pension Authority due to the variable nature of the job. As well as there are no statistically significant differences in the members of the population in response to the study about the reality of the application of electronic document management system in governmental institutions - case study on the Palestinian Pension Authority due to the variable of specialization. There are statistically significant differences in the study about the reality of the application of electronic document management system in governmental institutions - case study on the Palestinian Pension Authority due to Qualification variable for the benefit of members of the population study who are holding a Bachelor degree. There are statistically significant differences in the study about the reality of the application of electronic document management system in governmental institutions – case study on the Palestinian Pension Authority due to the variable number of years of experience for the benefit of members of the study population who have experience between 11-15 years.
Category: Social Science

[18649] viXra:1705.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-14 15:03:41

The Degree of Administrative Transparency in the Palestinian HEI

Authors: Al-Shobaki1, Mazen J.;Abu-Naser, Samy S.; Ammar, Tarek M.
Comments: 18 pages

The aim of the study is to identify the degree of administrative transparency in the Palestinian higher educational institutions in the Gaza Strip. In the study, the researchers adopted a descriptive and analytical method. The research population consisted of administrative staff, whether academic or administrative, except for those in senior management or the university council. The study population reached 392 employees. A random sample was selected (197). The number of questionnaires recovered was (160) with a recovery rate of (81.2%). The researchers used a questionnaire for the data collection and were treated using SPSS to obtain the results. The results show that there is no significant difference between male responses and female responses due to gender variable. The results also confirm that there is no significant difference between respondents' responses due to the age variable. The results also showed a significant difference between respondents' responses attributed to the university variable. There is a fundamental difference between respondents' responses attributed to the scientifically qualified variable. The results also confirmed a significant difference between respondents' responses attributed to the management level variable. The results also confirmed a significant difference between respondents' responses due to variable years of service. The research reached a number of recommendations, the most important of which is: The necessity of Palestinian universities to adhere to the application of transparency standards in all university activities. The need to benefit from regional and international experience in the application of transparency systems within universities and to examine the possibility of applying these systems in our universities. As well as the need to engage in the program of teaching transparency in universities, as it is confirmed that only five universities participated in this experiment. The importance of raising awareness among the employees of Palestinian universities to clarify the foundations of building transparency and its dimensions to represent the active supporter through workshops and seminars.
Category: Social Science

[18648] viXra:1705.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-14 15:07:36

Usage Degree of the Capabilities of DSS in Al-Aqsa University of Gaza

Authors: Al-Shobaki1, Mazen J.;Abu-Naser, Samy S.
Comments: 14 pages

This study aimed to identify the degree of use of the capabilities of decision-support systems in Palestinian institutions higher education, Aqsa University in Gaza - a case study. The study used a analytical descriptive approach, and the researchers used the of questionnaire tool to collect the data, the researchers using stratified random sample distributed (150) questioners to the study population and (126) was obtained back with rate of 84%. The study showed that the most important results are: that senior management supports the existence of decision support systems and that there is approval by the respondents on the paragraphs of the use of the capabilities of decision support systems in general. And that there are no significant differences between the averages of the answers of respondents differences about the degree of use of decision support systems capabilities attributed to personal data. The study also concluded a series of recommendations including: increasing the adoption of the senior management decision support in their decision-making systems. And increased regulatory attention to the potential available to decision support systems directly to the senior management in the Palestinian universities in the Gaza Strip. There is an increased interest in the physical and technical possibilities available for the use of decision support systems. There is an increased interest in human potential available for the use of decision support systems. Investment of information available to universities in building the capacities of integration techniques and other information technology capabilities. The empowerment of human resources in universities and participating in making decisions concerning the construction of the capabilities of information technology.
Category: Social Science

[18647] viXra:1705.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-14 15:08:42

Some Notes on the Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Solar Model in Reference to Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Some notes are referenced to put together a much more cohesive picture of stellar evolution using a few ideas presented by Pierre-Marie Robitaille in his Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Solar Model as compared to Stellar Metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[18646] viXra:1705.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-14 17:15:50

Is Classical Mathematics Appropriate for Theory of Computation?

Authors: Farzad Didehvar
Comments: 9 Pages.

Throughout this paper, we are trying to show how and why our Mathematical frame-work seems inappropriate to solve problems in Theory of Computation. More exactly, the concept of turning back in time in paradoxes causes inconsistency in modeling of the concept of Time in some semantic situations. As we see in the first chapter, by introducing a version of “Unexpected Hanging Paradox”, first we attempt to open a new explanation for some paradoxes. In the second step, by applying this paradox, it is demonstrated that any formalized system for the Theory of Computation based on Classical Logic and Turing Model of Computation leads us to a contradiction. We conclude that our mathematical frame work is inappropriate for Theory of Computation. Furthermore, the result provides us a reason that many problems in Complexity Theory resist to be solved. .
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[18645] viXra:1705.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-14 22:34:37

Informativity Expressions for Dark Energy and Dark Matter

Authors: Jody A Geiger
Comments: 10 Pages.

Providing a straight-forward explanation of dark energy and dark matter using only the physical laws of nature as they are known today has proved difficult and allusive. Using the principles of Informativity, a model based on counts of the fundamental measures—length, time and mass—an understanding of the expansion of our universe is resolved. Several expressions—mass of the universe, Hubble’s constant, age of the universe, rate of expansion—are presented that exemplify the approach and mathematical procedures. The postulates of Informativity change our understanding of length, suggesting that our current understanding of galactic measure is distorted.
Category: Astrophysics

[18644] viXra:1705.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 02:29:14

A Recreative Conjecture on Primes Obtained Inserting N with Digit Sum 12 Before the Last Digit of a Prime

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I conjecture that for any prime p, p ≥ 7, there exist a prime q obtained inserting a number n with the sum of digits equal to 12 before the last digit of p.
Category: Number Theory

[18643] viXra:1705.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 03:07:04

A Novel Pandemonium Architecture Based on Visual Topological Invariants and Mental Matching Descriptions

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
Comments: 13 Pages.

A novel daemon-based architecture is introduced to elucidate some brain functions, such as pattern recognition during human perception and mental interpretation of visual scenes. By taking into account the concepts of invariance and persistence in topology, we introduce a Selfridge pandemonium variant of brain activity that takes into account a novel feature, namely, extended feature daemons that, in addition to the usual recognition of short straight as well as curved lines, recognize topological features of visual scene shapes, such as shape interior, density and texture. A series of transformations can be gradually applied to a pattern, in particular to the shape of an object, without affecting its invariant properties, such as its boundedness and connectedness of the parts of a visual scene. We also introduce another Pandemonium implementation: low-level representations of objects can be mapped to higher-level views (our mental interpretations), making it possible to construct a symbolic multidimensional representation of the environment. The representations can be projected continuously to an object that we have seen and continue to see, thanks to the mapping from shapes in our memory to shapes in Euclidean space. A multidimensional vista detectable by the brain (brainscapes) results from the presence of daemons (mind channels) that detect not only ordinary views of the shapes in visual scenes, but also the features of the shapes. Although perceived shapes are 3-dimensional (3+1 dimensional, if we include time), shape features (volume, colour, contour, closeness, texture, and so on) lead to n-dimensional brainscapes, We arrive at 5 as a minimum shape feature space, since every visual shape has at least a contour in space-time. We discuss the advantages of our parallel, hierarchical model in pattern recognition, computer vision and biological nervous system’s evolution.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[18642] viXra:1705.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 03:34:42

Electrostatic Design of Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Researchers at the Institute of Solid State Physics map out a radically new approach for designing optical and electronic properties of materials in Advanced Materials. [19] Now MIT physicists have found that a flake of graphene, when brought in close proximity with two superconducting materials, can inherit some of those materials' superconducting qualities. As graphene is sandwiched between superconductors, its electronic state changes dramatically, even at its center. [18] EPFL scientists have now carried out a study on a lithium-containing copper oxide and have found that its electrons are 2.5 times lighter than was predicted by theoretical calculations. [17] Washington State University physicists have created a fluid with negative mass, which is exactly what it sounds like. Push it, and unlike every physical object in the world we know, it doesn't accelerate in the direction it was pushed. It accelerates backwards. [16] When matter is cooled to near absolute zero, intriguing phenomena emerge. These include supersolidity, where crystalline structure and frictionless flow occur together. ETH researchers have succeeded in realising this strange state experimentally for the first time. [15] Helium atoms are loners. Only if they are cooled down to an extremely low temperature do they form a very weakly bound molecule. In so doing, they can keep a tremendous distance from each other thanks to the quantum-mechanical tunnel effect. [14] Inside a new exotic crystal, physicist Martin Mourigal has observed strong indications of "spooky" action, and lots of it. The results of his experiments, if corroborated over time, would mean that the type of crystal is a rare new material that can house a quantum spin liquid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Condensed Matter

[18641] viXra:1705.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 03:41:04

A Recreative Conjecture on Primes Obtained Inserting N with Digit Sum 12 After the First Digit of a Prime

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I conjecture that for any prime p, p ≥ 5, there exist a prime q obtained inserting a number n with the sum of digits equal to 12 after the first digit of p.
Category: Number Theory

[18640] viXra:1705.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-14 08:02:21

Limit For Quantum Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

For the first time, scientists have subjected quantum entanglement to extreme levels of acceleration, and there's nothing fragile about this "spooky action at a distance"-it's way more robust than we thought. [13] Now, new research in the American Physical Society's journal Physical Review Letters brings aspects of the two together in an experiment that shows, for the first time, that gravity stretches and squeezes quantum objects through tidal forces. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18639] viXra:1705.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-14 09:02:20

Penrose Diagram

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 4 Pages.

Brief outline of Penrose diagram - comments welcome.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18638] viXra:1705.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-14 09:42:59

The Unification of Quantum Mechanics, General Relativity and Consciousness

Authors: Madonna-Megara Holloway
Comments: 10 Pages.

The Unification of Quantum Mechanics, General Relativity and Consciousness – An Excerpt from The Secret Doctrine Volume IV, The Nature of Everything
Category: Quantum Physics

[18637] viXra:1705.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-14 04:25:18

Popular Routes Discovery

Authors: Tal Ben Yakar
Comments: 6 Pages.

Finding the optimal driving route has attracted considerable attention in recent years, the problem sounds simple however different companies these days, taxi alternatives companies like Uber and Via trying to find what is the best route to drive find it as a very challenging problem. Ridesharing and maps companies like HERE, navigation companies like waze and public transportation companies like moovit and others. AI robots in addition, need to have the ability to route in the optimal manner. In this work we formulate the problem of finding optimal routes as an optimization problem and come up with a neat, low memory and fast solution to the problem using machine learning algorithms.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[18636] viXra:1705.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-13 16:51:07

Improved First Estimates to the Solution of Kepler's Equation

Authors: Richard J. Mathar
Comments: 4 pages with 7 figures.

The manuscripts provides a novel starting guess for the solution of Kepler's equation for unknown eccentric anomaly E given the eccentricity e and the mean anomaly M of an elliptical orbit.
Category: Astrophysics

[18635] viXra:1705.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-13 20:48:18

Quantum Nonlinear Four-Wave Mixing with a Single Atom in an Optical Cavity

Authors: Haytham Chibani
Comments: 5 Pages.

Single atom cavity quantum electrodynamics grants access to nonclassical photon statistics, while electromagnetically induced transparency exhibits a dark state of long coherence time. The combination of the two produces a new light field via four-wave mixing that shows long-lived quantum statistics. We observe the new field in the emission from the cavity as a beat with the probe light that together with the control beam and the cavity vacuum is driving the four-wave mixing process. Moreover, the control field allows us to tune the new light field from antibunching to bunching, demonstrating our all-optical control over the photon-pair emission.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18634] viXra:1705.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-13 20:50:38

How a Minimum Time Step and Formation of Initial Causal Structure in Space-Time May Void the Penrose Singularity Theorem, as in Hawkings and Ellis’s 1973 Write Ups

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 8 Pages.

Analyzing a potential violation of a Penrose singularity theorem, via root finders, and other means.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18633] viXra:1705.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-14 02:26:57

Correcting for Relativity in GPS makes no sense

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk
Comments: 3 Pages.

Showing that the Special Theory of Relativity is an untenable theory, many times leads to the reaction that the GPS is so accurate thanks to the STR corrections. This article shows that the supposed relativity errors are by far negligible relative to the errors caused by atmospheric circumstances.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[18632] viXra:1705.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-13 12:24:55

How to Generalize Incomplete Physical Laws

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 4 Pages.

This work refers to a method of generalizing incomplete physical laws through the scale law. Generalization can only be applied when the general law exists but has not yet been discovered. It is remarkable that the very simple methodology described in this paper turns out to be so powerful.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18631] viXra:1705.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-13 07:08:17

Gravity Stretching Quantum Objects

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Now, new research in the American Physical Society's journal Physical Review Letters brings aspects of the two together in an experiment that shows, for the first time, that gravity stretches and squeezes quantum objects through tidal forces. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18630] viXra:1705.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-13 04:18:00

Physics Solutions for Computational Problems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Researchers from the University of Central Florida and Boston University have developed a novel approach to solve such difficult computational problems more quickly. [29] By precisely measuring the entropy of a cerium copper gold alloy with baffling electronic properties cooled to nearly absolute zero, physicists in Germany and the United States have gleaned new evidence about the possible causes of high-temperature superconductivity and similar phenomena. [28] Physicists have theoretically shown that a superconducting current of electrons can be induced to flow by a new kind of transport mechanism: the potential flow of information. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[18629] viXra:1705.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-12 13:28:24

Mystery of Colloidal Chains

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

International team solves mystery of colloidal chains. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Condensed Matter

[18628] viXra:1705.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-12 15:03:41

Hydrogen Bonds Detected

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

For the first time, scientists have succeeded in studying the strength of hydrogen bonds in a single molecule using an atomic force microscope. [14] International team solves mystery of colloidal chains. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18627] viXra:1705.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-12 16:11:03

Isenthalpic Quantum Gravity

Authors: Evgeny A Novikov
Comments: 6 Pages.

New simple and exact analytical solutions of Einstein equations of general relativity (GR) and of Qmoger (quantum modification of GR) equations are obtained. These solutions corresponds to processes with invariant density of enthalpy (energy plus pressure). Interpretation of this solutions in terms of cosmic radiation and production of massive particles, as well as comparison with cosmic data (without fitting), are presented. It is suggested, that isenthalpic processes can be relevant also to excessive radiation from Jupiter and Saturn. Similar processes potentially can be used as a new source of energy on Earth.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18626] viXra:1705.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-12 21:13:03

Possibility Analysis on Energy Breakeven of Z-Pinch & Accelerator-Based Fusions

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 5 pages, 0 figure. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.28394.93125

Energy breakeven is the key to utilize fusion energy. This paper predicts Z-pinch based fusion breakeven is possible in near future as long as it is available of a better pulse DC power supply with high voltage and tremendous current than prior LTD (Linear Transformer Driver), but accelerator-based fusion hopeless forever.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[18625] viXra:1705.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-12 22:53:16

The Relations Between Ancient China’s Taoism And Modern Mathematics & Physics

Authors: ShengYu.Shu
Comments: 62 Pages.

I have mainly analyzed the mathematical meaning of non-classical mathematical theory for three fundamental physics equations - Maxwell’s equations, Dirac’s equations, Einstein’s equations from the quantized core theory of ancient China’s Taoism, and found they have some structures described in the core of the theory of ancient China’s Taoism, especially they all obviously own the yin-yang induction structure. This reveals the relations between the ancient China’s Taoism and modern mathematics and physics in a way, which may help us to understand some problems of the fundamental theory of physics.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[18624] viXra:1705.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-13 00:34:05

The Origin of the Z and W Bosons

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we showed that the Z and W bosons can be created due to two different mechanisms. One mechanism is associated with a transition from electromagnetic interactions to weak interactions of protons with electrons in the presence of dark matter (DM) while the second one concerns a transition from weak interactions of protons to weak interactions of charges of protons, which mimic behaviour of electrons in absence of DM, with muons associated with protons. In the first mechanism, calculated mass of Z is 91.181 GeV whereas of W is 80.428 GeV while in the second mechanism we obtained respectively 91.205 GeV and 80.387 GeV.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[18623] viXra:1705.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-13 01:05:28

Study on Internal Mechanisms of Charge, Current, Electric Field and Magnetic Field

Authors: Wei Fan
Comments: 6 Pages.

In the history of physics, great achievements have been made in the field of electromagnetism making us aware of the existence of charge, current, electric and magnetic fields. However, what is the essence of charge, current, electric and magnetic fields? This remains a mystery. If we can unravel these puzzles, it can not only meet our curiosity, but also contribute to the development of electromagnetism. Fortunately, we have made it and got some interesting findings: an electric charge is the impulse of electronic angular momentum; the quantity of charges is the quantity of electronic angular momentum impulses; a conduction current is a conduction force flow (current is a type of force flow); an electric field is a magnetic field in nature (because triboelectrification produces a magnetic field); a magnetic field is the superposition state of multiple medium impulse moments; the electromagnetic force is medium impulse moments produced by the collision of electronic angular momentum pulses with medium photons .
Category: Condensed Matter

[18622] viXra:1705.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-13 01:15:48

The Origin of Gravity and the Impetus for Celestial Motions

Authors: Wei Fan
Comments: 11 Pages.

Newtonian mechanics is a subfield of mechanics that deals with the motion of particle, and is by far the most clear and concise kinematics. Although Newtonian mechanics can well describe the motion of particle, it is not applicable to the motion of bodies other than particle. That is why it could not explain the rotation and revolution of celestial bodies as well as the impetus for their movements. Based on Newtonian mechanics, this paper presented an extended discussion of the motion of non-particle objects and put forth a new kinetic theory that can well explain the rotation and revolution of celestial bodies and the motivating force for their movements. Meanwhile, it provided a feasible way of explaining the origin of gravity.
Category: Astrophysics

[18621] viXra:1705.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-12 11:51:49

On the Scale Factors of Energy Formulas

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 14 Pages.

This paper explores the scale factors of three laws: (a) the Einstein's relativistic energy law, (b) Newton's law of universal gravitation and (c) the special universal uncertainty principle. Two new concepts are defined: complete energy laws and incomplete energy laws. This investigation shows that the first two laws have scale factors of 1 while the third one has a scale factor of -1. These results could be useful in the future to predict scale factors of new laws of nature.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18620] viXra:1705.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-12 07:28:04

Future of Nano-Electronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

The future of nano-electronics is here. A team of researchers from the Air Force Research Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines, and the Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois have developed a novel method for the synthesis of a composite material that has the potential of vastly improving the electronics used by the Air Force. [28] Physicists have theoretically shown that a superconducting current of electrons can be induced to flow by a new kind of transport mechanism: the potential flow of information. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[18619] viXra:1705.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-12 08:21:12

Entropy and Quantum Mystery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

By precisely measuring the entropy of a cerium copper gold alloy with baffling electronic properties cooled to nearly absolute zero, physicists in Germany and the United States have gleaned new evidence about the possible causes of high-temperature superconductivity and similar phenomena. [28] Physicists have theoretically shown that a superconducting current of electrons can be induced to flow by a new kind of transport mechanism: the potential flow of information. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18618] viXra:1705.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-12 09:17:02

Laser Frequency Combs

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Researchers at ETH have now developed a method by which such frequency combs can be created much more simply and cheaply than before. [17] A novel way to harness lasers and plasmas may give researchers new ways to explore outer space and to examine bugs, tumors and bones back on planet Earth. [16] A team of researchers at Harvard University has successfully cooled a three-atom molecule down to near absolute zero for the first time. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18617] viXra:1705.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-12 09:45:21

New Theory of Quantum Masm

Authors: God Bo
Comments: 3 Pages.

A new theory of quantum MASM, approved by hundreds of professors.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18616] viXra:1705.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-12 04:58:46

Robots Sense of Touch

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Engineering researchers at the University of Minnesota have developed a revolutionary process for 3D printing stretchable electronic sensory devices that could give robots the ability to feel their environment. The discovery is also a major step forward in printing electronics on real human skin. [18] Researchers from France and the University of Arkansas have created an artificial synapse capable of autonomous learning, a component of artificial intelligence. [17] Intelligent machines of the future will help restore memory, mind your children, fetch your coffee and even care for aging parents. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system,
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[18615] viXra:1705.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-12 05:39:19

Determinative Atom Model

Authors: Wan-Chung Hu
Comments: 18 Pages.

The most accepted atom model currently was proposed by Dr. Bohr and by Dr. Schrodinger and Dr. Dirac subsequently12. However, many phenomenon cannot be explained by Bohr’s atom model. He used Coulomb electric force as the centripetal force to explain the rotation of electrons around nucleus. Another very important basic forces, magnetic force and frame-dragging force (spinity), were neglected and not included in his atom model. In Schrodinger’s atom model, there are problems limiting the formation of correct atom model such as principle of uncertainty, Schrodinger’s cat, and EPR paradox345. In this study, a new determinative atom model is proposed to explain atomic phenomenon and to solve above puzzles.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[18614] viXra:1705.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-12 05:58:15

Collisions of Atomic Nuclei

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

At very high energies, the collision of massive atomic nuclei in an accelerator generates hundreds or even thousands of particles that undergo numerous interactions. [11] The first experimental result has been published from the newly upgraded Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The result demonstrates the feasibility of detecting a potential new form of matter to study why quarks are never found in isolation. [10] A team of scientists currently working at the Large Hadron Collider at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) announced that it has possibly discovered the existence of a particle integral to nature in a statement on Tuesday, Dec. 15, and again on Dec.16. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[18613] viXra:1705.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-11 15:35:38

The Third Einstein's Relativity and Planck's Warning

Authors: Ivan L. Zhogin
Comments: 2 pages (English and Russian)

The special and general relativity theories suggest different descriptions of our spacetime. It is impossible that both are absolutely true, nevertheless both theories are engaged in physics - in its different parts. Such a fragmentarily worldview was inappropriate to Einstein, and he proposed another theory which in a sense (at least in the symmetry group of its equations) was a sort of synthesis of SR and GR; a few features of this theory are touched here.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18612] viXra:1705.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-11 16:44:25

Isenthalpic Universe

Authors: Evgeny A. Novikov
Comments: 6 Pages.

New simple and exact analytical solutions of Einstein equations of general relativity (GR) and of Qmoger (quantum modification of GR) equations are obtained. These solutions corresponds to processes with invariant density of enthalpy (energy plus pressure). Interpretation of this solutions in terms of cosmic radiation and production of massive particles, as well as comparison with cosmic data (without fitting), are presented. It is suggested, that isenthalpic processes can be relevant also to excessive radiation from Jupiter and Saturn. Similar processes potentially can be used as a new source of energy on Earth.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18611] viXra:1705.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-11 21:28:54

Introduction to Logplex Encoding

Authors: Russell Leidich
Comments: 5 Pages.

Logplex codes are universal codes, that is, bitstrings which map one-to-one to the whole numbers, regardless of the bits which follow them in memory. The codes are dense, in the sense that there is no finite series of bits which does not map to at least one whole number. Their asymptotic efficiency (size out divided by size in) is one, as with Elias omega codes[1], but they have some convient features absent in the latter: Given whole numbers M and N. If (M<N) then (logplex(M)<logplex(N)). This provides for more efficient searching and sorting, as such tasks can be done without the need to allocate separate memory for the corresponding decoded whole numbers. For all nonzero M, M itself is encoded verbatim in the high bits of its logplex. In all cases, the high (last) bit of a logplex is one. Representation of all subparts of logplexes are bitwise little endian. This is in contrast to Elias omega codes, the endianness of the subparts of which are opposite to the expansion direction. Finally, logplexes are scale-agnostic: there is no need to assume that (log 2 M) has any particular maximum value. This feature stems from their recursive structure, which is analogous to that of Elias omega codes.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

Replacements of recent Submissions

[7914] viXra:1705.0360 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-25 07:46:44

y^n FLT Identity Proof

Authors: Maik Becker-Sievert
Comments: 1 Page.

This Identity proofs direct Fermats Last Theorem
Category: Number Theory

[7913] viXra:1705.0332 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-23 04:47:59

The Scale-Symmetric Theory as the Origin of the Standard Model

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

Here we showed that the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) gives rise to the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics. We calculated the SM gauge couplings - we obtained g’ = 0.3576, g = 0.6534 (these two gauge couplings lead to an illusion of electroweak unification), and g(s) = 1.2156 +- 0.0036. We as well described the mechanism that leads to the mass of muon. Calculated here mass of muon is 105.6578 MeV. The other SM parameters we calculated in earlier papers. SST is based on 7 parameters only which, contrary to SM, lead also to the 3 masses of neutrinos (they are beyond SM) and to the 4 basic physical constants (i.e. to the reduced Planck constant, to gravitational constant (gravity is beyond SM), to speed of light in “vacuum” and electric charge of electron). We can see that in SST there is 2.7 times less parameters, SST leads to the 19 initial parameters in SM, and SST describes phenomena beyond SM. It leads to conclusion that SST is a more fundamental theory than SM.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[7912] viXra:1705.0309 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-23 15:24:32

Simplified Mathematical Method to Compare the Ordinary R&D Teams and Single Experts

Authors: Roman Vinokur
Comments: 4 Pages. Replaced.

The human factor is very important if the high-level R&D skills are needed (“Intellectuals solve problems, geniuses prevent them.” - Albert Einstein). Many people believe more in the power of teamwork than in “myths” of the lone genius. However, if a project goal can be successfully achieved just by one high-skilled professional, it is not wise to delegate this duty to a group of low-skilled persons (“A great engineer is worth 100 average engineers.” - Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg. Generally, the dilemma “ordinary team or single expert” is of frequent interest for R&D organizations. In this paper, an approximate mathematical approach has been developed to estimate the critical (minimum) size of an ordinary R&D team that can be more successful than a single expert. As a result, this method could help to resolve the “hire or not hire” issue.
Category: General Mathematics

[7911] viXra:1705.0302 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-22 20:56:40

A Tetrahedral Model of a "Theory of Everything"

Authors: John A. Gowan, August T. Jaccaci
Comments: 1 Page. revision of some text in diagram

A semiotic model of a "Theory of Everything" in the general form of a tetrahedron is presented, with a short explanatory text.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7910] viXra:1705.0300 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-23 08:56:56

Mnozenje Vektora I Struktura 3D Euklidskog Prostora

Authors: Miroslav Josipović
Comments: 80 Pages. geometric algebra

This is the translation of the article "Multiplication of Vectors and Structure of 3D Euclidean Space" to Croatian.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[7909] viXra:1705.0274 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-23 14:09:54

An Axiomless Derivation of the Theory of Everything

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 48 Pages.

Plato recognized that most of the disagreement in philosophy is ultimately linked to the choice of axioms made by the parties involved. He believed that by grinding away at the assumptions made for any argument, one could recover a kind universal truth. He believed that this universal truth, comprised of whatever survives the grinding process, could ultimately be used to build a logical framework in a manner that is entirely irrefutable. This is the axiomless position. In this work, I present such a derivation. Part I of this work is the axiomless derivation of the theory of everything in physics. From this derivation I obtain a master equation relating the notions of truth, knowledge and information to that of entropy. Part II is the thesis that this master equation is indeed the theory of everything in physics. To convince you of that, I recover, again in an axiomless manner, the exact mathematical formulation of the major theories of physics; including statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics, special and general relativity. These equations are entirely derived from pure reason with no appeal to physical observations. The work here can also be interpreted as a constructive proof of René Descartes' cogito ergo sum. Where-as he proved the existence of the thinking self by contradiction, it is here proven by construction.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[7908] viXra:1705.0274 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-18 12:57:31

A Derivation of the Theory of Everything from the 'cogito Ergo Sum'

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 46 Pages.

Using the cogito ergo sum as a starting point, I introduce a methodology which allows non-trivial knowledge to be obtained without the formal introduction of axioms. Using this methodology which I formalize, I then obtain a theory of everything (ToE) in physics. This method allows me to avoid the self-referential problem of a ToE which I argue is the core difficulty of any ToE built upon formal axioms. The theory obtained has enough generality to recover both general relativity and quantum field theory. Some of the new physics derived herein include a hard arrow time, an explanation of the quantum mechanical measurement, and a thermodynamic proof that the speed of light is maximal.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[7907] viXra:1705.0271 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-19 09:15:59

Should Consensus Suppress the Individual ?

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 29 Pages.

Consider two cases: First Case ( pages 4-20 ): Our Universe: Is it Stable ? Consensus = NO (only metastable) Individual = YES Second Case ( pages 21-27 ): Dark Energy and Dark Matter Consensus = Unknown Individual = Known Segal Conformal Structure This paper is a brief description of interactions between Consensus and Individual in each of those two cases. Since I, the author, have been directly involved, you should read this paper bearing in mind possible bias in my point of view that might also be present in this paper. Bearing that in mind, you should decide for yourself the answer 
to the question posed in the title of this paper. In each case: Consensus = the Physics Establishment including: Fermilab, CDF, and D0 Collaborations (pages 8-14); the Cornell arXiv (pages 13; 21-22); CERN CDS (pages 14; 22); LHC, ATLAS, and CMS Collaborations (pages 15-20); the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study (page 20); and the Simons Center for Geometry and Physics (page 20) and Individual = I, a Georgia lawyer with a 1963 AB in math from Princeton and some physics study at Georgia Tech with David Finkelstein as adviser, but, having at age 50 failed the Fall 1991 Georgia Tech Comprehensive Exam ( a 3-day closed book exam ), I have no physics degree. Version 2 (v2) adds correct viXra number and 2 pages of details about Fermilab data.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[7906] viXra:1705.0260 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-19 03:12:42

What Drives the Earth’s Plates ?

Authors: Yongfeng Yang
Comments: 20 Pages. Significant revision in this version.

Plate tectonic theory that comprehensively describes the earth’s plate motion and terrestrial features represents one of the most significantly achievements in the past 100 years. However, an indisputable fact around this theory is the force behind plate motion is still unknown. Here we propose, the daily tide loadings around continents yield pressures onto continental slopes, the net effect combined from these pressures pushes the continents to globally move. These moving continents, representing the upper parts of the continental crusts, by means of basal friction, moderately entrain the crusts beneath them and the adjoining oceanic crusts, creating various terrestrial features. Quantitatively estimation shows that tide loadings provide South American, African, Indian, and Australian continents respectively a nearly straight motion of 28.44, 41.11, 55.63, and 61.60 mm/year. A torque effect likely contributes rotation to North American and Eurasian continents.
Category: Geophysics

[7905] viXra:1705.0243 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-18 16:56:26

Cherish Renewable Aerial Water Vapor as it is a Huge Hidden Energy Resource

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 15 pages, 3 figures. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.15595.75045

This paper emphasizes how great energy hidden in ubiquitous aerial water vapor and how spectacular and subtle in natural evaporation by visualizing tedious thermodynamic data in vivid macroscopic and microscopic scale with different gauges such as kj/kg, eV/molecule, photonic wavelength per single step of water molecular clusterization during condensation for energy density estimation, mm/day, nm/s for evaporation rate average calculation. Condensation is first time described as special invisible infrared combustion, and it is proved that it is theoretically possible to convert its latent heat to high grade thermal energy.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[7904] viXra:1705.0237 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-17 02:21:23

Is Mass a Real Physical Quantity?

Authors: Gordon Liu
Comments: 8 pages

Although mass is a very common and fundamental concept, but the problem of mass is still one of the key problems of modern Physics, up to the present the experts are not able to reach a consensus. In this paper, we have discussed the problems relating to mass, energy and matter, and been aware that mass is neither the amount of matter an object has, nor the measure of inertia and the source of gravitational field, whereas energy is the measure of the inertia of an object and also is the source of gravitational field. As before, Mass being used to measure the inertia and to calculate gravitational force is just an approximate method only for very slowly moving bodies and particles for which the rest energy is much larger than the kinetic energy. Actually the concept of mass is a superfluous artificial concept, just rest energy divided by a constant (If selecting c=1, the mass is exactly equal to the rest energy), does not have any other meaning. If the concept of mass is completely superseded by energy(or more precisely, rest energy), the physical equations are completely perfect, their meanings are clearer, and the puzzles such as the relationship of mass and energy, nature of matter, the essence of the weak equivalence principle, the physical meaning of Higgs mechanism, etc., can be made clearer.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7903] viXra:1705.0219 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-23 04:44:13

Penrose-Norris Diagram

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 6 Pages. Two references added and text expanded. Comments welcome.

Brief outline of Penrose diagram and related topics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7902] viXra:1705.0219 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-20 06:03:24

Penrose-Norris Diagram

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 5 Pages. One reference added. Comments welcome.

Brief outline of Penrose diagram and related topics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7901] viXra:1705.0219 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-16 11:20:14

Penrose-Norris Diagram

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 4 Pages. Title changed. Final version.

Brief outline of Penrose diagram and related topics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7900] viXra:1705.0219 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-15 10:19:49

Penrose Diagram

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 4 Pages. One reference added and typos corrected. Comments welcome.

Brief outline of Penrose diagram and related topics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7899] viXra:1705.0210 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-20 07:34:40

Machineless Solution to the Problem of Four Colors

Authors: Saenko V.I.
Comments: 3 Pages. This is the Russian version, the English one is directed to the peer-reviewed journal

It is proved that the irreducible map according to Franklin consists of 5 regions and, as a consequence, 4 colors are sufficient for colouring any map on the sphere
Category: Topology

[7898] viXra:1705.0202 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-14 05:25:29

The Origin of the Z and W Bosons

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we showed that the Z and W bosons can be created due to two different mechanisms. One mechanism is associated with a transition from electromagnetic interactions to weak interactions of protons with electrons in the presence of dark matter (DM) while the second one concerns a transition from weak interactions of protons to weak interactions of charges of protons, which mimic behaviour of electrons in absence of DM, with muons associated with protons. In the first mechanism, calculated mass of Z is 91.181 GeV whereas of W is 80.427 GeV while in the second mechanism we obtained respectively 91.205 GeV and 80.385 GeV. We showed that the recent cosmic-ray antiproton data from AMS-02 concern transitions between different interactions also so the results do not follow from dark-matter annihilation. Emphasize that in an earlier paper, we calculated lifetimes of the Z and W bosons which are very close to experimental data.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics