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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[29853] viXra:1906.0474 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 07:09:34

6

Authors: HaiYing Shen, BeiYuan Shen
Comments: 6 Pages.

Immigrant syndrome (or traveler syndrome) is a series of syndromes and disorders of the human body in response to the natural environmental changes when the immigrants or travelers migrate from their native homeland to another region. Based on the idea of improving the health status of immigrant groups and achieving the comprehensive healthcare of immigrants, this work for the first time reports the cause, disorders, epidemiology, management, prevention and healthcare of immigrant syndrome.
Category: Social Science

[29852] viXra:1906.0473 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 07:49:30

Refutation of Kripke Frames from Incompleteness of BAO’s with ◊⊥=⊥

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

Because Kripke frames require ◊⊥=⊥, not tautologous, they are refuted. What follows is BAOs so defined are also refuted (which we respectively demonstrate elsewhere), namely: Jónsson-Tarski, Lemmon-Scott; Fine-Thomason, van Benthem, Boolos-Sambin, and Lindenbaum-Tarski. These results also make the Blok dichotomy suspicious. Therefore these conjectures form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29851] viXra:1906.0472 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 08:20:39

Final Extra Credit Possibilities

Authors: Timothy W. Jones
Comments: 17 Pages.

The teaching of college algebra or algebra 2 has been influenced a little by calculators, but not nearly enough. Currently algebra texts do not really develop their topics with programming calculators or making spreadsheets. This \emph{article} gives some of the ways students could program calculators. The article is glossed as extra credit possibilities. But really it should be hard to suggest that students, loaded up with their i-phones and computers, should ever think to use pencil and paper to solve quadratics, for example; it is embarrassing to the teaching profession. This is the sense in which algebra pedagogy has not changed nearly enough over the years. Regression analysis and programming calculators to solve real problems should be paramount, not doing algebra the same way it was done fifty or more years ago.
Category: General Mathematics

[29850] viXra:1906.0471 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 08:24:58

Doing Functions Right in 1105

Authors: Timothy W. Jones
Comments: 8 Pages.

This powerpoint presentation gives a way to upgrade the treatment of functions in elementary algebra courses.
Category: General Mathematics

[29849] viXra:1906.0470 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 08:58:00

How to Bend Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

This kind of "branched flow" has first been observed in 2001. Scientists at TU Wien (Vienna) have now developed a method to exploit this effect. [38] A quantum squeezing and amplification technique has been used to measure the position of a trapped ion to subatomic precision. [37] A new theoretical model involves squeezing light to just the right amount to accurately transmit information using subatomic particles. [36] The standard approach to building a quantum computer with majoranas as building blocks is to convert them into qubits. However, a promising application of quantum computing-quantum chemistry-would require these qubits to be converted again into so-called fermions. [35] Scientists have shown how an optical chip can simulate the motion of atoms within molecules at the quantum level, which could lead to better ways of creating chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29848] viXra:1906.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 10:13:37

Individual Atoms Target

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

The technique is based on nuclear magnetic resonance, which takes advantage of the fact that certain atomic nuclei interact with a magnetic field. [39] This kind of "branched flow" has first been observed in 2001. Scientists at TU Wien (Vienna) have now developed a method to exploit this effect. [38] A quantum squeezing and amplification technique has been used to measure the position of a trapped ion to subatomic precision. [37] A new theoretical model involves squeezing light to just the right amount to accurately transmit information using subatomic particles. [36] The standard approach to building a quantum computer with majoranas as building blocks is to convert them into qubits. However, a promising application of quantum computing-quantum chemistry-would require these qubits to be converted again into so-called fermions. [35] Scientists have shown how an optical chip can simulate the motion of atoms within molecules at the quantum level, which could lead to better ways of creating chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29847] viXra:1906.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 10:38:02

The Physical Interpretation of Gravity Constants , Electron and Photons

Authors: Markos Georgallides
Comments: 121 Pages.

Article 81 is engaged with the Physical Interpretation of Gravity and Gravitational constants , the Origin of Hydrogen cave , Electron and Photon . The Analysis of Work which is Motion , or Energy is in priority .The Quantiation of Geometry and Energy results to the Material Geometry which was prior analyzed . A discussion on all referred Subjects follows with a mathematical analysis on every referred subject . A criticism is done on EPR Argument and is presented a current method to what is a Physical Quantity in cosmos .The Growth Golden ratio Pattern is analytically shown and also the How Electromagnetic issues and works everywhere in nature from the microcosm to the macrocosm
Category: Mathematical Physics

[29846] viXra:1906.0467 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 11:45:36

Research with Smartphone Cameras

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

Although smartphones and other consumer cameras are increasingly used for scientific applications, it's difficult to compare and combine data from different devices. [40] Advanced nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory have revealed surprising details about the structure of a key group of materials in nanotechology, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), and the placement of their active chemical sites. [39] With international collaboration, researchers at Aalto University have now developed a nanosized amplifier to help light signals propagate through microchips. [38] Physicists at the Kastler Brossel Laboratory in Paris have reached a milestone in the combination of cold atoms and nanophotonics. [37]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29845] viXra:1906.0466 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 11:49:57

Euler's Formula Motivated, Trigonometric Derivatives Eased Too

Authors: Timothy W. Jones
Comments: 4 Pages.

This article gives a way to quickly understand Euler's formula.
Category: General Mathematics

[29844] viXra:1906.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 12:22:08

Earth Velocity Proves "The Unit Definition Is Relative"

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 16 Pages.

This Paper tries To Prove The Following Hypothesis: Paper Hypothesis -The Solar Group is Created from One Energy. -This One Energy passes through the solar group – to create the planet diameter (matter) and orbital distance (Space)- So the Matter and Space are created from the same Energy to be complementary to each other -Because The Same Energy passes through the solar group – one thread- the similar values are seen in different units – and so – the different units are found for the same values because the energy is changed from one form to another –relative to the observer… so the energy is the same but the form is changed and that caused to change the used unit The Hypothesis Explanation -Imagine a light beam comes from the sun – it lights our room – and then – this same light beam moves inside a solar cell and produces some electric current – so where's the light beam? It lights the room AND produces the electric current…. The same energy (number) does 2 jobs – and be seen in 2 different units. (Note Please – the light beam energy –which lights our room – equal the energy which produces the eclectic current – 2 Equal Values but 2 different units)
Category: Astrophysics

[29843] viXra:1906.0464 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 16:36:17

On Negative Mass Solution to Gravitational Singularities

Authors: Manuel Urueña Palomo
Comments: 12 Pages.

An expected behaviour of spacetime and matter within a black hole is postulated regarding a model based on the mathematical indications of other well-known and empirically confirmed theories, without invalidating such theories when applied where they correspond, solving mathematical problems such as the gravitational singularity and the information paradox by considering a time transformation and the corresponding antigravitational negative mass.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29842] viXra:1906.0463 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 20:24:24

Finding The Hamiltonian

Authors: H. Tran
Comments: 12 Pages. Proof of the Riemann hypothesis

We first find a Hamiltonian H that has the Hurwitz zeta functions ζ(s,x) as eigenfunctions. Then we continue constructing an operator G that is self-adjoint, with appropriate boundary conditions. We will find that the ζ(s,x)-functions do not meet these boundary conditions, except for the ones where s is a nontrivial zero of the Riemann zeta, with the real part of s being greater than 1/2. Finally, we find that these exceptional functions cannot exist, proving the Riemann hypothesis, that all nontrivial zeros have real part equal to 1/2.
Category: Number Theory

[29841] viXra:1906.0461 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-25 00:19:05

Арифметизация комбинаторного соотношения перестановок

Authors: Анатолий Вайчунас
Comments: 3 Pages. in Russian

Традиционно перестановки выражаются соотношением сдвига-оборота или перерасположения; но возможна и арифметизация совыражений перестановок на основе соответствия сложения по определённому счислению.
Category: General Mathematics

[29840] viXra:1906.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-25 01:07:26

Trapping Light for Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Quantum computers, which use light particles (photons) instead of electrons to transmit and process data, hold the promise of a new era of research in which the time needed to realize lifesaving drugs and new technologies will be significantly shortened. [38] In the paper titled "Statistical Assertions for Validating Patterns and Finding Bugs in Quantum Programs," Huang and Margaret Martonosi, a professor of Computer Science at Princeton, identify three key difficulties in debugging quantum programs, and evaluate their solutions in addressing those difficulties. [37] Researchers at the University of Chicago published a novel technique for improving the reliability of quantum computers by accessing higher energy levels than traditionally considered. [36] An international team of researchers has taken an important step towards solving a difficult variation of this problem, using a statistical approach developed at the University of Freiburg. [35] Storing information in a quantum memory system is a difficult challenge, as the data is usually quickly lost. At TU Wien, ultra-long storage times have now been achieved using tiny diamonds. [34] Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29839] viXra:1906.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-25 03:38:30

Solution of the Central Problem of Fluid Turbulence

Authors: Rolf Warnemünde
Comments: 42 Pages. c 2019 CC BY-NC-ND

The theory consists of: I. a clear formulation of the turbulence problem by 1. definition of a fluid continuum, 2. definition of a turbulent fluid continuum, 3. derivation, that Navier-Stokes-like equations cannot describe a turbulent fluid continuum II. solution of the turbulence problem by establishing the link between the theory of deterministic fluctuating vector fields and stochastic vector fields in the sense of an ensemble theory as a counterpart: 1. derivation of a deterministic equation system of coupled vector vortex and curvature vector fields 2. derivation of a complete equation set for turbulent fluid movements The formulation of geometrodynamics of turbulence does not need an existent local thermodynamic equilibrium. In the case of fluid turbulence there is no requirement for establishing chaos theories.
Category: Classical Physics

[29838] viXra:1906.0457 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-25 05:23:16

Goldilocks Principle to DNA Structure

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Inspired by ideas from the physics of phase transitions and polymer physics, researchers in the Divisions of Physical and Biological Sciences at UC San Diego set out specifically to determine the organization of DNA inside the nucleus of a living cell. [19] Scientists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland are using neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to capture new information about DNA and RNA molecules and enable more accurate computer simulations of how they interact with everything from proteins to viruses. [18]
Category: Physics of Biology

[29837] viXra:1906.0456 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-23 09:18:35

Refutation of Formalization of Axiom of Choice and Equivalent Theorems Using the Coq Tool

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: Pages.

We evaluate two definitions for maximum and minimal set membership, for the nesting of sets, and the equivalence relations of axiom of choice, Tukey’s lemma, Hausdorff maximal principle, maximal principle, Zermelo’s postulate, Zorn’s lemma, well-ordering theorem. None is tautologous, refuting the claims. The authors conclude: “The whole process of formal proof demonstrates that the Coq-based machine proving of mathematics theorem is highly reliable and rigorous. The formal work of this paper is enough for most applications, especially in set theory, topology and algebra.” We refute those assertions based on the non-bivalent performance of the Coq proof assistant. Therefore, these formalizations and methodology render a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29836] viXra:1906.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-23 10:07:42

The Human Genetic Code and the I Ching's 64 Hexagrams

Authors: Deyi Wang
Comments: 27 Pages. translated from Chinese

Base Sequencing and Dui Gua Form By: Deyi Wang Summary: The alternation of bases composes the DNA chain. When this chain is deconstructed into units at the triplet level, we can see that this chain is actually connected in the form of dui gua, or “opposing hexagrams,” as dui means “opposing” and gua means “hexagram.” Since the 1980s’ discovery that the 64 hexagrams and the 64 codons correspond perfectly, the dui gua form of sequencing in DNA chains once again proves the intimate relationship between DNA and the 64 hexagrams, thereby setting the stage for further analysis of the sequencing of the four bases.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[29835] viXra:1906.0453 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-23 11:24:44

Surface Tension/ Viscosity = Wave Speed

Authors: David E. Fuller, Dahl Winters, Ruud Loeffen, Warren Giordano
Comments: 5 Pages.

Planck Units can be directly converted into Friedmann Units by way of Lorentz
Category: Quantum Physics

[29834] viXra:1906.0451 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-23 11:47:08

Design of a Domestic Defluoridizing Unit

Authors: Shaheda Parveen, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, Sireesha Malladi, K. Kiram Kumar
Comments: 11 Pages.

While trace amounts of fluorine are essential for life, its excessive intake leads to a disease known as fluorosis. It is a predominant ailment in majority of the countries inclusive of India. It is caused also by drinking fluoride containing water. Retention of fluorine in bones and teeth occurs through F−–(OH−) exchange on their inorganic component known as hydroxylapatite. Endeavour of the present study is to design a column using activated alumina as an adsorbent for continuous defluoridation ofwater for domestic purpose. As a part of it, operational defluoridation capacity of aluminawas determined by variation of different factors (amount of alumina, time, temperature, added salts). A family of four members was taken as a model. The initial and final fluoride concentrations were taken as 2.0 and 0.7 ppm, respectively. Dimension of the unit (adsorbent bed diameter and height) was determined.
Category: Chemistry

[29833] viXra:1906.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-23 11:48:48

Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Watermelon Waste for Ethanol Production

Authors: Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, C. G. Prakasa Rao, Satya Sree
Comments: 13 Pages.

As the world oil reserves are draining day by day, new resources of carbon and hydrogen must be investigated to supply our energy and industrial needs. An extensive amount of biomass is accessible in many parts of the world and could be utilized either directly or as crude material for the production of different fuels. The motivation behind the present research is to find an appropriate strain for the fermentation of watermelon waste to get ethanol. Saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of watermelon waste were carried out simultaneously in the presence of A. niger and S. cerevisiae (toddy origin and baker’s yeast). Toddy originated S. cerevisiae culture is found to be more active than that of baker’s yeast. For the ethanol production, the optimized conditions for different parameters like temperature, time, strain and pH are finalized.
Category: Chemistry

[29832] viXra:1906.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-23 11:51:30

A Glimpse on Tuberculosis and Scope of Inhalable Anti Tubercular Therapy

Authors: Vishnu Vardhan Reddy Beeram, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram
Comments: 20 Pages.

A glimpse on tuberculosis and scope of inhalable anti tubercular therapy
Category: Biochemistry

[29831] viXra:1906.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-23 12:06:00

Refutation of Free Choice Permission (FCP) in Deontic Logic

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

The formula for free choice permission (FCP) in deontic logic as P(p\/q)→(Pp/\Pq) (FCP) is not tautologous, not a paradox, and hence not applicable in Hilbert-style classical deontic logic as a guarded version. Therefore FCP forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29830] viXra:1906.0447 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-23 12:36:54

Study of (σ,τ)-Generalized Derivations with Their Composition of Semiprime Rings

Authors: Ajda Foˇsner, Mehsin Jabel Atteya
Comments: 24 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to study and investigate certain results concerning the (σ,τ)-generalized derivation D associated with the (σ,τ)-derivation d of semiprime and prime rings R, where σ and τ act as two automorphism mappings of R. We focus on the composition of (σ,τ)-generalized derivations of the Leibniz’s formula, where we introduce the general formula to compute the composition of the (σ,τ)-generalized derivation D of R.
Category: Algebra

[29829] viXra:1906.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-23 13:10:30

Fractal Organization of Nature: Metaphysical Realm; Intuitive Section

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 13 Pages.

For an organism that is divided into two sexes, nothing could be more natural than the concept of duality in Nature. We see many other natural forms of duality: the cycles of day and night, summer and winter, birth and death. The daily, seasonal, and lunar cycles have all been widely interpreted as analogs of the human cycle of life and death. For the intuitive, abstracting mind, it is but a small leap of faith to evolve in addition the duality of body-spirit, and all hominids we would care to classify as truly human have done so.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[29828] viXra:1906.0445 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-23 13:22:11

General Systems, Complex Systems

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 16 Pages.

General Systems, as I use the term, denotes a repeating pattern of natural organization - a fractal algorithm or ordering principle in the Cosmos. While not enforced with the same stringency as a natural law (such as energy conservation), the pattern-forming impulse is nevertheless all-pervasive in nature and seems to proceed from such fundamental principles as resonance and the pathway of least energy or least resistance. It is just simpler, more efficient, and takes less energy to create a universe using self-similar repeating patterns than following any other plan. The "Tetrahedron Model" of cosmic order presents a General System based on a 4x3 universal fractal algorithm.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[29827] viXra:1906.0444 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-23 15:57:47

Stellar Metamorphosis: Differential Rotation in Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Differential rotation is when a portion of a star rotates faster than another. With young stars like the Sun, this is more pronounced, with the equatorial angular velocity being higher than the polar angular velocity. The angular velocity remains differential between the poles and equator when the star is young, and then equalizes as the star evolves. This means the oldest stars will not have differential rotation (as well as no global magnetic activity), and the youngest will have the most pronounced. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[29826] viXra:1906.0443 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-23 16:51:38

Discrete Motives for Moonshine

Authors: M. D. Sheppeard
Comments: 21 Pages.

From the holographic perspective in quantum gravity, topological field theories like Chern-Simons are more than toy models for computation. An algebraic construction of the CFT associated to Witten's j invariant for 2+1 dimensional gravity aims to compute coefficients of modular forms from the combinatorics of quantum logic, dictated by axioms in higher dimensional categories, with heavy use of the golden ratio. This paper is self contained, including introductory material on lattices, and aims to show how the Monster group and its infinite module arise when the automorphisms of the Leech lattice are extended by special point sets in higher dimensions, notably the 72 dimensional lattice of Nebe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[29825] viXra:1906.0442 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-23 20:18:18

Отбор аддитивных арифметических соответствий

Authors: Анатолий Вайчунас
Comments: 6 Pages. in Russian

Сколько ни было неудач, но формализация математики, начиная с арифметики, начиная в ней с соответствия сложения и его выражений, когда-то должна была состояться. Это лишь ознакомительный обзор, но тому, кому доступно понимание формализации, этого достаточно для собственного осмысления, наконец-то пришедших к вам, возможностей.
Category: General Mathematics

[29824] viXra:1906.0441 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 00:22:43

The Conception of Time

Authors: Stephen H. Jarvis
Comments: 21 Pages.

In this paper, a follow-on from papers 1-9 [1-9], the idea of consciousness as a feature of the process itself of scientific inquiry shall come to attention; here, as per the previous papers and in alliance with contemporary notions of the idea of consciousness and time, the idea of “consciousness” shall be presented as the ideal “fixed” frame of reference with time, going a step beyond the concept both Descartes and Einstein assumed in their works as a requirement of scientific theory genesis for the ideas of time and space, and above all “our required ability to exercise certain conscious functions to fully utilise the associated theory of time and space”. Ultimately, this proposed model of consciousness shall be demonstrated to not only abide with contemporary models of consciousness and thought, yet take those ideas a step ahead, as much as the new theory for time and space presented here as the golden ratio algorithm for time is being considered as a step ahead of contemporary ideas in physics. The aim here is not to change the impetus of our thinking, our philosophizing, or our world-view, yet to assess how a new theory of time and space aligns with a new ability, a new exercise of our conscious ability, to achieve that ability, to theorize time and space anew, as a step ahead of what has been previously thought possible in defining not just time, yet that tagged reference to time as consciousness.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[29823] viXra:1906.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 00:38:21

A New Unified Electro-Gravity Theory for the Electron

Authors: Nirod K. Das
Comments: 11 Pages.

A rigorous model for an electron is presented by generalizing the Coulomb's Law or Gauss's Law of electrostatics, using a unified theory of electricity and gravity. The permittivity of the free-space is allowed to be variable, dependent on the energy density associated with the electric field at a given location, employing generalized concepts of gravity and mass/energy density. The electric field becomes a non-linear function of the source charge, where concept of the energy density needs to be properly defined. Stable solutions are derived for a spherically symmetric, surface-charge distribution of an elementary charge. This is implemented by assuming that the gravitational field and its equivalent permittivity function is proportional to the energy density, as a simple first-order approximation, with the constant of proportionality referred to as the Unifield Electro-Gravity (UEG) constant. The stable solution with the lowest mass/energy is assumed to represent a ``static'' electron without any spin. Further, assuming that the mass/energy of a static electron is half of the total mass/energy of an electron including its spin contribution, the required UEG constant is estimated. More fundamentally, the lowest stable mass of a static elementary charged particle, its associated classical radius, and the UEG constant are related to each other by a dimensionless constant, independent of any specific value of the charge or mass of the particle. This dimensionless constant is numerologically suspected to be closely related to the the fine structure constant. This finding may carry greater fundamental significance, with scope of the UEG theory covering other elementary particles in the standard model of particle physics.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[29822] viXra:1906.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 01:03:31

A Generalized Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) Model Applicable to All Elementary Particles

Authors: Nirod K. Das
Comments: 18 Pages.

The Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) theory, originally developed to model an electron, is generalized to model a variety of composite charged as well as neutral particles, which may constitute all known elementary particles of particle physics. A direct extension of the UEG theory for the electron is possible by modifying the functional dependence between the electro-gravitational field and the energy density, which would lead to a general class of basic charged particles carrying different levels of mass/energy, with the electron mass at the lowest level. The basic theory may also be extended to model simple composite neutral particles, consisting of two layers of surface charges of equal magnitudes but opposite signs. The model may be similarly generalized to synthesize more complex structures of composite charged or neutral particles, consisting of increasing levels of charged layers. Depending upon its specific basic or composite structure, a particle could be highly stable like an electron or a proton, or relatively unstable in different degrees, which may be identified with other known particles of the standard model of particle physics. The generalized UEG model may provide a new unified paradigm for particle physics, as a substitute for the standard model currently used, making the weak and strong forces of the standard model redundant.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[29821] viXra:1906.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 01:13:56

Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) Theory and Quantum Electrodynamics

Authors: Nirod K. Das
Comments: 13 Pages.

The Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) theory, originally developed to model a stable static charge, is extended to a spinning charge using a ``quasi-static'' UEG model. The results from the new theory, evaluated in comparison with concepts and parameters from basic quantum mechanics (QM) and quantum electrodynamics (QED), show that the QM and the QED trace their fundamental origins to the UEG theory. The fine structure constant and the electron g-factor, which are key QED parameters, can be directly related to the proportionality constant (referred to as the UEG constant) used in the UEG theory. A QM wave function is shown to be equivalent to a space-time ripple in the permittivity function of the free space, produced by the UEG fields surrounding a spinning charge, and the basic QM relationships between energy and frequency naturally emerge from the UEG model. Further extension and generalization of the theory may also explain all other quantum mechanical concepts including particle-wave duality, frequency shift in electrodynamic scattering, and charge quantization, leading to full unification of the electromagnetics and gravity with the quantum mechanics.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[29820] viXra:1906.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 03:32:58

The Pioneers of Biodynamics in USA: The Early Milestones of Organic Agriculture in the United States

Authors: John Paull
Comments: 6 Pages.

Biodynamics has played a key role in environmental and sustainable development. Rudolf Steiner founded the Experimental Circle of Anthroposophic Farmers and Gardeners at Koberwitz (now Kobierzyce, Poland) in 1924. The task for the Experimental Circle was to test Steiner’s ‘hints’ for a new and sustainable agriculture, to find out what works, and to publish and tell the world. Ehrenfried published his book Bio-Dynamic Farming and Gardening in New York in 1938, fulfilling Steiner’s directive. In the interval, 1924-1938, 39 individual Americans joined the Experimental Circle. They were the pioneers of biodynamics and organics in USA, and finally their names and locations are revealed. Of the 39 members, three received copies of the Agriculture Course in both German and English, while other copies were shared (n=6). Of the 35 Agriculture Courses supplied to American Experimental Circle Members, over half were numbered copies of the German edition (n=20), and the rest were the English edition (n=15). A majority of members were women (n=20), along with men (n=17), and undetermined (n=2). Members were from 11 states: New York (n=18), New Jersey (n=5), Ohio (n=4), Hawaii (n=3), Connecticut (n=2), Missouri (n=2), California (n=1), Florida (n=1), Maine (n=1), Maryland (n=1), and Pennsylvania (n=1). The revelation of the earliest pioneers of biodynamics, and thus organics, in USA provides 39 starting points for further research that their stories and achievements may be told.
Category: Social Science

[29819] viXra:1906.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 03:42:06

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) as Invasive Species

Authors: John Paull
Comments: 7 Pages. CC-BY-4

This paper frames genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as invasive species. This offers a way of considering the reception, diffusion and management of GMOs in the foodscape. “An invasive non-native species is any non-native animal or plant that has the ability to spread causing damage to the environment, the economy, our health and the way we live” (NNSS, 2017). Without any social licence, pesticide companies have thrust GMOs into the foodscape. The release of GMOs has generally been unwelcome, there has been no ‘pull’ factor from consumers and there has been vocal resistance from many. The apologists for GMOs have argued the self-contradictory conceit that GMOs are ‘same but different’. Under this logically untenable stance, GMOs are to be excluded from specific regulation because they are the ‘same’ as existing organisms, while simultaneously they are ‘different’ and so open to patenting. GMOs are patented and this demonstrates that, prima facie, these are novel organisms which are non-native to the foodscape. GMO apologists have campaigned intensively, and successfully in USA, to ensure that consumers are kept in the dark and that GMOs remain unlabelled - as a consequence GMOs are ubiquitous in US consumer foods. In contrast, in Australia GMOs are required to be labelled if present in consumer products and, in consequence, Australian food manufacturers do not use them. The release of a GMO calls for biosecurity measures. After trial plots of Monsanto GM canola in Tasmania in the 1990s, the sites continue to be biosecurity monitored for GMO escape, and volunteer canola plants continue to appear two decades later. In Western Australia the escape of GMO canola into a neighbouring organic farm resulted in the loss of organic certification and the monetary loss of the organic premium for produce. GMO produce sells for a 10% discount because of market forces and the consumer aversion to GMOs. Where non- GM product is accidentally contaminated with some GM grain, the whole batch is discounted and is sold as GMO. There is a lack of evidence that GMOs can be contained and many jurisdictions have banned the introduction of GMOs. GMOs have the potential and the propensity to contaminate non-GMO crops and thereby devalue them. The evidence is that GMOs are invasive species, they are unwelcome by consumers, peaceful coexistence with non-GM varieties is a fiction, and GMOs are appropriately managed as a biosecurity issue.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[29818] viXra:1906.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 04:16:00

A Molecular Structure of an Atomic Nucleus

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this work we extend our work on a quantum dynamics of beta decay to show that an atomic nucleus can be described as a molecule which is supposed to be formed by bonding atoms as described in molecular physics. However, there is only one type of atom in our formulation and that atom is the neutron which has been shown to possess the physical structure of a dwarf hydrogen-like atom under the influence of a generalised Yukawa MGESCP potential rather than the Coulomb potential as in the case of the normal hydrogen atom. We construct Schrödinger wave equation to describe the deuteron as a molecular ion which has similar physical structure to the molecular ion of the hydrogen molecule. We also construct Schrödinger wave equation to describe the deuterium and obtain the corresponding energy spectrum, by showing that the deuterium has a similar physical structure to that of a helium atom. As a further discussion, we suggest possible structures for nuclei with high numbers of protons and neutrons and show that these nuclei may form narrow lattices therefore they could fold to form three-dimensional spherical structures by layers of shells by bonding similar to hydrogen bonding.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[29817] viXra:1906.0434 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 04:49:03

Quantum Detection Diseases

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

But one lesser-known field is also starting to reap the benefits of the quantum realm-medicine. [38] A quantum squeezing and amplification technique has been used to measure the position of a trapped ion to subatomic precision. [37] A new theoretical model involves squeezing light to just the right amount to accurately transmit information using subatomic particles. [36] The standard approach to building a quantum computer with majoranas as building blocks is to convert them into qubits. However, a promising application of quantum computing-quantum chemistry-would require these qubits to be converted again into so-called fermions. [35] Scientists have shown how an optical chip can simulate the motion of atoms within molecules at the quantum level, which could lead to better ways of creating chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29816] viXra:1906.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 05:00:48

Evidential Distance Measure in Complex Belief Function Theory

Authors: Fuyuan Xiao
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper, an evidential distance measure is proposed which can measure the difference or dissimilarity between complex basic belief assignments (CBBAs), in which the CBBAs are composed of complex numbers. When the CBBAs are degenerated from complex numbers to real numbers, the proposed distance will degrade into the Jousselme et al.’s distance. Therefore, the proposed distance provides a promising way to measure the differences between evidences in a more general framework of complex plane space.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[29815] viXra:1906.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-22 08:22:30

Can the Collatz Conjecture be Proven

Authors: James Edwin Rock
Comments: 6 Pages.

We look at items that appear to be essential elements in a proof of the Collatz Conjecture. Details are available in the Collatz Conjecture Proof. http://vixra.org/pdf/1901.0227v9.pdf
Category: Number Theory

[29814] viXra:1906.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-22 08:25:32

Topology in Symmetry-Broken Phase

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Current research in condensed matter physics aims to understand how symmetry breaking and symmetry protection compete, in particular in the presence of interactions. [29] A fraction of a second after the Big Bang, a single unified force may have shattered. Scientists from the CDF and DZero Collaborations used data from the Fermilab Tevatron Collider to re-create the early universe conditions. [28] Now researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI have helped to better understand the first minutes of the universe: They collected artificially produced beryllium-7 and made it into a sample that could be investigated. [27]
Category: Condensed Matter

[29813] viXra:1906.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-22 08:36:57

Понятие основного математического предмета

Authors: Анатолий Вайчунас
Comments: 2 Pages. in Russian

Математические предметы полагаются до того невообразимо разнообразными, что некоторым математикам стыдно начинать свою теорию с примитивного понятия математической точки: вот вам элемент множества – мыслите настолько, насколько у вас развито математическое воображение… А мы, вот, начинаем с понятия точки.
Category: General Mathematics

[29812] viXra:1906.0428 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-22 10:14:31

Quantum Squeezing and Amplification

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

A quantum squeezing and amplification technique has been used to measure the position of a trapped ion to subatomic precision. [37] A new theoretical model involves squeezing light to just the right amount to accurately transmit information using subatomic particles. [36] The standard approach to building a quantum computer with majoranas as building blocks is to convert them into qubits. However, a promising application of quantum computing-quantum chemistry-would require these qubits to be converted again into so-called fermions. [35] Scientists have shown how an optical chip can simulate the motion of atoms within molecules at the quantum level, which could lead to better ways of creating chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29811] viXra:1906.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-22 12:22:25

Higher-Dimensional Relativity and the Wavefunction

Authors: Philip J. Carter
Comments: 18 Pages.

We approach the Nature and Ontology of Spacetime by considering the properties of the wavefunction. On the basis of observed retrocausal effects and consequent time-symmetric approaches to QM we conclude that the wavefunction is extended in time as well as in space, and hence is minimally a 4-dimensional entity occupying a 4-space resembling the Block Universe. On this basis we erect a higher-dimensional spacetime framework accounting for nonlocality and retrocausality while providing insight into the origins of time, space, mass and inertia. We elucidate relativistic mass and derive the mass transformation equation according to Special Relativity from quantum mechanical and relativistic principles. The framework is shown to provide a spatial context for Kaluza’s 5D Einstein-Maxwell theory and the internal symmetries of the Standard Model.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29810] viXra:1906.0426 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-22 12:54:14

Goldbach Conjecture

Authors: Xuan Zhong Ni
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this article, we use method of a modified sieve of Eratosthenes to prove that any large even numbers can always be expressed as sums of two prime numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[29809] viXra:1906.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-22 13:02:21

A Possible Sign of Critical Transition

Authors: Dhrubajyoti Mandal
Comments: 3 Pages.

Forecast of critical transitions in a dynamical system is one of the most important research problems in recent time. In this short communication, we discuss a possible novel sign of critical transitions in nonlinear systems. We have shown that the higher order terms of the Taylor series play an important role in determining critical transitions in a system. Moreover, we explain our approach using the Logistic map.
Category: Physics of Biology

[29808] viXra:1906.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-22 15:55:33

Cousin Prime Conjecture

Authors: Xuan Zhong Ni
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this article, we use method of a modified sieve of Eratosthenes to prove the cousin prime conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[29807] viXra:1906.0423 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-22 16:50:25

Irrationality

Authors: Israel Meireles Chrisostomo
Comments: 2 Pages.

Mostre que o seno de um arco na forma 1/p, com p inteiro, resulta em um irracional. Observe que
Category: Number Theory

[29806] viXra:1906.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-22 20:43:47

Irrationality and pi

Authors: Israel Meireles Chrisostomo
Comments: 2 Pages.

Title, authors and abstract should also be included in the PdF file. These should be in English. If the submission is not in English please translate the title and abstract here.
Category: Number Theory

[29805] viXra:1906.0421 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-22 20:58:02

Prime Gap near a Primorial Number

Authors: Xuan Zhong Ni
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this article, we use method of sieve of Eratosthenes to prove that there is a larger prime gap near any primorial number.
Category: Number Theory

[29804] viXra:1906.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-22 21:11:07

Irrationality and pi Other Transformation

Authors: Israel Meireles Chrisostomo
Comments: 2 Pages. irrationality and pi other transformation

irrationality and pi other transformationirrationality and pi other transformationirrationality and pi other transformationirrationality and pi other transformation
Category: Number Theory

[29803] viXra:1906.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-22 22:15:12

Infinite Number of Lucas Primes

Authors: Pedro Hugo García Peláez
Comments: 3 Pages.

What I try to prove is that there are infinite number of Lucas primes
Category: Number Theory

[29802] viXra:1906.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-23 05:01:48

Algorithms Developed for Two Porotypes of Airborne Vision-Based Control of Ground Robots

Authors: Ilan Ehrenfeld, Oleg Kupervasser, Hennadii Kutomanov, Vitalii Sarychev, Roman Yavich
Comments: 6 Pages. accepted to 9th Int. Conf. on Geotechnique, Construction Materials and Environment, Tokyo, Japan, 2019

Unmanned autonomous robots will be widely used very soon for land use, treatment, and monitoring. Our and the other groups already described technologies, that can be used for such robots (Kupervasser et al., International Journal of GEOMATE, May, 2018 Vol.14, Issue 45, pp.10-16; Djaja et al., International Journal of GEOMATE, Aug, 2017, Vol.13, Issue 36, pp.31-34). We continue developing these technologies and present here new patented technology of airborne vision-based control of ground robots. The main idea is that robot’s “eyes” is not located on robot, but are independent autonomous system. As a result, the “eyes” can go up and observe the robot from above. We present in this paper algorithms used for two real physical prototypes of a such system
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[29801] viXra:1906.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-23 05:10:07

A Positivity-Based Approach to Delay-Dependent Stability of Systems of Second Order Equations

Authors: 3.Alexander Domoshnitsky, Oleg Kupervasser, Hennadii Kutomanov
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper, new explicit tests for exponential stability of systems of second order equations are proposed. Our approach is based on nonoscillation of solutions of the corresponding diagonal scalar second order delay differential equations.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[29800] viXra:1906.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 07:14:47

Machine Learning Quantum Physics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

A Cornell-led team has developed a way to use machine learning to analyze the data generated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM)-a technique that produces subatomic scale images of electronic motions in material surfaces at varying energies, providing information unattainable by any other method. [25] Physicists in the US have used machine learning to determine the phase diagram of a system of 12 idealized quantum particles to a higher precision than ever before. [24] The research group took advantage of a system at SLAC's Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) that combines machine learning-a form of artificial intelligence where computer algorithms glean knowledge from enormous amounts of data-with experiments that quickly make and screen hundreds of sample materials at a time. [23] Researchers at the UCLA Samueli School of Engineering have demonstrated that deep learning, a powerful form of artificial intelligence, can discern and enhance microscopic details in photos taken by smartphones. [22] Such are the big questions behind one of the new projects underway at the MIT-IBM Watson AI Laboratory, a collaboration for research on the frontiers of artificial intelligence. [21]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[29799] viXra:1906.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 07:35:00

Absolutely Secure Quantum Communications

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

The experiment has managed to prepare a remote quantum state; i.e., absolutely secure communication was established with another, physically separated quantum computer for the first time in the microwave regime. [16] Quantum physics has led to new types of sensors, secure data transmission methods and researchers are working toward computers. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29798] viXra:1906.0412 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 08:05:11

Semiconductor Laser on Silicon

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Electrical engineering researchers have boosted the operating temperature of a promising new semiconductor laser on silicon substrate, moving it one step closer to possible commercial application. [23] The high resolution and wealth of data provided by an experiment at Diamond can lead to unexpected discoveries. [22] Researchers at The Ohio State University have discovered how to control heat with a magnetic field. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon-the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy-in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29797] viXra:1906.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 08:23:06

Neurostimulation Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Purdue University researchers have come up with a solution to help—they are adding a graphene monolayer to the devices to protect the microelectrodes. [23] Researchers at the University of Twente have designed a tiny needle in which micro-channels can be used for extracting small liquid samples from a local area of the brain. [22] The ability to grow large protein crystals is the single biggest bottleneck that limits the use of neutron protein crystallography in structural biology. [21] The conclusion that proteins have a terrible conductance tallies well with their general physical characteristics – they lack both electronic conduction bands and high levels of structural order. [20]
Category: Physics of Biology

[29796] viXra:1906.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 09:36:32

Living Room in Stead of Green House Model

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk
Comments: 31 Pages. This report replaces all six previous articles about the climate problem, published in viXra, by presenting them together in a coherent way. Three articles have been simplified significantly, without violating the results.

By presenting the relevant, in relation to the climate problem, measured variables as exponential functions, truthfully representing the real values, surprising informative mutual relations show up. One of these relations led to the successful investigation of the possibility that the global temperature raise can not be caused by indirect heating, prescribed by the Green House model, but is caused by direct heating, prescribed by the here named Living Room model. It is of fundamental importance to realize that sun, wind and earth energy that is transformed to energy, intended to be consumed by mankind, also directly heats the atmosphere. The final outcome therefor is that aiming for reduced CO2 emissions will not result in any improvement of the climate. Only a drastically reduction of the consumed energy, of whichever kind, will help.
Category: Climate Research

[29795] viXra:1906.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 11:57:48

Laser Organic Synthesis

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

I hypothesize that organic synthesis is possible using a universal automatic machine
Category: Chemistry

[29794] viXra:1906.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 13:40:49

Can Pi, i, and e Generate the Real Numbers

Authors: James Edwin Rock
Comments: 1 Page.

We show that attempting to map the set of real numbers to the natural numbers by listing them as infinite decimal fractions is futile. The real numbers are represented as the limit of partial decimal sums. This allows them to be explicitly referenced and makes them into a countable set. We conjecture that the Pi, i, and e generate the Real Numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[29793] viXra:1906.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 16:58:05

Visualizing the Distributions and Isosurfaces of Some Standard and Non-Standard Quaternion Fractal Sets

Authors: Shawn Halayka
Comments: 16 Pages.

The length, displacement, and magnitude distributions and isosurfaces related to the trajectories of the points in a quaternion fractal set are visualized.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29792] viXra:1906.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 18:25:03

Effect of Different Polarity Solvents on Total Phenols and Flavonoids Content, and in-Vitro Antioxidant Properties of Flowers Extract from Aurea Helianthus

Authors: Hyon-il Ri1, Un-hak Pak1, Jong-hyok Yang1, Kwen-il Son1, Yu-il Kim1, Kyong-chol Son1, Chol-jin Ri1, Myong-su Kang2, Tae-mun Kim2
Comments: 7 Pages.

The total phenols and flavonoids content of different polar solvent extracts from Aurea Helianthus flowers, and their antioxidant activity were determined. The ethanol extract of Aurea Helianthus flowers were suspended in water and fractionated using different polar solvents; hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. The parameters of each extract mentioned above were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR) method, AlCl3 colorimetry method, Ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay, total antioxidant activity (TAA) assay and DPPH radical scavenging assay. The highest total phenols content (516.21 mg GAE/g) and flavonoids content (326.06 mg QCE /g)were obtained in ethyl acetate extract, the correlation between TPC and TFC assay was found to be 0.967. All polar solvent extracts of Aurea Helianthus flowers showed significant antioxidant effects, the highest inhibition was obtained in ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts and the lowest inhibition in the water extract. There is a good correlation of total phenols and flavonoids content with antioxidant activity. This work indicated that the polar solvent extracts of Aurea Helianthus flowers contain high phenols and flavonoids content, and exhibited antioxidant activities in vitro, therefore, could be candidates for use as natural antioxidant.
Category: Biochemistry

[29791] viXra:1906.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 18:36:27

Complex Nonlinear Fourier Optics: Nonlinear Singularities of Surface Second Harmonic and Bulk Third Harmonic Generation and Their Interface by Noncentrosymmetric and Centrosymmetric Media – New Solution of Mixed Nonlinear Optical Equation High Order

Authors: Peter Krampl
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper, we show a formulation of the nonlinear spectrum that predicts the real behavior of multiphoton matter (Centro Z.S. and noncentrosymmetric N.Z.S) interaction for the extremely nonlinear regime. In addition, it will be shown how this multiple nonlinear optical equation can be combined to describe the nonlinear dynamics in the time and Fourier domain for high harmonics of even and odd order and their interfaces. In addition to surfaces SHG and the bulk material with BULK THG, their interface will be investigated with their respective real damping behavior. With these expressions can be optical response tensors such as the nonlinear dispersion accurately predict.
Category: Condensed Matter

[29790] viXra:1906.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 19:17:33

Via Geometric Algebra: Direction and Distance Between Two Points on a Spherical Earth

Authors: James A. Smith
Comments: 17 Pages.

As a high-school-level example of solving a problem via Geometric (Clifford) Algebra, we show how to calculate the distance and direction between two points on Earth, given the locations' latitudes and longitudes. We validate the results by comparing them to those obtained from online calculators. This example invites a discussion of the benefits of teaching spherical trigonometry (the usual way of solving such problems) at the high-school level versus teaching how to use Geometric Algebra for the same purpose.
Category: Geometry

[29789] viXra:1906.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 20:54:02

Какой быть математике?

Authors: Анатолий Вайчунас
Comments: 2 Pages. in Russian

С некоторых пор математика обросла вызывающим разочарование, а ведь посылом было придание ей улучшающего её во всём, а ведь побуждением было некое современное просветление математического ума. Это и есть продолжение той математики, которая нас по-прежнему восхищает? Реплика.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[29788] viXra:1906.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 01:17:46

Machine Learning Features for Malicious URL Filtering- The Survey

Authors: Smaranya Dey, Eshan Jain, Arunita Das
Comments: 8 Pages.

Malicious URL is the URL created for harmful purposes which contains spam, phishing, misleading applications like fake antiviruses or fake codecs. The use of this kind of URLs might lead to monetary loss, theft of sensitive information such as personal details or corporate data, disruption of operations, unauthorized access to system resources etc. Often these websites are built to look like a genuine website to deceive the users in installing malicious content in their systems. As per NetCraft January 2018 web server survey, there are 1.8 billion sites across 213 million unique domain names. According to Symantec Internet Security Threat Report 2018, 1 in 13 web requests lead to malware which is up 3% from 2016. Sudden rise of cyber-attacks in recent years makes this problem indispensable for both private and public organizations. The primary objective of the paper is to provide a near exhaustive set of meaningful features that can help professionals and practitioners to facilitate their own research and practical applications on malicious URL filtering. These features are systematically classified and described in keyword-based features, lexical features, content-based features (HTML and JavaScript), IP Address Properties based features, web-rank and score-based features. This paper also briefly discusses on how URL filtering techniques have evolved in the past. The paper talks about traditional techniques like blacklisting URLs, heuristic approaches while also highlighting the shortcomings of these approaches. We then touch upon newer machine learning based techniques like cosine similarity-based URL classification, Support Vector Machines and Neural Network based models.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[29787] viXra:1906.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 01:34:13

Quantum Squeezing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have harnessed the phenomenon of "quantum squeezing" to amplify and measure trillionths-of-a-meter motions of a lone trapped magnesium ion (electrically charged atom). [36] Sebastian Krinner is the first winner of the Lopez-Loreta Prize at ETH Zurich. The physicist has a clear goal: he wants to build a quantum computer that is not only powerful, but also works without errors. [35] Encrypted quantum keys have been sent across a record-breaking 421 km of optical fibre at the fastest data rate ever achieved for long-distance transmission. [34] The companies constructed an application for data transmission via optical fiber lines, which when combined with high-speed quantum cryptography communications technologies demonstrated practical key distribution speeds even in a real-world environment. [33] Nanosized magnetic particles called skyrmions are considered highly promising candidates for new data storage and information technologies. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29786] viXra:1906.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 02:00:39

Proton Radius Problem

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 86 Pages.

Ten years ago, just about any nuclear physicist could tell you the approximate size of the proton. But that changed in 2010, when atomic physicists unveiled a new method that promised a more precise measurement. [46] "Spin has surprises. Everybody thought it's simple … and it turns out it's much more complicated," Aschenauer says. [45] Approximately one year ago, a spectacular dive into Saturn ended NASA's Cassini mission-and with it a unique, 13-year research expedition to the Saturnian system. [44] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP)-the matter that the universe consisted of up to a microsecond after the Big Bang. [43] The energy transfer processes that occur in this collisionless space plasma are believed to be based on wave-particle interactions such as particle acceleration by plasma waves and spontaneous wave generation, which enable energy and momentum transfer. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[29785] viXra:1906.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 03:11:06

[ Halide/llvm/clang/dlibc++ Machine Learning Library Toolkit ] as hi-End Cryo-em Image Processing Software & Informatics Platform a Simple Short Communication on Using [ Halide/dlibc++ Machine Learning Library Toolkit/iot/hpc ]

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 7 Pages. Short Communication & Simple Suggestion

[ Halide/LLVM/Clang/dlibC++ Machine Learning Library Toolkit ] as HI-END cryo-EM Image Processing Software & Informatics Platform - A Simple Short Communication on Using [ Halide/dlibC++ Machine Learning Library Toolkit/IoT/HPC ] in a Related Heterogeneous Computing Environment R&D.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[29784] viXra:1906.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 03:36:13

NMR Captures Nanoparticle Structure

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

Advanced nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory have revealed surprising details about the structure of a key group of materials in nanotechology, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), and the placement of their active chemical sites. [39] With international collaboration, researchers at Aalto University have now developed a nanosized amplifier to help light signals propagate through microchips. [38]
Category: Condensed Matter

[29783] viXra:1906.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 04:00:03

Electron-Behaving Nanoparticles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

Northwestern University researchers have made a strange and startling discovery that nanoparticles engineered with DNA in colloidal crystals-when extremely small-behave just like electrons. [40] Advanced nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory have revealed surprising details about the structure of a key group of materials in nanotechology, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), and the placement of their active chemical sites. [39] With international collaboration, researchers at Aalto University have now developed a nanosized amplifier to help light signals propagate through microchips. [38]
Category: Condensed Matter

[29782] viXra:1906.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 04:28:02

Refutation of Π1− of Self-Verifying Axioms for Grounding Functions and Relation Predicates

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate Π1− self-verifying axioms defining the grounding functions and the relation predicates as not tautologous. This refutes the approach for weak axiom systems to use subtraction and division primitives, rather than addition and multiplication, to encode formally theorems of arithmetic. Therefore the conjectures form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29781] viXra:1906.0395 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 06:51:23

Steps to the Hilbert Book Model

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 3 Pages. The Hilbert Book Model Project is described in The Mathematics of Physical Reality

The Hilbert Book Model is a purely mathematical model of physical reality that starts with a solid foundation
Category: Quantum Physics

[29780] viXra:1906.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 07:00:35

Path to Reliable Quantum Computation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Chicago published a novel technique for improving the reliability of quantum computers by accessing higher energy levels than traditionally considered. [36] An international team of researchers has taken an important step towards solving a difficult variation of this problem, using a statistical approach developed at the University of Freiburg. [35] Storing information in a quantum memory system is a difficult challenge, as the data is usually quickly lost. At TU Wien, ultra-long storage times have now been achieved using tiny diamonds. [34] Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29779] viXra:1906.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 07:44:19

Magnetic Singularity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

In many materials, electrical resistance and voltage change in the presence of a magnetic field, usually varying smoothly as the magnetic field rotates. [20] EPFL physicists have found a way to reverse electron spins using electric fields for the first time, paving the way for programmable spintronics technologies. [19] Manipulating light in a variety of ways-shrinking its wavelength and allowing it to travel freely in one direction while stopping it cold in another-hyperbolic metamaterials have wide application in optical communications and as nanoparticle sensors. [18] A new way of enhancing the interactions between light and matter, developed by researchers at MIT and Israel's Technion, could someday lead to more efficient solar cells that collect a wider range of light wavelengths, and new kinds of lasers and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) that could have fully tunable color emissions. [17] A team of researchers at the Center for Relativistic Laser Science, within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have developed a method to measure the shape of laser pulses in ambient air. [16] Studying the fleeting actions of electrons in organic materials will now be much easier, thanks to a new method for generating fast X-rays. [15] In a laboratory at the University of Rochester, researchers are using lasers to change the surface of metals in incredible ways, such as making them super water-repellent without the use of special coatings, paints, or solvents. [14] The interaction of high-power laser light sources with matter has given rise to numerous applications including; fast ion acceleration; intense X-ray, gamma-ray, positron and neutron generation; and fast-ignition-based laser fusion. [13] Conventional electron accelerators have become an indispensable tool in modern research. [12] An outstanding conundrum on what happens to the laser energy after beams are fired into plasma has been solved in newly-published research at the University of Strathclyde. [11] Researchers at Lund University and Louisiana State University have developed a tool that makes it possible to control extreme UV light-light with much shorter wavelengths than visible light. [10]
Category: Condensed Matter

[29778] viXra:1906.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 07:58:50

Quantum Impedance Matching of Rabi Oscillations

Authors: Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse
Comments: 3 Pages.

We present a model of Geometric Wavefunction Interactions, the GWI model, that offers an alternative (perhaps equivalent) representation of QED, and use it to explore the quantized impedance structure governing energy flow in Rabi oscillations.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[29777] viXra:1906.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 08:18:38

The Inconsistency of Arithmetic – Expressed by a Sum

Authors: Ralf Wüsthofen
Comments: 2 Pages. Proof of the Goldbach conjecture on http://vixra.org/abs/1702.0300

Based on a strengthened form of the strong Goldbach conjecture, this paper presents an antinomy within the Peano arithmetic (PA). We derive two contradictory statements by using the same main instrument as in the proof of the conjecture, that is, a structuring of the natural numbers starting from 3.
Category: Number Theory

[29776] viXra:1906.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 08:32:18

Точечные операнды арифметических соответствий

Authors: Анатолий Вайчунас
Comments: 3 Pages. in Russian

Как создавать точечные матметы, как обращаться к ним языковыми конструкциями поодиночно или сразу к нескольким.
Category: General Mathematics

[29775] viXra:1906.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 08:54:41

Debugging Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

In the paper titled "Statistical Assertions for Validating Patterns and Finding Bugs in Quantum Programs," Huang and Margaret Martonosi, a professor of Computer Science at Princeton, identify three key difficulties in debugging quantum programs, and evaluate their solutions in addressing those difficulties. [37] Researchers at the University of Chicago published a novel technique for improving the reliability of quantum computers by accessing higher energy levels than traditionally considered. [36] An international team of researchers has taken an important step towards solving a difficult variation of this problem, using a statistical approach developed at the University of Freiburg. [35] Storing information in a quantum memory system is a difficult challenge, as the data is usually quickly lost. At TU Wien, ultra-long storage times have now been achieved using tiny diamonds. [34] Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[29774] viXra:1906.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 10:05:52

The Law of Maxwell-Whittaker: Force of Gravity and Inertia

Authors: Sanchez Uriarte, Oscar
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this article, the Maxwell-Wittaker law is used to describe magnetic phenomena instead of the Lorentz Force. Certain similarities are mentioned with Weber's proposals and a more elementary interaction is proposed, which justifies it. From there, a possibility is obtained to explain the gravitational and inertial phenomena.
Category: Classical Physics

[29773] viXra:1906.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 10:41:31

Gravity Wave Detector Mirrors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Hobart and William Smith Colleges has developed a new coating for mirrors used on gravity detectors that is 25 times less noisy than mirror surfaces used on LIGO. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Condensed Matter

[29772] viXra:1906.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 11:01:50

AI Converts CT Images

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

An artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm can transform low-dose CT (LDCT) scans into high-quality exams that radiologists may even prefer over LDCT studies produced via commercial iterative reconstruction techniques. [31] A team of EPFL scientists has now written a machine-learning program that can predict, in record time, how atoms will respond to an applied magnetic field. [30] Researchers from the University of Luxembourg, Technische Universität Berlin, and the Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society have combined machine learning and quantum mechanics to predict the dynamics and atomic interactions in molecules. [29] For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that machine learning can reconstruct a quantum system based on relatively few experimental measurements. [28] AlphaZero plays very unusually; not like a human, but also not like a typical computer. Instead, it plays with "real artificial" intelligence. [27] Predictions for an AI-dominated future are increasingly common, but Antoine Blondeau has experience in reading, and arguably manipulating, the runes-he helped develop technology that evolved into predictive texting and Apple's Siri. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning-and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts-a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[29771] viXra:1906.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 11:16:28

Who Needs Yukawa’s Wave Equation?

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 19 Pages.

One can think of a wave equation for the nucleus based on the Yukawa potential. This paper is a didactic exploration of the rationale for such wave equation. We relate it to earlier discussions on an oscillator model for the nucleus.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29770] viXra:1906.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 13:51:15

Supervised Dimensionality Reduction for Multi-Label Nearest Neighbors

Authors: Reda ALAMI
Comments: 75 Pages.

The ML-kNN algorithm is one of the most famous and most efficient multi-label classifier. Its performances are very remarkable when compared with the other state-of-art multi-label classifiers. Nevertheless, it suffers from two major drawbacks: its accuracy crucially depends on the metric function used to compute distances between instances, and when dealing with high dimensions data, the neighborhoods identification task becomes very slow. So, both metric learning and dimensionality reduction are essential to improve the ML-kNN performances. In this report, we propose a novel multi-label Mahalanobis distance learned via a supervised dimensionality reduction approach that we call ML-ARP. ML-ARP is a process that adapts random projections on a multi-label dataset to improve the ML-kNN performances. Unlike most state of art multi-label dimensionality reduction approaches that solve eigenvalue or inverse problem, our method is iterative and scales up with high dimensions. There is no eigenvalue or inverse problems to solve. Experiments show that the ML-ARP allows us to highly upgrade the ML-kNN classifier. Statistical tests assert that the MLARP is better than the remaining state-of-art multi-label dimensionality reduction approaches
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[29769] viXra:1906.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 15:30:26

On the Ramanujan’s Mock ϑ-Functions of His Last Letter: Mathematical Connections with Some Expressions Concerning the Mass of Some Particles, the Black Hole Entropy and the Hypothetical Mass of Dark Matter Particles. II

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 234 Pages.

In this research paper we have obtained some interesting mathematical connections between the Mock Theta functions of the Ramanujan’s last letter and some expressions concerning the mass of some particles, the black hole entropy and the hypothetical mass of Dark Matter particles
Category: Mathematical Physics

[29768] viXra:1906.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 18:01:16

(Lifeasemergent Version 1.0 6 Pages 20.06.2019) on the Very Low Probability of Complex Life Forms to be Just Emergent Phenomena and About the "Continuous" Versus "Intermittent" Free Will

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper discusses on: (1) the very low probability of complex life forms (LFs) to be just emergent phenomena based on simple but strong physic-chemical and biological arguments regarding the limits of DNA and RNA to store multidimensional hierarchical multiple-layered biological information (BI); (2) the continuous vs intermittent "quasi-quantum" free will (FW); (3) a hypothesis on the physical causes of the subjective sensation (illusion) of irreversible time arrow created by the human/animal mind;
Category: Physics of Biology

[29767] viXra:1906.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 19:35:05

Refutation of Bob Boyer’s Paradox

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

Bob Boyer’s paradox is as follows. “A question: It is generally granted that 'p implies p', which is to say, 'if p, then p'. So what about this claim: 'If any number is prime, then any number is prime'?” We find the sentences are unrelated. We then rewrite the second sentence as: “If at least one number is prime, then at least one number is prime”; or as “If at least one number is prime, then possibly all numbers are prime”. Both are trivial tautologies, meaning neither is a contraction or paradox, and therefore forming a tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29766] viXra:1906.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 20:33:18

The Unit Definition Is Relative

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 11 Pages.

This Paper provides a new claim as following: 1- The Unit Definition Is Relative that means Value as – one kilometer - one hour - one degree or one liter…etc- all such values and units are defined based on the observer position and situation That means What we see as a time value can work in another place as a distance value And What we see as a degree value can work in another place as a distance value 2- The Energy Different Types Depend On This Same Concept. Why Energy has different types? The energy gives energy whatever its form (oil- wood- electricity – magnetism – nuclear….etc) The result of all these forms are similar approximately – so why there are different types for the energy? Because of the observer position and situation This paper tries to discuss and prove this fact
Category: Astrophysics

[29765] viXra:1906.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 21:47:44

Twin Prime Conjecture

Authors: Xuan Zhong Ni
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this article, we use a modified sieve of Eratosthenes to prove twin prime conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[29764] viXra:1906.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 22:02:41

Zero Points of Riemann Zeta Function

Authors: Xuan Zhong Ni
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this article, we assume that the Riemann Zeta Function equals to the Euler product at the non zero points of the Riemann Zeta function. From this assumption we can prove that there are no zero points of Riemann Zeta function, ς(s) in Re(s) > 1/2. We applied proof by contradiction.
Category: Number Theory

[29763] viXra:1906.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-22 02:27:06

Quickly Fading Afterimages: Hierarchicaladaptations Inhuman Perception

Authors: Madeline E. Klinger, Christian A. Kell, Danko Nikolić
Comments: 13 Pages.

Afterimages result from a prolonged exposure to stillvisual stimuli. Theyare best detectable when viewed against uniform backgroundsand can persist for multiple seconds. Consequently, the dynamics of afterimages appears to be slow bytheir verynature. To the contrary, we report here that about 50% of an afterimageintensitycan be erased rapidly—within less than a second. The prerequisite is that subjectsview a rich visual contentto erase the afterimage; fast erasure of afterimages does not occur if subjects view a blank screen. Moreover, we find evidence that fast removal of afterimages is a skilllearned with practiceasour subjects were always more effective in cleaning up afterimages in later parts of the experiment. These results can be explained by a tri-level hierarchy of adaptive mechanisms, as has been proposed by the theory of practopoiesis.
Category: Mind Science

[29762] viXra:1906.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-22 06:21:16

Refutation of Comorphism of Sites

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

The complex equation evaluated is not tautologous, hence refuting the conjecture of comorphism of sites as a functor with a covering lifting property. What follows is that the following are also refuted: surjections, inclusions, localic morphisms, hyperconnected morphisms, and equivalences of toposes. This further relegates category theory of Grothendieck to a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29761] viXra:1906.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-22 06:25:55

A Simple Proof for Catalan's Conjecture

Authors: Julian TP Beauchamp
Comments: 6 Pages.

Catalan's Conjecture was first made by Belgian mathematician Eugène Charles Catalan in 1844, and states that 8 and 9 (2^3 and 3^2) are the only consecutive powers, excluding 0 and 1. That is to say, that the only solution in the natural numbers of a^x - b^y=1 for a,b,x,y > 1 is a=3, x=2, b=2, y=3. In other words, Catalan conjectured that 3^2-2^3=1 is the only nontrivial solution. It was finally proved in 2002 by number theorist Preda Mihailescu making extensive use of the theory of cyclotomic fields and Galois modules.
Category: Number Theory

[29760] viXra:1906.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 07:35:33

Algèbre D'appell

Authors: Méhdi Pascal
Comments: 20 Pages.

The bute of this algebra is to give a tool which makes it possible to find new formulas for the sequences of the numbers, for example, I take the numbers of Bernoulli (Bn), and the numbers of Fibonacci (Fn), and this algebra allows us the following formula: n*F(n)=sum(binomial(n,j)*(F(2n-2j+1)-F(n-j+1))*B(j)), From j=0 to j=n.
Category: Number Theory

[29759] viXra:1906.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 08:41:48

Graphene Energy Storage

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

As the graphene-based ink can be mass-produced in an inexpensive and environmentally friendly manner, the new methods pave the way toward developing a wide variety of printable energy storage devices. [29] Disperse graphene in a suitable solvent and the resulting nanofluid will have much better thermal properties than the original liquid. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Condensed Matter

[29758] viXra:1906.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 09:09:51

Gold to Protein Cages

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 71 Pages.

Protein cages—capsule-like structures made up of numerous protein molecules—perform roles in nature that have inspired their application in areas such as drug delivery. [42] The properties of gold in nanoscale are significantly different to those of bulk gold. Of special interest are gold nanoclusters, that are composed of between tens to some hundreds of gold atoms. [41] A team at Osaka University has created single-molecule nanowires, complete with an insulation layer, up to 10 nanometers in length. [40]
Category: Physics of Biology

[29757] viXra:1906.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 09:29:49

Formulation of the Classical Probability and Some Probability Distributions Due to Neutrosophic Logic and Its Impact on Decision Making (Arabic Version))

Authors: Rafif Alhabib, Moustafa Mzher Ranna, Haitham Farah, A.A. Salama
Comments: 169 Pages.

والجوهر الأساسي لبحثنا هو تطبيق منطق النيتروسوفيك على جزء من نظرية الاحتمالات الكلاسيكية وذلك من خلال تقديم الاحتمال الكلاسيكي وبعض التوزيعات الاحتمالية وفق منطق النيتروسوفيك ومن ثم د ا رسة أثر استخدام هذا المنطق على عملية اتخاذ الق ا رر مع المقارنة المستمرة بين المنطق الكلاسيكي ومنطق النيتروسوفيك من خلال الد ا رسات والنتائج. تضم الأطروحة خمسة فصول
Category: Statistics

[29756] viXra:1906.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 09:29:33

Gold Nanoparticle Cluster Therapy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 68 Pages.

NUS chemists have found that gold nanoparticle clusters can be used in photo-thermal therapy for imaging and treatment of human prostate cancer. [43] Protein cages—capsule-like structures made up of numerous protein molecules—perform roles in nature that have inspired their application in areas such as drug delivery. [42] The properties of gold in nanoscale are significantly different to those of bulk gold. Of special interest are gold nanoclusters, that are composed of between tens to some hundreds of gold atoms. [41]
Category: Physics of Biology

[29755] viXra:1906.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 09:52:01

The Mass vs Nothingness12

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

as a hypothesis a mass takes more volume outside of itself than inside of itself and that this mass(an accumulation of photons) which have seperation between themselves inside a mass
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[29754] viXra:1906.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 10:20:12

A Study of Multi - Topological Spaces (Arabic Version)

Authors: Riad Khidr Al-Hamido
Comments: 137 Pages.

يتعمق موضوع الأطروحة بد ا رسة الفضاءات متعددة التبولوجيا ومجموعاتيا المفتوحة والمغمقة, وفقاً لممفيوم العادي ووفقاً لمنطق النتروسوفيك ذلك المنطق الجديد عالمياً والأعم من المنطق الضبابي, والذي أسسو العالم الأمريكي F.Smarandache عام 1995 الذي يدرس وييتم بالحياد, بحيث ياخذ ىذا المنطق الجديد بعين الاعتبار كل فكرة مع نقيضيا مع طيف الحياد , حيث ياخذ ىذا المنطق كل بيان بثلاث ابعاد ىي الصح ) T ( بدرجات والخطأ ) F ( بدرجات والحياد ) I ( بدرجات, نعبر عن ذلك بالشكل ) T,I,F ) وىذ يعطي وصفاً اكثر دقة من المنطق الضبابي والمنطق الحدسي. لقد قام العمماء بد ا رسة الفضاءات التبولوجية ومكوناتيا الأساسية من المجموعات المفتوحة والمغمقة, وبما أن المجموعات المفتوحة والمغمقة تعد المبنة الرئيسية في بناء التبولوجيا والفضاء التبولوجي فقد توسع العمماء والباحثون في د ا رستيا, حيث قدموا أنماطاً أضعف منيا مثل المجموعات المفتوحة )المغمقة( من نمط الفا, والمجموعات المفتوحة )المغمقة( من نمط بيتا, المجموعات شبة المفتوحة )المغمقة(, ومن ثم توسع الباحثون ومددوا مفيوم الفضاء التبولوجي الى الفضاء التبولوجي الثنائي عمى يد العالم كيمي عام 1965 في , - , ثم توسع الباحثون بد ا رستو وعمموا جميع تعاريف المجموعات المفتوحة )المغمقة( إلى الفضاء التبولوجي الثنائي. أما الفضاء التبولوجي الثلاثي فقد تم تعريفو ود ا رستو من قبل الباحث مارتن عام 2000 في , - . عرف Mrsevic و I. L. Reilly عام 1996 في , - المجموعات المفتوحة من النمط S , والمجموعات المغمقة من النمط S ( ,S-closed sets (S-open sets في الفضاء التبولوجي الثنائي. أيضاً عرف N. A. Jabbar و A. I. Nasir عام 2010 في , - المجموعات المفتوحة من النمط N في الفضاء التبولوجي الثنائي. عرف A. A. Salama and F. Smarandache , and V. Kroumov عام 2014 في , - مفيوم الفضاء التوبولوجي النتروسوفيكي اليش كما عرفوا المجموعة النتروسوفيكية اليشة المفتوحة والمغمقة والعمميات عمييا مثل التقاطع والاجتماع. أيضاً قدم البروفيسور المصري احمد سلامة A.A. Salama عام 2013 د ا رسة حول مفيوم النقاط النتروسوفيكية اليشة , - وعرف مفيوم انتماء عنصر ما لمجموعة نتروسوفيكية ىشة. 04 نتابع في ىذه الأطروحة د ا رسة الفضاءات التبولوجية ونركز د ا رستنا عمى الفضاءات متعددة التبولوجيا منيا, وندرس ونعرف أنماطاً جديدة من المجموعات المفتوحة والمغمقة فييا, كما ندرس ونعرف الفضاءات التبولوجيا النتروسوفيكية اليشة والفضاءات متعددة التبولوجيا النتروسوفيكية اليشة, ايضاً ندرس ونعرف الفضاءات التبولوجيا النتروسوفيكية الثنائية وأنماطاً جديدة من المجموعات النتروسوفيكية فييا, لتعطي إضافة ليا طابع ىام وجديد في ىذا المجال, حيث ركزنا عمى التعريف بمنطق النتروسوفيك الذي يفتح المجال أمام الباحثين في كل الاختصاصات لا سيما الطبية وعموم الفيزياء والرياضيات عموماً والتبولوجيا خصوصاً. تعد أطروحتنا الد ا رسة الأولى من نوعيا التي تقوم بتطبيق المنطق النتروسوفيكي الجديد عمى التبولوجيا والفضاءات التبولوجية في الجامعات السورية.
Category: Topology

[29753] viXra:1906.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 10:31:01

Confirmation of Perez’ Definition of the Conceivable Statement

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 4 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

Of the 16 equations evaluated, 15 are not tautologous. Elsewhere we correctly proved and confirmed most of the conjectures of the author such as refutations of ZFC, Cantor, and Gödel. The definition of a conceivable statement is confirmed as a theorem, with the other equations forming a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29752] viXra:1906.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 11:17:21

Geochronology and Movement of the Sun Around the Galaxy Center

Authors: V.F. Chekalev, E.V. Chekalev
Comments: 2 Pages.

The motion of Solar system round the Galaxy center is considered in this article. Joint use of geochronological and astronomical data allowed to determine parameters of galactic orbits of Solar system in the Phanerozoe. As a result of the analysis the duration of some geological periods are modified and the new geological period is entered. The future duration of the Quaternary period is calculated also and is defined more exactly duration of the first period of the Phanerozoe - Vendian.
Category: Geophysics

[29751] viXra:1906.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 11:19:07

The Electromagnetic Nature of the Gravitational Field. Theoretical Value of G. Theoretical Value of Proton Radius

Authors: Piscedda Giampaolo
Comments: 5 Pages.

The simplified introduction of ether and the theory of general relativity, allows us through an imaginary experiment, to demonstrate the electromagnetic nature of the gravitational field, to calculate the theoretical value of G and the theoretical value of the proton ray and experimental through the contributions of mass to the proton.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29750] viXra:1906.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 12:27:20

Energy-Momentum Density's Conservation Law of Electromagnetic Field in Rindler Space-time

Authors: Sangwha Yi
Comments: 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

We find the energy-momentum density of electromagnetic field by energy-momentum tensor of electromagnetic field in Rindler space-time. We find the energy-momentum density's conservation law of electromagnetic field in Rindler Space-time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29749] viXra:1906.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 13:13:14

Step Toward Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

A team at the University of Tsukuba studied a novel process for creating coherent lattice waves inside silicon crystals using ultrashort laser pulses. [17] The experiment has managed to prepare a remote quantum state; i.e., absolutely secure communication was established with another, physically separated quantum computer for the first time in the microwave regime. [16] Quantum physics has led to new types of sensors, secure data transmission methods and researchers are working toward computers. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29748] viXra:1906.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 13:32:52

he Poisson Summation Formula Can Neither Prove Nor Disprove Riemann’s Functional Equation

Authors: Armando M. Evangelista Jr.
Comments: 4 Pages.

Riemann and others have used the Poisson summation formula to prove Riemann’s “functional” equation. But because of my latest paper The s-Parameter On The Transform Integrals Is A Constant [1], I’ve realized that the Poisson summation formula can neither prove nor disprove it.
Category: General Mathematics

[29747] viXra:1906.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 14:06:44

The Continued Fractions and the Real Numbers

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 1 page, written in english

We give a new definition of the real numbers by mean of the continued fractions.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29746] viXra:1906.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 18:41:26

On Light Propagation and the Special Theory of Relativity

Authors: Georgi Stanimirov
Comments: 6 Pages.

We present evidence that physicists at the turn of the 20th century, including Lorentz, Poincare, and Einstein, have collectively misconstrued the result of the influential Michelson-Morley experiment from 1887. Physicists have incorrectly assumed that the experi¬ment measured the speed of light in space, when in actual fact it measured the speed of light inside the earth's atmosphere. In light of these findings, we conclude that the Special Theory of Relativity is not reflective of observation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29745] viXra:1906.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 21:04:15

Группы. Языковая конструкция соответствия и его совыражений

Authors: Анатолий Вайчунас
Comments: 4 Pages. in Russian

Языковая конструкция соответствия и конструкции его совыражений во многом определяют принципы на которых далее строится основное понятие группы.
Category: Algebra

[29744] viXra:1906.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 00:05:36

Double Slit Interference and Doppler Effect

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The double-slit interference shows that the product of the wavelength and the distance from the slit plate to the projection screen is conserved in all inertial reference frames. This conservation ensures that the observed wavelength in any inertial reference frame is identical to the original wavelength in the rest frame of the light source. According to the Doppler effect, the observed frequency depends on the choice of inertial reference frame. With the same wavelength but different frequency, the speed of light is different in a different inertial reference frame.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29743] viXra:1906.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 01:37:26

Beta Decay Emits No Neutrino

Authors: Chan Rasjid Kah Chew
Comments: 11 Pages.

The 1927 Ellis-Wooster calorimetry experiment was an attempt to resolve the controversy over the continuous energy distribution spectrum of beta decay. A Radium E source was placed within a calorimeter in order to capture and measure the heat generated by beta decay. If the beta decay energy is assumed to be quantized, the captured heat energy should match the maximum spectrum energy of 1.05 MeV if the calorimeter captured all the disintegration energy. The result of the experiment gave the captured average heat of beta decay to be 350,000 eV instead of the expected 1.05 MeV. The 350,000 eV was accepted to be a match to the average spectrum energy of 390,000 eV. The experiment indicated some energy escaped the Ellis-Wooster calorimeter - thus the notion of "missing energy". The thesis of this paper is that the conclusion of the Ellis-Wooster experiment depends on whether the heat of calorimetry is consistent with relativistic kinetic energy or with classical kinetic energy. The spectrum energy used by the experiment was based on relativistic energy. If the values are converted to classical energy, the the maximum spectrum energy would only be 230,000 eV and the average 120,000 eV. The captured heat was much greater than the average of 120,000 eV. This reinterpretation would dismiss the notion of any missing energy in the experiment. The question of whether there was any missing energy is related to whether physical reality is consistent with special relativity or with Newtonian mechanics. The basis upon which Wolfgang Pauli proposed his 1930 neutrino hypothesis was the conclusion of the 1927 Ellis-Wooster experiment which supposedly supported the idea of "missing energy". The neutrino and the current neutrino physics would remain if special relativity is found to be the correct mechanics representing the physical world. On the other hand, if Newtonian mechanics is found to be correct, then all of neutrino physics would have to be dismissed. The one experiment that could decide on the issue is to determine the maximum speed with which beta particles are ejected in beta decay using the direct time-of-flight method. If Newtonian mechanics is correct, then there would be beta particles found to go beyond the speed of light; otherwise, it would be experimental evidence supporting special relativity. The result of this experiment would settle unequivocally the question concerning the nature of physical reality. But to date, this experiment has not been carried out.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[29742] viXra:1906.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 03:54:55

On the Coloring of Graphs Formed by Cliques Sharing at Most One Common Vertex

Authors: Prajnanaswaroopa S, J Geetha, K Somasundaram
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this short note, we give a coloring procedure for graphs which consist of cliques sharing at most one point
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[29741] viXra:1906.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 05:05:28

How to Balance Intuitive and Analytical Functions of Brain: A Neutrosophic Way of Scientific Discovery Process

Authors: Victor Christianto, Robert Neil Boyd, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 5 Pages. This paper has been submitted to EC Neurology journal. Comments are welcome

Initially this article stems from our discussion on math and mysticism, inspired by an article by Ralph Abraham. But it becomes a discussion on the role of intuition and inspiration in scientific discovery process. Hopefully this article will help anyone who aspires to be good scientists or engineers.
Category: Mind Science

[29740] viXra:1906.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 05:09:07

Perfect Quantum Portal

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Maryland have captured the most direct evidence to date of a quantum quirk that allows particles to tunnel through a barrier like it's not even there. [28] Researchers at the University of York have shown that a new quantum-based procedure for distributing secure information along communication lines could be successful in preventing serious security breaches. [27] In the new study, Bomantara and Gong have developed a method for harnessing the unique properties of time crystals for quantum computing that is based on braiding. [26] An Aalto University study has provided new evidence that time crystals can physically exist-a claim currently under hot debate. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal-a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse-in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29739] viXra:1906.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-20 05:32:24

Neutrons Angle on DNA and RNA

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Scientists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland are using neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to capture new information about DNA and RNA molecules and enable more accurate computer simulations of how they interact with everything from proteins to viruses. [18] The DNA molecules are chiral, which means they can exist in two forms which are mirror images, like a left and right hand. The phenomenon was dubbed "chiral induced spin selectivity" (CISS), and over the last few years, several experiments were published allegedly showing this CISS effect, even in electronic devices. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase-a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9]
Category: Physics of Biology

[29738] viXra:1906.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 08:06:34

Ring Resonators

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 74 Pages.

Researchers at the Joint Quantum Institute (JQI) have created the first silicon chip that can reliably constrain light to its four corners. [43] A research team from ITMO University and the Australian National University has discovered that different metasurfaces exhibit the same behavior provided a symmetry breaking is introduced to their unit cells "meta-atoms."[42] Electron microscopy has allowed scientists to see individual atoms, but even at that resolution not everything is clear. [41]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29737] viXra:1906.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 08:33:45

Supercomputers aid Gamma Ray Research

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

UC San Diego mechanical and aerospace engineering graduate student Tao Wang recently demonstrated how an extremely strong magnetic field, similar to that on the surface of a neutron star, can be not only generated but also detected using an X-ray laser inside a solid material. [33] Combining principles from computational fluid dynamics and acoustics, researchers at the TU Berlin have developed an analytical model that could simplify the process of designing Helmholtz resonators, a type of noise cancelling structure used in airplanes, ships, and ventilation systems. [32] During this run, from 2015 to 2018, LHC experiments produced unprecedented volumes of data with the machine's performance exceeding all expectations. [31] The proposal envisages a new 100km circumference tunnel that would be bored through the Earth, encircling the city of Geneva and the surrounding countryside. [30] On Wednesday, 25 July, for the very first time, operators injected not just atomic nuclei but lead "atoms" containing a single electron into the LHC. [29] The case for an ambitious new particle accelerator to be built in the United States has just gotten a major boost.[27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[29736] viXra:1906.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 09:09:35

{ e, (1 2)(3 4), (1 3)(2 4), (1 4)(2 3)} is Normal in the Symmetric Group of Degree 4

Authors: Henry Wong
Comments: 1 Page.

An addendum to group theory.
Category: Algebra

[29735] viXra:1906.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 10:00:45

Note on Refutation of the Simulation Argument and Incompleteness of Information

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

The conjecture using a Bayesian pipe symbol (|), instead of the fractional division symbol (/) as originally published, is not tautologous, thereby relegating it to a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Social Science

[29734] viXra:1906.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 10:06:03

Co-Generation of Power and Distilled Water on Big Land by Solar-Osmosis Closed-Loop System

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 21 Pages.

This paper presents up-conversion methods on whatever available big land, e.g. backyard or vacant land or farmland for booming green economy with new invention of solar-osmosis tandem technology so as to maximize multi goals: co-harvest of summer solar distilled or winter frozen potable water + pressure retarded fluid power, as well as pool buffered energy storage. By estimation, 1 km^2 land annual yield: 88 GWH energy + 1 million tons H2O in average zones. Also interlaced with some relevant political views.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[29733] viXra:1906.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 12:58:27

Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

A team of researchers at RIKEN (Japan), Università di Messina (Italy) and the University of Michigan (U.S.) have recently carried out a study investigating this topic further. [29] Physicists envision that the future of quantum computation networks will contain scalable, monolithic circuits, which include advanced functionalities on a single physical substrate. [28] Engineering researchers have demonstrated proof-of-principle for a device that could serve as the backbone of a future quantum Internet. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29732] viXra:1906.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 13:50:28

The Mass vs Nothingness Theory11

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

matter act and do physics because its different from it surroundings
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[29731] viXra:1906.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 18:12:46

A Simple and Precise Method for Pricing Convertible Bond with Credit Risk

Authors: Tim Xiao
Comments: 30 Pages.

This paper presents a new model for valuing hybrid defaultable financial instruments, such as, convertible bonds. In contrast to previous studies, the model relies on the probability distribution of a default jump rather than the default jump itself, as the default jump is usually inaccessible. As such, the model can back out the market prices of convertible bonds. A prevailing belief in the market is that convertible arbitrage is mainly due to convertible underpricing. Empirically, however, we do not find evidence supporting the underpricing hypothesis. Instead, we find that convertibles have relatively large positive gammas. As a typical convertible arbitrage strategy employs delta-neutral hedging, a large positive gamma can make the portfolio highly profitable, especially for a large movement in the underlying stock price.
Category: Economics and Finance

[29730] viXra:1906.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 19:50:29

Contact and Notes

Authors: John Peel
Comments: 2 Pages. Notes

Some notes on early material and contact.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[29729] viXra:1906.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 22:18:04

A Michelson-Morley Type Experiment Should be Performed in Low Earth Orbit and Interplanetary Space

Authors: James Marsen
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper supports those who have proposed that a Michelson-Morley type experiment (MMX) be performed in outer space. It predicts results that will falsify the foundational postulates of Einstein's relativity and it explains why these these unexpected results are predicted. The prediction is that a Michelson-Morley type experiment performed in low Earth orbit will show an unambiguous non-null result with a fringe or frequency variation proportional to the square of its orbital velocity (7.6km/sec for a 500 km orbital altitude). If performed in interplanetary space, the result will be equivalent to the space-craft's orbital velocity around the Sun (∼ 30km/sec). These predictions are based on an alternative ether concept proposed by the late Prof. Petr Beck-mann in 1986 and independently developed by late Prof. Ching-Chuan Su in 2000. Prof. Su called it the local-ether model. It explains that the reason terrestrial MMX type experiments have reported null results is not because there is no "ether-wind" to detect; it is because the actual value of the "ether-wind" is due only to the velocity of Earth's rotation at the latitude of the laboratory (464cosθ meters/sec). This is too small for even the most sensitive recent versions of the MMX to unambiguously detect. Finally we will discuss accomplishing the experiment with private funding.
Category: Classical Physics

[29728] viXra:1906.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 00:16:59

Discovering Domain-Sensitive Topics in User-Reviews

Authors: Sarthak Kamat
Comments: 4 Pages.

Customer reviews are integral to retail businesses. This paper demonstrates new methods for ranking the most representative and interesting snippets within reviews posted by their customers.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[29727] viXra:1906.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 00:26:41

Refutation of Predicative Collapse and Arithmetical Comprehension

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

The four equations evaluated are not tautologous, hence refuting predicative collapsing principles such as arithmetical comprehension. Therefore these form a tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29726] viXra:1906.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 01:25:19

Quantum Music

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

The group at the National Institute for Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado, spent a long six years finding a way to directly measure electric fields using atoms, so who can blame them for then having a little fun with their new technology? [28] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29725] viXra:1906.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 02:07:49

Magnetoelectric Switching

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

The high resolution and wealth of data provided by an experiment at Diamond can lead to unexpected discoveries. [22] Researchers at The Ohio State University have discovered how to control heat with a magnetic field. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon-the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy-in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, twostroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12]
Category: Condensed Matter

[29724] viXra:1906.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 02:28:58

Walk Through CERN Corridors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 85 Pages.

Forty years ago, in 1979, experiments at the DESY laboratory in Germany provided the first direct proof of the existence of gluons—the carriers of the strong force that "glue" quarks into protons, neutrons and other particles known collectively as hadrons.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[29723] viXra:1906.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 02:46:13

New Force for Optical Tweezers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

When studying biological cells using optical tweezers, one main issue is the damage caused to the cell by the tool. Giovanni Volpe, University of Gothenburg, has discovered a new type of force that will greatly reduce the amount of light used by optical tweezers-and improve the study of all kinds of cells and particles. [25] The device, which works in the mesoscopic mass range for the first time, might not only be used to help solve fundamental problems in quantum mechanics, it might also find use in precision metrology applications. [24] Although previous research shows that metal nanoparticles have properties useful for various biomedical applications, many mysteries remain regarding how these tiny materials form, including the processes that generate size variations. [23] With a novel electrochemical biosensing device that identifies the tiniest signals these biomarkers emit, a pair of NJIT inventors are hoping to bridge this gap. [22] The dark skin pigment melanin protects against the sun's damaging rays by absorbing light energy and converting it to heat. [21] Wang, Bren Professor of Medical Engineering and Electrical Engineering, is using PAM to improve on an existing technology for measuring the oxygen-consumption rate (OCR) in collaboration with Professor Jun Zou at Texas A&M University. [20]
Category: Physics of Biology

[29722] viXra:1906.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 05:59:05

Some Conjectures On Inequalities In Operator Axioms

Authors: Pith Peishu Xie
Comments: 2 Pages.

The Operator axioms have deduced number systems. In this paper, we conjecture some inequalities in Operator axioms. The general inequalities show the value of Operator axioms.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[29721] viXra:1906.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 06:37:17

Tensile Structure, Membrane and Magnetic Potential Analogy

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

I studied a particular problem, far from the one published here, ending up in a dead end. Some intermediate results are interesting and fun. I write the stationary state of a membrane like an electromagnetic problem, this analogy allows me to write the energy of the membrane
Category: Classical Physics

[29720] viXra:1906.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 07:01:49

A Defense of Critique of the Simulation Argument and Critique of VŁ4 as Applied

Authors: Shreyansh Goyal
Comments: 3 pages

Colin James III critiqued the paper titled “Refutation of “Refutation of the simulation argument and incompleteness of information” [Goyal, S. (2019); http://vixra.org/pdf/1906.0126v1.pdf] in his paper titled “Mistakes in rebuttal of Refutation of the simulation argument and incompleteness of information” [James III, C. (2019); http://vixra.org/pdf/1906.0156v1.pdf] to show that the original paper makes a few mistakes and the refutation of the paper titled “The Simulation Argument and Incompleteness of Information” [Goyal, S. (2019); http://vixra.org/pdf/1906.0073v1.pdf] by Colin James III in the paper titled “Refutation of the simulation argument and incompleteness of information” [James III, C. (2019); http://vixra.org/pdf/1906.0090v1.pdf] is valid. I argue that the mistakes pointed out by Colin James III do not lead to the conclusions which he proposes and the refutation of his application of VŁ4 on the critique of simulation argument, as proposed, appears to be invalid.
Category: Social Science

[29719] viXra:1906.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 07:12:50

Quantum Simulation Help Flights

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

A powerful new form of computing could help scientists design new types of materials for nanoelectronics, allow airlines to solve complex logistical problems to ensure flights run on time, and tackle traffic jams to keep cars flowing more freely on busy roads. [19] "Digital quantum simulation is thus intrinsically much more robust than what one might expect from known error bounds on the global many-body wave function," Heyl says. [18] A new finding by researchers at the University of Chicago promises to improve the speed and reliability of current and next generation quantum computers by as much as ten times. [17] Ph. D candidate Shuntaro Okada and information scientist Masayuki Ohzeki of Japan's Tohoku University collaborated with global automotive components manufacturer Denso Corporation and other colleagues to develop an algorithm that improves the D-Wave quantum annealer's ability to solve combinatorial optimization problems. [16] D-Wave Systems today published a milestone study demonstrating a topological phase transition using its 2048-qubit annealing quantum computer. [15] New quantum theory research, led by academics at the University of St Andrews' School of Physics, could transform the way scientists predict how quantum particles behave. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. [13] To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29718] viXra:1906.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 08:24:53

Heisenberg Quantum Uncertainty

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 97 Pages.

We don't have to get into what they claimed was the mechanism for destroying interference, because our experiment has shown there is an effect on the velocity of the particle, of just the size Heisenberg predicted. [55] Physicists have proposed an entirely new way to test the quantum superposition principle-the idea that a quantum object can exist in multiple states at the same time. [54] Researchers have developed a new device that can measure and control a nanoparticle trapped in a laser beam with unprecedented sensitivity. [53] Researchers have discovered a 'blind spot' in atomic force microscopy-a powerful tool capable of measuring the force between two atoms, imaging the structure of individual cells and the motion of biomolecules. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29717] viXra:1906.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 08:49:11

A Reformulation of Classical Mechanics

Authors: A. Blato
Comments: 6 Pages. Version 1 in Spanish.

This paper presents a reformulation of classical mechanics which is invariant under transformations between inertial and non-inertial reference frames and which can be applied in any reference frame without introducing fictitious forces.
Category: Classical Physics

[29716] viXra:1906.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 08:54:10

An Anomaly in the set of Complex Numbers

Authors: James Edwin Rock
Comments: 1 Page.

We exploit some rudimentary facts about the number one: (-1)(-1) = 1, 1 = sqrt(1 squared), and 1 squared = 1 to show an anomaly in the set of Complex Numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[29715] viXra:1906.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 11:52:43

Struktur des Universums

Authors: Gerd Pommerenke
Comments: 321 Pages. German version of viXra:1310.0189

Bezugnehmend auf eine früher formulierte Idee von LANCZOS wird eine spezielle Lösung der MAXWELL-Gleichungen vorgestellt, die ein spezielles metrisches Wellenfeld beschreibt, das die Ursache aller relativistischen Effekte und der Gravitation sein soll. Die Gravitation läßt sich zurückführen auf ebendieses elektromagnetische Feld. Interessanterweise ähneln die Eigenschaften dieses Feldes denen, die das bereits seit einiger Zeit postulierten HIGGS-Feld haben müßte, um Widersprüche mit gesicherten Erkenntnissen und Beobachtungen zu vermeiden. Basierend auf dieser Lösung wird eine alternative Vakuum-Ausbreitungsfunktion für EM-Wellen entwickelt, die im Gegensatz zur bisher als einzig richtig angenommenen Standardlösung für ein verlustfreies Medium auch solche Effekte, wie die kosmologische Rotverschiebung und die nicht erwarteten Meßergebnisse des SN-Ia-Kosmologie-Experiments erklärt, ohne "Dunkle Materie" o.ä. zu bemühen. Ein ganzer Abschnitt ist den Ergebnissen dieses Experiments und deren Interpretation gewidmet. Die Beziehungen zwischen den fundamentalen Naturkonstanten, bei denen es sich nicht immer um echte Konstanten handelt, werden genauer untersucht. So gelingt es, einen Ausdruck für die Berechnung des HUBBLE-Parameters allein aus lokal meßbaren Werten, zu erarbeiten. Ausgehend von der alternativen Vakuum-Ausbreitungsfunktion wird im Anhang die Frage "Ist der Verlauf der Planckschen Strahlungsfunktion das Resultat der Existenz einer oberen Grenzfrequenz des Vakuums?" genauer untersucht. Kein Standardmodell, keine Inflation, keine Dunkle Materie, exakte Kosmologie. Fragen und Anregungen an gerdpommerenke@arcor.de. English version see viXra:1310.0189
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29714] viXra:1906.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 13:30:48

An Attempt to Colour Confinement

Authors: Deep Jyoti Dutta
Comments: 2 Pages.

This note is presented with a single aim; the aim is to deduce a mathematical method to simply interpret the phenomena of color confinement. The derivation is something that arises from profound theoretical mechanisms of strong interaction.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[29713] viXra:1906.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 16:18:42

Refutation of the Hol/isabelle Rejection of E.j. Lowe’s Modal Ontological Argument

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 5 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

Of 20 equations evaluated, 16 are not tautologous. This effectively refutes Lowe’s proof, as rendered by the authors. This also invalidates the authors’ rejection of Lowe’s proof due to incompleteness (six of Lowe’s conclusions are dismissed without evaluation) and due to an interactive, trial by error approach to reconstruct Lowe. Therefore an ideal showcase for the computer-assisted interpretive method using HOL/Isabelle failed. These results form another non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29712] viXra:1906.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 19:51:32

Division By Zero: The Solution to Everything

Authors: Thomas Denley
Comments: 1 Page.

People have been adhering too rigidly to rules to divide by zero. Their calculators display it as undefined. The calculators were programmed by humans who did not yet understand what division by zero means.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[29711] viXra:1906.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 21:05:35

Uranus Is Perpendicular on Earth Moon Orbit

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 22 Pages.

1-Uranus Is Perpendicular On Earth Moon Orbit 2-The Sun Also Is Perpendicular On Earth Moon Orbit (The Sun And Uranus Are On The Same Horizontal Level) 3-The Rest Planets Are Found On Stair Steps Relative To Each Other – (Graduated Horizontal Levels). 4-The Solar Planets revolve around the perpendicular line from the Sun to Earth. 5-The Solar Planets doesn't revolve around the sun herself.
Category: Astrophysics

[29710] viXra:1906.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 22:43:25

Primality Test with Fibonacci Numbers

Authors: Pedro Hugo García Peláez
Comments: 6 Pages.

All prime numbers are represented as factors of Fibonacci numbers, following a relationship with the corresponding Fibonacci number index.
Category: Number Theory

[29709] viXra:1906.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 03:13:04

Magnetic Topological Insulator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Researchers have discovered the first ever intrinsic magnetic topological insulator-a stoichiometric compound that boasts both inherent magnetic order and topological insulator characteristics. [26] Topological insulators (TIs) host exotic physics that could shed new light on the fundamental laws of nature. [25] A new study by scientists from the University of Bristol brings us a significant step closer to unleashing the revolutionary potential of quantum computing by harnessing silicon fabrication technology to build complex on-chip quantum optical circuits. [24] Two teams of scientists from the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have collaborated to conduct groundbreaking research leading to the development of a new and innovative scientific field: Quantum Metamaterials. [23] An international team consisting of Russian and German scientists has made a breakthrough in the creation of seemingly impossible materials. They have created the world's first quantum metamaterial that can be used as a control element in superconducting electrical circuits. [22] ETH physicists have developed a silicon wafer that behaves like a topological insulator when stimulated using ultrasound. They have thereby succeeded in turning an abstract theoretical concept into a macroscopic product. [21] Cheng Chin, professor in the Department of Physics, and his team looked at an experimental setup of tens of thousands of atoms cooled down to near absolute zero. As the system crossed a quantum phase transition, they measured its behavior with an extremely sensitive imaging system. [20] Scientists from three UK universities are to test one of the fundamental laws of physics as part of a major Europe-wide project awarded more than £3m in funding. ]19] A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene-the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms-by bathing it in light. [18]
Category: Condensed Matter

[29708] viXra:1906.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 03:46:49

Silicon Photonics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

Photonics-based computing uses less energy and can transmit data faster than conventional approaches, but the costs of manufacturing silicon integrated circuits with embedded photonic elements have held back progress. [47] Physicists at the University of Alberta in Canada have developed a new way to build quantum memories, a method for storing delicate quantum information encoded into pulses of light. [45] Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29707] viXra:1906.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 04:12:05

Comment on “Misconceptions Regarding Conventional Coupling of Fields and Particles in XFEL Codes”

Authors: Rodrigo de Abreu, Vasco Guerra
Comments: 8 Pages.

We make some observations regarding a paper by Gianluca Geloni, Vitali Kocharyan and Evgeni Saldin (2016 Misconceptions Regarding Conventional Coupling of Fields and Particles in XFEL Codes, DESY 16017, ISSN 0418-9837).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29706] viXra:1906.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 04:15:44

The Nature of Yukawa's Nucleon Charge

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper builds on our previous paper and further explores the math and the physics of Yukawa’s potential function for the nucleus. It calculates forces and provides a formula for the squared nucleon charge. This is the equivalent of the squared electron charge for the nuclear force. We find it is equal to the product of Euler’s number, the fine-structure constant, Planck’s constant and the speed of light. The interpretation of this formula is not easy, but it yields sensible results: the calculated forces and the equilibrium between the electromagnetic repulsion and the nuclear attraction make sense.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29705] viXra:1906.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 04:19:30

Comment on “On the Speed of Light”

Authors: Rodrigo de Abreu, Vasco Guerra
Comments: 4 Pages.

We make some comments on “a realistic experiment to determinate eventual anisotropies in the one-way speed of light independently of specific clock synchronization procedures. This establishes that we are not free to define either the one-way speed of light or time itself and must rely instead on further empirical observations to clarify these concepts, contrary to what was originally proposed in 1905” by Manuel Ricou [Physics Essays, 30, 4 (2017)].
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29704] viXra:1906.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 05:29:28

Reduced Adhesion Create Tumors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

Altering the adhesion at the interface between tissues with different steady-state pressures allows the stable coexistence of the tissues-according to simulations done by physicists in Germany. [45] The molecule has undergone unusually rapid development and is already being tested in a Phase I clinical trial in Japan, under a license from Harvard's Office of Technology Development (OTD) to Eisai. [44] A hair-sized probe that can measure key indicators of tissue damage deep in the lung has been developed by scientists. [43] Cell culture plates that are in everyday use in biology can be effectively transformed into microfluidic devices, opening paths for biologists to miniaturize cell-based workflows. [42] The properties of gold in nanoscale are significantly different to those of bulk gold. Of special interest are gold nanoclusters, that are composed of between tens to some hundreds of gold atoms. [41] A team at Osaka University has created single-molecule nanowires, complete with an insulation layer, up to 10 nanometers in length. [40] Using optical and electrical measurements, a two-dimensional anisotropic crystal of rhenium disulfide was found to show opposite piezoresistant effects along two principle axes, i.e. positive along one axis and negative along another. [39] A team of researchers from the University of Konstanz has demonstrated a new aqueous polymerization procedure for generating polymer nanoparticles with a single chain and uniform shape, which, by contrast to previous methods, involves high particle concentrations. [38] A team of researchers from China, the U.S. and Japan has developed a way to strengthen graphene-based membranes intended for use in desalination projects-by fortifying them with nanotubes. [37] The team arrived at their results by imaging gold nanoparticles, with diameters ranging from 2 to 5 nanometres, via aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. [36]
Category: Physics of Biology

[29703] viXra:1906.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-16 07:45:57

Fluid Walls Around Living Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 74 Pages.

Cell culture plates that are in everyday use in biology can be effectively transformed into microfluidic devices, opening paths for biologists to miniaturize cell-based workflows. [42] The properties of gold in nanoscale are significantly different to those of bulk gold. Of special interest are gold nanoclusters, that are composed of between tens to some hundreds of gold atoms. [41] A team at Osaka University has created single-molecule nanowires, complete with an insulation layer, up to 10 nanometers in length. [40] Using optical and electrical measurements, a two-dimensional anisotropic crystal of rhenium disulfide was found to show opposite piezoresistant effects along two principle axes, i.e. positive along one axis and negative along another. [39]
Category: Physics of Biology

[29702] viXra:1906.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-16 10:35:54

Refutation of Pseudo-Trinitarian Mapping of the Two Great Commandments Via Neutrosophy

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We map the two great commandments in Matt 22:37-40 as conjunction of God, self, and others. It is not tautologous and a gross misreading by forcing a pseudo-trinitarian theology. (We resuscitate the text as a theorem by expansion.) Hence, three-valued neutrosophic logic is insufficient to prove models of human consciousness, and thereby forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[29701] viXra:1906.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-16 12:31:23

Refutation of the Axiomatic Translation Principle for Modal Logic Via Resolution Decision Procedure

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

The basis of the axiomatic translation principle is that “no resolution decision procedures are known for decidable first-order logic fragments relevant to modal logics that include the formula ∀xyz(R(x,y)∧R(x,z)→R(y,z)) to express the Euclideanness of a relation R”. We prove a decision procedure for that equation, and hence refute the axiomatic translation principle on which the conjecture is based. Therefore, the axiomatic translation principle is a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29700] viXra:1906.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-16 15:57:29

Vector Subspaces

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 4 Pages.

We endeavor to show certain contradictions in the theory of linear vector spaces.
Category: Algebra

[29699] viXra:1906.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-16 19:22:18

A Trigonometric Proof of Oppenheim’s and Pedoe Inequality

Authors: Israel Meireles Chrisostomo
Comments: 7 Pages.

This problem first appeared in the American Mathematical Monthly in 1965, proposed by Sir Alexander Oppenheim. As a matter of curiosity, the American Mathematical Monthly is the most widely read mathematics journal in the world. On the other hand, Oppenheim was a brilliant mathematician, and for the excellence of his work in mathematics, obtained the title of “ Sir ”, given by the English to English citizens who stand out in the national and international scenario.Oppenheim is better known in the academic world for his contribution to the field of Number Theory, known as the Oppenheim Conjecture.
Category: Geometry

[29698] viXra:1906.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-16 22:47:04

The Paradox of the Twins 100 Percent Shows the Inequality of the Reference Systems.

Authors: Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov
Comments: 2 Pages.

Einstein argued that in his Special Relativity Theory all systems are equal. However, Einstein refused to give a simple solution to the twin paradox, which I showed earlier. Because the solution to the twin paradox shows the inequality of the reference systems.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29697] viXra:1906.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-16 23:32:35

Физика, которая не стала реалистичной наукой

Authors: George Kirakosyan
Comments: 4 pages, article with illustration (Russ)

Естествознание вырождается в политизированно-конфессиональную доктрину
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[29696] viXra:1906.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 03:01:57

Analogy of Weber's Formula for Gravitation may Explain Dark Matter, Dark Energy and Pioneer Anomaly

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 5 Pages.

Weber's formula for the force of interaction between charged particles, which is a modification of Coulomb's law, may solve many of the paradoxes and puzzles in classical and relativistic electromagnetism. In this paper we propose modification of Newton's law of gravitation according to Weber's formula. This may solve many of the outstanding problems in cosmology such as dark matter, dark energy and the Pioneer anomaly.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29695] viXra:1906.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 03:38:13

Shed Light on Lung Disease

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 75 Pages.

A hair-sized probe that can measure key indicators of tissue damage deep in the lung has been developed by scientists. [43] Cell culture plates that are in everyday use in biology can be effectively transformed into microfluidic devices, opening paths for biologists to miniaturize cell-based workflows. [42] The properties of gold in nanoscale are significantly different to those of bulk gold. Of special interest are gold nanoclusters, that are composed of between tens to some hundreds of gold atoms. [41]
Category: Physics of Biology

[29694] viXra:1906.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 04:20:18

Potent Anti-Cancer Agent

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 77 Pages.

The molecule has undergone unusually rapid development and is already being tested in a Phase I clinical trial in Japan, under a license from Harvard's Office of Technology Development (OTD) to Eisai. [44] A hair-sized probe that can measure key indicators of tissue damage deep in the lung has been developed by scientists. [43] Cell culture plates that are in everyday use in biology can be effectively transformed into microfluidic devices, opening paths for biologists to miniaturize cell-based workflows. [42] The properties of gold in nanoscale are significantly different to those of bulk gold. Of special interest are gold nanoclusters, that are composed of between tens to some hundreds of gold atoms. [41] A team at Osaka University has created single-molecule nanowires, complete with an insulation layer, up to 10 nanometers in length. [40] Using optical and electrical measurements, a two-dimensional anisotropic crystal of rhenium disulfide was found to show opposite piezoresistant effects along two principle axes, i.e. positive along one axis and negative along another. [39] A team of researchers from the University of Konstanz has demonstrated a new aqueous polymerization procedure for generating polymer nanoparticles with a single chain and uniform shape, which, by contrast to previous methods, involves high particle concentrations. [38] A team of researchers from China, the U.S. and Japan has developed a way to strengthen graphene-based membranes intended for use in desalination projects-by fortifying them with nanotubes. [37] The team arrived at their results by imaging gold nanoparticles, with diameters ranging from 2 to 5 nanometres, via aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. [36] Nanoparticles of less than 100 nanometres in size are used to engineer new materials and nanotechnologies across a variety of sectors. [35]
Category: Physics of Biology

[29693] viXra:1906.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 07:40:12

Simplicity as Ultimate Sophistication?

Authors: Stephen I. Ternyik
Comments: 2 Pages.

Simple Solutions, complex, problems.
Category: General Mathematics

[29692] viXra:1906.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 07:50:03

Expanding Universe from Weyl Cosmology and Asymptotic Safety in Quantum Gravity

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 18 Pages. Submitted to Classical and Quantum Gravity

A study of the simplest Jordan-Brans-Dicke-like action within the context of Weyl geometry, combined with the findings of Weinberg's Asymptotic Safety program in quantum gravity, leads to a plethora of nice numerical results : (i) like singling out the quartic potential from all others; (ii) having (Anti) de Sitter space as the most natural solution; (iii) furnishing the value of the observed vacuum energy density at the Hubble scale $ { 3 \over 8 \pi G_N R_H^2} \sim 10^{ - 122 } M_P^4$; (iv) a $ { 3 \over 8 \pi } M_P^4$ vacuum energy density at the Planck scale; and (v) allowing the possibility that our universe is a Black Hole whose horizon coincides with the cosmological Hubble horizon. It is warranted to explore deeper the interplay among Weyl geometry, Asymptotic safety and Maldacena's $AdS/CFT$ correspondence (holographic renormalization group flow). Also relevant is the work by Wetterich on the role of dilatation symmetry in higher dimensions and the vanishing of the cosmological constant. Last, but not least, we should also consider the implications of Penrose' Conformal Cyclic Cosmology and Nottale's Scale Relativity Theory with the key findings of this work.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[29691] viXra:1906.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 08:44:32

An Outline of Extension from Neutrosophic Psychology to Pneumatic Transpersonal Psychology: Towards Relational Psychotherapy and Relational Pedagogy

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 22 Pages. This article was writen under guidance of Holy Spirit

Continuing our previous paper, we gave an outline of a new integral model of human consciousness scheme beyond Freudian mental model. We start from a recent book by one of us: Neutropsychic personality. Then we discuss possibility to reintroduce spirit into human consciousness. To emphasize what we have outlined in a preceding paper, we consider the following: that human consciousness model should take into consideration “spirit” role, i.e. the mind-body-spirit as integral aspect, which view is neglected in the Freudian mental model. In this paper, we consider a further step: introducing “soul” as a different element of human consciousness. We also discuss a few possible applications of such an integral model of human consciousness, including relational psychotherapy and relational pedagogy. While we are fully aware that much remain to be done and we admit that this is only a sketch, we hope that this paper will start a fresh approach of research towards more realistic nonlinear human consciousness model.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[29690] viXra:1906.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 08:50:36

Wireless Technologies (4G, 5G) Are Very Harmful to Human Health and Environment: A Preliminary Review

Authors: Victor Christianto, Robert Neil Boyd, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages. This article was writen under guidance of Holy Spirit

The intent of this article is to show that wireless technology is, without remedy other than termination, one of the most devastating environmental and health threats and threats to personal liberty ever created. It is becoming widely known that 4G and 5G technologies cause many harms to human health. Cancer is only one problem, and one that is easily solved. 4G and 5G cause 720! (factorial) different maladies in human beings, and can kill everything that lives but some forms of micro organisms. Some pathogens and certain parasites are made more virulent by selected frequencies of RF. Insects and birds are already being killed by the RF broadcasts. The broadcasts can be controlled to give selected individuals selected maladies. All this needs to be stopped. There are other ways to communicate that do not require radio waves, nor wires, which cause no damage to any form of life. We need to make those methods available to the public, while all the RF systems are being phased out.
Category: Physics of Biology

[29689] viXra:1906.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 09:02:10

Carbon Nanotubes Membranes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

A team of researchers from China, the U.S. and Japan has developed a way to strengthen graphene-based membranes intended for use in desalination projects-by fortifying them with nanotubes. [37] The team arrived at their results by imaging gold nanoparticles, with diameters ranging from 2 to 5 nanometres, via aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. [36] Nanoparticles of less than 100 nanometres in size are used to engineer new materials and nanotechnologies across a variety of sectors. [35] For years, researchers have been trying to find ways to grow an optimal nanowire, using crystals with perfectly aligned layers all along the wire. [34] Ferroelectric materials have a spontaneous dipole moment which can point up or down. [33] Researchers have successfully demonstrated that hypothetical particles that were proposed by Franz Preisach in 1935 actually exist. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31] Materials scientists at Duke University computationally predicted the electrical and optical properties of semiconductors made from extended organic molecules sandwiched by inorganic structures. [30] KU Leuven researchers from the Roeffaers Lab and the Hofkens Group have now put forward a very promising direct X-ray detector design, based on a rapidly emerging halide perovskite semiconductor, with chemical formula Cs2AgBiBr6. [29] Physicists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have proven that incoming light causes the electrons in warm perovskites to rotate, thus influencing the direction of the flow of electrical current. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27]
Category: Condensed Matter

[29688] viXra:1906.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 09:30:42

Uniform-Shape Polymer Nanocrystals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

A team of researchers from the University of Konstanz has demonstrated a new aqueous polymerization procedure for generating polymer nanoparticles with a single chain and uniform shape, which, by contrast to previous methods, involves high particle concentrations. [38] A team of researchers from China, the U.S. and Japan has developed a way to strengthen graphene-based membranes intended for use in desalination projects-by fortifying them with nanotubes. [37] The team arrived at their results by imaging gold nanoparticles, with diameters ranging from 2 to 5 nanometres, via aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. [36] Nanoparticles of less than 100 nanometres in size are used to engineer new materials and nanotechnologies across a variety of sectors. [35] For years, researchers have been trying to find ways to grow an optimal nanowire, using crystals with perfectly aligned layers all along the wire. [34] Ferroelectric materials have a spontaneous dipole moment which can point up or down. [33] Researchers have successfully demonstrated that hypothetical particles that were proposed by Franz Preisach in 1935 actually exist. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31] Materials scientists at Duke University computationally predicted the electrical and optical properties of semiconductors made from extended organic molecules sandwiched by inorganic structures. [30] KU Leuven researchers from the Roeffaers Lab and the Hofkens Group have now put forward a very promising direct X-ray detector design, based on a rapidly emerging halide perovskite semiconductor, with chemical formula Cs2AgBiBr6. [29]
Category: Condensed Matter

[29687] viXra:1906.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 10:03:13

Opposite Piezoresistant Effects

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

Using optical and electrical measurements, a two-dimensional anisotropic crystal of rhenium disulfide was found to show opposite piezoresistant effects along two principle axes, i.e. positive along one axis and negative along another. [39] A team of researchers from the University of Konstanz has demonstrated a new aqueous polymerization procedure for generating polymer nanoparticles with a single chain and uniform shape, which, by contrast to previous methods, involves high particle concentrations. [38] A team of researchers from China, the U.S. and Japan has developed a way to strengthen graphene-based membranes intended for use in desalination projects-by fortifying them with nanotubes. [37] The team arrived at their results by imaging gold nanoparticles, with diameters ranging from 2 to 5 nanometres, via aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. [36] Nanoparticles of less than 100 nanometres in size are used to engineer new materials and nanotechnologies across a variety of sectors. [35] For years, researchers have been trying to find ways to grow an optimal nanowire, using crystals with perfectly aligned layers all along the wire. [34] Ferroelectric materials have a spontaneous dipole moment which can point up or down. [33] Researchers have successfully demonstrated that hypothetical particles that were proposed by Franz Preisach in 1935 actually exist. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31] Materials scientists at Duke University computationally predicted the electrical and optical properties of semiconductors made from extended organic molecules sandwiched by inorganic structures. [30]
Category: Condensed Matter

[29686] viXra:1906.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 11:19:33

Local Symmetries in Theory of Emergent Spacetime and Matter (In Russian)

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov
Comments: 2 Pages.

Local symmetries in the theory of emergent space-time are considered. It is shown that in this theory there are U(1) and SU(3) local symmetries. The wave-particle duality is considered.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[29685] viXra:1906.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 11:46:28

Single-Molecule Conductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

A team at Osaka University has created single-molecule nanowires, complete with an insulation layer, up to 10 nanometers in length. [40] Using optical and electrical measurements, a two-dimensional anisotropic crystal of rhenium disulfide was found to show opposite piezoresistant effects along two principle axes, i.e. positive along one axis and negative along another. [39] A team of researchers from the University of Konstanz has demonstrated a new aqueous polymerization procedure for generating polymer nanoparticles with a single chain and uniform shape, which, by contrast to previous methods, involves high particle concentrations. [38] A team of researchers from China, the U.S. and Japan has developed a way to strengthen graphene-based membranes intended for use in desalination projects-by fortifying them with nanotubes. [37] The team arrived at their results by imaging gold nanoparticles, with diameters ranging from 2 to 5 nanometres, via aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. [36] Nanoparticles of less than 100 nanometres in size are used to engineer new materials and nanotechnologies across a variety of sectors. [35] For years, researchers have been trying to find ways to grow an optimal nanowire, using crystals with perfectly aligned layers all along the wire. [34] Ferroelectric materials have a spontaneous dipole moment which can point up or down. [33] Researchers have successfully demonstrated that hypothetical particles that were proposed by Franz Preisach in 1935 actually exist. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31]
Category: Condensed Matter

[29684] viXra:1906.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 12:14:43

Gold Nanoclusters in Drugs

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

The properties of gold in nanoscale are significantly different to those of bulk gold. Of special interest are gold nanoclusters, that are composed of between tens to some hundreds of gold atoms. [41] A team at Osaka University has created single-molecule nanowires, complete with an insulation layer, up to 10 nanometers in length. [40] Using optical and electrical measurements, a two-dimensional anisotropic crystal of rhenium disulfide was found to show opposite piezoresistant effects along two principle axes, i.e. positive along one axis and negative along another. [39] A team of researchers from the University of Konstanz has demonstrated a new aqueous polymerization procedure for generating polymer nanoparticles with a single chain and uniform shape, which, by contrast to previous methods, involves high particle concentrations. [38] A team of researchers from China, the U.S. and Japan has developed a way to strengthen graphene-based membranes intended for use in desalination projects-by fortifying them with nanotubes. [37] The team arrived at their results by imaging gold nanoparticles, with diameters ranging from 2 to 5 nanometres, via aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. [36] Nanoparticles of less than 100 nanometres in size are used to engineer new materials and nanotechnologies across a variety of sectors. [35] For years, researchers have been trying to find ways to grow an optimal nanowire, using crystals with perfectly aligned layers all along the wire. [34] Ferroelectric materials have a spontaneous dipole moment which can point up or down. [33] Researchers have successfully demonstrated that hypothetical particles that were proposed by Franz Preisach in 1935 actually exist. [32]
Category: Physics of Biology

[29683] viXra:1906.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 12:15:45

Defining the Purpose and Source of the Universe Without Considering Religion

Authors: James R Johnson
Comments: 8 Pages.

Does our universe have a purpose and was it created by an external source? This paper, without considering religion, argues that it has a purpose and was designed by an intelligent designer. The first argument for a “Life” purpose is based on two special features of life, intelligence and consciousness. The second argument for purpose is an observation, the universe acts like it has a purpose. The rational for selecting the source of creation as an “Intelligent Designer” over the “Just Exists” option also has multiple arguments, such as: specifying universal rules and laws of physics; rationalizing the universe’s clever, ingenious design; explaining fine-tuning of particle masses and force strengths; and, defining Big Bang assumptions. The task is to understand what assumptions are currently most rational considering: the importance of life/consciousness; arguments for source of creation; and, processes for producing energy, such as, the speculative multiverse theories. Additionally, the analysis provides perspective on other source options for our universe: a Life Principle; a self-comprehending causal loop; and an advanced civilization.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[29682] viXra:1906.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 14:05:16

Wether or Not the Strong Force is Included in MHCE8S Theory Produces Two Final Values of Ho l

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page. I welcome the contribution of Bruce Wallman to my work

Abstract: If the strong force is included in MHCE8S theory a final value of Ho = 74.03 brings in the strong force safely energetically (0.86 %) to the theory whereas a reduction in Ho from 74.03 to 73.24 excludes the strong force by ~ 1/4 %.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29681] viXra:1906.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 15:13:56

Another Way to Sum up the Grandi Series.

Authors: Andrew W. Ivashenko
Comments: 2 Pages. ivashenko_a_v@mail.ru, language Russian

The original method is indicated in the article summation series grande considerations. The result is summed expected to match the result cesaro summation.
Category: General Mathematics

[29680] viXra:1906.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 15:16:11

Maximum First Open Numbers and Goldbach’s Conjecture

Authors: Sally Myers Moite
Comments: 6 Pages.

For a fixed last prime, sieve the positive integers as follows. For every prime up to and including that last prime, choose one arbitrary remainder and its negative. Sieve the positive integers by eliminating all numbers congruent to the chosen remainders modulo their prime. Consider the maximum of the first open numbers left by all such sieves for a particular last prime. Computations for small last primes support a conjecture that the maximum first open number is less than (last prime)^1.75. If this conjecture could be proved, it would imply Goldbach’s Theorem is true.
Category: Number Theory

[29679] viXra:1906.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 22:06:36

Rejection of the Quantified Modal Logic Theorem Proving (QMLTP) Library

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate five equations from the quantified modal logic theorem proving (QMLTP) library. None is tautologous for the status of the claimed conjecture, rejecting the approach and library. Other objections include: clarity such as not all problems are in English descriptions; skewed coverage such as about 50% the equations are assumed for Gödel’s embedding; and usability such as the utility tool, to translate QMLTP scripts for pre-selected provers, in Prolog source code which is not compiled into executables for major hardware/OS platforms. Based on these results, the QMLTP approach and library forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

Replacements of recent Submissions

[11624] viXra:1906.0418 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-23 17:48:55

Infinite Number of Fibonacci and Lucas Primes

Authors: Pedro Hugo García Peláez
Comments: 4 Pages.

What I try to prove is if there are infinite number of Fibonacci and Lucas primes
Category: Number Theory

[11623] viXra:1906.0415 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-23 06:52:35

A Positivity-Based Approach to Delay-Dependent Stability of Systems of Second Order Equations

Authors: Alexander Domoshnitsky, Oleg Kupervasser, Hennadii Kutomanov
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper, new explicit tests for exponential stability of systems of second order equations are proposed. Our approach is based on nonoscillation of solutions of the corresponding diagonal scalar second order delay differential equations.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[11622] viXra:1906.0395 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-25 02:44:12

Steps to the Hilbert Book Model

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

The Hilbert Book Model is a purely mathematical model of physical reality that starts with a solid foundation
Category: Quantum Physics

[11621] viXra:1906.0395 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-24 01:38:08

Steps to the Hilbert Book Model

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Hilbert Book Model is a purely mathematical model of physical reality that starts with a solid foundation
Category: Quantum Physics

[11620] viXra:1906.0384 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-24 04:16:08

Who Needs Yukawa’s Wave Equation?

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 20 Pages.

One can think of a wave equation for the nucleus based on the Yukawa potential. This paper is a didactic exploration of the rationale for such wave equation. We relate it to earlier discussions on an oscillator model for the nucleus.
Category: Quantum Physics

[11619] viXra:1906.0384 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-22 16:05:51

Who Needs Yukawa’s Wave Equation?

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 19 Pages.

One can think of a wave equation for the nucleus based on the Yukawa potential. This paper is a didactic exploration of the rationale for such wave equation. We relate it to earlier discussions on an oscillator model for the nucleus.
Category: Quantum Physics

[11618] viXra:1906.0357 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-20 08:38:47

The Poisson Summation Formula Can Neither Prove Nor Disprove Riemann’s Functional Equation

Authors: Armando M. Evangelista Jr.
Comments: 4 Pages. Missing T on the title of the paper.

Riemann and others have used the Poisson summation formula to prove Riemann’s “functional” equation. But because of my latest paper The s-Parameter On The Transform Integrals Is A Constant [1], I’ve realized that the Poisson summation formula can neither prove nor disprove it.
Category: General Mathematics

[11617] viXra:1906.0353 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-21 10:42:00

The Placement of Two-sided Time in Physics

Authors: Stephen P. Smith
Comments: 7 Pages.

This notes describes two-sided time, as different to time as a one-way flow. Possible investigations of two-sided time in physics are recommended in areas pertaining to: the second law of thermodynamics; treating gravity as an echo returning on an aether; a chronology of cosmic inflation; in the standard model of physics; and in the holographic principle.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[11616] viXra:1906.0346 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-24 02:17:37

Compton-Wavelength Minimum Position Uncertainty Due to Diversion of Momentum Uncertainty to Increased Particle Number

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 6 Pages.

In single-particle quantum mechanics there is no impediment to a particle's wave function having a significant amplitude for arbitrarily short wavelengths, i.e., for arbitrarily large momenta, so the iconic single-particle uncertainty relation permits a particle's position to be arbitrarily accurately ascertained. Once a single-particle theory is second quantized, however, the physics of imparting a particle's wave function with ever larger momenta eventually encounters stiff competition from the formation of multiparticle states wherein none of the individual particles is characterized by high momentum. In fact, the single-particle uncertainty principle itself is modified by the presence of the expectation value of the particle number operator on its right side. Since the threshold for the high-momentum-diverting formation of additional particles is set by the particle's rest mass, it stands to reason that particles have an irreducible position uncertainty of the order of their Compton wavelength, for which we develop a specific model.
Category: Quantum Physics

[11615] viXra:1906.0329 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-21 07:53:29

Some Conjectures On Inequalities In Operator Axioms

Authors: Pith Peishu Xie
Comments: 2 Pages.

The Operator axioms have deduced number systems. In this paper, we conjecture some inequalities in Operator axioms. The general inequalities show the value of Operator axioms.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[11614] viXra:1906.0323 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-18 08:47:27

A Reformulation of Classical Mechanics

Authors: A. Blato
Comments: 6 Pages. Version 2 in English.

This paper presents a reformulation of classical mechanics which is invariant under transformations between inertial and non-inertial reference frames and which can be applied in any reference frame without introducing fictitious forces.
Category: Classical Physics

[11613] viXra:1906.0318 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-18 12:20:34

Asymptotic Closed-form Nth Zero Formula for Riemann Zeta Function

Authors: Alan M. Gómez
Comments: 2 Pages.

Assuming the Riemann Hypothesis to be true, we propose an asymptotic and closed-form formula to find the imaginary part for non-trivial zeros of the Riemann Zeta Function.
Category: Number Theory

[11612] viXra:1906.0311 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-19 03:12:12

The Nature of Yukawa's Nuclear Force and Charge

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper builds on our previous paper and further explores the math and the physics of Yukawa’s potential function for the nucleus. It calculates forces and provides a formula for the nucleon charge (Yukawa's nucleon charge is the equivalent of the electron charge for the nuclear force). We find its numerical value is equal to (the square root of) the product of Euler’s number, the fine-structure constant, Planck’s constant and the speed of light. To make sense of this result, we need to accept the notion of a nuclear charge, which is nothing but the concept of the strong charge that goes with the strong force. The model is, of course, purely theoretical: the objective is to only to explore theoretical concepts using numerical data for protons and neutrons. Our next paper will try to see whether or not these explorations make sense when analyzed in the context of quark theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[11611] viXra:1906.0299 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-17 08:44:47

Analogy of Weber's Formula for Gravitation may Explain Dark Matter, Dark Energy and Pioneer Anomaly

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 5 Pages.

Weber's formula for the force of interaction between charged particles, which is a modification of Coulomb's law, may solve many of the paradoxes and puzzles in classical and relativistic electromagnetism. In this paper we propose modification of Newton's law of gravitation according to Weber's formula. This may solve many of the outstanding problems in cosmology such as dark matter, dark energy and the Pioneer anomaly.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[11610] viXra:1906.0295 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-20 00:58:29

Expanding Universe from Weyl Cosmology and Asymptotic Safety in Quantum Gravity

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 19 Pages.

A study of the simplest Jordan-Brans-Dicke-like action within the context of Weyl geometry, combined with the findings of Weinberg’s Asymptotic Safety program in quantum gravity, leads to a plethora of nice numerical results : (i) like singling out the quartic potential from all the others; (ii) having (Anti) de Sitter space as the most natural solution; (iii) furnishing the value of the observed vacuum energy density at the Hubble scale (3/8 pi G_N R_H^2) ~ 10^{−122} M_P^4 ; (iv) and a value of {3/8 pi) M^4_P for the vacuum energy density at the Planck scale; (v) interpreting the “Bang” of the Big Bang as the singularity of the Weyl gauge field of dilations at t = 0 ushering in the era of inflation, and (vi) allowing the possibility that our universe is a Black Hole whose horizon coincides with the cosmological Hubble horizon. It is warranted to explore deeper the interplay among Weyl geometry, Asymptotic safety and Maldacena’s AdS/CFT correspondence (holographic renormalization group flow). Also relevant is the work by Wetterich on the role of dilatation symmetry in higher dimensions and the vanishing of the cosmological constant. Last, but not least, we should also consider the implications of Penrose’ Conformal Cyclic Cosmology and Nottale’s Scale Relativity Theory with the key findings of this work.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory