**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(59) - 0703(50) - 0704(5) - 0705(1) - 0706(8) - 0707(2) - 0708(3) - 0709(3) - 0710(1) - 0711(6) - 0712(3)

2008 - 0801(4) - 0802(4) - 0803(2) - 0804(9) - 0805(4) - 0806(1) - 0807(12) - 0808(6) - 0809(3) - 0810(16) - 0811(5) - 0812(9)

2009 - 0901(3) - 0902(7) - 0903(6) - 0904(5) - 0907(48) - 0908(109) - 0909(61) - 0910(66) - 0911(64) - 0912(54)

2010 - 1001(46) - 1002(51) - 1003(265) - 1004(138) - 1005(110) - 1006(67) - 1007(55) - 1008(91) - 1009(71) - 1010(61) - 1011(76) - 1012(52)

2011 - 1101(100) - 1102(55) - 1103(121) - 1104(82) - 1105(41) - 1106(60) - 1107(52) - 1108(49) - 1109(59) - 1110(71) - 1111(114) - 1112(86)

2012 - 1201(100) - 1202(80) - 1203(90) - 1204(93) - 1205(111) - 1206(90) - 1207(98) - 1208(222) - 1209(95) - 1210(163) - 1211(137) - 1212(140)

2013 - 1301(171) - 1302(145) - 1303(196) - 1304(148) - 1305(182) - 1306(205) - 1307(151) - 1308(138) - 1309(189) - 1310(242) - 1311(163) - 1312(200)

2014 - 1401(184) - 1402(141) - 1403(842) - 1404(251) - 1405(325) - 1406(176) - 1407(203) - 1408(217) - 1409(219) - 1410(183) - 1411(482) - 1412(237)

2015 - 1501(225) - 1502(215) - 1503(242) - 1504(214) - 1505(214) - 1506(201) - 1507(200) - 1508(355) - 1509(260) - 1510(457) - 1511(275) - 1512(442)

2016 - 1601(351) - 1602(353) - 1603(373) - 1604(331) - 1605(60)

Any replacements are listed further down

[14158] **viXra:1605.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-05 10:21:54*

**Authors:** Andrzej Gecow

**Comments:** 27 Pages. in Polish

Kauffman hypothesis ‘Life on the edge of chaos’ is here deeply reinterpreted and takes a new form ‘Life evolves in half-chaos’. Criticism of interpretative assumptions of Kauffman model is expressed. Also basis of expectation that living objects should be modeled as chaotic systems with strongly increased stability, mainly by negative feed backs, are shown. Using simulation is proved, that such systems exist and may be constructed. They simultaneously express with similar degree ordered and chaotic reaction on small perturbation. Using acceptation only small effected changes, evolution do not take out of this state.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[14157] **viXra:1605.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-05 09:49:20*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Strategic Concerns of the First Task of PHPR

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[14156] **viXra:1605.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-05 06:55:33*

**Authors:** T.Nakashima

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper is all cycle case resolve.But sequence goes to infinity case I can not prove not possibillity.

**Category:** Number Theory

[14155] **viXra:1605.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 18:31:48*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 1 diagram

A diagram with explanation is given so that people understand where the bridges are formed with the general theory of stellar metamorphosis. The bridges will be expanded as theory development continues without any acknowledgement from establishment.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[14154] **viXra:1605.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 12:58:03*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Version 1 in Spanish.

This article presents an alternative formulation of special relativity which can be applied in any inertial reference frame. In addition, a new universal force is presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14153] **viXra:1605.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 14:05:01*

**Authors:** V.Kalaj, Sullivan, Zahariev

**Comments:** 3 Pages. If you feel this paper was correct in its assertions, you can contact me via the email address at the bottom of the paper.

The following paper gives insight into the Navier-Stokes equations and a possible resolution according to the Clay Mathematics Institute's criteria, part (D). Secondary co-authors are Prof. Zahariev and Prof. Sullivan.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[14152] **viXra:1605.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 10:55:15*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper we show how Einstein's relativity of simultaneity is fully consistent with anisotropic one-way speed of light. We get the same end result and observations as predicted by Einstein, but with a very different interpretation. We show that the relativity of simultaneity is an apparent effect due to an Einstein clock synchronization error, which is rooted in assuming that the one-way speed of light is the same as the well-tested round-trip speed of light. Einstein's relativity of simultaneity leads to several bizarre paradoxes recently introduced by Haug (2016a, 2016b).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14151] **viXra:1605.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 11:34:05*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A fusion of prime number and quantum physics.(1)
This figure shows a prime number of the Lehman expectation and the relations with 0 points.
The zeta function is expressed as the sum of simple sin function and cosine function.
The complicated period function is expressed for the sum of sin function and cosine function that are the mathematical expression of a simple wave.

**Category:** Number Theory

[14150] **viXra:1605.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 11:57:44*

**Authors:** Beatriz Mendoza-Sanchez, Damien Hanlon, Joao Coelho, Sean O' Brien, Henrik Pettersson, Jonathan Coleman, Valeria Nicolosi

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

2D a-MoO3 was synthesized using a facile, inexpensive and scalable liquid-phase exfoliation method. 2D a-MoO3/SWCNT (85 wt%/15 wt%) composite films were manufactured by vacuum filtration and their energy storage properties were investigated in a LiClO4/propylene carbonate electrolyte in a 1.5 V to 3.5 V vs. Li+/Li electrochemical window. Cyclic voltammetry showed typical ion intercalation peaks of a-MoO3 and a capacitance of 200 F/g was achieved at 10 mV/s and 82 F/g at 50 mV/s. The composite electrodes achieved a capacitive charge storage of 375 C/g and a diffusion-controlled maximum charge storage of 703 C/g. The latter being superior to the charge storage achieved by previously reported mesoporous a-MoO3, produced using more cumbersome multi-step templating methods, and a-MoO3 nanobelts . This superior Li-ion intercalation charge storage was attributed to the shorter ion-transport paths of 2D a-MoO3 as compared to other nanostructures. Galvanostatic charge-discharge experiments showed a maximum charge storage of 123.0 mAh/g at a current density of 100 mA/g.

**Category:** Chemistry

[14149] **viXra:1605.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 08:54:43*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Eight pages

Beta decay is involved in all radioactivity. Pair annihilation, pair production, fusion, and Beta decay, are shown to form all the elements on the periodic table as well as all particles and anti particles. Particles and anti particles reside, unseen, incorporated with neutrons in the nuclei of all elements.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[14148] **viXra:1605.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 05:05:38*

**Authors:** J. Martina Jency, I. Arockiarani

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, we design a model based on adjustable and mean potentiality approach to single valued neutrosophic level soft sets. Further, we introduce the notion of weighted single valued neutrosophic soft set and investigate its application in decision making.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[14147] **viXra:1605.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 05:07:03*

**Authors:** Chunfang Liu, YueSheng Luo

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Interval-valued neutrosophic set (INS) is a
generalization of fuzzy set (FS) that is designed for some practical situations in which each element has different truth membership function, indeterminacy membership function and falsity membership function and permits the membership degrees to be expressed by interval values.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[14146] **viXra:1605.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 05:08:47*

**Authors:** Partha Pratim Dey, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper investigates an extended grey relational analysis method for multiple attribute decision making problems under interval neutrosophic uncertain linguistic environment. Interval neutrosophic uncertain
linguistic variables are hybridization of uncertain linguistic variables and interval neutrosophic sets and they can easily express the imprecise, indeterminate and inconsistent
information which normally exist in real life situations.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[14145] **viXra:1605.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 05:09:58*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We have introduced for the first time the
degree of dependence (and consequently the degree of independence) between the components of the fuzzy set, and also between the components of the neutrosophic set in our 2006 book’s fifth edition. Now we extend it for the first time to the refined neutrosophic set considering the degree of dependence or independence of subcomponets.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[14144] **viXra:1605.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 05:11:04*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Assia Bakali, Mohamed Talea, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Many results have been obtained on isolated
graphs and complete graphs. In this paper, a necessary and sufficient condition will be proved for a single valued neutrosophic graph to be an isolated single valued neutrosophic graph.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[14143] **viXra:1605.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 05:12:42*

**Authors:** Gaurav, Megha Kumar, Kanika Bhutani, Swati Aggarwal

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper employs a new soft computing based
methodology for identifying and analyzing the relationships among the causes and implications of the two challenging problems in India: unbalanced sex ratio and poverty.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[14142] **viXra:1605.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 05:13:56*

**Authors:** Nouran Radwan, M. Badr Senousy, Alaa El Din M. Riad

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper reviews some of the multivalued
logic models which are fuzzy set, intuitionistic
fuzzy set, and suggests a new approach which is neutrosophic set for handling uncertainty in expert systems to derive decisions. The paper highlights, compares and clarifies the differences of these models in terms of the application area of problem solving.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[14141] **viXra:1605.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 05:15:14*

**Authors:** Madad Khan, Florentin Smarandache, Sania Afzal

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this paper we have defined neutrosophic ideals,
neutrosophic interior ideals, netrosophic quasi-ideals and neutrosophic bi-ideals (neutrosophic generalized bi-ideals) and proved some results related to them.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[14140] **viXra:1605.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 05:16:41*

**Authors:** Nasir Shah, Asim Hussain

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to propose a new type of
graph called neutrosophic soft graphs. We have established a link between graphs and neutrosophic soft sets. Basic operations of neutrosophic soft graphs such as union, intersection and complement are defined here. The concept of strong neutrosophic soft graphs is also discussed in this paper.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[14139] **viXra:1605.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 05:18:07*

**Authors:** Partha Pratim Dey, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The present paper proposes neutrosophic soft
multi-attribute decision making based on grey relational projection method. Neutrosophic soft sets is a combination of neutrosophic sets and soft sets and it is a new mathematical apparatus to deal with realistic problems in the fields of medical sciences, economics, engineering, etc.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[14138] **viXra:1605.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 05:21:11*

**Authors:** Vasile Patrascu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this article, starting from primary representation of neutrosophic information, namely the triplet (μ, ω, ν) made up of the degree of truth μ, degree of indeterminacy
ω and degree of falsity ν, we define a refined representation in a penta-valued fuzzy space, described by the index of truth t, index of falsity f, index of ignorance u, index of contradiction c and index of hesitation h. In
the proposed penta-valued refined representation the indeterminacy was split into three sub-indeterminacies such as ignorance, contradiction and hesitation.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[14137] **viXra:1605.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 05:22:55*

**Authors:** Huda E. Khalid

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This article sheds light on the possibility of finding the minimum solution set of neutrosophic relational geometric programming with (max, min) composition. This work examines the privacy enjoyed by both neutrosophic logic and geometric programming, and how it affects the minimum solutions. It is the first attempt to solve this type of problems.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[14136] **viXra:1605.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 06:09:21*

**Authors:** Tsuneaki Takahashi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Lorentz transformation handles an oblique frame of reference. Regarding to the oblique system, investigation about scaling and distance is required for clear understanding how the Lorentz transformation can be derived.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14135] **viXra:1605.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 06:37:27*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper introduces a new way to synchronize clocks distanced apart and a way to synchronize clocks between reference frames. Based on a simple synchronization thought experiment, we claim that relativity of simultaneity must be incomplete. Einstein's special relativity theory predicts relativity of simultaneity and that two events that happen simultaneously in one reference frame will not happen simultaneously as observed from another reference frame. Relativity of simultaneity is directly linked to a particular way of synchronizing clocks (Einstein-Poincar\'{e} synchronization) that again assumes that the one-way speed of light is isotropic and identical with the well-tested round-trip speed of light. In the new thought experiment introduced here, there is reason to believe that two distant events can happen simultaneously in both frames. Still, we agree that these events will not happen simultaneously as measured with Einstein synchronized clocks. The claim here is that Einstein synchronized clocks lead to apparent relativity of simultaneity due to a clock synchronization error rooted in the assumption of isotropic one-way speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14134] **viXra:1605.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-03 17:55:16*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Policy, Resolution, and Outcome.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[14133] **viXra:1605.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-03 21:57:26*

**Authors:** Jiang-Min Zhang

**Comments:** 8 Pages. pedagogical lecture note for my quantum-mechanics course

Fermi's golden rule is of great importance in quantum dynamics. However, in many textbooks on quantum mechanics, its contents and limitations are obscured by the approximations and arguments in the derivation, which are inevitable because of the generic setting considered. Here we propose to introduce it by an ideal model, in which the quasi-continuum band consists of equaldistant levels extending from $-\infty $ to $+\infty $, and each of them couples to the discrete level with the same strength. For this model, the transition probability in the first order perturbation approximation can be calculated analytically by invoking the Poisson summation formula. It turns out to be a \emph{piecewise linear} function of time, demonstrating on one hand the key features of Fermi's golden rule, and on the other hand that the rule breaks down beyond the Heisenberg time, even when the first order perturbation approximation itself is still valid.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[14132] **viXra:1605.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 01:30:36*

**Authors:** Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The neutron is the kernel having an electron shell and positron contents

**Category:** Astrophysics

[14131] **viXra:1605.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 01:37:18*

**Authors:** Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Unilateral impact of the Sun on her is the reason of inadequacy of the parties of the Moon.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[14130] **viXra:1605.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 01:44:47*

**Authors:** Marian Dragoi, Ciprian Palaghianu

**Comments:** 8 pages, 4 figures, language: Romanian (abstract in English)

Group decision makers making process - an analytic hierarchy approach
The paper deals with a step-wise analytic hierarchy process (AHP) applied by a
group of decision makers wherein nobody has a dominant position and it is unlikely to
come to terms with respect to either the weights of different objectives or expected utilities
of different alternatives. One of the AHP outcomes, that is the consistency index is
computed for each decision maker, for all other decision makers but that one, and for the
whole group. Doing so, the group is able to assess to which extent each decision maker
alters the group consistency index and a better consistency index could be achieved if the
assessment procedure is being resumed by the most influential decision maker in terms of
consistency.
The main contribution of the new approach is the algorithm presented in as a flow
chart where the condition to stop the process might be either a threshold value for the
consistency index, or a given number of iterations for the group or decision maker,
depending on the degree to which the targeted goal has been decomposed into conflictual
objectives.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[14129] **viXra:1605.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 01:43:15*

**Authors:** Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Illusion of abnormal increase in speed of the wind Venery is created due to reduction of thickness of her atmosphere and existence of a horizontal component of gravitation.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[14128] **viXra:1605.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 01:51:00*

**Authors:** Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The horizon of events of the Black hole is a power cover of the White hole.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[14127] **viXra:1605.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-04 02:36:31*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is the thermal radiation due to the time of recombination. The temperature variations on very large angular scales observed by WMAP and Planck are both larger than expected (there appears the CMB axis of evil) and, contrary to smaller-scale fluctuations, aligned with each other. The initial inflation in the big-bang model suggests that both deviations cannot be realized by Nature. The CMB axis of evil, if it exists, leads to the distinguished frame of reference in the Universe and is a sign of new cosmological phenomena. There are many ideas to explain the deviations in CMB. If we neglect the trivial explanation that the applied statistics is incomplete then there are two important ideas: that CMB is a local variation of an infinite universe or some characteristic features of finite/”small” universe. It was shown in 2003 (A. de Oliveira-Costa, M. Tegmark, M. Zaldarriaga, A. Hamilton) that “the simplest small universe model where the universe has toroidal topology with one small dimension of order half the horizon scale, in the direction towards Virgo, could explain three independent anomalies involving the quadrupole and octopole but the applied S-statistic and the circle test on the WMAP data show that we should rule out this model”. Here we present a solution that follows from the Scale-Symmetric Theory. Due to the phase transitions of inflation field (i.e. of the Higgs field), the expansion of the Universe (the “soft” big bang) was separated in time from the inflation (the big bang). The dark matter had initially toroidal topology with internal helicity and inside such 3-dimensional torus with central condensate there were two very thin (in cosmic scale) baryonic loops (the loops had left-handed internal helicity and antiparallel unitary spins). It leads to the CMB axis of evil. We solved a few other cosmological problems as well.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14126] **viXra:1605.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-03 03:54:15*

**Authors:** James Russell Farmer

**Comments:** 115 Pages. A precursor to this work, of the same title, was published in the Toth-Maatian Review, Lubbock, Texas, Editor Harold Willis Milnes, in three installments, 1990-93. Quantisation via use of Fourier transform common to both papers.

Einstein explained Planck’s law by hypothesizing that a radiation field consists of photons, whose energy is in proportion to the frequency of the radiation and whose quantity is in proportion to the electromagnetic intensity. In this paper, classical electrodynamics has been quantized in this fashion by starting with the Fourier transform frequency spectrum and using the non-relativistic Doppler shift formulae.
Because this paper presents a quantum theory, it has been necessary to introduce the electromagnetic duality. It has been considered that insofar as an electron is a quantum of electric charge, the positron is a quantum of magnetic charge. Then the anti-matter solution of Dirac’s and Feynman’s QED becomes a magnetic monopole. Instead of just four equations of electromagnetism, we are forced to consider eight equations, and explain the consequences of this.
We then conclude that photons consist of fermions, (electrons, positrons) travelling on pilot electromagnetic waves. Although photons are therefore electrically or magnetically charged, they do not interact with electromagnetic fields, as the Lorentz force is negated insofar as the electric and magnetic amplitudes are orthogonal to each other and to the propagation vector.
Insofar as there are two kinds of Doppler shift, relativistic and non-relativistic, we show how the relativistic formulae relate to our frequency spectrum.
Chemical and biological consequences of the theory are examined, specifically in regard to the Diels-Alder [4+ 2] cyclo-addition reaction, (Chemistry), and the cowpea phosphatase functionality, (Biology).
4-vectors are discussed, and two new 4-vectors introduced, and it is shown that an electromagnetic flux tube, as observed in solar flares and in terrestrial electromagnetic circuits, is a consequence of the existence of the space-time 4-vector.
Finally, the weak and strong nuclear forces are introduced as thermodynamic consequences of the electromagnetic duality presented in this paper, the transfer of enthalpy and entropy. In this respect, we have the unification of particle physics and thermodynamics.
A final point of note is that insofar as photons consist of electric and magnetic quanta propagating on “pilot” electromagnetic waves, the speed of propagation can be ascertained from two of the Maxwell and Maxwell-dual equations, the electric divergence equation and the magnetic divergence equation. This is because, obviously, if we know the radius of an electron or positron, and we know the spin of these fermions from quantum mechanics, then we know the propagation velocity, c = 1 / (ε0μ0)½, where 1/ε0 is the proportionality constant for the electric divergence and μ0 is the proportionality constant for the magnetic divergence. In the non-dual classical electromagnetism of Maxwell, all four of the non-dual equations are required to ascertain the speed of the electromagnetic propagation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[14125] **viXra:1605.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-03 08:10:28*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Five notes related with the number pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[14124] **viXra:1605.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-02 17:43:15*

**Authors:** Donald Bowen

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

When analyzing an Electron’s orbit’s and movements, a “classical” bare g-factor of “1” must be used, but when analyzing just the Electron itself, A bare g-factor and gyromagnetic ratio of twice the “classical” value is needed to fit reality. Nobody has yet explained this. By examining the electromagnetic nature of the electron it is possible to show a simple reason why it’s bare g-factor must be 2, without resorting to superluminal velocities or dismissing it as mystically intrinsic.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[14123] **viXra:1605.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-02 18:29:22*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

What to do when there is a lack of bonding between D-variants?

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[14122] **viXra:1605.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-03 01:13:07*

**Authors:** Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 180 Pages.

We approach several themes of classical geometry of the circle and complete them with some original results, showing that not everything in traditional math is revealed, and that it still has an open character. The topics were chosen according to authors aspiration and attraction, as a poet writes lyrics about spring according to his emotions.

**Category:** Geometry

[14121] **viXra:1605.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-03 01:14:32*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 151 Pages.

The purpose of this book is to show that the method of concatenation can be a powerful tool in
number theory and, in particular, in obtaining possible infinite sequences of primes.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[14120] **viXra:1605.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-03 01:16:32*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Ilanthenral K, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 257 Pages.

In this book authors for the first time define a special type of fixed points using MOD rectangular matrices as operators. In this case the special fixed points or limit cycles are pairs which
is arrived after a finite number of iterations. Such study is both new and innovative for it can find lots of applications in mathematical modeling.

**Category:** Algebra

[14119] **viXra:1605.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-03 01:17:45*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Ilanthenral K, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 202 Pages.

In this book authors for the first time introduce a special type of fixed points using MOD square matrix operators. These special type of fixed points are different from the usual classical
fixed points.

**Category:** Algebra

[14118] **viXra:1605.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-03 01:19:33*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache - Editor-in-Chief

**Comments:** 113 Pages.

“Neutrosophic Sets and Systems” has been created for publications on advanced studies in neutrosophy, neutrosophic set, neutrosophic logic, neutrosophic probability, neutrosophic statistics
that started in 1995 and their applications in any field, such as the neutrosophic structures developed in algebra, geometry, topology, etc.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[14117] **viXra:1605.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-02 12:04:46*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

An overview of gays in the military is given.

**Category:** Social Science

[14116] **viXra:1605.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-02 12:46:50*

**Authors:** Slim hannachi

**Comments:** 133 Pages. Cloud Computer

IAAS

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[14115] **viXra:1605.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-02 07:03:09*

**Authors:** Lei Guanji

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In recent years, many experiments prove that the speed of light is changing by the evolution of the universe , this paper tries to give some explanation.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[14114] **viXra:1605.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-02 07:29:37*

**Authors:** A.A.Salama, Mohamed Eisa, Hewayda ElGhawalby, A.E.Fawzy

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to present texture features for images embedded in the neutrosophic domain with Hesitancy degree. Hesitancy degree is the fourth component of Neutrosophic set. The goal is to extract a set of features to represent the content of each image in the training database to be used for the purpose of retrieving images from the database similar to the image under consideration.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[14113] **viXra:1605.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-02 08:41:10*

**Authors:** Stephen I. Ternyik

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The great economic growth paradox is unveiled, from a sustainable point of view.

**Category:** Social Science

[14112] **viXra:1605.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-02 04:38:44*

**Authors:** A.A.Salama, Mohamed Eisa, Hewayda ElGhawalby, A.E.Fawzy

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The goal of an Image Retrieval System is to retrieve images that are relevant to the user's request from a large image collection. In this paper we present texture features for images embedded in the neutrosophic domain. The aim is to extract a set of features to represent the content of each image in the training database to be used for the purpose of retrieving images from the database similar to the image under consideration.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[14111] **viXra:1605.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-02 05:34:51*

**Authors:** Yakov A. Iosilevskii

**Comments:** 34 Pages. An additional category is "Mathematics: Set Theory and Logic"

There are two presently common onamastic (onomatological) methods of logographically naming and thus concisely describing an algebraic system; both methods are often used simultaneously. According to one method, an algebraic system is equivocally denoted by an atomic logographic symbol that originally denotes a certain underlying set of elements, which is regarded as the principal one, while all other objects of the algebraic system, properly named, are kept in mind and are regarded as implicit properties of that set or of its separate elements. That is to say, according to this method, an algebraic system is its principal underlying set of elements together with all its properties, which are implied and are not mentioned explicitly. According to the other method, an algebraic system is regarded as an ordered multiple, whose coordinates properly denote the defining objects of the algebraic system, and consequently the ordered multiple name is equivocally used as a proper name of the algebraic system. Thus, in this case, the togetherness of all constituents of the algebraic system is expressed by the pertinent ordered multiple name in terms of its coordinate names. In my recent article available at http://viXra.org/abs/1604.0124¸ I have demonstrated that both above onomastic methods are inconsistent. Therefore, in that article and also in my earlier article appearing at http://arxiv.org/abs/1510.00328, I suggested and used another onomastic method of logographically naming the pertinent algebraic systems, namely that employing, as a name of an algebraic system, a complex logographic name the union of all explicit constituent sets of the system, namely, the underlying sets of elements, the surjective binary composition functions, and the bijective singulary inversion functions; a function is a set (class) of ordered pairs. In the present article, the latter onomastic method is substantiated and generalized in two respects. First, the set of explicit constituent sets of an algebraic system is now extended to include the injective choice, or selection, functions of all additive and multiplicative identity elements of the algebraic system, belonging to its underlying sets, so that all those elements are now mentioned by the logographic name of the system. A general definition of an algebraic system is elaborated in such a way so as to make the new onomastic method universally applicable to any algebraic system.

**Category:** Algebra

[14110] **viXra:1605.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-02 03:36:15*

**Authors:** Shiwani Dod

**Comments:** 6 Pages. SSRN Electronic Journal

Among all the minutia based fingerprint identification system, the performance depends on the quality of input fingerprint images. In this paper, we have designed and implemented an algorithm of fingerprint image enhancement by using Iterative Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT). We have designed an approach for removing the false minutia generated during the fingerprint processing and a method to reduce the false minutia to increase the efficacy of identification system. We have used fingerprint Verification Competition 2006 (FVC 2006) as a database for implementation of proposed algorithm. Experimental results show that the results of our enhancement algorithm are better than existing algorithm of fast Fourier transform.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[14109] **viXra:1605.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 22:04:42*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented ‘The Forecasting
Model’ to predict One Step Evolution of any Dynamic State System with Large
Number of Parameters.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[14108] **viXra:1605.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 10:14:30*

**Authors:** Reuven Tint

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Proposed short proof of the fallacy of the ABC assumption
conjecture on the finiteness of the number of "exceptional" triples for r = 2
( "Pythagorean" equation) and other equations, and provides a number of examples.

**Category:** Number Theory

[14107] **viXra:1605.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 10:16:44*

**Authors:** Reuven Tint

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The proof of the fallacy of the assumption of the ABC conjecture. Russian language.

**Category:** Number Theory

[14106] **viXra:1605.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 11:42:34*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The hypothesis of the pulsation principle leads a prime number and physical relations.
The horizon and the pulsation wave pattern of the figure of fusion include profound, enormous physical concepts.
The geometry of all things.
A figure of prime number, physical fusion.
I illustrate an uncertainty principle for the first time.
I solve the mystery of the double slit experiment.

**Category:** Number Theory

[14105] **viXra:1605.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 12:46:35*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 18 pages. « Oscillations temporelles du neutrino » is the French version of «Neutrino’s Temporal Oscillations» on viXra.org/abs/1605.0005

Nous conjecturons l’existence de neutrinos sans masse qui sont dans la ligne du modèle standard mais qui possèdent des fonctionnalités non représentées par le modèle standard : ils utilisent un chemin radial plus court que le photon et possèdent des saveurs bosoniques. Ils seraient considérés comme des bosons au lieu de fermions. Nous appelons cette théorie « oscillations temporelles du neutrino ». Confrontée à quelques comparaisons expérimentales – neutrinos solaires, neutrinos de SN1987A, neutrinos cosmologiques ̶ , la théorie donne de meilleurs résultats et des explications plus sensées que la théorie compliquée de l’oscillation du neutrino. L’expérience « OPERA » qui a mesuré la vitesse des neutrinos en 2011 a abouti à des données que ne peuvent expliquer les trois types de neutrinos existants. La physique des neutrinos semble malade. L’oscillation temporelle du neutrino, en montrant le raccourci que prennent des neutrinos sans masse dans l’espace-temps à trois dimensions spatiales que nous connaissons, représente dans le modèle standard une fenêtre ouverte sur une « nouvelle physique » qui a un rapport avec la réalité physique.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[14104] **viXra:1605.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 07:31:40*

**Authors:** Tsuneaki Takahashi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It may be hard to understand Lorentz transformation intuitively because it is derived inductively from the light speed constancy for every inertia systems. Specially the definition of space-axis (time zero line) is unclear although time-axis definition may be reasonable when the Lorentz transformation is recognized as a rotation of frame of reference on the Minkowski space. On such situation, Lorentz transformation may become understandable if the logic of space-axis definition become clear. And light speed constancy may not be an axiom, it should be what to be derived.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14103] **viXra:1605.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 08:11:02*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

We conjecture the existence of massless neutrinos that are in the line of standard model (unable to account for the neutrino mass) but have characteristics that are not accounted for by the standard model: they use a shorter radial path than the photon and possess bosonic flavors. Considered like bosons instead of fermions. We call this theory "neutrino’s temporal oscillations". Faced with some experimental comparisons ̶ solar neutrinos, neutrinos from SN1987A, cosmological neutrinos ̶ , the theory gives better results, explanations and sense than the complicated theory of neutrino oscillations (transformism). The "OPERA" experiment which measured the speed of neutrinos in 2011 resulted, after a "superluminal" saga, in data that the three existing types of neutrinos cannot explain, with the final outcome of a fourth "sterile" neutrino with non-standard interaction. Neutrino physics does not make sense. "Neutrino’s temporal oscillations" shows the short cut that massless neutrinos take in the three spatial dimensions of the space-time that we know. It represents within the Standard Model an open window on a "new physics" that has a connection with physical reality.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[14102] **viXra:1605.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 06:59:36*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 10 Pages. in Russian

A hypothesis of the Earth magnetism nature is presented and debated. \\ Предлагается и обсуждается гипотеза о природе Земного магнетизма.

**Category:** Geophysics

[14101] **viXra:1605.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 00:22:18*

**Authors:** Kohji Suzuki

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We provide answers to two questions raised in Math Problems (Twitter: @mathprobs). Pertinent codes are also included.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[14100] **viXra:1605.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 03:20:17*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 6 pages

We study the relation between the Kochen-Specker theorem (the KS theorem) and
quantum computing.
The KS theorem rules out a realistic theory of the KS type.
We consider the realistic theory of the KS type
that the results of
measurements are either $+1$ or $-1$.
We discuss
an
inconsistency
between the realistic theory of the KS type
and the controllability of quantum computing.
We have to give up the controllability
if we accept the realistic theory of the KS type.
We discuss
an
inconsistency
between the realistic theory of the KS type
and the observability of quantum computing.
We discuss
the
inconsistency by using the double-slit experiment
as the most basic experiment in quantum mechanics.
This experiment can be an easy detector to a Pauli observable.
We cannot accept
the realistic theory of the KS type to simulate the double-slit experiment
in a significant specific case.
The realistic theory of the KS type can not depicture quantum detector.
In short, we have to give up both the observability and the controllability
if we accept the realistic theory of the KS type.
Therefore the KS theorem is a precondition for quantum computing, i.e.,
the realistic theory of the KS type should be ruled out.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[14099] **viXra:1605.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 03:54:25*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Spanish

The General Relativity is a nonlinear theory, this allows the equation of motion of a particle can be deduced from the field equations. The method was developed in 1938 by Einstein, Infeld and Hoffmann. We present this theory clarifying all calculations and demonstrating the theorems involved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14098] **viXra:1604.0395 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-30 22:06:51*

**Authors:** LeiGuanji

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In recent years, many experiments prove that the speed of light is changing by the evolution of the universe , this paper tries to give some explanation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[14097] **viXra:1604.0394 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-30 15:52:02*

**Authors:** DT Froedge

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Interesting Additional Points

After attending the APS April 16-19 meeting, and having the opportunity to see and discussing some of the results with the authors, there were a few points pertinent to the above paper that should be made:

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14096] **viXra:1604.0393 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-30 17:16:08*

**Authors:** Jerry L. Decker

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Frame Dragging Predicted By Modified Polarizable Vacuum Theory

Frame dragging resulted from modifications of Polarizable Vacuum Theory that were done to bring high velocity terms into PV consistent with established science of energy and momentum at high speed.
It was found that velocity terms could not be brought into PV theory without formalism for exchange of kinetic energy with the vacuum space. Planck’s Law in general and Heisenberg Uncertainty in a specific case were used to develop a mechanism for continual exchange of kinetic energy with the local vacuum.
The mechanism calls for incurring equal exchange of energy with space when acceleration does not occur, and unequal exchange when a physical object is accelerating. Accumulating kinetic energy in space was found to polarize the vacuum in a way equivalent to the polarizing parameter K of Harold Puthoff.
Frame dragging results from the continual increase of vacuum stress energy trailing longitudinally and propagating transversely from an accelerating deep space vehicle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14095] **viXra:1604.0392 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-30 17:18:06*

**Authors:** István Aggott Hönsch

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

A terminological framework is proposed for the mathematical examination and analysis of the Mandelbrot set's correlative ectocopial set. The Apeiropolis and anthropobrot multisets are defined and explained to be the mathematical entities underlying the well-known Buddhabrot visualization.
The definitions are presented as tools conducive to finding novel approaches and generating discoveries that might otherwise be missed via a primarily programmatic approach.
The anthropobrot multisets are introduced as a new, infinite repository of unique pareidolic figures as richly diverse as the Julia sets.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[14094] **viXra:1604.0391 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-30 19:01:30*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

1) The function of the prime number, the wave pattern of the zeta function are equivalent with the friendship of the sin wave of the having many kinds, cos wave by Fourier transform.
2) There are a sin wave, a cos wave and the point of intersection (0 points) with the axis on an axis. The point of intersection that left the axis (straight line) does not exist.
3) The top of the pulsation wave pattern has deep relation to prime number, mass, quark, 0 points, ...
4) Circle that is a trace of the circular motion is a quantum-mechanical autocoupling operator, an L meat operator.
5) Circle to assume a prime number a radius is a trace of the tops of the material wave of the pulsation principle, and Japanese yen and the point of intersection with the axis are zero points.
(6) As for the product indication equation of the oiler, a radius is a circle of 1 integral multiple.
(7) As for the quantum mechanics, a radius is a circle of the integral multiples of "h".
(8) As for the mass of the quantum-mechanical mass, a radius is a circle of the integral multiples of "m".
9) Circle of the prime number, all the circular center have a radius on 1/2 line. (Lehman expectation)
10) The top (prime number, mass) of the pulsation wave pattern becomes the straight line by レッジェ trace graph.
11) As for the レッジェ trace graph, square of the mass becomes the straight line.
12) 1/2h is the important fixed number to often come up in a quantum-mechanical equation.
13) 1/2 of the Lehman expectation is the straight line that is the mystery that 0 points form a line of the infinite unit.
14) A sine wave by the Fourier transform, a cosine wave and the point of intersection of the 1/2 straight line are 0 points.
15) The eddy of the solution (material wave) of the Schrodinger equation is equivalent with circular motion.

**Category:** Number Theory

[14093] **viXra:1604.0390 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-30 19:19:34*

**Authors:** Ahmed El Demerdash - Hassan Sameh

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

“In the battle against cancer, which kills nearly 8 million people worldwide each year, doctors have in their arsenal myriads of powerful weapons, including various forms of Chemotherapy and Radiation. What they lack, however, is good reconnaissance — a reliable way to obtain realtime data about how well a particular therapy is working for any given patient. That’s why, a tiny biochemical sensor that is implanted in the cancerous tissue will be made; the sensor then wirelessly sends chemical measurements to an external “reader” device, allowing doctors to better monitor a patient’s progress and switch therapies accordingly. This device boosts treatments’ efficacy while reducing patients’ exposure to serious side effects. “
Design requirements are critical for the success of any project. And so, accuracy and cost are considered the main design requirements of our project. A simple prototype has been crafted in order to test the mechanism of our idea. Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and pH levels are measured, and a simulation has been made in order to mimic the environment of the tumor. In conclusion, our smart device offers an opportunity to accurately monitor the state of the cancerous tissues with a quite low cost.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[14092] **viXra:1604.0388 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-30 23:59:25*

**Authors:** LI WeiGang

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Traced in that linearly polarized light experiments require that the S-wave. That the only way to explain the phenomenon of linear polarization. However, if the above photon do that kind of understanding, then no single photon is linearly polarized! Coupled with appropriate phase two photons, the near-field vibration direction of the electric field was presented as some kind of linear polarization direction, can concerted direction by the analyzer polarizer.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[14091] **viXra:1604.0387 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-30 10:51:04*

**Authors:** Bernardo Sotomayor Valdivia

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This monograph was motivated by the following question posted by the author at the ResearchGate (RG) Website:
In the context of Special Relativity (SR): is it time dilation, clock frequency increase, both of the above or none of the above?
At the writing of this document there were over 520 RG postings related to the above question by many different scholars/researchers, both proponents and dissenters of Special Relativity. The discourse of the answers clearly shows in my opinion that most of the apparent incongruencies mentioned in the posts about Special Relativity were not necessarily because of its formulation, but because of the different interpretations that arise from the physical effects that the Lorentz Transformation (LT) predicts. This is not to say that SR has or has not problems as a theory but that its general acceptability is hampered by the many interpretational paradoxes that can be formulated because of its notoriously ambiguous concepts regarding time dilation and length contraction. Not surprisingly, the concepts of relativistic momentum and energy were not subject to scrutiny, I suspect because of their already accepted relative nature and their established relativistic relation to motion as empirically demonstrated in particle accelerators and the like.
Needless to say, most of the so called incongruencies that were posted dealt with time dilation, as to its meaning or as to whether it is real or apparent. As usual on RG posts, many of the answers were diametrically opposed.
In this monograph, I propose a comparative scenario of SR that is shown to be free of incongruencies or paradoxes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14090] **viXra:1604.0386 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-30 12:49:08*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

1) The function of the prime number, the wave pattern of the zeta function are equivalent with the friendship of the sin wave of the having many kinds, cos wave by Fourier transform.
2) There are a sin wave, a cos wave and the point of intersection (0 points) with the axis on an axis. The point of intersection that left the axis (straight line) does not exist.
3) The top of the pulsation wave pattern has deep relation to prime number, mass, quark, 0 points, ...
4) Circle that is a trace of the circular motion is a quantum-mechanical autocoupling operator, an L meat operator.
5) Circle to assume a prime number a radius is a trace of the tops of the material wave of the pulsation principle, and Japanese yen and the point of intersection with the axis are zero points.
(6) As for the product indication equation of the oiler, a radius is a circle of 1 integral multiple.
(7) As for the quantum mechanics, a radius is a circle of the integral multiples of "h".
(8) As for the mass of the quantum-mechanical mass, a radius is a circle of the integral multiples of "m".
9) Circle of the prime number, all the circular center have a radius on 1/2 line. (Lehman expectation)
10) The top (prime number, mass) of the pulsation wave pattern becomes the straight line by レッジェ trace graph.
11) As for the レッジェ trace graph, square of the mass becomes the straight line.
12) 1/2h is the important fixed number to often come up in a quantum-mechanical equation.
13) 1/2 of the Lehman expectation is the straight line that is the mystery that 0 points form a line of the infinite unit.
14) A sine wave by the Fourier transform, a cosine wave and the point of intersection of the 1/2 straight line are 0 points.
15) The eddy of the solution (material wave) of the Schrodinger equation is equivalent with circular motion.

**Category:** Number Theory

[14089] **viXra:1604.0385 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 16:13:27*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Wikipedia has planetary systems as mutually exclusive of star systems and multiple star systems. A simple correction (with options) is provided so that astronomy can be simplified for the 21st century in light of the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[14088] **viXra:1604.0384 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 21:50:35*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A new principle of science is presented to connect biology with astronomy.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[14087] **viXra:1604.0383 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 23:16:21*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented ‘Universal Forecasting Model - A Locally Parameter Element Wise Linear Transformations Based Forecasting Model For Dynamic State Systems With Large Number Of Parameters’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[14086] **viXra:1604.0382 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 23:55:14*

**Authors:** Vladimir Dzhunushaliev

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Small nonassociative corrections for the SUSY operators $Q_{a, \dot a}$ are considered. The smallness is controlled by the ratio of the Planck length and a characteristic length $\ell_0 = \Lambda^{-1/2}$. Corresponding corrections of the momentum operator arising from the anticommutator of the SUSY operators are considered. The momentum operator corrections are defined via the anticommutator of the unperturbed SUSY operators $Q_{a, \dot a}$
and nonassociative corrections $Q_{1, a, \dot a}$. Choosing different anticommutators, one can obtain either a modified or $q$ -- deformed commutator of position $x^\mu$ and momentum operators $P_\nu$.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[14085] **viXra:1604.0381 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-30 03:52:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A curious type of nonlocal phenomenon known as one-way quantum steering has been demonstrated experimentally for the first time by two independent groups of physicists. This phenomenon is similar to quantum entanglement but applies when one of the two parties sharing a quantum state does not trust the source of quantum particles. The researchers say their work could help to broaden applications of quantum cryptography. [12] Researchers at the Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, the University of Vienna, and the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona have achieved a new milestone in quantum physics: they were able to entangle three particles of light in a high-dimensional quantum property related to the 'twist' of their wavefront structure. The results from their experiment appear in the journal Nature Photonics. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[14084] **viXra:1604.0380 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 13:43:03*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is shown that infinite series of strictly positive numbers cannot converge to a positive number, unless the series has at most a countable number of terms.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[14083] **viXra:1604.0379 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 14:05:04*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

It might be said that the most difficult part of building a quantum computer is not figuring out how to make it compute, but rather finding a way to deal with all of the errors that it inevitably makes. Errors arise because of the constant interaction between the qubits and their environment, which can result in photon loss, which in turn causes the qubits to randomly flip to an incorrect state. [16]
Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15]
University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14]
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13]
One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12]
Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11]
Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10]
We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[14082] **viXra:1604.0378 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 15:41:48*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is presented a simple principle to explain stars as they evolve in star systems.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[14081] **viXra:1604.0377 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 06:24:59*

**Authors:** Moninder Singh Modgil

**Comments:** 12 Pages. This paper is part of a paper presented at, "Conference on Science of Consciousness, Tuscon, Arizona, USA, April 2016". The original paper is entitled - "REVEALING THE REAL SCIENCE OF CONSCIOUSNESS THROUGH A NOVEL DIVINE SACRED GEOMETRICAL STRUCTURE OF CO

Consciousness is projected as property of a particle termed - "The Conscious Spiritual-Energy Quanta (CSE Quanta)". This paper assumes a correspondence between the physical laws and meta-physical laws. Meta-Wave functions of CSE Quanta, meditative state, rapture, avtar, and creation and annhilation operators for CSE Quanta are proposed. Concept of Meta-Bose-Einstein condensation during meditation is presented. Fractal sub-structure of CSE Quanta and mechanism for storage of an infinite amount of information in it is proposed. This paper is part of a paper presented at, "Conference on Science of Consciousness, Tuscon, Arizona, USA, April 2016". The original paper is entitled - "REVEALING THE REAL SCIENCE OF CONSCIOUSNESS THROUGH A NOVEL DIVINE SACRED GEOMETRICAL STRUCTURE OF CONSCIOUS QUANTA".

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[14080] **viXra:1604.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 06:12:02*

**Authors:** Antonio Boccuto, Xenofon Dimitriou

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

We give necessary and sufficient
conditions for exchange of limits of
double-indexed families, taking values in sets
endowed with an abstract structure of convergence, and for preservation
of continuity or semicontinuity of the limit family, with respect to filter convergence.
As consequences, we give some filter
limit theorems and some characterization of
continuity and semicontinuity of
the limit of a pointwise convergent family of set functions.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[14079] **viXra:1604.0375 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 01:57:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Photonics applications rely greatly on what physicists call nonlinear optics-the different way in which materials behave depending on the intensity of light that passes through them. The greater the nonlinearity, the more promising the material for real-life applications. Now a team, led by Robert W. Boyd, Professor of Optics and Physics at the University of Rochester and the Canada Excellence Research Chair in Quantum Nonlinear Optics at the University of Ottawa, has demonstrated that the transparent, electrical conductor indium tin oxide can result in up to 100 times greater nonlinearity than other known materials. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[14078] **viXra:1604.0374 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 02:59:36*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The electromagnetic wave is shown to propagate in a charged capacitor with the mathematical description of this wave being a solution to the Maxwell equations. It is demonstrated that there is a stationary flow of electromagnetic energy in the charged capacitor, and the energy accumulated in the capacitor which is known as the potential electric energy, is the electromagnetic energy stored in the capacitor in the form of stationary flow.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[14077] **viXra:1604.0373 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 03:05:44*

**Authors:** Randolf Rolff

**Comments:** 12 pages; German language – Deutsch: Quantentheorie der 4-dimensionalen Materiewellen – Modell zur anschaulichen Erklärung quantentheoretischer Effekte

This paper describes a physical model to intuitively explain quantum theoretical effects. The developed model describes a mechanism, which gives a logical sense to the calculation of probability amplitudes. Hence the double-slit experiment and Schrödinger’s cat become understandable. The here described model is an extension of the physical model described in the prior manuscript “Theory of the 4-dimensional matter wave”. That paper describes a model which postulates a particle as a real matter wave in a 4-dimensional and absolute space. With that theory it is possible to describe the relativistic effects in qualitatively and quantitatively accuracy.
The quantum theory of the 4-dimensional matter wave shows that this model already presages a way to explain the quantum theoretical effects. From the introduction of the long extent in the 4th dimension it is not far to a model in which a particle uses many paths simultaneously. It is a conclusive derivation of the quantum theoretical effects using the model to describe the relativistic effects.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[14076] **viXra:1604.0372 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 03:42:03*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 15 Pages. 15

Function Follows Form in Quantum FFF Theory.
The rigid FORM and Microstructure of elementary particles (strings) , is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles.
As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing new paradigm Black Holes, seem to be able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy and even matter and explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, by so called Stellar Anchor Black Holes (SABHs), Herbig Haro Hotspots ( Bowshocks), down to Sunspots, Comets and even Ball Lightning.
Recent observation of a Cosmic Hotspot under the big dipper is reason to assume that this is the location of one of our solar Stellar Anchor Black Hole (the North-SABH), reason to search for the other one: south located. At the same time it is proposed that Galaxies also are supported by dual black hole systems being the former Big Bang splitted primordial black holes. Called Galaxy Anchor Black Holes ( GABHs)

**Category:** Astrophysics

[14075] **viXra:1604.0371 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-28 12:50:32*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A solution of the Maxwell equations for the electromagnetic wave in a spherical capacitor which is included in an alternating current circuit or in an constant current circuit is proposed. A hypothesis of the Earth magnetism nature is presented on the basis of this solution.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[14074] **viXra:1604.0370 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-28 11:49:13*

**Authors:** Mourici Shachter

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

centrifugal force explains General Relativity and the elavator equivalent principle in 4 pages

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14073] **viXra:1604.0369 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-28 08:05:07*

**Authors:** Claude Michael Cassano

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Homogeneous , Reduction of Order Homogeneous , and Inhomogeneous Second Order Linear Ordinary Differential Equations Solution may be established in one analytical proof-process.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[14072] **viXra:1604.0368 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-28 08:38:28*

**Authors:** Uyiosa Omoregie

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A country’s financial system facilitates economic growth by ensuring that funds are available when and where they are required. The provision of alternative financing windows available to operators in the real sector is dependent on the structure of the financial system is place. The Government can ensure (through polices put forward) that transparency and fairness is the norm in the financial sector, this will go a long way towards sustainable economic growth in Nigeria. The financial sector that creates sustainable economic growth must be resilient and strong, with institutional development as a priority, this sector must facilitate fund mobilization for the low-income people to increase and stabilize their income and assets. An investment-friendly interest rate regime (single digit) is a pre-requisite to economic growth in Nigeria, because it would encourage lower costs of borrowing and credit expansion. Tax incentives policies must be maintained to encourage large-scale investment in the economy.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[14071] **viXra:1604.0367 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-28 09:04:53*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we discover New Einstein’s gravity field equation. We treats New Einstein-Maxwell Equation. In this time, we can think Kaluza-Klein theory. We need 5 Dimension-New Kaluza-Klein theory that can express New Einstein-Maxwell Equation. Reissner-Nodstrom solution, Cosmology, etc in present Einstein gravity field equation are the same in new Einstein gravity field equation

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14070] **viXra:1604.0366 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-28 09:08:34*

**Authors:** Mai Ben-Adar Bessos, Simon Birnbach, Amir Herzberg, Ivan Martinovic

**Comments:** 1 Page. Technichal Report of the original paper E-bots vs. P-bots Cooperative Eavesdropping in (partial) Silence

We study the trade-off between the benefits obtained by communication, vs. the exposure of the location of the transmitter.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[14069] **viXra:1604.0365 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-28 04:05:01*

**Authors:** Chan Rasjid, Kah Chew

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Although many experiments have been cited as empirical verification of special relativity, they are not experiments that could not have
questions raised about their validity as proofs. There is one simple experiment that could be carried out to put to rest, incontrovertibly, the controversies concerning the validity of special relativity - by a direct measurement of the speed
of beta particles from beta decay. If special relativity is correct, no electrons would be found to go faster than light speed. If special relativity is invalid, then kinetic energy obeys the old 1 / 2 mv2 formula. Some beta particles could be ejected with kinetic energy greater than 1 MeV; such electrons would be detected to travel at about twice the speed of light. Though it is one of the simplest experiment that many laboratories over the world could perform,until now, the experiment has yet to be carried out.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6395] **viXra:1605.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-05 08:11:44*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Glenn A. Baxter, P.E.

Beta decay is involved in all radioactivity. Pair annihilation, pair production, fusion, and Beta decay, are shown to form all the elements on the periodic table as well as all particles and anti particles. Particles and anti particles reside, unseen, incorporated with neutrons in the nuclei of all elements.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[6394] **viXra:1605.0001 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-01 09:29:57*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Spanish

The General Relativity is a nonlinear theory, this allows the equation of motion of a particle can be deduced from the field equations. The method was developed in 1938 by Einstein, Infeld and Hoffmann. We present this theory clarifying all calculations and demonstrating the theorems involved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6393] **viXra:1604.0380 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-29 16:50:07*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is shown that infinite series of strictly positive numbers cannot converge to a positive number, unless the series has at most a countable number of terms.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[6392] **viXra:1604.0368 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-03 12:02:38*

**Authors:** Uyiosa Omoregie

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A country’s financial system facilitates economic growth by ensuring that funds are available when and where they are required. The provision of alternative financing windows available to operators in the real sector is dependent on the structure of the financial system is place. The Government can ensure (through polices put forward) that transparency and fairness is the norm in the financial sector, this will go a long way towards sustainable economic growth in Nigeria. The financial sector that creates sustainable economic growth must be resilient and strong, with institutional development as a priority, this sector must facilitate fund mobilization for the low-income people to increase and stabilize their income and assets. An investment-friendly interest rate regime (single digit) is a pre-requisite for economic growth in Nigeria, because it would encourage lower costs of borrowing and credit expansion. Tax incentives policies must be maintained to encourage large-scale investment in the economy.

**Category:** Economics and Finance