**Previous months:**

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2014 - 1401(190) - 1402(149) - 1403(842) - 1404(261) - 1405(328) - 1406(179) - 1407(204) - 1408(221) - 1409(224) - 1410(189) - 1411(492) - 1412(249)

2015 - 1501(232) - 1502(230) - 1503(254) - 1504(232) - 1505(154)

Any replacements are listed further down

[10642] **viXra:1505.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-22 18:07:19*

**Authors:** David Harding

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Described as "the worst theoretical prediction in the history of physics." the vacuum catastrophe can best be described as the roughly 120 orders of magnitude difference between measured gravitational values of the vacuum energy density and a theoretical zero-point energy suggested by naïve application of quantum field theory. The nature of vacuum energy continues to be ambiguous. The interacting quantum field, its renormalization, and its interaction with gravity in Minkowski space (that is, in our real universe) is still being debated. Does the vacuum energy gravitate? Walther Nernst questioned the consequences of the huge vacuum energy on gravitation. How does one calculate the vacuum density? Is summing the quantum mechanical zero point energies a valid approach? Is it uniform, or does it reveal varying energy probability with varying local mass?
This paper proposes that increasing gravitational effects of a body or group of bodies augment the likelihood of quantum interactions occurring. The reverse of this is also true. The emptier space is, the less likely it becomes to have quantum interactions occurring.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[10641] **viXra:1505.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-22 21:15:18*

**Authors:** S Bogue, T Bogue, E Bogue

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This theory of Quantum Gravity will describe the physical process which causes the force of Gravity. The energy of the vacuum causes photon pressure on every particle and energy wave in the universe. As interactions occur with the vacuum energy, it creates a locally uneven distribution of energy density. When another object is within a region of uneven density, it will be accelerated towards the object which created the variance in density. This theory uses the quite large energy of the vacuum 10^113J/m^3, C, and the small Planck length 10^-35m to calculate G, the gravitational constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10640] **viXra:1505.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-23 00:03:25*

**Authors:** Fei Tan

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Basing on analyses for the data of photoeﬀect, observed by Millikan in 1916, this paper finds that the energy in the photoeffect are not conservative obviously nearby the cutoﬀ frequency, and that the scales of the nonconservative energy fit quantitatively the theoretical prediction in 2013. The causes that the energy nonconservation phenomenon was ignored by Millikan in 1916 are: (1). The wrong measurement made by Millikan’s assistant for the relative intensity of the spectrum of his mercury lamp; (2). Absolute belief for the energy con-servation law in any cases.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[10639] **viXra:1505.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-22 13:55:57*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The theory presented in this paper is part of the quantum formulation of Einstein's theory of special relativity. The formulation is based on the assumption that both time and space are quantized. Thus, the Einstein's formula of length contraction, which is identical to the original Fitzgerald-Lorentz length contraction equation, is modified to account for the discrete nature of space. Although this formulation considers that both space and time are discrete physical entities, only the quantized nature of space will be considered in this paper.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10638] **viXra:1505.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-22 14:35:07*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is well known that stars oscillate perpendicular to their axis of rotation as they orbit galactic nuclei[1]. Since stellar orbits are not strictly elliptical, modifications to Kepler's laws will be introduced. It will be shown that the observed consistency in a star's orbital velocity is simply due to the law of conservation of angular momentum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10637] **viXra:1505.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-22 09:16:25*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Maybe every elementary particle has channels for the transmission of quantum information in a vacuum. Sounds pretty wild. However, it is experimentally proved that a single particle can have quantum entanglement, and hence to process some information. In this article, the Unruh effect is obtained as the thermal processing of quantum information in physical vacuum.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10636] **viXra:1505.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-22 03:49:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Researchers have come a step closer to building one of the world's best dark matter detectors: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently signed off on the conceptual design of the proposed LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) experiment and gave the green light for the procurement of some of its components. DOE's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, a key member of the LZ collaboration, is setting up a test stand for the detector prototype and a facility to purify liquid xenon, which will be the detector's "eye" for dark matter. [12]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[10635] **viXra:1505.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-22 04:39:08*

**Authors:** Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We use the axiomatic method to reduce the number of zeros on the critical line. As the result, we obtain a disproof of the Riemann hypothesis.

**Category:** Number Theory

[10634] **viXra:1505.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-21 18:24:51*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

According to the principle of the uniqueness of truth, there should be only one truth, namely law of conservation of energy, in the area of Newton Mechanics. Through the example of free falling body, this paper derives the original Newton's second law and the original law of gravity respectively by using the law of conservation of energy.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[10633] **viXra:1505.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-21 18:27:47*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Due to the existence of man-made laws, many phenomena that are not found in nature, can be manufactured with artificial method, such as instantaneous magnetic monopole. Suppose there is a long uniform rectangular-shaped magnet, along its middle cross section (the demarcation section of N-pole and S-pole) to cut it at very high speed, as the disconnected instant moment, one half of the magnet is the pure N-pole, and the other half is the pure S-pole. Similarly, other instantaneous physical phenomena such as instantaneous fractional charge may also be made with artificial method.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[10632] **viXra:1505.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-21 11:29:29*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Some of the massless fermibosonic entity fundamental to E8 symmetry universe theory failed to develop its fully massless character (i.e. the ttH process entity) during the prior unbroken E8 symmetry epoch before the big bang and now be observed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10631] **viXra:1505.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-21 03:48:04*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is closed for refurbishment until later this year. But that doesn't discontinue the findings from flooding in. While examining through data from 2011 and 2012, particle physicists have discovered convincing data for a fresh, formerly unobserved decay channel. The pre-published paper can be found in Nature. The LHC accelerates protons, naturally located at the center of an atom, and directs them zooming around its spherical compartment deep underground. When the protons strike, they annihilate—converting from matter into unadulterated energy. Then, among the discordance of senseless energy that's vanishing in and out of reality all around the reaction chamber, particles start to appear, vanish and manifest themselves again. This pathway that the proton's energy takes through particles is termed as decay channel. [12]
The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate.
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[10630] **viXra:1505.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-21 05:07:12*

**Authors:** Zhang Tianshu

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

In this article, first we classify A, B and C according to their respective odevity, and thereby ret rid of two kinds from AX+BY=CZ. Then affirmed AX+BY=CZ in which case A, B and C have a common prime factor by concrete examples. After that, proved AX+BY≠CZ in which case A, B and C have not any common prime factor by the mathematical induction with the aid of the symmetric law of odd numbers after the decomposition of the inequality. Finally, we have proved that the Beal’s conjecture does hold water after the comparison between AX+BY=CZ and AX+BY≠CZ under the given requirements.

**Category:** Number Theory

[10629] **viXra:1505.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-21 06:28:11*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In its original form the Dirac equation for the free electron and the positron is formulated by using complex number based spinors and matrices. That equation can be split into two equations, one for the electron and one for the positron. These equations can easily be converted to their quaternionic format. The corresponding wave equation contains a striking curl term.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10628] **viXra:1505.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-20 18:55:47*

**Authors:** Lukas A. Saul

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiment and the relevant predictions of quantum mechanics in theoretical and experimental forms are reinterpreted here with a locally realistic model. We demonstrate a consistent description based on probabilistic measurement for Mermin and Aspect EPR setups, and show how Bell's theorem applies. Quantum non-locality is shown to be an interpretation dependent on deterministic measurement and vanishes when a treatment of probabilistic measurement and relevant information theory is included.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10627] **viXra:1505.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-20 19:39:15*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Entanglement between separate, distant systems, be it pairs of photon, atoms or molecules, is a well-documented phenomenon. It is the bases for emerging quantum information technologies, including cryptographic secure keys, quantum teleportation and quantum computing. At present there is a consensus among physicists that the violation of non-locality, prescribed by quantum mechanics, should be accepted as a fact of how nature behaves, even if it conflicts with human reasoning and intuition, including those of Albert Einstein and John Bell. In the present paper I describe a new relativity theory, termed Information Relativity, and show that it can account, both qualitatively and quantitatively, for entanglement in a bipartite preparation like the one described in the EPR paper. The theory rests on two axioms: The relativity axiom of Special Relativity, plus an axiom designating light as the information carrier. The theory is deterministic, local, and complete, in the sense that each element in the theory is in a one-to-one correspondence with reality. The fact that the theory, with no hidden variables, can make precise predictions of entanglement, is in itself sufficient for casting serious doubts about the nonlocality condition imposed by Bell's Inequality. More importantly, the theory results demonstrate that entanglement is in fact, a local phenomenon, and that communicating information between entangled systems occurs by local causality, even at long distances. These conclusions imply that quantum theory is incomplete, that entanglement is not spooky, and that the reasoning and worries of Einstein and Bell were intact. The results also demonstrate that although God might be playing dice, we can do otherwise.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10626] **viXra:1505.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-20 21:57:02*

**Authors:** Nordin Zakaria

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

I speculate upon the idea that qualia comprise of quanta or packets,and that each packet is generated by physical processes within a neuron, possibly at the quantum level. Pattern-specic neuronal activation causes wave-like interactions among the packets, leading to phenomenal sensa-
tion. In essence, I provide in this paper a new panpsychic interpretation of the hard problem of consciousness.

**Category:** Mind Science

[10625] **viXra:1505.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-21 03:06:54*

**Authors:** Sjaak UItterdijk

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This article shows the calculations of the Doppler shift in all possible situations and compares the result of one of these situations with the result as predicted by the STR in this same situation. An astonishing contradiction between this predicted result by the STR and the hypothesis on which the STR is built shows up.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[10624] **viXra:1505.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-20 11:30:31*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Smarandache-Coman function is the function defined on the set of non-null positive integers with values in the set of non-null positive integers in the following way: SC(n) is the least number such that SC(n)! is divisible by n + r, where r is the digital root of the number n. In other words, SC(n) = S(n + r), where S is the Smarandache function. I also state, in this paper, nine conjectures on this function which seems to be particularly interesting: beside other characteristics, it seems to have as values all the prime numbers and, more than that, they seem to appear, leaving aside the non-prime values, in natural order.

**Category:** Number Theory

[10623] **viXra:1505.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-20 11:43:40*

**Authors:** S.C. Gaudie

**Comments:** 3 pages; A4 paper; portrait orientation; mostly font 11; UK English; Freelance scientist.

From the standard definitions of
volume of a sphere &
density of a solid:-
(cube root [mass/density]) = (cube root [volume]) & is proportional to radius.
If density is almost constant,
cube root [mass/d] = is proportional to radius, where d is constant.
[cube root of the mass], equivalent to a radius parameter, is quantized & the radius ratios form consistent patterns for the different levels of matter.
The cube root of the masses of the fundamental particles become calculable relative to the cube root of the mass of the electron! [The cube of the values then give the masses (MeV).]
[Note:- The “standard letters” for the fundamental particles below are not for for the particles themselves but one of their properties i.e. (cube root of the mass of the electron)]
4*(e1=e/4) + u{=10*e1} = d{=14*e1}, where e1 = (cube root of the mass of the electron)/4
8*(e2 = [mU]) + s{=6*e2} = c{=14*e2}, where e2 = 6*e1
10*(e3 = [tU]) + b{=4*e3} = t{=14*e3}, where e3 = 14*e1
Also:- Higgs boson = 50: w[+-] boson = 43: (3*14 =42)z[0] boson = 45:

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[10622] **viXra:1505.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-20 08:00:16*

**Authors:** ChengGang.Zhang

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

One especial function will be considered in this paper , and two hypotheses of quantum mechanics can be derived by the especial function ; which exists objectively and really in nature through analysis the theory which has been developed .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10621] **viXra:1505.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-20 06:46:25*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It is shown that the electromagnetic field is not a U(1) gauge theory, and it is shown that the Wightman axioms are inconsistent with the principle of conservation of energy and momentum.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[10620] **viXra:1505.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-19 15:51:10*

**Authors:** Claudio Piantanida

**Comments:** May 2015 - 83 pages - english.

This paper proposes a Galilean-invariant theory of electromagnetism, applicable at first order
in v/c, describing both instantaneous and propagative interactions.
To extend this theory to higher orders, definitions of universal time and proper time are
introduced. New transformations between reference frames are also suggested.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[10619] **viXra:1505.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-19 09:29:47*

**Authors:** Jacek Safuta

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Max Tegmark, exploring implications of the External Reality Hypothesis (ERH) that there exists an external physical reality completely independent of us humans, claims that physics is so successfully described by mathematics because the physical world is completely mathematical, isomorphic to a mathematical structure, and that we are simply uncovering this bit by bit.[1] In this essay we have tried to discover that mathematical structure.
We start from the correspondence rule as it has a potential to look at the existing empirical domain from a different angle, outside the mainstream physics.
Geometrical Universe Hypothesis (GUH) is the theory of mathematical physics compatible with ERH. If GUH is correct, then the empirical domain and the correspondence rule are redundant in the sense that they can be inferred from Thurston geometries.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[10618] **viXra:1505.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-19 11:05:08*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Yet in portuguese

We have proved that there are initial velocities u^0 (x) and forces F(x,t) such that there is no solution to the Navier-Stokes equations, which corresponds to the cases (C) and (D) of the problem relating to Navier-Stokes equations available on the website of the Clay Institute.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[10617] **viXra:1505.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-19 00:31:36*

**Authors:** Vorobyev O.Yu., Golovkov L.S.

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This article brings in two new discrete distributions: multidimensional Binomial
distribution and multidimensional Poisson distribution. Also there are its characteristics and properties.

**Category:** Statistics

[10616] **viXra:1505.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-18 10:45:07*

**Authors:** L. Martino, V. Elvira, D. Luengo, J. Corander

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Monte Carlo algorithms represent the \textit{de facto} standard for approximating complicated integrals involving multidimensional target distributions. In order to generate random realizations from the target distribution, Monte Carlo techniques use simpler proposal probability densities for drawing candidate samples. Performance of any such method is strictly related to the specification of the proposal distribution, such that unfortunate choices easily wreak havoc on the resulting estimators. In this work, we introduce a \textit{layered}, that is a hierarchical, procedure for generating samples employed within a Monte Carlo scheme. This approach ensures that an appropriate equivalent proposal distribution is always obtained automatically (thus eliminating the risk of a catastrophic performance), although at the expense of a moderate increase in the complexity of the resulting algorithm. A hierarchical interpretation of two well-known methods, such as of the random walk Metropolis-Hastings (MH) and the Population Monte Carlo (PMC) techniques, is provided.
Furthermore, we provide a general unified importance sampling (IS) framework where multiple proposal densities are employed, and several IS schemes are introduced applying the so-called deterministic mixture approach.
Finally, given these schemes, we also propose a novel class of adaptive importance samplers using a population of proposals, where the adaptation is driven by independent parallel or interacting Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) chains. The resulting algorithms combine efficiently the benefits of both IS and MCMC methods.

**Category:** Statistics

[10615] **viXra:1505.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-18 06:49:16*

**Authors:** Fu-sui Liu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Based on exact theory of quantum transition and precise numerical calculations,
this paper demonstrates quantitatively that the Urbach tail in the
diagram of light absorption coefficient of semiconductor versus photon energy
are caused by energy nonconservation (ENC). This paper also points out
that the light absorption is a non-example of Fermi golden rule; due to ENC
the estimations on the dark energy and dark mass in our universe might be no
longer to have big significance; ENC is a non-example of the first and second
thermodynamic law.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10614] **viXra:1505.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-18 04:00:50*

**Authors:** Karl Birjukov

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

Relativity is seriously flawed as a theory of reality. However, it is very often the case that even a flawed theory is acceptable when no viable alternative is offered. When this happens, the flaws are made invisible, and carried into every idea that subsequently shapes concepts without a possibility of detection. It may seem strange to imagine that what is going to be developed here is in some ways an alternative intending to render those flaws visible. However, it is not so much that the interest here is relativity. The meaning of microcosm as it will be developed requires that it should be offered up against reality in comparison. Since no idea or theory ever really does this, the intention is to compare ideas against each other. When this happens, it is clear that a certain dissonance takes place, and so it becomes necessary to look at relativity since the dissonance comes from there. It should be stressed, however, that this is not intended as a scientific enterprise. Far from it. This notion of microcosm begins its life by looking for novel ways of approaching a more tangible and accessible meaning. As such, it lies outside the traditional purview of science, yet paradoxically has something to say about the nature of reality. Consequently, the lines of distinction that are traditionally drawn between subject areas inevitably become blurred.
Microcosm is generally considered in fairly abstract terms: a part reflects a whole, or more generally, all things are connected. Poetically and artistically, it is also suggestive of man as a reflection of the whole. But here, it may be more useful to think of the microcosm as a fraction – the word ‘fraction’ already holds within itself a denominator form that expresses the idea of the whole of which it is a part.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[10613] **viXra:1505.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-18 04:43:25*

**Authors:** Koen J. van Vlaenderen

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

The force law of Maxwell's classical electrodynamics does not agree with Newton's third law of motion (N3LM), in case of open circuit magnetostatics. Initially, a generalized magnetostatics theory is presented that includes two additional physical fields $B_\Phi$ and $B_l$, defined by scalar functions. The scalar magnetic field $B_l$ mediates a longitudinal Ampère force that balances the transverse Ampère force (aka the magnetic field force), such that the sum of the two forces agrees with N3LM for all stationary current distributions. Secondary field induction laws are derived; a secondary curl free electric field $\E_l$ is induced by a time varying scalar magnetic field $B_l$, which isn't described by Maxwell's electrodynamics. The Helmholtz' decomposition is applied to exclude $\E_l$ from the total electric field $\E$, resulting into a more simple Maxwell theory. Decoupled inhomogeneous potential equations and its solutions follow directly from this theory, without having to apply a gauge condition. Field expressions are derived from the potential functions that are simpler and far field consistent with respect to the Jefimenko fields. However, our simple version of Maxwell's theory does not satisfy N3LM. Therefore we combine the generalized magnetostatics with the simple version of Maxwell's electrodynamics, via the generalization of Maxwell's speculative displacement current. The resulting electrodynamics describes three types of vacuum waves: the $\Phi$ wave, the longitudinal electromagnetic (LEM) wave and the transverse electromagnetic (TEM) wave, with phase velocities respectively a, b and c. Power- and force theorems are derived, and the force law agrees with Newton's third law only if the phase velocities satisfy the following condition: a>>b and b=c. The retarded potential functions can be found without gauge conditions, and four retarded field expressions are derived that have three near field terms and six far field terms. All six far field terms are explained as the mutual induction of two free fields. Our theory supports Rutherford's solution of the 4/3 problem of electromagnetic mass, which requires an extra longitudinal electromagnetic momentum. Our generalized classical electrodynamics might spawn new physics experiments and electrical engineering, such as new photoelectric effects based on $\Phi$- or LEM radiation, and the conversion of natural $\Phi$- or LEM radiation into useful electricity, in the footsteps of Nikola Tesla and T.Henry Moray.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[10612] **viXra:1505.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-17 16:56:13*

**Authors:** Jonathan Tooker

**Comments:** 15 Pages. 5 figures, one citation pending (currently in FQXi essay contest)

We develop some ideas that can be used to show relationships between quantum state tensors and gravitational metric tensors. After firmly grasping the math by $\alpha$ and Einstein's equation, this is another attempt to shake it and see what goes and what stays. We introduce slightly more rigorous definitions for some familiar objects and find an unexpected connection between the chirological phase $\Phi^n$ and the quaternions $\bm{q}\in\mathbb{H}$. Torsion, the only field in string theory not already present in the theory of infinite complexity, is integrated. We propose a solution to the Ehrenfest paradox and a way to prove the twin primes conjecture. The theory's apparent connections to negative frequency resonant radiation and time reversal symmetry violation are briefly treated.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[10611] **viXra:1505.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-17 21:58:51*

**Authors:** Valery B. Smolensky

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Abstract: the article presents the author developed an original analytical method for determining the values of the fundamental physical constants (FPC). Given a finite formulas and the exact results of theoretical calculations 26 constants, including the fine-structure constant, the electron mass, Newton's gravitational constant and the Boltzmann constant. Presents a table comparing the results of calculations with the data CODATA 2010.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[10610] **viXra:1505.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-17 22:27:07*

**Authors:** Sasongko Raharjo

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Velocity of an object can affect the gravitational acceleration. Black hole is an example where the light can form a circular orbit in the strong gravitational field. This light is moving around that causes the observer where is not in the path of the light orbit see the black hole as total darkness. In addition, when there is a high velocity of an object has been interacting with the gravitational acceleration, the object is in the micro or zero gravity relative to massive object therefor the gravitational acceleration does no longer exist.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10609] **viXra:1505.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-17 22:33:27*

**Authors:** Gy. Szondy

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Presentation of the seminar 2015.04.29 at Eötvö Lorand University (ELTE)

In Special Relativity minkowski four-force is known to be perpendicular to the four-velocity and four-momentum vector. In the ‘50s Károly Novobátzky worked out the generalization of this four-force. We will shortly explain how this formalism can be used to describe conservative fields and how it leads to a Scalar-Tensor gravity that also fits the mathematical background of GPS. We also explain how this Scalar-Tensor gravity related to General Relativity and how can we derive the necessary scalar function (gravitation potential) from the Ricci scalar of the metric tensor. As a final thought we introduce an enhancement of a quantum particle model, where rest mass depends on backgound curvature - explaining the correspondance between gravitation potential and background curvature as revealed in the ST theory above.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10608] **viXra:1505.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-17 22:54:27*

**Authors:** Agustín A. Tobla

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In classical mechanics, this paper presents the definitions and the relations of the linear, radial and scalar magnitudes of a pair of particles ij.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[10607] **viXra:1505.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-17 11:07:48*

**Authors:** Vadim N. Matveev, Oleg V. Matvejev

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The paper discusses a method of measuring the one-way speed of light based on the use of a rigid rod freely rotating around its axis. The authors analyze the conditions related to phase correlation and synchronism of rotation of the rod ends in the reference frame wherein its axial velocity is zero and in the reference frames wherein it moves at a high axial velocity. The anticipated results of the experiment within special relativity and Lorentz ether theory are also considered.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[10606] **viXra:1505.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-17 09:14:57*

**Authors:** Blair D. Macdonald

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The Koch snowflake fractal attractor was analysed by Lorenz and Gini methods. It was found the fractal Lorenz curve fits the wealth (stock) distribution Lorenz curve. Gini coefficient analysis showed an increasing coefficient by iteration (time). It was concluded the Lorenz distribution is a property of the fractal and inextricably linked to (fractal) growth and development.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[10605] **viXra:1505.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-17 05:46:21*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics (S-SP), we present a new interpretation of the Quantum Mechanics i.e. the superluminal interpretation (SIQM). Werner Heisenberg used term “the ideological superstructures” to the hidden-variables theory. All known mainstream interpretations of quantum mechanics deserve such a term. It follows from the fact that all mainstream interpretations neglect physical consistency of the 3-dimensional wave functions. A wave function which fills up the Universe cannot be a coherent physical object when distant points of the wave function cannot communicate with superluminal speed. Just period of a local change in the wave function (due to a luminal Standard-Model interaction) cannot be shorter than size of the wave function divided by superluminal speed. The Planck length is the lower limit for size of gravitating particles. Objects with sizes smaller than the Planck length must be non-gravitating so non-relativistic and they must be superluminal. The S-SP, due to the succeeding phase transitions, leads from the objects with sizes smaller than the Planck length (so superluminal) to objects with sizes close to the Planck length (so luminal) and larger. The question is not whether there are in existence some superluminal entanglons responsible for quantum entanglement but why we cannot see their motion directly. And the answer is very simple - just they are not the Standard-Model objects, their size is much smaller than the Planck length and the degree of filling of spacetime is very low.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10604] **viXra:1505.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-17 05:57:11*

**Authors:** Vadim N. Matveev, Oleg V. Matvejev

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Here the so-called Bell’s accelerating rockets paradox is examined. The non-relativistic models of Bell's effect are presented, where likewise the theory of special relativity the proper distance between two rockets following one another is increased them being accelerated on identical programmes. It becomes clear that the proper distance increase is determined by Einstein’s simultaneity of the moments of the start of the programmes execution on the rockets. It is also shown that Einstein’s relative simultaneity does not ensure reversibility of the proper distance between the rockets upon their joint return to their initial state. The reversibility is only achieved by the introduction of the preferred reference frame (not necessarily absolute!) and of the universal time in all inertial reference frames.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[10603] **viXra:1505.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-16 12:35:47*

**Authors:** Misha Mikhaylov

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

It seems that statements determining features of some algebraic structures behavior are based on just intuitive assumptions or empiric observations and for sake of convenience (simplest example is the phrase: “let’s consider 0! =1”… perhaps, just because sir I. Newton entrusted, so, why not 2, 5, 7.65 – choose any). So, without logical explanation these are looking a little mysterious or sometimes even magic. This article is a humble attempt to get it straight rather formally. Some troubles may appear on the way – e.g. as it was shown earlier (in the ref. [2], for example), there are at least two binary relations hav-ing properties of idempotent equivalences – algebra’s elements that may aspire to be an identity. Apparently, probable obtaining of some well-known results in the text is not an attempt of their re-discovering, but it is rather “check-points” that confirm theory validity, more by token that it was made by using of the only exceptionally formal way, while usually they are obtained rather intuitively. Usually the notion of tensor product is determined for each kind of algebraic structure – especially for modulus (in group theory it is often called direct product – but this is a matter of semantics, so, it’s rather negligible). Here it is shown that tensor product may be introduced without defining of concrete algebraic structure. Without such introduction defining of algebraic operation is strongly complicated.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[10602] **viXra:1505.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-16 13:36:35*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This article may be promoted by vixra to science magazines.

A theoretical mechanism is presented for the hologram of gravity. This principle turns the Big Bang-universe into an illusion. The keystone is described as refined time, which is combined with the relativistic time of General Relativity. The refined time is time smaller than the Planck-time, which is formulated in a set of formulas in the Double Torus Theory (DTT). This is a new cosmological theory, which predicts a rotating Time Torus Universe (rTTU). In this particular article the formulations are also extended on how the rotation of the DTT-universe is calculated and can be detected by a shift of the dark spot in the CMB.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[10601] **viXra:1505.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-16 11:26:39*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Scientists have conducted a simulation that explains the collision between two clusters of galaxies. Clusters of galaxies are the biggest objects that exist in the universe. They are collections of hundreds of thousands of galaxies pulled together by gravity. Rare, extreme examples of clusters caught in the act of colliding seem to be challenging the accepted view that dark matter is made up of heavy particles. [13]
Dark matter may not be made of tiny particles as most scientists believe, but instead may consist of large chunks of strange matter anywhere from the size of an apple to an asteroid, researchers said. [12]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[10600] **viXra:1505.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-16 08:20:45*

**Authors:** Marouane rhafli

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

we introduce an algorithm that generates primes included in a given interval $I=[a,b]$ , the algorithm is an optimization to the segmented sieve of eratosthenes,it finds primes up to $N$ without any repetition of multiples of primes using the equation $p^{2}_{n}. p_{j}+2p_{n}.p{j}.c=N$ with $ c\in Z^{+}$ , its time complexity is sublinear $ O(nloglog(n)-n(loglog(n))^2)$.

**Category:** Number Theory

[10599] **viXra:1505.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-16 09:02:53*

**Authors:** Jaykov Foukzon

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

The vacuum energy density of free scalar quantum field with a distributional background spacetime also is considered.It has been widely believed that, except in very extreme situations, the influence of gravity on quantum fields should amount to just small, sub-dominant contributions. Here we argue that this belief is false by showing that there exist well-behaved spacetime evolutions where the vacuum energy density of free quantum fields is forced, by the very same background distributional spacetime such BHs, to become dominant over any classical energydensity component. This semiclassical gravity effect finds its roots in the singular behavior of quantum fields on curved spacetimes. In particular we obtain that the vacuum fluctuations <Ф^2> has a singular behavior on BHs horizon r_+: <Ф^2>~|r−r_+|^−2.We argue that this vacuum dominance may bear importent astrophysical implications.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10598] **viXra:1505.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-16 04:33:03*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Both the planet we live on and the star we orbit are made up of 'normal' matter, and though it features in many science fiction stories, antimatter seems to be incredibly rare in nature. With this new result, we have one of the first hints that we might be able to solve this mystery. [11]
Physicists in the College of Arts and Sciences have made important discoveries regarding Bs meson particles -- something that may explain why the universe contains more matter than antimatter.
Named Ds3*(2860), the particle, a new type of meson, was discovered by analyzing data collected with the LHCb detector at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The new particle is bound together in a similar way to protons. Due to this similarity, the Warwick researchers argue that scientists will now be able to study the particle to further understand strong interactions.
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[10597] **viXra:1505.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-15 15:24:11*

**Authors:** Percy Forest

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

ABSTRACT : The Sleeping Beauty Problem is shown to be misconceived and therefore incoherent. A model of the experiment is presented along with a properly conceived treatment of betting scenarios. The views of 'thirders', 'halfers' and 'double halfers' are examined when this model comports with the experience of Sleeping Beauty. Bayesian inference and the proper role of credence are also discussed.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[10596] **viXra:1505.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-15 11:41:13*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

To demonstrate some of the laws of physics in the digital Universe Seth Lloyd, I will use two postulates. They are sufficient for the conclusions of some effects of quantum mechanics, relativity theory, holographic principle.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10595] **viXra:1505.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-14 15:28:08*

**Authors:** Gene H Barbee

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Comments welcome genebarbee@msn.com

Observations regarding unexpected connections in quantum mechanically entangled systems are revealing a new understanding of our position in the universe. Experiments known by the initials EPR (Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen) show a statistical correlation between separated particle properties. If two particles are produced with opposite spins and move in different directions, it is observed that changes induced in one particle cause immediate changes in its partner. The classic “dual slit experiment” demonstrates that quantum photons can either produce a spot pattern or an interference pattern depending on whether an observer can “measure” which of two slits the photon travels through. More recently, a Discovery Magazine article by Zeeva Merali (Aug 26, 2010) indicates that an entangled particle responds to future changes in its partner (called “back from the future” observations by Jack Sarfatti of Cornell University). The author discusses the implications of taking this data at face value. Three FQXi contest essays [5][6][9]lead up to what I believe to be the explanation for EPR results and back from the future observations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10594] **viXra:1505.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-15 03:35:38*

**Authors:** T.Nakashima

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The equivalent condition about mobius function
of The Generalized Riemann Hypothesis.

**Category:** Number Theory

[10593] **viXra:1505.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-14 07:11:49*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** Pages.

In a recent paper [1] I proposed a novel relativity theory termed Information Relativity (IR). Unlike Einstein's relativity which dictates as force majeure that relativity is a true state of nature, Information Relativity assumes that relativity results from difference in information about nature between observers who are in motion relative to each other. The theory is based on two axioms: 1. the laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference (Special relativity's first axiom); 2. All translations of information from one frame of reference to another are carried by light or by another carrier with equal velocity (information-carrier axiom). For the case of constant relative velocities, I showed in the aforementioned paper that IR accounts successfully for the results of a class of relativistic time results, including the Michelson-Morley's "null" result, the Sagnac effect, and the neutrino velocities reported by OPERA and other collaborations. Here I apply the theory, with no alteration, to cosmology. I show that the theory is successful in accounting for several cosmological findings, including the pattern of recession velocity predicted by inflationary theories, the GZK energy suppression phenomenon at redshift z ̴ 1.6, and the amounts of matter and dark energy reported in recent ΛCDM cosmologies.
Keywords:

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10592] **viXra:1505.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-14 07:38:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

As do all advancing technologies, they will also create new nightmares. The most worrisome development will be in cryptography. Developing new standards for protecting data won’t be easy. The RSA standards that are in common use each took five years to develop. Ralph Merkle, a pioneer of public-key cryptography, points out that the technology of public-key systems, because it is less well-known, will take longer to update than these — optimistically, ten years. And then there is a matter of implementation so that computer systems worldwide are protected. Without a particular sense of urgency or shortcuts, Merkle says, it could easily be 20 years before we’ve replaced all of the Internet’s present security-critical infrastructure. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10591] **viXra:1505.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-13 18:16:33*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The heat exchangers are present in many sectors of the economy. They are widely used in Refrigerators, Air-conditioners, Engines, Refineries, etc. Here we show a heat exchanger that works based on the gravity control. This type of heat exchanger can be much more economic than the conventional heat exchangers.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[10590] **viXra:1505.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-13 23:34:42*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I conjecture that there exist an infinity of positive integers m of the form 6*k + 1 such that the numbers formed by concatenation n = m081 are primes or powers of primes, respectively semiprimes p*q such that q – p + 1 is prime or power of prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[10589] **viXra:1505.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-14 00:58:51*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I conjecture that there exist an infinity of numbers ab formed by concatenation from a multiple of 30, a, and a square of a prime, b, which are primes or powers of primes, respectively semiprimes p*q such that q – p + 1 is prime or power of prime, respectively semiprimes p1*q1 such that q1 – p1 + 1 is semiprime p2*q2 such that q2 – p2 + 1 is prime or power of prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[10588] **viXra:1505.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-13 09:18:03*

**Authors:** Markos Georgallides

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

Waves need a media to travel and carry energy. A standing wave is an oscillation pattern with a stationary outline (envelope) that results either from the superposition of two identical waves travelling opposite directions or from an inner equilibrium vibration . A given particle that is bound ( confined ) in a certain region of space is a standing wave and vibrates within the constraints of the envelope function y = 2A.sin(kx).cos.(wt) . Light as Force is acting on zero area wavelength as Normal stress and thus measured as linear Momentum (since Stationary energy becomes Kinetic) and Work becomes travelling Energy .This property of energy to be converted into , velocity in wavelength as background media is the reason that doesn`t collapse by radiating away its or their energy . Work as Vibration is confined in its wavelength as a Damper , absorber , and is retained unchanged when travelling . The Why , When and the How is widely analyzed .Since also a stationary wave consists of two transverse waves then is not interpreted as an equal mixture of the two, but an inner equilibrium on monad . It was shown that the Energy-Space universe ( the beyond Planck`s length , Gravity`s and Spaces` levels ) is [PNS] and Space Anti-Space as work [38-39] , which is the cause of Spaces existence , with the only two quantized magnitudes wavelength ,λ , consisting the{MFMF = Background medium Field } and the Gravity force as momentum ,Λ, on Monads as the Gravity force . Momentum as velocity is the cross product of two velocity vectors v1,v2 which form with the two side-by-side Medium breakages ( The Electric E Magnetic P, following the cycloid motion ) and which is the Intrinsic and Stationary Electromagnetic Field of gravity`s in Medium . Breakages and Particles with velocity ,v, being the units of matter with Electric charge ,q, as their physical property is, when placed in prior referred Electromagnetic Field EP , where like charges repel and unlike charges attract , experience a force as Lorentz force , and this is called Gravity-Force , while Background-medium , is the Gravity-Field in the medium , i.e. the Quantized-Space is the medium (ds) which is also Quantized-Energy of two (±) breakages forming dipole, on which is exerted a Thrust as Velocity ,v, which is decomposed into the two equal velocity vectors ,v1,v2, and moving on two transverse cycloid trajectories which create an Intrinsic Stationary Electromagnetic wave E,P,→ the Gravity field,{ into where motion (E,P) and spin is balanced from the anti- cycloidal motion (evolute) of the Anti -Quantized-Space (-ds) }. Gravity force is exerted on breakages which are [The Material points forming dipoles] as velocity vector ,v, which is decomposed into two reverse velocities following the cycloidal motion , and consisting the intrinsic Stationary Electro-magnetic Wave of gravity, and which is binding the points of this Rest and mass-less nature Field .The infinite tiny volumes caves [Spaces of inner Electromagnetic field of particles] are the tanks in where Energy of dark points and dark fringes of two interference waves, is conserved .This is the Space-Energy unification Universe in Inertial systems consisted of this [MFMF] Field and Gravity`s inner Displacement current force and consist the Absolute frames in nature . So the immense confusion in the basic ideas regarding the Quantized Energy-Space , The Quanta , vanishes.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[10587] **viXra:1505.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-13 09:53:42*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I conjecture that there exist an infinity of primes m such that the number n = m*(m + 360) – 6240 is square of prime, respectively prime, respectively semiprime p*q such that q – p + 1 is prime or square of prime, respectively semiprime p1*q1 such that q1 – p1 + 1 is a semiprime q2*p2 such that q2 – p2 + 1 is prime or square of prime.

**Category:** Number Theory

[10586] **viXra:1505.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-13 11:00:46*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9]
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[10585] **viXra:1505.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-13 06:56:28*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 6 Pages. BREAKTHROUGH THEORY OF ASTROPHYSICS

This article portrays space and time as conformal projections of motion, and reveals the co-relation between the universality of spacetime (relativistic model) and energy-frequency (quantum model). This is a new theory of cosmology with a concept of unified matter, which created supermatter previously defined as black hole, thus negating the assumption of a gravitational collapse of a star to form a black hole. In general, there is no cosmic hole in the fabric of space where the density of space and not that of matter should be comprehended. Accordingly, the assumption that light cannot escape from the “black hole” is wrong, for to emit light, the dark matter must evolve into a bright matter when it reaches its bifurcation point.
Moreover, this article contributes to the understanding of the formation of twin accretion discs and the origin of twin relativistic jets in gauge/gravity duality. This concept is in conformity with the basic principle of duality in nature, where no singular event of the alleged “Big Bang” could have taken place, for there must always be the cause and the effect in a dual interaction, as in the wave-particle duality.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[10584] **viXra:1505.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-13 07:32:08*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF ( Function Follows Form) Theory, all star forming molecular clouds are the result of one or more Herbig Haro systems, equipped with so called dual hotspots which are assumed to be the result of dual new physics “electric dark matter black holes”.
Bok globules are small dark clouds of dense cosmic dust and gas in which star formation only seldom takes place.
Recently some Bok globules are found with dual and triple density distributions indicating that small Herbig Haro systems could also here be the origin of cloud formation.
One of them (ESO 9934) seems to be responsible for fast Infra Red globule production in stead of real stars. These globules discriminate themselves by showing two regular alignments of 5-7 globules. The two rows of globules show a V- shape, pointing to the centre of the small Herbig Haro system.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[10583] **viXra:1505.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-13 07:34:25*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 9 Pages. in Russian

Mathematical model of a tsunami similar to mathematical models and sandy vortex soliton [1, 2, 3] proposed. The reasons of stability and vertical motion цунами considered.\\ Предлагается математическая модель цунами, аналогичная математическим моделям песчаного вихря и солитона [1, 2, 3]. Рассматриваются причины вертикальной устойчивости и движения цунами.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[10582] **viXra:1505.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-13 08:35:14*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

There are enough unknowns for not considering the special relativity as true.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10581] **viXra:1505.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-13 05:19:38*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Showing the charge non conservation in the decay of a
neutron that made of quarks according to quark model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[10580] **viXra:1505.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-13 02:52:57*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Based on the similarity of properties of photons and money, and on the formula for the density of distribution of photon gas by energies, the corresponding mathematical formula for distribution of annual income per capita is obtained. Application of this formula for the data analysis reveals several independent groups of population with different average levels of their income. In particular four main groups of population contribute to the distribution of income in the economy of the USA. JEL Codes: C51, E01, E66.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[10579] **viXra:1505.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-12 10:12:33*

**Authors:** Stephen Reucroft, Edward Williams

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We have developed models for several elementary particles that are based on simple assumptions and experimental observations. Using these models we take a semi-classical approach to derive relations between the particle masses and their radii. All results are in good agreement with measurements.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[10578] **viXra:1505.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-12 12:06:35*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: The recent finding by CERN of the rare process of Higgs-boson production in association with two top quarks and a Higgs makes one wonder if this process, like the tetraquark particle, serves a marker function, in this case for the existence of fermibosonic entities of E8 symmetry.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10577] **viXra:1505.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-12 08:47:22*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The concept of mass is usually introduced through Newton’s Laws. Associated to the concepts of force and acceleration in the second law of Newton f = m a , valid, it is affirmed, in inertial frames. Since Newton's laws does no define force and inertial frame in a logical unobjectionable manner (Eisenbud, 1957) the concept of mass must be introduced in a way consistent with previous established concepts that we assume a priori. The concepts of space and time permits the introduction of two concepts that define motion – velocity and acceleration. If we admit symmetry properties to space the mass concept emerge as a relation of distances of the centres of two spheres with mass m and mp (standard mass) and another point designated mass centre, at rest, the spheres describe a central motion. Mass is defined by motion. The spheres gravitate around the mass centre with accelerations in the same relationship of the masses, the relationship of the distances to the mass centre. Initially we admit a classical approximation since time is the same everywhere independently of the frame of reference.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10576] **viXra:1505.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-12 05:34:43*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Vértice 66/Maio-Junho, 23 (1995).

We connect the change of complex bodies (extended deformable bodies, not a particle) with the change of entropy, Thermodynamics with Time.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[10575] **viXra:1505.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-12 00:43:47*

**Authors:** A. Lipovka, I. Cardenas

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In present paper the Duane-Hunt relation for direct measurement of the Planck constant is improved by including of relativistic corrections. New relation to determine the Planck constant, suggested in this paper contains Duane-Hunt relation as first term and can be applied in a wide range of energies.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[10574] **viXra:1505.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-12 02:34:18*

**Authors:** Chu-Jun Gu

**Comments:** 29 Pages. 3 figures

Abstract We propose a space-time interaction principle (StIP) which states any particle with mass m
will involve a random motion without friction, due to random impacts from space-time. Every impact changes the amount \hbar
for an action of the particle. According to the principle, firstly, we prove the interaction coefficient must be \Re=\frac{\hbar}{2m_{ST}}
deriving from Langevin's equation to the corresponding Fokker-Planck Hamiltonian, where m_{ST}
is a space-time sensible mass of the particle. We can derive that an equation of motion for the particle will be the Schr\ddot{o}
dinger equation, and prove that the space-time sensible mass m_{ST}
reduce to the inertial mass in the non-relativistic quantum mechanics. Secondly, we show that there must exist the smallest mass \bar{m}_{ST}
as the minimum of space-time sensible mass, provided the speed of light in vacuum as the maximum speed due to the postulation of special relativity. Furthermore, we estimate a magnitude of this \bar{m}_{ST}
from microwave background radiation. Thirdly, an interpretation of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is suggested, with a stochastic origin of Feynman's path integral formalism. It is shown that we can construct a physical picture distinct from Copenhagen interpretation, and reinvestigate the nature of space-time and reveal the origin of quantum behaviours from the materialistic point of view.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10573] **viXra:1505.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-11 13:28:38*

**Authors:** Vito R. D'Angelo

**Comments:** 50 Pages.

The theoretical calculation of the Planck circumference and the Planck length, with a result that is in agreement with the uncertainty limits set by the 2010 (NIST) CODATA values. The author posits the Planck circumference as the first pi, and theorizes a new profound meaning of the inverse of the elementary charge as the number of a postulated fundamental unit Y'; within the framework of a proposed finite fundamental particle grouping theory - Utrixical theory.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[10572] **viXra:1505.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-11 13:46:06*

**Authors:** Roald C Maximo

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A serious conceptual error has been committed along with the experiment performed by Michelson and Morley in the year 1887 conceived in order to detect the existence of an ether and whose null outcome gave rise to far-fetched speculations regarding the nature of light and the properties of space and time. The resulting fuss caught the attention of the physicist Hendrik Lorentz who, to cope with that result, suggested the introduction of an arbitrary correction factor to the equations describing the devised experimental model. In fact, this factor was introduced to suit an ill-conceived premise to an unexpected outcome and, since then, it has become a spook that's persistently being applied as a panacea to explain other little understood phenomena in the Physics and even the Cosmology domain, not to mention Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10571] **viXra:1505.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-11 10:18:00*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Ciência & Tecnologia dos Materiais, Vol. 15, nº 1/2, 23 (2003).

Temperature is introduced as a derived concept from energy and entropy. We consider two sub-systems in equilibrium for several configurations. The equality of temperature of the sub-systems is obtained from the equilibrium condition. The isothermal transformation is defined for several configurations and from this definition we obtain the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. We apply the analysis to the ideal gas. The classical ideal gas appears as a limit and the problem of the measurement of temperature is analysed.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[10570] **viXra:1505.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-11 10:36:06*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The question of the source of energy in a dust whirl is considered. Atmospheric conditions cannot be the sole source of energy, as such dust whirls exist on Mars, where the atmosphere is absent. Here we show that the source of energy for the dust whirl is the energy of the gravitational field. We present a mathematical model of the sand vortex, which uses a system of Maxwell-like gravitational equations. The model explains some of the properties of the dust whirl – preservation of cylindrical vertical shape of the dust whirl, motion of the dust whirl as a whole.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[10569] **viXra:1505.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-11 11:05:22*

**Authors:** Rommel Nana Dutchou

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

This work presents a formalism of the notions of space and of time which contains that of the special relativity, which is compatible with the quantum theories, and which distinguishes itself from the general relativity by the fact that it allows us to define the possible states of motion between two observers arbitrarily chosen in the nature. Before calculating the advance of the perihelion of Mercury accurately, it is necessary to define the existence of a perihelion and its possible movement. In other words, it is necessary to express the use of a physical space which is a set of spatial positions, a set of world lines constantly at rest according to a unique observer. This document defines all the physical spaces of the nature (some compared with the others) by noticing that to choose a temporal variable in one of these spaces, it is enough to choose a particular parametrization along each of its points (each point is a world line).

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[10568] **viXra:1505.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-11 07:27:49*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 28 Pages. Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics Teaching Modern Physics, Badajoz (Spain) 1992.

Our goal is to achieve in a condensed way, the resolution of some difficulties about the conceptual foundations of Thermodynamics-problematic ideas are identified and analysed. These difficulties have been presented and published in several and incompatible ways but the subject is still controversial. Why is this controversy still unsolved or-and this is stranger-why do some authors refuse the existence of difficulties although the existence of incompatible formulations is a fact? How can a resolution be obtained after the problem has been clearly identified? The difficulties and the solution considered are related to the followings concepts: 1. The several concepts of Heat. 2. The several concepts of Force. 3. The First Law and the concepts presented on points 1 and 2. 4. The several concepts of reversibility and the concept of quasi-static transformation. 5. The introduction of entropy in a simple and straightforward way with a physical interpretation to circumvent and clarify all the difficulties identified-we propose an energy-entropy principle.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[10567] **viXra:1505.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-11 08:03:17*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Motivated by T-duality, the 10D/4D correspondence is expanded to apply on trans-Planckian scales. On particle mass scales, the correspondence relates four-dimensional length scales with mass values derived from a ten-dimensional geometry. On trans-Planckian scales, the correspondence relates four-dimensional mass scales with length values derived from the ten-dimensional geometry. Trans-Planckian length scales corresponding to the masses of stellar, intermediate-mass and supermassive black holes are shown to derive from the higher-dimensional geometry. The trans-Planckian length scales calculated for supermassive black holes correlate with the masses of atomic nuclei across the Planck divide suggesting that the two types of object are analogous. Curiously, the galaxy cluster has a particle analogue.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[4837] **viXra:1505.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-22 10:55:58*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In its original form the Dirac equation for the free electron and the free positron is formulated by using complex number based spinors and matrices. That equation can be split into two equations, one for the electron and one for the positron. These equations can easily be converted to their quaternionic format. The equation for the electron and the equation for the positron differ in the sign of a curl term. This results in a special way for constructing the corresponding wave equation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[4836] **viXra:1505.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-22 04:36:52*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In its original form the Dirac equation for the free electron and the free positron is formulated by using complex number based spinors and matrices. That equation can be split into two equations, one for the electron and one for the positron. These equations can easily be converted to their quaternionic format.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[4835] **viXra:1505.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-21 13:12:17*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In its original form the Dirac equation for the free electron and the free positron is formulated by using complex number based spinors and matrices. That equation can be split into two equations, one for the electron and one for the positron. These equations can easily be converted to their quaternionic format.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[4834] **viXra:1505.0147 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-21 15:43:51*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Entanglement between separate, distant systems, be it pairs of photon, atoms, or molecules, is a well-documented phenomenon. It is the basis for emerging quantum information technologies, including cryptographic secure keys, quantum teleportation and quantum computing. The current consensus among physicists is that the violation of non-locality, prescribed by quantum mechanics, should be accepted as a fact of how nature behaves, even if it conflicts with human reasoning and intuition, including the reasoning and intuitions of Albert Einstein and John Bell. In the present paper, I describe a new relativity theory, termed Information Relativity, and show that it can account, both qualitatively and quantitatively, for entanglement in a bipartite preparation like the one described in the EPR paper. The theory rests on two axioms: The relativity axiom of Special Relativity, plus an axiom designating light as the information carrier. The theory is deterministic, local, and complete, in the sense that each element in the theory is in a one-to-one correspondence with reality. The fact that the theory, with no hidden variables, can make precise predictions of entanglement is in itself sufficient for casting serious doubts on the nonlocality condition imposed by Bell's inequality. More importantly, the theory results demonstrate that entanglement is in fact, a local phenomenon, and that communicating information between entangled systems occurs by local causality, even at long distances. These conclusions imply that quantum theory is incomplete, that entanglement is not spooky, and that the reasoning and worries of Einstein and Bell are intact. The results also demonstrate that although God might be playing dice, we can do otherwise.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[4833] **viXra:1505.0143 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-21 19:04:36*

**Authors:** S.C. Gaudie

**Comments:** 3 pages; A4 paper; portrait orientation; mostly font 11; UK English; Freelance scientist.

Abstract:-
From the standard definitions of
volume of a sphere &
density of a solid:-
(cube root [mass/density]) = (cube root [volume]) & is proportional to radius.
If density is almost constant,
cube root [mass/d] = is proportional to radius, where d is constant.
[cube root of the mass], equivalent to a radius parameter, is quantized & the radius ratios form consistent patterns for the different levels of matter. [A “new “high-energy” “photon type”” is a possibility.]
The cube root of the masses of the fundamental particles become calculable relative to the cube root of the mass of the electron! [The cube of the values then give the masses (MeV).]
[Note:- The “standard letters” for the fundamental particles below are not for for the particles themselves but one of their properties i.e. (cube root of the mass of the electron)]
4*(e1=e/4) + u{=10*e1} = d{=14*e1}, where e1 = (cube root of the mass of the electron)/4
8*(e2 = [mU]) + s{=6*e2} = c{=14*e2}, where e2 = 6*e1
10*(e3 = [tU]) + b{=4*e3} = t{=14*e3}, where e3 = 14*e1
Also:- Higgs boson = 50: w[+-] boson = 43: (3*14 =42)z[0] boson = 45:

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[4832] **viXra:1505.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-21 13:42:45*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 6 Pages. replaced again: harmonic function -> continuous function on p. 5

It is shown that the electromagnetic field is not a U(1) gauge theory, and it is shown that the Wightman axioms are inconsistent with the principle of conservation of energy and momentum.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[4831] **viXra:1505.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-20 15:25:43*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 6 Pages. misprints.

It is shown that the electromagnetic field is not a U(1) gauge theory, and it is shown that the Wightman axioms are inconsistent with the principle of conservation of energy and momentum.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[4830] **viXra:1505.0138 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-20 11:11:06*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

We have proved that there are initial velocities u^0 (x) and forces F(x,t) such that there is no solution to the Navier-Stokes equations, which corresponds to the cases (C) and (D) of the problem relating to Navier-Stokes equations available on the website of the Clay Institute.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[4829] **viXra:1505.0126 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-20 03:41:50*

**Authors:** Vadim Matveev, Oleg Matvejev

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The paper discusses a method of measuring the one-way speed of light based on the use of a rigid rod freely rotating around its axis. The authors analyze the conditions related to phase correlation and synchronism of rotation of the rod ends in the reference frame wherein its axial velocity is zero and in the reference frames wherein it moves at a high axial velocity. The anticipated results of the experiment within special relativity and Lorentz ether theory are also considered.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[4828] **viXra:1505.0124 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-21 05:12:28*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Physics (S-SP), we present a new interpretation of the Quantum Mechanics i.e. the superluminal interpretation (SIQM). Werner Heisenberg used term “the ideological superstructures” to the hidden-variables theory. All known mainstream interpretations of quantum mechanics deserve such a term. It follows from the fact that all mainstream interpretations neglect physical consistency of the 3-dimensional wave functions. A wave function which fills up the Universe cannot be a coherent physical object when distant points of the wave function cannot communicate with superluminal speed. Just period of a local change in the wave function (due to a luminal Standard-Model interaction) cannot be shorter than size of the wave function divided by superluminal speed. The Planck length is the lower limit for size of gravitating particles. Objects with sizes smaller than the Planck length must be non-gravitating so non-relativistic and they must be superluminal. The S-SP, due to the succeeding phase transitions, leads from the objects with sizes smaller than the Planck length (so superluminal) to objects with sizes close to the Planck length (so luminal) and larger. The question is not whether there are in existence some superluminal entanglons responsible for quantum entanglement but why we cannot see their motion directly. And the answer is very simple - just they are not the Standard-Model objects, their size is much smaller than the Planck length and the degree of filling of spacetime is very low.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4827] **viXra:1505.0119 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-16 10:19:18*

**Authors:** Marouane Rhafli

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

we introduce an algorithm that generates primes included in a given interval $I=[a,b]$ , the algorithm is an optimization to the segmented sieve of eratosthenes,it finds primes up to $N$ without any repetition of multiples of primes using the equation $p^{2}_{n}. p_{j}+2p_{n}.p{j}.c=N$ with $ c\in Z^{+}$ , its time complexity is sublinear $ O(nloglog(n)-n(loglog(n))^2)$.

**Category:** Number Theory

[4826] **viXra:1505.0111 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-15 04:55:30*

**Authors:** T.Nakashima

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The equivalent condition about mobius function
of The Generalized Riemann Hypothesis.

**Category:** Number Theory

[4825] **viXra:1505.0110 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-19 21:19:29*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In a recent paper [1] I proposed a novel relativity theory termed Information Relativity (IR). Unlike Einstein's relativity which dictates as force majeure that relativity is a true state of nature, Information Relativity assumes that relativity results from difference in information about nature between observers who are in motion relative to each other. The theory is based on two axioms: 1. the laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference (Special relativity's first axiom); 2. All translations of information from one frame of reference to another are carried by light or by another carrier with equal velocity (information-carrier axiom). For the case of constant relative velocities, I showed in the aforementioned paper that IR accounts successfully for the results of a class of relativistic time results, including the Michelson-Morley's "null" result, the Sagnac effect, and the neutrino velocities reported by OPERA and other collaborations. Here I apply the theory, with no alteration, to cosmology. I show that the theory is successful in accounting for several cosmological findings, including the pattern of recession velocity predicted by inflationary theories, the GZK energy suppression phenomenon at redshift z ̴ 1.6, and the amounts of matter and dark energy reported in recent ΛCDM cosmologies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4824] **viXra:1505.0100 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-18 06:27:43*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Mathematical model of a tsunami similar to mathematical models and sandy vortex soliton [1, 2, 3] proposed. The reasons of stability and vertical motion цунами considered.\\ Предлагается математическая модель цунами, аналогичная математическим моделям песчаного вихря и солитона [1, 2, 3]. Рассматриваются причины вертикальной устойчивости и движения цунами.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[4823] **viXra:1505.0100 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-14 08:27:09*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Mathematical model of a tsunami similar to mathematical models and sandy vortex soliton [1, 2, 3] proposed. The reasons of stability and vertical motion цунами considered.\\ Предлагается математическая модель цунами, аналогичная математическим моделям песчаного вихря и солитона [1, 2, 3]. Рассматриваются причины вертикальной устойчивости и движения цунами.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[4822] **viXra:1505.0098 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-13 08:45:33*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Showing the charge non conservation in the decay of a
neutron that made of quarks according to quark model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[4821] **viXra:1505.0087 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-13 07:46:40*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The question of the source of energy in a dust whirl is considered. Atmospheric conditions cannot be the sole source of energy, as such dust whirls exist on Mars, where the atmosphere is absent. Here we show that the source of energy for the dust whirl is the energy of the gravitational field. We present a mathematical model of the sand vortex, which uses a system of Maxwell-like gravitational equations. The model explains some of the properties of the dust whirl – preservation of cylindrical vertical shape of the dust whirl, motion of the dust whirl as a whole.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[4820] **viXra:1505.0083 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-19 07:26:47*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** Pages. The examples like exp(-x) are unhappy because diverge at x negative. When like the exp (-x^2) are better.

We have proved that there are initial velocities u^0 (x) and forces F(x,t) such that there is no solution to the Navier-Stokes equations, which corresponds to the cases (C) and (D) of the problem relating to Navier-Stokes equations available on the website of the Clay Institute. First we study these cases at t=0 and then at t≥0.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[4819] **viXra:1505.0083 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-18 06:19:12*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

We have proved that there are initial velocities u^0 (x) and forces F(x,t) such that there is no solution to the Navier-Stokes equations, which corresponds to the cases (C) and (D) of the problem relating to Navier-Stokes equations available on the website of the Clay Institute. First we study these cases at t=0 and then at t≥0.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis