**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(59) - 0703(51) - 0704(5) - 0705(1) - 0706(8) - 0707(2) - 0708(3) - 0709(3) - 0710(2) - 0711(6) - 0712(3)

2008 - 0801(4) - 0802(4) - 0803(2) - 0804(9) - 0805(4) - 0806(1) - 0807(12) - 0808(6) - 0809(3) - 0810(16) - 0811(5) - 0812(9)

2009 - 0901(3) - 0902(7) - 0903(6) - 0904(5) - 0907(50) - 0908(109) - 0909(61) - 0910(66) - 0911(64) - 0912(54)

2010 - 1001(46) - 1002(51) - 1003(265) - 1004(138) - 1005(110) - 1006(68) - 1007(55) - 1008(91) - 1009(71) - 1010(62) - 1011(76) - 1012(52)

2011 - 1101(100) - 1102(55) - 1103(122) - 1104(83) - 1105(41) - 1106(61) - 1107(53) - 1108(49) - 1109(60) - 1110(73) - 1111(114) - 1112(87)

2012 - 1201(119) - 1202(85) - 1203(93) - 1204(96) - 1205(112) - 1206(91) - 1207(101) - 1208(224) - 1209(96) - 1210(164) - 1211(137) - 1212(143)

2013 - 1301(175) - 1302(156) - 1303(197) - 1304(153) - 1305(184) - 1306(210) - 1307(155) - 1308(143) - 1309(192) - 1310(246) - 1311(181) - 1312(216)

2014 - 1401(193) - 1402(154) - 1403(852) - 1404(267) - 1405(337) - 1406(181) - 1407(207) - 1408(223) - 1409(230) - 1410(194)

Any replacements are listed further down

[8942] **viXra:1410.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-31 14:47:26*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8941] **viXra:1410.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-31 10:48:30*

**Authors:** T Padmanabhan1, R Ramesh, V Pugazhendi, Joseph Makkoli

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The VVER-1000/412 design, a third generation (Gen-III) pressurized water reactor (PWR) at Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant (KKNPP), 98 km North-East of Thiruvananthapuram and off Bay of Bengal in Tamil Nadu state of India (8°10′08″N 77°42′45″E) attained criticality on 15 Jul 2013 and was grid connected on 22 Oct 2013. During the year, the reactor ‘tripped’ 14 times and was off the grid for 106 days. Two maintenance shutdowns lasted for 64 days. On 14th May 14, while in start-up mode, a pipe burst accident occurred in the feed-water system. During 4701 hours of operation, it generated 2,825 million units (MU) of electricity, consumed 538 MU for house-load and supplied 2,287 MU to the Southern Grid. The commissioning crew at KKNPP failed in all the seven attempts for clearing the final leg of the commissioning test. The reactor has been under cold-shutdown since 26 September 14 due to problems in its turbine. This study of the health of the reactor, based on daily data of generation and outages of KKNPP for one year since grid connection, shows that the situation is serious enough and warrants an independent safety audit.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[8940] **viXra:1410.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-31 13:22:21*

**Authors:** Thierry PERIAT

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

I continue my dream: the construction of an alternative presentation of the standard model including topological considerations and the extended Lie products previously defined. Progressing step by step,I push my way of thinking up to its logical limits. This presumably yields the basic stones for a future solution concerning the Koide's formula (equivalently: the hierarchy problem).

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[8939] **viXra:1410.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-31 06:51:41*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 8 Pages. original article

We derive by the Schwinger source theory method, the power spectrum
of photons, generated by charged particle moving within 2D sheet, with
index of refraction n. Some graphene-like structures, for instance graphene
with implanted ions, or, also 2D-glasses, are dielectric media, enabling the
experimental realization of the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation. The relation of
the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation to LED, where the 2D the additional dielectric
sheet is the integral part of LED, is discussed. It is not excluded that LEDs
with the 2D dielectric sheets will be the crucial components of detectors in
experimental particle physics.
1 Introduction

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8938] **viXra:1410.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-31 03:12:31*

**Authors:** Zhen-Hu Ning

**Comments:** 12 pages

Different from the existing quantum threshold signature schemes, which are mainly based on the classical Shamir’s threshold signature scheme, we construct the map from the multiple binary information to a quantum and support a new threshold signature scheme based on divisible quantum entanglement and p -unitary operator, which are well defined in the paper. Compared with the existing the schemes, the scheme involved fewer quanta. The scheme also meets the requirement of “Threshold Signature”, that is to say, only the number of participants is
not less than the threshold, they can execute the signature or the verification.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8937] **viXra:1410.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-31 04:48:11*

**Authors:** Cheng Tianren

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

this is a music work of Professor Jeff, which collect 49 songs associated with 49 lyrical stories. In the second part, we select 17 music pieces of them to describe the growth experience of Jeff. on the other hand, this is not only a music composition, it is also suitable for music education.

**Category:** Social Science

[8936] **viXra:1410.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-30 13:17:08*

**Authors:** Christian Corda

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

It is an intuitive but general conviction that black holes (BHs) result in highly excited states representing both the “hydrogen atom” and the “quasi-thermal emission” in quantum gravity. Here we show that such an intuitive picture is more than a picture, discussing a model of quantum BH somewhat similar to the historical semi-classical model of the structure of a hydrogen atom introduced by Bohr in 1913. Our model has important implications on the BH information puzzle and on the non-strictly random character of Hawking radiation. It is also in perfect agreement with existing results in the literature, starting from the famous result of Bekenstein on the area quantization.
This paper improves, clarifies and finalizes some recent results that, also together with collaborators, we published in various peer reviewed journals.
Preliminary results on the model in this paper have been recently discussed in an Invited Lecture at the 12th International Conference of Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8935] **viXra:1410.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-30 08:21:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A leading candidate for room temperature superconductors is the copper compound cuprate, but no one knew how cuprates facilitated superconductivity...until some brave souls looked inside a black hole and broke out the string theory to explain how they work.
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8934] **viXra:1410.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-30 05:54:06*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Physicists in the College of Arts and Sciences have made important discoveries regarding Bs meson particles -- something that may explain why the universe contains more matter than antimatter.
Named Ds3*(2860), the particle, a new type of meson, was discovered by analyzing data collected with the LHCb detector at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The new particle is bound together in a similar way to protons. Due to this similarity, the Warwick researchers argue that scientists will now be able to study the particle to further understand strong interactions.
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8933] **viXra:1410.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-29 17:40:19*

**Authors:** Manuel Abarca

**Comments:** 20 pages

The idea of the model is quite simple:
The physical vacuum is a quantum system with a minimum energy when it is in his ground state. When the space has a gravitational field the space state increase his energy levels and the mass of the space begin to increase as well. The mass of the space would be the dark matter (D.M.).
Model refers to the same conception about ‘vacuum’ as the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), which consider the space full of virtual electrons and virtual positrons. Similarly, the Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) consider the space full of virtual particles, called gluons. Therefore it is easy to think that there is virtual particles which feel the gravitational forces named virtual gravitons.
It is logical to think that the gravitational field excites the vacuum states in a way that “the vacuum would be heavier, the more intense gravitational field”.
The hypothesis of this DM model is that virtual gravitons are Dark Matter.
With this paper, the author try to explain his theory in a qualitative way, because the final theory will be the Quantum gravity (QG) which there is not exist yet.
The paper is organised in four parts:
The first one explain the model theoretically in a simple way because in my opinion the ultimate theory of DM will be explain by the Quantum Gravity.
The second one study the spin speed star on galaxies. It is got the density formula for DM. ? and the formula ? , which connects DM density with intensity field.
The third one explain the coherence between the DM model and experimental evidences known about DM.
The fourth one propose six experimental test to check the model with astronomical measures.
The purpose this paper is to introduce the model. To show a new origin of DM and try to convince the reader that it is worth to check the model with experimental evidences.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[8932] **viXra:1410.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-29 18:21:32*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The present paper is concerned with the derivation of the Einstein's equation of equivalence of mass and energy from the Heisenberg uncertainty relations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8931] **viXra:1410.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-29 18:24:25*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is theorized that ancient stars' differentiation (evolution) can be witnessed as basic weather patterns. Weather patterns undergo thermodynamic phase transitions which can be tested in a laboratory environment.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[8930] **viXra:1410.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-29 20:34:48*

**Authors:** Duplavyi Illia

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The objective of this study was to determine the physical parameters involved in detecting and localizing the magnetic field created by superparamagnetic particles localized on the tumor.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[8929] **viXra:1410.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-30 01:24:35*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Cosmic inflation is the exponential expansion of space in the early universe. The inflationary epoch lasted from 10^−36 second after the Big Bang to sometime between 10^−33 and 10^−32 second. Following the inflationary period, the universe continues to expand, but at a less accelerated rate. The inflationary hypothesis was developed in the 1980s by physicists Alan Guth and Andrei Linde. It says that, when viewed at scales of billions of light years, the universe is unified to near-uniform temperature and curvature by the whole cosmos having once been small enough for everything to be in contact, then undergoing extremely rapid expansion from a big bang during a period called inflation. If the Big Bang never happened, would the theory of inflation be needed for any reason? Personally, I don't believe the Big Bang happened – and this is why the world doesn’t need any Big Bang(s) or inflation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8928] **viXra:1410.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-29 15:48:55*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 27 Pages. Comments welcomed

Ensuing from the proposals of Plato, Heraclitus and Aristotle, a new theory of spacetime has been suggested. The scope is to reveal the origin of gravity and replace the absolute size of spatial volumes at different length scales by 'relative scale spacetime'.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8927] **viXra:1410.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-29 16:10:28*

**Authors:** Manar Jammal, Ali Kanso, Abdallah Shami

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Cloud computing is continuously growing as a
business model for hosting information and communication technology
applications. Although on-demand resource consumption
and faster deployment time make this model appealing for
the enterprise, other concerns arise regarding the quality of
service offered by the cloud. One major concern is the high
availability of applications hosted in the cloud. This paper
demonstrates the tremendous effect that the placement strategy
for virtual machines hosting applications has on the high
availability of the services provided by these applications. In
addition, a novel scheduling technique is presented that takes
into consideration the interdependencies between applications
components and other constraints such as communication delay
tolerance and resource utilization. The problem is formulated
as a linear programming multi-constraint optimization model.
The evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed solution
improves the availability of the scheduled components compared
to OpenStack Nova scheduler.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[8926] **viXra:1410.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-29 10:26:21*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 5 Pages. none

In this paper it is shown that the well-publicized claim about the Special Relativity Theory, which states that it is not possible, using only arguments contained within the theory, to detect an absolute motion. This is one of the fundamental conclusions of the theory and it is usually considered in connection with the so called Clock Paradox or the Twins’ Paradox. There have been many papers published on this topic with the various proposed resolutions, however, the controversy related to these paradoxes continues to this day. This paper will clearly show that the resolution of the Clock Paradox is related to the clock synchronization procedure and that by introducing an absolute reference frame the paradox can be simply resolved. In addition it will be shown that it is possible to detect the absolute motion of particular reference frames relative to this absolute reference frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8925] **viXra:1410.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-29 07:37:19*

**Authors:** Carlos Tadeu dos Santos Dias, Kuang Hongyu, Lúcio B. Araújo, Maria Joseane C. Silva, Marisol García-Peña, Mirian F. C. Araújo, Priscila N. Faria, Sergio Arciniegas-Alarcón

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Paper in portuguese.

This work is based on the short course “A Metodologia AMMI: Com Aplicacão ao Melhoramento Genético” taught during the 58a RBRAS and 15o SEAGRO held in Campina Grande - PB and aim to introduce the AMMI method for those that have and no have the mathematical training. We do not intend to submit a detailed work, but the intention is to serve as a light for researchers, graduate and postgraduate students. In other words, is a work to stimulate research and the quest for knowledge in an area of statistical methods. For this propose we make a review about the genotype-by-environment interaction, definition of the AMMI models and some selection criteria and biplot graphic. More details about it can be found in the material produced for the short course.

**Category:** Statistics

[8924] **viXra:1410.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-29 08:03:34*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We think that the so-called global warming would affect mainly to the north hemisphere, because in part it would be produced by the human action in that area.

**Category:** Climate Research

[8923] **viXra:1410.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-29 07:18:30*

**Authors:** I. Duplavyi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A proposed model describes magnetic field configuration depending on penetration depth of the drug enclosed in a biocompatible form with ferromagnetic material, and surface shape. The model provides more accurate and reliable delivery of nanocomposite, as well as determination of its location in human body. Determination of spatial distribution of nanocomposite will allow calculating the effective dose of its concentration as close as possible for subsequent administration into the object studied.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[8922] **viXra:1410.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-28 18:07:29*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is theorized that ancient stellar cores are comprised of two main types of minerals. These minerals are abundant in outer space and fall to the Earth on a regular basis.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[8921] **viXra:1410.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-29 00:24:19*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Consider the Milgrom Denial Hypothesis: The main problem with string theory is that string theorists fail to realize that Milgrom is the Kepler of contemporary cosmology. Is it possible that Milgrom’s acceleration law is wrong? No, because Milgrom, McGaugh, Kroupa, and Pawlowski have elaborated too much empirical evidence in its favor. There are only 2 possibilities: (1) Newtonian-Einsteinian gravitational theory is 100% correct but appears to be significantly wrong for some unknown reason. (2) Newtonian-Einsteinian gravitational theory really is slightly wrong. Where did Newton go wrong? Lex III: Actioni contrariam semper et æqualem esse reactionem: sive corporum duorum actiones in se mutuo semper esse æquales et in partes contrarias dirigi. To every action there exists a contrary and equal reaction: in other words, the actions of two bodies in relation to each other are always equal and directed in contrary parts. Within the universe to every action there exists a contrary and equal reaction. Newton’s Third Law should perhaps be: Within the multiverse to every action there exists a contrary and equal reaction provided that the action and the reaction are both confined to one particular universe. In other words, I suggest that Newton and Einstein made the mistake of assuming that gravitational energy is conserved. Start with Kepler’s laws and follow Newton’s reasoning with the removal of the assumption that gravitational energy is conserved. The result is not F = G * m1 * m2 / r^2 but instead F = ((1 – 2 * D-M-C-C)^–1) * G * m1 * m2 / r^2 , where D-M-C-C = dark-matter-compensation-constant = 0 if gravitational energy is conserved, > 0 if gravitational energy is unexpectedly large, and < 0 if gravitational energy in unexpectedly small. In the standard form of Einstein’s field equations replace the –1/2 by –1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant to get the alleged Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect, where the constant is approximated sqrt((60±10)/4) * 10^–5.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8920] **viXra:1410.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-29 04:35:12*

**Authors:** Cheng Tianren

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

this is a music work of Professor Jeff, which collect 49 songs associated with 49 lyrical stories. In the first part, we select 16 music pieces of them to describe the growth experience of Jeff.
on the other hand, this is not only a music composition, it is also suitable for music education.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[8919] **viXra:1410.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-28 10:22:16*

**Authors:** Yang-Ho Choi

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

The Sagnac effect could not have been exactly explained with consistency under the theory of special relativity (TSR). The conundrum of TSR has been completely solved fully in the relativistic context. Special relativity is reformulated without the postulates of the relativity principle and the light velocity constancy, employing a complex Euclidean space (CES), which is an extension of Euclidean space from the real number to the complex number. In the reformulation, the relativity in the representation and the light velocity constancy are obtained as properties that isotropic space-time spaces have. The coordinate systems each have perpendicular axes in CES and the relativistic transformation has the form of rotation. These characteristics of the formulation pave the way for the relativistic approach to circular motion. The relativistic transformation from the inertial frame to the circular frame is shown to have the same representation as that from the circular to the inertial, which implies that circular motions can be described relative to linear motions and vice versa. The difference between the arrival times of two light beams in the Sagnac experiment can be exactly found by the circular approach presented, which shows that the non-relativistic and relativistic analysis results are the same within a first order approximation. The circular approach can also be applied to the analysis of the Hafele–Keating (HK) experiment. The analysis of Hafele and Keating appears to exploit the results of this paper, though circular motions were treated as liner motions. The relativistic approach for circular motion, which is formulated without any postulates, can lead to propound understanding of relativity and true space-time spaces. These issues are examined.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8918] **viXra:1410.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-28 08:40:25*

**Authors:** Riad Boudellioua

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this letter I present an unprecedented numeric result in fundamental physics which is very easy to verify.It is the elucidation of the mystery of the number resulting from the ratio of the gravitational force to the electrical force between two electrons.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[8917] **viXra:1410.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-28 05:46:57*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 3 Pages. copyrighted paper

I present objections against the statement of the popular press ``Big Bang was not, and black holes do not exist - proved mathematically''. Sadly, but this was deduced from Houghton paper, which has different value.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8916] **viXra:1410.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-28 06:17:46*

**Authors:** Robert A. Herrmann

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this article, the formal definition for the participator model is given. This solves the participator requirement for the General Grand Unification Problem. This is the participator aspect for the generation of universes via the GGU-model cosmogony schemes. It is shown to be representable as a finite meet semi-lattice with lower unit.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8915] **viXra:1410.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-27 20:20:46*

**Authors:** Ben Steber

**Comments:** 5 Pages. An early drafr of my Galactic clustering and rotation hypothesis

The geometry of the Einstein-Rosen bridge presents the possibility of entanglement of nonlocal black hole event horizons. The historical difficulty in the nature of these hypersurface bridges has been singularity which was shown to destabilize the spacetime throat, preventing their prolonged existence. Singularity is based upon the Eddington-Finkelstein coordinate system and is exclusively reliant upon such a transformation of the Schwarzschild metric to be viable. Comparisons between specially and generally relativistic event horizons can demonstrate that such a transformation is not necessary to define a gravitationally bound event horizon and that a field free of singularity may yield negatively curved hypersurface geometry unbounded by eminent singularity collapse. The concept of quantum foam when applied to the principle of the Einstein-Rosen bridge may produce multiple hypersurfaces from a single such black hole. This bears the possibility that Poly-Entanglement may occur between clusters of black holes. Such physical behavior, while beyond conventional detection shows potential as an explanation for the galactic clustering and rotation behavior currently thought to be the result of dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[8914] **viXra:1410.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-27 22:01:01*

**Authors:** VT Padmanabhan, Joseph Makkolil

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Amaranth grown using the solid waste from a gelatine factory as manure in an experiment conducted by the Kerala Agricultural University had 1085 mg/kg of Pb, 200,000 times the benchmark dose level for developmental neuro-toxicity. The sludge has since been approved and is being marketed as organic manure. This has serious implications for the food safety and public health at a national level.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[8913] **viXra:1410.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-28 02:57:04*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

The Illustris supercomputer simulation of the universe models a huge chunk of the universe: a cube 350 million light years across, and home to tens of thousands of galaxies. The computer’s simulations are extraordinarily similar to images by the Hubble Space Telescope. It’s been said that Illustris shows we do now understand the basics of how our universe evolved. The extraordinary similarity does not show we understand the basics. If the universe is represented as the numeral 1, there's more than one way to arrive at that number e.g. 2-1 or 3-2. Illustris takes one way, this article takes a different approach. Both can describe the cosmos but since the cosmos only has one history, both cannot be correct. Nevertheless, "Quantum Gravity Personalized" (my article's former title) does say that the universe is indeed a computer simulation. This sounds outrageous, perhaps it would be better to say "an outgrowth of computer simulation". This is explained throughout the article, as are original interpretations of the basics (including the universe, string theory, gravity, computer science, topology, wave-particle duality, the wave function of the universe, the Holographic Quantum Model, and the Unified Field with its application not just in mathematics but also in human activities).
This article is a summary, and partial revision, of ideas in my previous articles on the vixra.org ePrint archive (hopefully, all previous errors have been detected and corrected). It provides answers to the questions of what dark energy and dark matter are. It also links dark energy to gravitation, and gravity to mass (as the producer, not the product, of mass); as well as linking gravity to creation of black holes, and of electromagnetism and the nuclear forces. The end result is an original picture of everything cosmological, from the overall universe of space-time to the quantum world of string theory. The picture is developed from experiments as well as theory; and is of a universe that is fundamentally mathematical and electronic. The paper explains time travel to the past, giving it practical use and providing an alternative to the 3 concepts of a “primordial soup” creating life (evolution explains adaptations, not origins), a supernatural God and the multiverse. It culminates in a section about Special Relativity and General Relativity confirming this and previous papers’ ideas regarding speed, light, motion, mass, division by zero, gravity both repelling and attracting, the Higgs field and boson, and even entanglement on both quantum and macroscopic scales. At the very end is the outline of an idea for further investigation – an idea about accessing and manipulating a 5th-dimensional hyperspace, which includes another time dimension, that draws on prior comments (whether the comment be a sentence, a figure or an equation). And for those who aren’t afraid to speculate - the development of an all-powerful, all-knowing, omnipresent human body composed of photons and gravitons, and quantum entangled with every point in space-time is going to be proposed, for the purpose of overcoming the limits of biological bodies – or biological bodies incorporating computer and robotic systems.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[8912] **viXra:1410.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-28 04:51:33*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Five-page letter

The observations of: Paal (1992), Perlmutter(1999) and Riess (1998) led to the possibility of accelerated expansion of the universe and the ‘dark energy’, but after fifteen years of search no trace of ‘dark energy’ is observed ; so this is time we start considering alternative possibilities of interpretations of the observations. Some arguments and alternative interpretations considered here include: (i) If the expansion of space can stretch the wavelength of the photon, then its gradual entry from expanding extra-galactic space into the non-expanded space within our milky-way galaxy should shrink the wavelength of the photon back to its original length. (ii) According to Einstein, if photons are point particles then expansion of space should only increase the path-length of photons without reducing their energy. (iii) The ‘cosmic-coincidence’, that the ratio of radius-of-the-universe and classical-radius-of-the-electron, and ratio of ‘total-mass-of-the-universe’ and ‘mass-of-the-proton’, matching strikingly with the ratio of electric-forces and gravitational forces, has happened only in the current epoch, is a very-very improbable coincidence; raising doubt about expansion of the universe (iv) the ratio of: energy lost by the cosmologically red shifted photons and the electrostatic potential energy lost by the electron at that distance is directly proportional to the strength-ratio of gravitational and electric forces. Can the big-bang be so precise? (iv) Cumulative phase alteration of galactic light passing through cosmic microwave background.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[8911] **viXra:1410.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-27 10:58:33*

**Authors:** V.B. Smolenskii

**Comments:** 10 Pages. eng+rus

in the article, within the Pi-Theory of fundamental physical constants, the theoretical basis and experimental evidence of the author's perspective on the mechanism of the process is exactly the evolution of the Universe, and not the dynamics of the process of changing its parameters. Given the formula for the criterion of the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations earth group that significantly narrow your search protein intelligent life on exoplanets.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8910] **viXra:1410.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-27 11:29:15*

**Authors:** Octavian Cira, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 252 Pages.

In this book a multitude of Diophantine equations and their partial or complete solutions are presented. How should we solve, for example, the equation
η(π(x)) = π(η(x)), where η is the Smarandache function and π is Riemann function
of counting the number of primes up to x, in the set of natural numbers?
If an analytical method is not available, an idea would be to recall the empirical search for solutions. We establish a domain of searching for the solutions and then we check all possible situations, and of course we retain among them only those solutions that verify our equation.
In other words, we say that the equation does not have solutions in the search domain, or the equation has n solutions in this domain. This mode of solving is called partial resolution. Partially solving a Diophantine equation may be a good start for a complete solving of the problem.
The authors have identified 62 Diophantine equations that impose such approach and they partially solved them. For an efficient resolution it was necessarily that they have constructed many useful ”tools” for partially solving the
Diophantine equations into a reasonable time.
The computer programs as tools were written in Mathcad, because this is
a good mathematical software where many mathematical functions are implemented. Transposing the programs into another computer language is facile, and such algorithms can be turned to account on other calculation systems with various processors.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8909] **viXra:1410.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-27 12:00:49*

**Authors:** Christian Corda

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In Int. Journ. Mod. Phys. D 14, 181 (2005) Khriplovich verbatim claims that “the correspondence principle does not dictate any relation between the asymptotics of quasinormal modes and the spectrum of quantized black holes” and that “this belief is in conflict with simple physical arguments”. In this paper we stress that Khriplovich's criticisms work only for the original proposal by Hod, while they do not work for the improvements suggested by Maggiore and recently finalized by the author and collaborators through a connection between Hawking radiation and black hole (BH) quasi-normal modes (QNMs). Thus, QNMs can be really interpreted as BH quantum levels.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8908] **viXra:1410.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-27 12:10:27*

**Authors:** editor Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 615 Pages.

Bancuri, folclor in general, imagini colorate.

**Category:** Linguistics

[8907] **viXra:1410.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-27 07:28:17*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is proposed that stars are electrochemical in nature, not thermonuclear

**Category:** Astrophysics

[8906] **viXra:1410.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-27 04:18:16*

**Authors:** R. V. Klinkerman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In articles of the author [2], [3] the version of organization of life when it to a
great extent is operated and provided from the center of Earth was offered to
consideration. In present article the alternative version when life has no an operating
center and represents network structure is considered. Given article is extension and
expansion of article of the author « Essence of life » [1].
Keywords: information, adaptation, evolution, activity, creation, beginning of
life, centralization, a state, bacteria.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[8905] **viXra:1410.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-26 14:52:01*

**Authors:** Mumtaz Ali, Florentin Smarandache, Muhammad Shabir

**Comments:** 333 Pages.

In this book, we define several new neutrosophic algebraic structures and their related properties. The main focus of this book is to study the important class of neutrosophic rings such as neutrosophic LA-semigroup ring, neutrosophic loop ring, neutrosophic groupoid ring and so on. We also construct their generalization in each case to study these neutrosophic algebraic structures in a broader sense. The indeterminacy element “I“ gives rise to a bigger algebraic structure than the classical algebraic structures. It mainly classifies the algebraic structures in three categories such as: neutrosophic algebraic structures, strong neutrosophic algebraic structures, and classical algebraic structures respectively. This reveals the fact that a classic algebraic structure is a part of the neutrosophic algebraic structures. This opens a new way for the researcher to think in a broader way to visualize these vast neutrosophic algebraic structures.

**Category:** Algebra

[8904] **viXra:1410.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-26 20:26:45*

**Authors:** Stoyan Sarg Sargoytchev

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Presented at International Conference on Life Energy, Syntropy and Resonance, Viterbo, Italy August1-4, 2013

According to the BSM- Supergravitation Unified Theory (BSM-SG), the energy is indispensable feature of matter, while the matter possesses hierarchical levels of organization. The physical vacuum according to BSM-SG possesses underlying organized structure called a Cosmic Lattice. It contains two types of energies: a Static one, that is enormous but not electromagnetic and a dynamic one - connected to electricity and magnetism. At the upper levels of matter organization is the atomic energy, followed by the chemical energy. The next upper level is the energy of the biomolecules, including the DNA and the proteins. They can store energy as rotating quantum states in rings of atoms. A detailed hypothesis about such a feature was previously published in http://vixra.org/abs/1307.0059. When the stored in such way energy is released it may form rings of entangled photons circulating in a localized space volume. This envisioned upper energy level is able to store information, so it is called an information field. Based on the properties of the photons to preserve their energy, the information field should be stable.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[8903] **viXra:1410.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-26 22:13:18*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Yunita Umniyati

**Comments:** 2 Pages. This paper is draft version, not yet submitted to any journal. Comments are welcome

There are many models of DNA, both the linear ones and the nonlinear ones. One interesting model in this regard is the sine-Gordon model of DNA. It belongs to nonlinear model of DNA which is close to realistic model. Here we discuss a graphical plot of soliton solution of such a sine-Gordon model of DNA.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[8902] **viXra:1410.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-26 12:07:14*

**Authors:** D. Bowen, R. Mulkern

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This is a classically based rotating charge loop model of an electron which explains the electron’s de Broglie base frequency to an accuracy of over 6 decimal places. The model also predicts the magnetic moment of the electron to over 6 decimal places and helps explain the transition from a purely electromagnetic photon to a fermion state of matter. The model also explains how charge and spin are conserved in the transition. Finally, this concept might be extended to explain the Tau and Muon higher energy states of the electron as well.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8901] **viXra:1410.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-26 12:24:58*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Anomalous heat production has been detected in Ni-H Systems. Several evidences point to the occurrence of nuclear fusion reactions. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is shown here based on the recent discovery that electromagnetic fields of extremely-low frequencies (ELF) can increase the intensities of gravitational forces. Under certain circumstances, the intensities of gravitational forces can even overcome the intensity of the electrostatic repulsion forces, and, in this way, produce nuclear fusion reactions, without need high temperatures for these reactions occur.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[8900] **viXra:1410.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-26 13:19:25*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

New Research Mathematically Proves Quantum Effects Stop the Formation of Black Holes. By merging two seemingly conflicting theories, Laura Mersini-Houghton, a physics professor at UNC-Chapel Hill in the College of Arts and Sciences, has proven, mathematically, that black holes can never come into being in the first place. The works not only forces scientists to reimagining the fabric of space-time, but also rethink the origins of the universe.
Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[8899] **viXra:1410.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-26 05:02:39*

**Authors:** Omar A.H. Shabsigh

**Comments:** Number of pages includes title page.

This article discusses the upper limit imposed on the speed of traveling of any mass as being the speed of light in vacuum. The article shows, based on the results of Special Relativity, that such a limit does not exist. Speeds Beyond Speed of Light (BSOL) are possible.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8898] **viXra:1410.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-26 07:08:02*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 35 Pages. Spanish

The affine connection is the primary geometric element from which derive all other quantities that characterize a given geometry. In this article the concept of affine connection, its properties and the quantities derived from it are studied, we also present some of the connections that have been used in physical theories. We introduce the metric tensor and we study its relation with the affine connection. This study is intended for application in alternative theories of gravity to the General Theory of Relativity and to the unified field theories.

**Category:** Geometry

[8897] **viXra:1410.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-25 21:50:00*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Will be presented in South Africa, in Capetown in Dark Side of the Universe. This is an accepted talk

Basic summary is as follows. Initially we discuss a minimum time length. We form DM from considerations as to a minimum time step , then generate DM via axions. Through Ngs quantum infinite statistics, we compare a DM count, giving Entropy. The remainder of the document is in terms of DE as well as asking the question of comparing Entropy in Galaxies versus Entropy in the Universe, through a lens of Subotha Mistra’s Quantum theory of the big bang

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8896] **viXra:1410.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-26 04:39:34*

**Authors:** M.Grinshtein

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The article contains the results of studying homosexuality in terms of informationwave
medicine. The viral-genetic aetiology of this pathological condition has been confirmed.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[8895] **viXra:1410.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-25 11:41:47*

**Authors:** Vanderlidson Maciel

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The daily practice proves that the emergence of e-commerce requires precision and the definition of the forms of action. However, the perception of difficulty adds value to the establishment of the expected long-term return. However, we must not forget that the hegemony of the political environment hinders the appreciation of the importance of staff training system that meets the needs. Above all, it is crucial to highlight that consultation with various militant must undergo changes regardless of the procedures normally adopted. Thus, the beginning of the general activity of forming attitudes points to the improvement of the communication process as a whole.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[8894] **viXra:1410.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-24 17:59:04*

**Authors:** HS Virk, Baljinder Singh

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Simultaneous radon anomalies recorded in Soil and Groundwater are useful precursors.

Temporal and Spatial variations of Radon are recorded in soil gas and groundwater using two different techniques in Amritsar and Kangra valley.

**Category:** Geophysics

[8893] **viXra:1410.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-24 11:45:36*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

What are the tests of string theory? What is Milgromian string theory, and how might Milgromian string theory be tested? If the string theorists are correct about string theory and if Milgrom’s acceleration law is empirically valid when gravitational accelerations are low, then what might be the meaning of “Milgromian string theory”? What might be the physical basis of MOND? Consider 3 ideas: (1) Fernández-Rañada and Tiemblo-Ramos suggested that atomic time might be different from astronomical time. (2) Dark matter has zero inertial mass-energy and positive gravitational mass-energy. (3) Dark energy has zero inertial mass-energy and negative gravitational mass-energy. My guess is that the preceding ideas combined with Milgrom’s acceleration law (MOND) plausibly imply the Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect. Replace the –1/2 in the standard form of Einstein’s gravitational field equations by –1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant, where this constant is approximately sqrt((60±10)/4) * 10^-5 . Designate this constant by D-M-C-C. In the “Meaning of Relativity” 5th edition page 87, the formula (101) should have – κ/(2π) replaced by (–κ/(4π)) * (1/2 – D-M-C-C)^-1 on the hypothesis of the Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8892] **viXra:1410.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-23 16:05:16*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It will be proven that Klein-Gordon and Dirac equation, when deﬁned on an F-space of distributions, have the same set of solutions, which makes the two equations equivalent on that vector space of distributions.
Some consequences of this for quantum ﬁeld theory are shortly dis- cussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8891] **viXra:1410.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-23 19:03:21*

**Authors:** Reginald T Cahill

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Botermann, Bing, Geppert, Gwinner, H\"{a}nsch, Huber,
Karpuk, Krieger, K\"{u}hl, N\"{o}rtersh\"{a}user, Novotny, Reinhardt,
S\'{a}nchez, Schwalm, St\"{o}hlker, Wolf, and Saathoff in {\it Test of Time Dilation Using Stored Li$^+$ Ions as Clocks at Relativistic Speed},
{\it Physical Review Letters}, 2014, 113, 120405, reported results from an Ives-Stilwell-type time dilation experiment using $Li^+$ ions at speed 0.338c in the ESR storage ring at Darmstadt, and concluded that the data verifies the Special Relativity time dilation effect. However numerous other experiments have shown that it is only neo-Lorentz Relativity that accounts for all data, and all detect a 3-space speed $V\approx 470$km/s essentially from the south. Here we show that the ESR data confirms neo-Lorentz Relativity, and gives a speed $V \approx 470$km/s.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8890] **viXra:1410.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-23 22:12:24*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Lack of any baryon number in the Eightfold Way model, and its intrinsic presence in the
SU(3)-flavour model, has been a puzzle since the genesis of these models in 1961-1964.
In this paper we show that this is linked to the way that the adjoint representation is
defined mathematically for a Lie algebra, and how it manifests itself as a physical representation.
This forces us to distinguish between the global and the local charges and between the microscopic
and the macroscopic models. As a bonus, a consistent understanding of the hitherto mysterious medium-strong
interaction is achieved. We also gain a new perspective on how confinement arises in
Quantum Chromodynamics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8889] **viXra:1410.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-24 02:54:53*

**Authors:** VT Padmanabhan, Joseph Makkolil

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A Kerala based industry producing food-pharma grade gelatine from animal bones is contaminating its neighbourhood and thousands acres of organic farms in Kerala and Tamil Nadu with its 18,000 tons of solid waste, containing heavy metals like lead and nickel, sold as organic manure. The waste may also contain persistent organic pollutants like dioxin and furan as they are using waste hydrochloric acid from a PVC manufacturing plant. The industry poses an unacceptable food safety risk, which needs to be investigated.

**Category:** Chemistry

[8888] **viXra:1410.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-23 10:56:48*

**Authors:** Antonio A. Colella

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The prevailing cosmology theory “The Ultimate Free Lunch” satisfies only the third of three laws of physics. The three laws are: Conservation of Energy/Mass, Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Since a new cosmology theory “An Integrated Theory of Everything (TOE)” satisfies all three laws, it should replace “The Ultimate Free Lunch” theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8887] **viXra:1410.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-23 06:29:06*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Submitted to a Special issue of Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

The exploration of the novel physical consequences of the Extended Theory of Gravity in $C$-spaces (Clifford spaces) is continued. One of the most salient physical feature of the extended gravitational theory in $C$-spaces is that one can generate an $effective$ stress energy tensor mimicking the effects of ``dark" matter/energy. In particular, it is found that the presence of the
cosmological constant, along with a plausible mechanism to explain its extremely small value
and/or its cancellation, can be understood entirely from a purely Clifford algebraic and geometric perspective. For this reason we believe that this theory may have important consequences in Cosmology and further research in Gravitation and Particle Physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8886] **viXra:1410.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-23 07:01:35*

**Authors:** A. V. Mamaev

**Comments:** 10 Pages. ISSN 2311-2158. The Way of Science.2014. No.5 (5).

This article shows that many astronomical phenomena can be explained by existence in nature of quadratic dependence of light speed upon speed of the light source motion. If such a dependence exists in the nature, the following effects can emerge in addition to the known Doppler effect: an effect of spacious grouping or ungrouping
of photons and an effect of spacious deformation (compression or extension) of electromagnetic trains corresponding to photons. Using the effect of spacious grouping or ungrouping of photons it is possible to explain such phenomena as «novae», «supernovae», «hypernovae», pulsars and the object SS 433. Using the effect of spacious deformation (compression or extension) of electromagnetic trains corresponding to photons it is possible to explain such astronomical phenomena as bursts of cosmic X rays and gamma rays, red shift of far star spectrums increasing with growth of distances
to stars, microwave background radiation, Olbers’s paradox.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[8885] **viXra:1410.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-23 07:15:17*

**Authors:** Mirela Teodorescu, Alina Tenescu

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

When we say lean, we think that is a process centered on preserving value with less work. Lean manufacturing is a management philosophy derived mostly from the Toyota Production System (TPS) and identified as "lean" only in the 1990s (Womack, Jones, Roos, 1990; Holweg, 2007). Lean manufacturing is a concept, developed mostly in automotive plants. It is much more than tools and boards. Comparing building of a racket or plane with automotive industry we are determined to say that is easier for automotive because are much simpler than a racket also the number of component parts is about 5000 for a vehicle comparing to 60000 for a racket. The thinks are quite reverse because a rocket is built, generously, in few months, automotive industry builds from 500 to 1000 units each shift, all of them can be different type. Imagine 10 options with possibility OK and NOK, resulting 2**10 different types. In this situation, it is not easy to build these 1000 cars in 8 hours without a perfect logistic and discipline. Lean manufacturing is a concept that reorganize not only the material flow, technology, the tools and devices, but also the behavior, the thinking, the culture.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[8884] **viXra:1410.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-23 07:14:17*

**Authors:** Kimmo Rouvari

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Current scientific antimatter knowledge is incomplete. Without full knowledge it's not possible to invent antimatter based applications, including the application handled in this paper, antimatter bomb. Word bomb combined with nuclear phenomena has an enormous stigma, so even talking about the theoretical aspects (scope of this paper) of antimatter bomb sounds horrible, not to mention designing and constructing such a thing. Why would we even need antimatter bomb?
Without antimatter based bomb we, as the mankind, are helpless in front of a possible devastating asteroid impact. No other means are capable of generating enough destructive power to wipe out an asteroid. Many dangerous asteroids cruising in space are not known to astronomers today hence no early warnings
possibility. Especially in case of these surprising asteroids, antimatter bomb
is the only way to prevent imminent disaster.
As in case of every technology there is a potential for misusing antimatter bomb. The greatest threat is intentional or accidental large enough annihilation chain reaction which could lead to a total annihilation of our planet. Probability and prevention of such unfortunate event requires additional research.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[8883] **viXra:1410.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-23 07:21:53*

**Authors:** Mirela Teodorescu, Petre Bosun, Bianca Teodorescu

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Global economy of the world is about to exceed the limit of endurance of the Earth, pushing civilization from early phase of the XXI century closer to a possible crash than ever. In our concern for quarterly profit growth from one year to another, we lose sight of the magnitude scale of human activity in relation to the earth's resources. A century ago, the annual growth of the global economy was measured in trillions. As a result, the consuming of renewable resources faster than their regeneration. Forests are shrinking, grasslands are deteriorating, water fall, fishing seats collapse and soils erode. Depletion of oil is at a pace that leaves little time for planning what will be beyond its peak. And "unload" in the atmosphere gases with greenhouse effect faster than nature can absorb them, thus reaching a stage where increasing the soil temperature is significantly higher than it has ever been since the beginning of agriculture in here.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[8882] **viXra:1410.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-23 07:25:21*

**Authors:** Mirela Teodorescu, Ioan Constantin Dima, Daniela Gifu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The study highlights some communication instances of actual approach of human society evolution in contrast with traditional communication. During the history of communication dates back to prehistory, with significant changes in communication technologies (media and appropriate inscription tools) evolving in tandem with shifts in political and economic systems, and by extension, systems of power (Innis, 1951), communication can range from very subtle processes of exchange, to full conversations and mass communication. Human communication was revolutionized with speech approximately 100,000 years ago, Symbols were developed about 30,000 years ago ( Diringer, 1982) and writing about 5000 years ago, with Aristotle defining first some metrics of communication, remarcable philosophers as Kant, Hegel, Witgestein, Haidegger, Gadamer developing basics of communication, then in XXth century, communication being defined as science, involving all sciences, whole world, because in fact “It is impossible not to communicate” (first axiom of communication). This evolution passed from simple messages, speeches, poems, novels to sophisticated discourses, reducing time response, emphasizing part of messaging, enlarging participation, media involving, persuasion techniques, sound and image in message, all of these convey to viral communication.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[8881] **viXra:1410.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-23 05:16:24*

**Authors:** Jeremy Dunning-Davies

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Black holes, thermodynamics and entropy are three topics which both separately and together raise several quite deep and serious questions which need to be addressed. Here an attempt is made to highlight some of these issues and to indicate a possible linkage between the accepted entropy expression for a black hole and the paradox linked to black holes and information loss.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[8880] **viXra:1410.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-23 05:19:00*

**Authors:** Denise Vella-Chemla

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

We propose a modelization of binary Goldbach's decompositions in a 4 letters language that permits to envisage this problem in a new way.

**Category:** Number Theory

[8879] **viXra:1410.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-23 05:48:34*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I will define two interesting classes of odd composites often met (by the author of this paper) in the study of Fermat pseudoprimes, which might also have applications in the study of big semiprimes or in other fields. This two classes of composites n = p(1)*...*p(k), where p(1), ..., p(k) are the prime factors of n are defined in the following way: p(j) – p(i) + 1 is a prime or a power of a prime, respectively p(i) + p(j) – 1 is a prime or a power of prime for any p(i), p(j) prime factors of n such that p(1) ≤ p(i) < p(j) ≤ p(k).

**Category:** Number Theory

[8878] **viXra:1410.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 19:49:20*

**Authors:** Linfan MAO

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

As we known, an objective thing not moves
with one's volition, which implies that all contradictions,
particularly, in these semiotic systems for things are artificial.
In classical view, a contradictory system is meaningless, contrast
to that of geometry on figures of things catched by eyes of human
beings. The main objective of sciences is holding the global
behavior of things, which needs one knowing both of compatible and
contradictory systems on things. Usually, a mathematical system
including contradictions is said to be a {\it Smarandache system}.
Beginning from a famous fable, i.e., the $6$ blind men with an
elephant, this report shows the geometry on contradictory systems,
including non-solvable algebraic linear or homogenous equations,
non-solvable ordinary differential equations and non-solvable
partial differential equations, classify such systems and
characterize their global behaviors by combinatorial geometry,
particularly, the global stability of non-solvable differential
equations. Applications of such systems to other sciences, such as
those of gravitational fields, ecologically industrial systems can
be also found in this report. All of these discussions show that a
non-solvable system is nothing else but a system underlying a
topological graph $G\not\simeq K_n$, or $\simeq K_n$ without common
intersection, contrast to those of solvable systems underlying $K_n$
being with common non-empty intersections, where $n$ is the number
of equations in this system. However, if we stand on a geometrical
viewpoint, they are compatible and both of them are meaningful for
human beings.

**Category:** Geometry

[8877] **viXra:1410.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-23 01:11:42*

**Authors:** Meir Amiram

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Newton's inverse square law of gravity is very accurate in predicting the mutual gravitational responses of bodies within galaxies. Its predictions fail however in the outskirts of many galaxies and in cosmological scale analyses of the universe. Dark entities can be hypothesized for maintaining the law intact, yet the possibility that something is faulty not with our qualifications to sense dark constituents of the universe but with the law itself, cannot be ruled out. Through algebraic discussion I show that Newton equations can be interpreted in a new way at least as legitimate as their conventional way of interpretation. According to this new interpretation of Newton equations it comes out that the laws of gravity alter when the ratio between the mass of a gravitational source and the distance from it is smaller from a predetermined value. I indicate that gravitational fields may have a cutoff border at some mass dependent distance, i.e. possibly the influence of gravity is restricted in range and galaxies receding from one another according to Hubble law are gravitationally disconnected. My conclusion is that the common use of GR for cosmological scale analysis of the universe is very speculative and lacks any observational support.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8876] **viXra:1410.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-23 03:24:03*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This is the transcript of an interview [1] in which it is explained that the BICEP2 telescope located at the South Pole did not detect anything other than galactic noise. Despite reports with great fanfare, BICEP2 did not detect the signatures of Einstein gravitational waves or an inflationary epoch in some big bang expanding universe. The reports by the BICEP2 Team that they detected evidence for some big bang cosmology are demonstrably false.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8875] **viXra:1410.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 15:21:34*

**Authors:** Mirela Teodorescu, Vladimir Modrak, Daniela Gifu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Mental process or cognition process is a term often used for all the acts that people can do with their minds. These acts include perception, introspection, reasoning, creativity, imagination, memory, idea, belief, volition, and emotion. A mental event represents an instance involved in cognitive process. The perceiving of the event is different from each event depending of perceiving capacity of that instance. Along human existence, philosophers such as Aristotle, Plato, Descartes, Leibniz, Spinoza, Kant, Heidegger, Wittgenstein, Daniel Dennett and et alli. The structure of the mental process is part of psychology and psychologists such as Sigmund Freud and William James who developed essential theories about the nature of the human mind. In the last decades of the 20th and early 21st centuries the domain of cognitive science emerged and developed many varied approaches related to the description of mind and its related phenomena. The field of artificial intelligence is the possibility of non-human minds also explored, and works closely in relation with cybernetics and information theory to understand the ways in which human mental phenomena can be replicated by non-biological machines. The mental process domain is by far vast, this study is suggesting only to highlight some of aspects, subjects of thought for human being.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[8874] **viXra:1410.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 17:29:34*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Mohamed Abdelfattah, Mohamed Eisa

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Since the world is full of indeterminacy, the neutrosophics found their place into contemporary research. İn this paper we, introduce the distances between neutrosophic sets: the Hamming distance, The normalized Hamming distance, the Euclidean distance an

Since the world is full of indeterminacy, the neutrosophics found their place into contemporary research. İn this paper we, introduce the distances between neutrosophic sets: the Hamming distance, The normalized Hamming distance, the Euclidean distance and normalized Euclidean distance. We will extend the concepts of distances to the case of neutrosophic hesitancy degree. Added to, this paper suggest how to enrich intuitionistic fuzzy querying by the use of neutrosophic values..

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[8873] **viXra:1410.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 17:52:57*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Will be translated into English (Version 2)

We calculate in this article an exact theoretical value obtained classically for the secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury, followed by the theory of Stockwell, based on planetary theory of Laplace, your Mécanique Céleste: found 5600’’,84 of arc per century for the angular velocity of the longitude of the perihelion of Mercury, dw/dt, adding to the precession of the equinoxes of the Earth relative to the beginning of the year 1850, as calculated by Stockwell.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8872] **viXra:1410.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 17:33:09*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Said Broumi, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The focus of this paper is to propose a new
notion of neutrosophic crisp sets via neutrosophic crisp
ideals and to study some basic operations and results in
neutrosophic crisp topological spaces. Also,
neutrosophic crisp L-openness and neutrosophic crisp Lcontinuity
are considered as a generalizations for a crisp
and fuzzy concepts. Relationships between the above
new neutrosophic crisp notions and the other relevant
classes are investigated. Finally, we define and study
two different types of neutrosophic crisp functions.
Index Terms—Neutrosophic Crisp Set; Neutrosophic
Crisp Ideals; Neutrosophic Crisp L-open Sets;
Neutrosophic Crisp L- Continuity; Neutrosophic Sets.
I. INTRODUCTION
The fuzzy set was introduced by Zadeh [20] in 1965,
where each element had a degree of membership. In
1983 the intuitionstic fuzzy set was introduced by K.
Atanassov [1, 2, 3] as a generalization of fuzzy set,
where besides the degree of membership and the degree
of non- membership of each element. Salama et al [11]
defined intuitionistic fuzzy ideal and neutrosophic ideal
for a set and generalized the concept of fuzzy ideal
concepts, first initiated by Sarker [19]. Smarandache [16,
17, 18] defined the notion of neutrosophic sets, which is
a generalization of Zadeh's fuzzy set and Atanassov's
intuitionistic fuzzy set. Neutrosophic sets have been
investigated by Salama et al. [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,
13, 14, 15]. In this paper is to introduce and study some
new neutrosophic crisp notions via neutrosophic crisp
ideals. Also, neutrosophic crisp L-openness and
neutrosophic crisp L- continuity are considered.
Relationships between the above new neutrosophic crisp
notions and the other relevant classes are investigated.
Recently, we define and study two different types of
neutrosophic crisp functions.
The paper unfolds as follows. The next section briefly
introduces some definitions related to neutrosophic set
theory and some terminologies of neutrosophic crisp set
and neutrosophic crisp ideal. Section 3 presents
neutrosophic crisp L- open and neutrosophic crisp Lclosed
sets. Section 4 presents neutrosophic crisp L–
continuous functions. Conclusions appear in the last section.

**Category:** Topology

[8871] **viXra:1410.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 17:37:47*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, Said Broumi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Since the world is full of indeterminacy, the neutrosophics found their place into
contemporary research. In this paper we define rough neutrosophic sets and study their
properties. Some propositions in this notion are proved. Possible application to computer
sciences is touched upon.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[8870] **viXra:1410.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 12:27:38*

**Authors:** M.E. Hassani

**Comments:** 6 Page; 2 Tables; 10 References.

In the present paper, the so-called Einstein’s causality is scrutinized and proven to be an illusion, a sort of mathematical fiction, and the causality as a well-established universal principle would be absolutely valid for
subluminal, luminal and superluminal signals under any natural and/or artificial circumstances. It is also shown that any attempt to apply special relativity theory to superluminality of physical phenomena would be a complete waste of time since this theory has the light speed in vacuum as an upper limiting speed in its proper validity domain of applications.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[8869] **viXra:1410.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 15:05:49*

**Authors:** Mirela Teodorescu, Dan Ionescu

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Neutrosophic emergences and incidences in communication and information, published in Germany/Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing in 2013, is a book that constitutes a new trend, a new approach in the science of logic, philosophy, communication theory, information, an approached and exemplification that it was wanted, it was intuited, it was expected but it has no mathematical foundation, that is neutrosophy. It is a book that presents avant-garde information. It is written by two appreciated researchers and inexhaustible perpetual idea machines: professors Florentin Smarandache and Ştefan Vlăduţescu. First of them is professor of mathematics at University of New Mexico/ USA, the second is professor of communication theory at University of Craiova/ Romania. Both of them have published a lot of books and papers in domain of philosophy, communication, sociology, psychology, mathematics and literature. Logic started in Ancient with Classical Logic of Aristotle, developed and covered by Three Valued Logic of Lukasiewicz, next ring being Fuzzy Logic of Zadech, finally the comprehensive Neutrosophic Logic of Smarandache.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[8868] **viXra:1410.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 15:14:18*

**Authors:** Mirela Teodorescu, Oprea Valentin Busu, Daniela Gifu

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This study examines the propaganda from point of view of positive effects in actual social life dominated by democracy. People have to deal with propaganda in ordinary life: it happens through advertising, propaganda occurs in political speeches, in TV shows, even in the news… With the development of means of communication and especially of mass media, propaganda has become inseparable from the contemporary mass culture. Some sociologists state that the tendencies of propagating particular lifestyles and models of behavior have a negative impact on the society; on the other hand, propaganda can be used for positive purposes: for example, for spreading healthy lifestyle, anti-smoking and anti-drugs campaigns, anti-discrimination ideas etc.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[8867] **viXra:1410.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 11:25:22*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, we review the derivation of the equation of thrust of Shawyer’s thruster, by obtaining a new expression, which includes the indexes of refraction of the two parallel plates in the tapered waveguide. This new expression shows that, by strongly increasing the index of refraction of the plate with the largest area, the value of the thrust can be strongly increased.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[8866] **viXra:1410.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 11:28:59*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here we show how polluted smoke can be compacted and transformed into a glass similar to amorphous silica glass, by means of gravitational compression produced in a compression chamber, where gravity is strongly increased by using gravity control technology based on the discovery of correlation between gravitational mass and inertial mass [1]. Possibly this process can be a way of storing of CO2, a major contributor to global warming.

**Category:** Climate Research

[8865] **viXra:1410.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 12:01:43*

**Authors:** Vladimir Komarov

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In nuclear physics and elementary particle theory concept of unitary symmetry and the related idea of the hierarchy of interactions play a fundamental role [1, 2]. So the relative smallness of the electromagnetic and weak interactions as compared to the strong interaction of the nucleons in the nucleus can be considered a model of the nucleus in the limit of exact symmetry of the strong interactions. In this model, protons and neutrons are physically indistinguishable states of the nucleon, and the properties of the nucleus are invariant under isotopic transformations.
In the case of molecules, we can also talk about the hierarchy of interactions involved in their formation.
As an example of a "strong" interaction here we can point to energy of chemical bonds, which is 1-2 orders of magnitude more energy non-bonded interactions. Another example - when the energy of valence interactions is much greater than the energy of intermolecular bonds in the condensed medium.
Usually accounting of weak interactions in 'chemistry is performed by introducing a physical model of various perturbations. These perturbations typically are unmeasured parameters that; are essentially the fitting values.
However, in the preferred class of molecules can try to find such values of the parameter in the ratio in which the contributions of the "weak" interactions are compensated or negligible.
Symmetry approach is important in estimation of reliability of experimental data and to predict new values of a parameter.
The same, from the standpoint of finding a unitary symmetry, the approach would be interesting to extend to more complex molecules and molecular systems. Up until genetic.
The application of the previously developed concepts of symmetry to the codon is the purpose of this work.
Keywords: Codons, Combinatory, Homology, Homologous series, Unitary Symmetry.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[8864] **viXra:1410.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-22 08:21:52*

**Authors:** Stefan Mehedinteanu

**Comments:** 22 Pages. a new discovery related to the origin of Universe

A spectrum for blackbody radiation of temperature when photon creation takes place has been proposed at the end of Inflation, when opacity (equilibrium photons- ) begins to be very thick, that means no photons radiation (escape) as before, and when remain available only two photons pairs to collide in order to obtaining the first (quark) pair which generates an electrical field , for a time period corresponding to Hubble’s lengths of . This field of string type being supercritical , it captures the vacuum monopoles pairs, thus, generating the first primordial electromagnetic magnetic ( ) vortex called as . By using a simple QCD analytical model are calculated its components. Thus, in the model the Inflaton potential viewed as , by Schwinger effect at the end of the reheating period , it generates all kinds of particles of precise number as: bosons, fermions (quarks), gluons with structure of monopoles (abelian in extra-core and nonabelian in core), magnetic monopoles themselves. Immediately, at confinement, the quarks pairs forms Coulomb flux tubes , thesis capturing gluons organized in monopole type structures (hedgehog), in order to form nucleons.
The primordial magnetic field is expected to scale with Robertson-Walker scale factor, as resulting at value of , which is near identically with that of the literature. By using this value, we can obtain the imprints as B-curl type due of Faraday rotation at time of .

**Category:** Astrophysics

[8863] **viXra:1410.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-21 13:34:44*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Work in progress.

According to the seesaw mechanism, neutrino masses arise from the existence of heavy Majorana neutrinos postulated to emerge near the grand unification scale (GUT) of about 10^16 GeV. Despite its theoretical appeal, this scenario involves either physics at inaccessible scales or tuning the Yukawa couplings to un-naturally low values. Our work sidesteps the seesaw mechanism and shows that neutrino masses follow from placing the Standard Model on a spacetime support equipped with arbitrarily small deviations from four dimensions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8862] **viXra:1410.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-21 10:02:06*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Zoltan Gingl, Robert Mingesz, Gergely Vadai, Janusz Smulko, Claes-Goran Granqvist

**Comments:** 7 Pages. first draft

After briefly summarizing our general theoretical arguments, we show that, the experienced strong information leak at the Gunn-Allison-Abbott attack [Scientific Reports 4 (2014) 6461] against the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchange scheme, resulted from a serious design flaw of the system. The attenuator broke the single Kirchhoff-loop into two coupled loops. This is an illegal operation because the single loop is essential for the security, thus the observed leak is obvious. We demonstrate this by cracking the system with an elementary current comparison attack yielding close to 1 success probability for Eve even without averaging within a sub-correlation-time measurement window. A fully defended KLJN system would not be able to function, at all, due to its built-in current-comparison defense against active (invasive) attacks.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[4052] **viXra:1410.0194 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-30 06:55:05*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 27 Pages. Comments welcomed

Ensuing from the proposals of Plato, Heraclitus and Aristotle, a new theory of spacetime has been suggested. The scope is to reveal the origin of gravity and replace the absolute size of spatial volumes at different length scales by 'relative scale spacetime'.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4051] **viXra:1410.0177 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-30 06:33:14*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

The Illustris supercomputer simulation of the universe models a huge chunk of the universe: a cube 350 million light years across, and home to tens of thousands of galaxies. The computer’s simulations are extraordinarily similar to images by the Hubble Space Telescope. It’s been said that Illustris shows we do now understand the basics of how our universe evolved. The extraordinary similarity does not show we understand the basics. If the universe is represented as the numeral 1, there's more than one way to arrive at that number e.g. 2-1 or 3-2. Illustris takes one way, this article takes a different approach. Both can describe the cosmos but since the cosmos only has one history, both cannot be correct. Nevertheless, "Quantum Gravity Personalized" does say that the universe is indeed a computer simulation. This sounds outrageous, perhaps it would be better to say "an outgrowth of computer simulation". This is explained throughout the article, as are original interpretations of the basics (including the universe, string theory, gravity, computer science, topology, wave-particle duality, the wave function of the universe, the Holographic Quantum Model, and the Unified Field with its application not just in mathematics but also in human activities).
This article provides answers to the questions of what dark energy and dark matter are. It also links dark energy to gravitation, and gravity to mass (as the producer, not the product, of mass); as well as linking gravity to creation of black holes, and of electromagnetism and the nuclear forces. The end result is an original picture of everything cosmological, from the overall universe of space-time to the quantum world of string theory. The picture is developed from experiments as well as theory; and is of a universe that is fundamentally mathematical and electronic. The paper explains time travel to the past, giving it practical use and providing an alternative to the 3 concepts of a “primordial soup” creating life (evolution explains adaptations, not origins), a supernatural God and the multiverse. It culminates in a section about Special Relativity, General Relativity and E=mc^2 confirming this and previous papers’ ideas regarding speed, light, motion, mass, division by zero, gravity both repelling and attracting, the Higgs field and boson, and even entanglement on both quantum and macroscopic scales. At the very end is the outline of an idea for further investigation – an idea about accessing and manipulating a 5th-dimensional hyperspace, which includes another time dimension, that draws on prior comments (whether the comment be a sentence, a figure or an equation). And for those who aren’t afraid to speculate - the development of an all-powerful, all-knowing, omnipresent human body composed of photons and gravitons, and quantum entangled with every point in space-time is going to be proposed, for the purpose of overcoming the limits of biological bodies – or biological bodies incorporating computer and robotic systems.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4050] **viXra:1410.0170 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-31 01:35:20*

**Authors:** R. V. Klinkerman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In articles of the author [2], [3] the version of organization of life when it to a
great extent is operated and provided from the center of Earth was offered to
consideration. In present article the alternative version when life has no an operating
center and represents network structure is considered. Given article is extension and
expansion of article of the author « Essence of life » [1].
Keywords: information, adaptation, evolution, activity, creation, beginning of
life, centralization, a state, bacteria.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[4049] **viXra:1410.0168 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-26 21:35:19*

**Authors:** Stoyan Sarg Sargoytchev

**Comments:** 7 Pages. v1 - English; v2 - Bulgarian

According to the BSM- Supergravitation Unified Theory (BSM-SG), the energy is indispensable feature of matter, while the matter possesses hierarchical levels of organization. The physical vacuum according to BSM-SG possesses underlying organized structure called a Cosmic Lattice. It contains two types of energies: a Static one, that is enormous but not electromagnetic and a dynamic one - connected to electricity and magnetism. At the upper levels of matter organization is the atomic energy, followed by the chemical energy. The next upper level is the energy of the biomolecules, including the DNA and the proteins. They can store energy as rotating quantum states in rings of atoms. A detailed hypothesis about such a feature was previously published in http://vixra.org/abs/1307.0059. When the stored in such way energy is released it may form rings of entangled photons circulating in a localized space volume. This envisioned upper energy level is able to store information, so it is called an information field. Based on the properties of the photons to preserve their energy, the information field should be stable.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[4048] **viXra:1410.0167 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-29 00:27:10*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Yunita Umniyati

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This paper has not been submitted yet to any journal. Comments and suggestions are welcome

There are many models of DNA, both the linear ones and the nonlinear ones. One interesting model in this regard is the sine-Gordon model of DNA as proposed by Salerno. It belongs to nonlinear model of DNA which is close to realistic model. Here we discuss a graphical plot of soliton solution of such a sine-Gordon model of DNA.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[4047] **viXra:1410.0161 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-26 10:02:30*

**Authors:** Omar A.H. Shabsigh

**Comments:** Number of pages including title page

This article discusses the upper limit imposed on the speed of traveling of any mass as being the speed of light in vacuum. The article shows, based on the results of Special Relativity, that such a limit does not exist. Speeds Beyond Speed of Light (BSOL) are possible. .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4046] **viXra:1410.0160 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-27 11:11:39*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 36 Pages. Spanish

The affine connection is the primary geometric element from which derive all other quantities that characterize a given geometry. In this article the concept of affine connection, its properties and the quantities derived from it are studied, we also present some of the connections that have been used in physical theories. We introduce the metric tensor and we study its relation with the affine connection. This study is intended for application in alternative theories of gravity to the General Theory of Relativity and to the unified field theories.

**Category:** Geometry

[4045] **viXra:1410.0159 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-26 10:17:15*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Added more to the conclusion. Fixed error in title, plus typos and added a formula and additional comments / formula to the conclusion

Basic summary is as follows. Initially we discuss a minimum time length. We form DM from considerations as to a minimum time step, and then generate DM via axions. Through Ng’s quantum infinite statistics, we compare a DM count, giving Entropy. The remainder of the document is in terms of DE as well as asking the question of comparing Entropy in Galaxies versus Entropy in the Universe, through a lens of Subotha Mistra’s Quantum theory of the big bang

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4044] **viXra:1410.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-23 22:26:21*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

The exploration of the novel physical consequences of the Extended Theory of Gravity in $C$-spaces (Clifford spaces) is continued. One of the most salient physical feature of the extended gravitational theory in $C$-spaces is that one can generate an $effective$ stress energy tensor mimicking the effects of ``dark" matter/energy. In particular, it is found that the presence of the cosmological constant, along with a plausible mechanism to explain its extremely small value and/or its cancellation, can be understood entirely from a purely Clifford algebraic and geometric perspective. For this reason we believe that this theory may have important consequences in Cosmology and further research in Gravitation and Particle Physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4043] **viXra:1410.0133 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-30 11:10:44*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

We calculate in this article an exact theoretical value obtained classically for the secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury, followed by the theory of Stockwell, based on planetary theory of Laplace, your Mécanique Céleste: found 5600’’,84 of arc per century for the angular velocity of the longitude of the perihelion of Mercury, dw/dt, adding to the precession of the equinoxes of the Earth relative to the beginning of the year 1850, as calculated by Stockwell.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4042] **viXra:1410.0133 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-27 03:17:19*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 11 Pages. English

We calculate in this article an exact theoretical value obtained classically for the secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury, followed by the theory of Stockwell, based on planetary theory of Laplace, your Mécanique Céleste: found 5600’’,84 of arc per century for the angular velocity of the longitude of the perihelion of Mercury, dw/dt, adding to the precession of the equinoxes of the Earth relative to the beginning of the year 1850, as calculated by Stockwell.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4041] **viXra:1410.0127 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-29 13:00:04*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, we review the derivation of the equation of thrust of Shawyer’s thruster, by obtaining a new expression, which includes the indexes of refraction of the two parallel plates in the tapered waveguide. This new expression shows that, by strongly increasing the index of refraction of the plate with the largest area, the value of the thrust can be strongly increased.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[4040] **viXra:1410.0126 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-29 17:23:53*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here we show how polluted smoke can be compacted and transformed into a glass similar to amorphous silica glass, by means of gravitational compression produced in a compression chamber, where gravity is strongly increased by using gravity control technology based on the discovery of correlation between gravitational mass and inertial mass [1]. Possibly this process can be a way of storing of CO2, a major contributor to global warming.

**Category:** Climate Research

[4039] **viXra:1410.0126 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-29 12:55:54*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here we show how polluted smoke can be compacted and transformed into a glass similar to amorphous silica glass, by means of gravitational compression produced in a compression chamber, where gravity is strongly increased by using gravity control technology based on the discovery of correlation between gravitational mass and inertial mass [1]. Possibly this process can be a way of storing of CO2, a major contributor to global warming.

**Category:** Climate Research

[4038] **viXra:1410.0122 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-25 05:44:46*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Zoltan Gingl, Robert Mingesz, Gergely Vadai, Janusz Smulko, Claes-Goran Granqvist

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Equation double-number fixed. In editorial process at a journal.

A recent paper by Gunn–Allison–Abbott (GAA) [L.J. Gunn et al., Scientific Reports 4 (2014) 6461] argued that the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchange system could experience a severe information leak. Here we refute their results and demonstrate that GAA’s arguments ensue from a serious design flaw in their system. Specifically, an attenuator broke the single Kirchhoff-loop into two coupled loops, which is an incorrect operation since the single loop is essential for the security in the KLJN system, and hence GAA’s asserted information leak is trivial. Another consequence is that a fully defended KLJN system would not be able to function due to its built-in current-comparison defense against active (invasive) attacks. In this paper we crack GAA’s scheme via an elementary current comparison attack which yields negligible error probability for Eve even without averaging over the correlation time of the noise.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[4037] **viXra:1410.0122 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-23 09:34:22*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Zoltan Gingl, Robert Mingesz, Gergely Vadai, Janusz Smulko, Claes-Goran Granqvist

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Polished and many typos fixed. Submitted for publication

A recent paper by Gunn–Allison–Abbott (GAA) [L.J. Gunn et al., Scientific Reports 4 (2014) 6461] argued that the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) secure key exchange system could experience a severe information leak. Here we refute their results and demonstrate that GAA’s arguments ensue from a serious design flaw in their system. Specifically, an attenuator broke the single Kirchhoff-loop into two coupled loops, which is an incorrect operation since the single loop is essential for the security in the KLJN system, and hence GAA’s asserted information leak is trivial. Another consequence is that a fully defended KLJN system would not be able to function due to its built-in current-comparison defense against active (invasive) attacks. In this paper we crack GAA’s scheme via an elementary current comparison attack which yields negligible error probability for Eve even without averaging over the correlation time of the noise.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms