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Recent submissions

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[14584] viXra:1606.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-24 13:58:55

Magnetic Anisotropy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

There is a big effort in industry to produce electrical devices with more and faster memory and logic. Magnetic memory elements, such as in a hard drive, and in the future in what is called MRAM (magnetic random access memory), use electrical currents to encode information. However, the heat which is generated is a significant problem, since it limits the density of devices and hence the performance of computer chips. [11] The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, with facilities in Florida and New Mexico, offers scientists access to enormous machines that create record-setting magnetic fields. The strong magnetic fields help researchers probe the fundamental structure of materials to better understand and manipulate their properties. Yet large-scale facilities like the MagLab are scarce, and scientists must compete with others for valuable time on the machines. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14583] viXra:1606.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-24 15:44:14

The Plasma to Rock and Metal Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A principle of matter evolution is presented to further explain the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[14582] viXra:1606.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-24 10:04:44

Relativity and Electron Deep Orbits of the Hydrogen Atom

Authors: Jean-Luc Paillet, Andrew Meulenberg
Comments: Pages. Presented to 1st Symp. on RNBE (LENR), March 18-20 2016, Avignon, France

This work continues our previous works on electron deep orbits of the hydrogen atom. An introduction shows the importance of the deep orbits of hydrogen (H or D) for research in the LENR domain, and gives some general considerations on the Electron Deep Orbits (EDOs). In a first part we quickly recall the known criticism against the EDO and how we face it. In particular, a solution to fix all problems is to consider a modified Coulomb potential with finite value inside the nucleus. For this reason, we deeply analyzed the specific work of Maly and Va’vra on deep orbits as solutions of the Dirac equation, with such a modified Coulomb potential without singular point. Then, by using a more complete ansatz, we made numerous computations on the wavefunctions of these EDOs, allowing to confirm the approximate size of the mean radii of orbits and to find further properties. Moreover, we observed that the essential element for obtaining deep orbits solutions is special relativity. At a first glance, this fact results from an obvious algebraic property of the expression of energy levels obtained by the relativistic equations. Now, a comparative analysis of the relativistic and of the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation allows us to affirm that Special Relativity leads to the existence of EDOs because of the non-linear form of the relativistic expression for the total energy, which implies a relativistic non-linear correction to the Coulomb potential
Category: Mathematical Physics

[14581] viXra:1606.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-24 11:44:11

The Holochronous Universe: Time to Shed Some Light on the Dark Sector?

Authors: Robin Booth
Comments: 20 Pages. 10 figures, 1 table, 1 appendix

We describe a novel interpretation of the time dimension in General Relativity: the Holochronous Principle, and show that the application of this principle in standard cosmological situations is able fully to account for the effects currently attributed to Dark Matter in observational phenomena such as galactic rotation curves and gravitational lensing. We re-evaluate the role of the Friedman equations in defining a time varying spacetime metric, and in their place postulate a model that is based on the `shrinkage' of baryons in a gravitational field to account for the dynamical behaviour of the cosmic scale factor. We show that integrating the Holochronous Principle into this model gives rise to a solution that takes the form of a resonant universe, in which the resultant damped oscillations can account for the observed accelerating expansion rate of the universe, to a greater level of precision than the standard ΛCDM model. The Holochronous model obviates the need for Dark Energy in the form of a cosmological constant, Λ, and also resolves other issues associated with the ΛCDM model, including the Ω=1 flatness problem.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14580] viXra:1606.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-24 11:47:16

Stoe Model of the Electron Spin 1/2 Observation

Authors: John C. Hodge
Comments: 7 Pages.

The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model posits the bizarre features of the quantum mechanics model of the small scale should have analogies in the classical scale. One such feature of the quantum model is the model of ``spin 1/2'' observation of the Stern-Gerlach experiment. The STOE model of the structure of electron using disc magnets as an analogy of hods suggests multiple North--South poles produce the ``spin'' observation. The electron analogy is placed in an inhomogeneous magnetic field and the change of orientation is photographed. Noting that the re-orientating always occurs implies no electron will travel straight through the magnetic field. Thus, the STOE models another quantum feature, the spin 1/2 effect.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14579] viXra:1606.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-24 07:46:15

Impact of Biofield Treatment on Atomic and Structural Characteristics of Barium Titanate Powder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 6 Pages.

Barium titanate, perovskite structure is known for its high dielectric constant and piezoelectric properties, which makes it interesting material for fabricating capacitors, transducer, actuator, and sensors. The perovskite crystal structure and lattice vibrations play a crucial role in its piezoelectric and ferroelectric behavior. In the present study, the barium titanate powder was subjected to biofield treatment. Further, the control and treated samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and Electron spin resonance (ESR). The XRD analysis showed the permanent compressive strain of 0.45% in treated barium titanate powder as compared to control. Furthermore, the biofield treatment has enhanced the density upto 1.38% in barium titanate as compared to control. The FT-IR spectra showed that the stretching and bending vibrations of Ti-O bond in treated BaTiO3 were shifted towards lower frequency as compared to control. The bond length was substantially increased by 0.72 % in treated BaTiO3 as compared to control. The ESR spectra of control and treated BaTiO3 sample showed the g-factor of 2.0; and biofield treatment has substantially changed the width and height of ESR signal in treated BaTiO3 as compared to control. These observations revealed that biofield treatment has significantly altered the crystal structure, lattice strain, and bond vibration of barium titanate.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[14578] viXra:1606.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-24 08:02:02

Spectroscopic Characterization of Chloramphenicol and Tetracycline: an Impact of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Objective: Chloramphenicol and tetracycline are broad-spectrum antibiotics and widely used against variety of microbial infections. Nowadays, several microbes have acquired resistance to chloramphenicol and tetracycline. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment for spectroscopic characterization of chloramphenicol and tetracycline using FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Methods: The study was performed in two groups (control and treatment) of each antibiotic. The control groups remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treatment groups. Results: FT-IR spectrum of treated chloramphenicol exhibited the decrease in wavenumber of NO2 from 1521 cm-1 to 1512 cm-1 and increase in wavenumber of C=O from 1681 cm-1 to 1694 cm-1 in acylamino group. It may be due to increase of conjugation effect in NO2 group, and increased force constant of C=O bond. As a result, stability of both NO2 and C=O groups might be increased in treated sample as compared to control. FT-IR spectrum of treated tetracycline showed the downstream shifting of aromatic C-H stretching from 3085-3024 cm-1 to 3064-3003 cm-1 and C=C stretching from 1648-1582 cm-1 to 1622-1569 cm-1 and up shifting of C-N stretching from 965 cm-1 to 995 cm-1. It may be due to enhanced conjugation effect in tetracycline, and increased force constant of C-N (CH3 ) bond of tetracycline as compared to control. The results indicated the enhanced stability of treated tetracycline as compared to control. UV-Vis spectra of biofield treated chloramphenicol and tetracycline showed the similar lambda max (λmax) to their respective control. It revealed that the chromophore groups of both antibiotics remained same as control after the biofield treatment. Conclusion: Based on FT-IR spectroscopic data, it is speculated that due to increase in bond strength and conjugation effect after biofield treatment, the chemical stability of both the drugs might be increased as compared to control.
Category: Chemistry

[14577] viXra:1606.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-24 08:11:38

Supercomputers on Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

A research team from Cyprus, Germany and Italy led by Constantia Alexandrou of the Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center of the Cyprus Institute and the Physics Department of the University of Cyprus in Nicosia, has now for the first time calculated the scalar quark content of the proton. [16] Researchers propose that dark matter is a kind of invisible, intangible version of a pion, or a type of meson — a category of particles made up of quarks and antiquarks. [15] A new theory says dark matter acts remarkably similar to subatomic particles known to science since the 1930s. [14] How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can’t… not alone, anyway. [13] The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12] Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[14576] viXra:1606.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-24 06:43:12

A Very Brief Introduction to Reflections in 2D Geometric Algebra, and their Use in Solving ``Construction" Problems

Authors: James A. Smith
Comments: 8 Pages.

This document is intended to be a convenient collection of explanations and techniques given elsewhere in the course of solving tangency problems via Geometric Algebra.
Category: Geometry

[14575] viXra:1606.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-23 18:15:29

Start Matrix Theory

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper we study the parallel nature of the universe based on the holographic principle
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14574] viXra:1606.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-23 21:35:51

The Counter Examples of Abc Conjecture

Authors: T.Nakashima
Comments: 1 Page.

The abc conjecture is unprovable.
Category: Number Theory

[14573] viXra:1606.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-24 02:44:29

General Field Equations Around a Blackhole

Authors: Sadegh Mousavi
Comments: 7 Pages.

After proposition of General Relativity theory by Albert Einstein, at 1914, some scientists tried to solve the field equations of this theory. The first one was Schwarzschild, which his solution leads to the discovery of blackholes. In this research a general compound field construction around a blackhole will be considered using tensor calculations. For this purpose at first some mathematical concepts will be introduced.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14572] viXra:1606.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-23 13:08:18

Particle Zoo in a Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Researchers simulated the creation of elementary particle pairs out of the vacuum by using a quantum computer. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14571] viXra:1606.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-23 12:22:10

A Pulsation Super String Theory.(1)

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 8 Pages.

A pulsation super string theory. To current super string theory size ~ hadron size. (10¯8cm~10¯³³cm) The elementary particle pulsation principle covers current super string theory size - atomic nucleus size. The pulsation super string theory explains a nuclear force, gravity, electromagnetism power as a place of the dark energy. The energy grand total of a place pulsating by super symmetry is zero. The infinity does not emerge in an equation. The infinity does not emerge in an equation. Filing is unnecessary.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[14570] viXra:1606.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-23 07:32:34

Genetic Quantum Algorithms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

In the new study, the researchers demonstrated that genetic algorithms can identify gate designs for digital quantum simulations that outperform designs identified by standard optimization techniques, resulting in the lowest levels of digital quantum errors achieved so far. [14] Quantum physicists have long thought it possible to send a perfectly secure message using a key that is shorter than the message itself. Now they've done it. [13] What once took months by some of the world's leading scientists can now be done in seconds by undergraduate students thanks to software developed at the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing, paving the way for fast, secure quantum communication. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14569] viXra:1606.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-23 04:25:50

Electrodynamics in Riemannian Space with Torsion

Authors: A. H. A. Alfedeel, A. I. Arbab
Comments: 10 Pages.

Based on the fact that electromagnetic radiation has energy and momentum, and it creates curvature in the space time, we have used the covariant derivative of second rank tensor , thus we show that its possible to derive an explicit expression for Maxwell's equations in curved space time with and without torsion as well as---This is a coupling between gravity to electromagnetism. We show that the coupling introduced an extra amount of charge and current density--the electromagnetic and gravitoelectric--which resulting in non vanishing divergence of the magnetic filed tensor, this is equivalent to a magnetic monopole density. This is similar to the result that found by Piplowski, which states that such a coupling breaks the symmetry of $U(1)$ group, and has only significant at early time of the universe or inside black holes where the energy is very high.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14568] viXra:1606.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-23 05:53:27

On Super Computing.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 2 Pages.

We present some of the theoretical underpinnings of a super computer which is superior to the classical and quantum computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14567] viXra:1606.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-23 05:54:52

On the Emergence of Scientific Consensus.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 4 Pages.

The emergence of consensus is of vital importance to science; yet, I am unaware of any theory which has been developed along those lines. This paper consists out of an attempt to erect such theory.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[14566] viXra:1606.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-22 13:21:14

The Phase Transition Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle of thermodynamic phases is presented to explain stellar evolution/planet formation in light of the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[14565] viXra:1606.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-22 13:30:22

Quantum Cache in Diamonds

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Quantum devices can team up to perform a task collectively, but only if they share that most " spooky " of all quantum phenomena: entanglement. Remote devices have been successfully entangled in order to investigate entanglement itself, but the entanglement's quality is too low for practical applications. The solution, known as entanglement purification, has seemed daunting to implement in a real device. Now new research shows that even quite simple quantum components—nanostructures in diamond—have the potential to store and upgrade entanglement. The result relies on hiding information in almost-inaccessible nuclear memories, and may be a key step toward the era of practical quantum networks. [8] In quantum entanglement, two particles are correlated in such a way that any action on one of them affects the other even when they are far apart. The traditional methods of measuring the degree of quantum entanglement were originally developed for nonidentical particles, such as between an electron and a proton, or two atoms of different types. [7] For the first time, scientists have entangled four photons in their orbital angular momentum. Leiden physicists sent a laser through a crystal, thereby creating four photons with coupled 'rotation'. So far this has only been achieved with two photons. The discovery makes uncrackable secret communication of complex information possible between multiple parties. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14564] viXra:1606.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-22 13:32:28

On the Misguided "Citation Culture"

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 1 Page.

The “citation culture” continues to grow as a systemic problem for the academic research, in general, and scientific publishing in particular. Contrary to popular beliefs, the number of citations, while useful as tracking tool, is often irrelevant in assessing the long-term viability of scientific publications or lines of inquiry.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[14563] viXra:1606.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 23:22:59

Impact of Biofield Treatment on Physical, Structural and Spectral Properties of Antimony Sulfide

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Antimony sulfide (Sb2S3) has gained extensive attention in solar cells due to their potential as a low-cost and earth abundant absorber material. In solar cell absorber, the optoelectrical properties such as energy band gap and absorption coefficient of Sb2S3play an important role, which have strong relationships with their crystal structure, lattice parameter and crystallite size. Hence in the present investigation, Sb2S3 powder samples were exposed to biofield treatment, and further its physical, structural and spectral properties are investigated. The particle size analysis showed larger particle size and surface area after treatment. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed polycrystalline orthorhombic structure with superior crystallinity in treated Sb2S3along with significant changes in the lattice parameters, which led to changes in unit cell volume and density. XRD data analysis indicates that crystallite size was increased by around 150% in treated sample. In FT-IR spectra, strong absorption band was observed at 400-700cm-1, which confirms the presence of Sb2S3. Further, the absorption peak intensity in IR spectra was significantly reduced after treatment that was probably due to change in metal sulphur dipolar interaction.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[14562] viXra:1606.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 23:26:12

Life, Sense and the Role of Information in Evolution

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 12 Pages.

The present work purports to the design, implementation, discussion and implications of a Sense Enhanced Game of Life (SEGoL), which is essentially the original GoL, the most popular cellular automaton discovered. To achieve this, two grids, namely the Life Grid L and the Sense Grid S are defined, with L taking one of two values (alive or dead) and S taking one of three values (touch, sight and sound), and the value in a particular grid affecting neighborhood perceptibility as well as survival in the corresponding grid. Evolutionary patterns are studied for various rules, coupled with the entropy values and survival rates. It is seen that the proposed Sense Enhanced Game of Life (SEGoL), essentially adapting Conway’s original Game of Life Rules, scaled for larger neighborhoods, and for enhanced perceptibility, displays a diverse range of interesting evolutionary dynamics, while also retaining the original features of the original Game of Life including the still-life and oscillating elements for the pure touch case. It is seen that if the conditions and neighborhood rules are conducive to retention of certain senses, the system is capable of effectively organizing its sense distributions and enhancing its perception, resulting in higher survival rates and sustaining life, and this gives an insight into higher evolved organisms of the planet, such as human beings.
Category: Physics of Biology

[14561] viXra:1606.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-22 02:35:12

Superconductive Charge Density Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Physicists at BESSY II of Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin studied an artificial structure composed of alternating layers of ferromagnetic and superconducting materials. Charge density waves induced by the interfaces were found to extend deeply into the superconducting regions, indicating new ways to manipulate superconductivity. [27], and collaborators have produced the first direct evidence of a state of electronic matter first predicted by theorists in 1964. The discovery, described in a paper published online April 13, 2016, in Nature, may provide key insights into the workings of high-temperature superconductors. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[14560] viXra:1606.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 14:25:52

The Hadron Super String Theory.(1)

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Elementary Particle Pulsation Principle Leads a Hadron Super String Theory. Atom size, a superstring theory. The size of "the string" in the super string theory is 10-33cm now. "The string" of the hadron super string theory is an atom, 10-8cm size. A current super string theory.   It is theory of String and the D brainy. The film is an image of the iron plate. The super string is an image of the magnets. As for the theory, an opened string and a closed annular string exist. The ring of the string is equivalent to gravity. The supersymmetry particle of the boson is fermion. The supersymmetry particle of the boson is fermion. The boundary condition is equivalent to the panel point of a vibrating string. The D brainy person vibrates, too. The outbreak of the = elementary particle that a string protrudes from D brainy person. A super string connects two pieces of D brainy people. ・・ ・ this is a current superstring theory. As for the current superstring theory, the inspection by the experiment is impossible because of super tininess. As for the current superstring theory, the inspection by the experiment is impossible because of super tininess.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[14559] viXra:1606.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 09:52:57

.dynamic Universe Model Explains the Variations of Gravitational Deflection Observations of Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 11 Pages. Dynamic Universe Model solves many unsolved present physics problems. This paper explains Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI)observations

A new type of tensor mathematical formation, using 21000 linear equations for 133 bodies, Dynamic Universe Model is a singularity free N-body problem solution, based on Newtonian physics. It is different from Newtonian physics, as well as general relativity as they use differential and integral equations. It uses linear tensors without differential and integral equations, hence it gives unique solution. This approach saves many unsolved problems in present day physics. Its prediction in 2005 that there is no dark matter came true experimentally in in Nov, 2013. Here, using the same math setup but with different initial set of numerical values, (viz., 3d xyz initial positions, velocities of all the solar system, nearby stars, Galaxy center, nearby Galaxies etc.,), this paper explains the wide range of values of gravitational deflection (bending) results of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations. The observed VLBI results are in much higher range even after accounting the standard errors. These higher ranges in VLBI results are beyond explainable values of general relativistic predictions as well as with parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism. Dynamic Universe model’s built in potential of considering simultaneous and dynamic gravitational effect of Sun, planets, local stars etc., makes these discrepancies comprehendible. For doing so, the capabilities of Dynamic Universe Model are extended into micro world i.e., the world of masses of light photons and radio wavelength photons, Neutrinos electrons and protons etc., (This definition is some thing like a subset of quantum physics, we will use this name further inthis paper) for the extended by extending the original mathematical formulation for macro world viz., planets, stars, Galaxies etc. Here it is shown that, Dynamic Universe Model explains reasons for the variations in real world VLBI deflection (bending) observations. Keywords: Dynamic universe Model; SITA programming; Micro particle world; VLBI Very Long Baseline Interferometry; Gravitational deflection (bending): PPN formalism, Tensors, singularity-free cosmology, Dark matter.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14558] viXra:1606.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 10:01:03

An Introduction to Dynamic Universe Model

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 24 Pages. Dynamic Universe Model solves many unsolved present physics problems. This paper gives the introduction to Dynamic Universe Model

This is solution for N-body problem without singularities and collisions using only Newtonian Physics. Here all bodies move and keep themselves in dynamic equilibrium with all other bodies depending on their present positions, velocities and masses. This model provides solution to problems, like Missing mass in Galaxies, Blue & red shifted Galaxies co-existence, Pioneer anomaly, New-horizons satellite trajectory calculations etc. Non collapsing large-scale mass structures formed when non-uniform density distributions of masses were used. This model explains the force behind expansion of universe and explains the large voids and non-uniform matter densities in universe. There are no Blackholes and Bigbang in this mathematical Model.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14557] viXra:1606.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 10:10:46

Explaining Near Light Velocities Observed in Astronomical Jets Using Sita Simulations

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 21 Pages. Dynamic Universe Model solves many unsolved present physics problems. This explains very highvelocities in astronomical jets astro jets

Abstract: Very high velocities like velocity of light are observed in astronomical jets from the centres of many Galaxies including our own Milkyway. The formation of such high velocity jet is explained using SITA simulations in this paper. For this purpose the velocity attained by a test neutron in the path traced by it is calculated and depicted using a setup of 133 bodies. This setup consisting of one densemass of the mass equivalent to Galaxy center, 90 stars with similar masses of stars near Galaxy center, mass equivalents of 23 Globular Cluster groups, 16 Milkyway parts, Andromeda and Triangulum Galaxies at appropriate distances. The velocity of particle attained in the path by this test neutron was found to be very high as observed in an astronomical jet emerging from Galaxy center. Dynamic Universe model can be used for such an application. Keywords: Dynamic Universe Model, Astronomical Jets, SITA simulations
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14556] viXra:1606.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 10:18:18

Mathematics of Dynamic Universe Model Explain Pioneer Anomaly

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 53 Pages. Dynamic Universe Model solves many unsolved present physics problems. This paper explains Pioneer Anomaly

A new type of tensor mathematics used in Dynamic universe model can be used to solve the Pioneer Anomaly. “The Pioneer anomaly or Pioneer effect is the observed deviation from expectations of the trajectories of various unmanned spacecraft visiting the outer solar system, notably Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11. Both spacecraft are escaping from the solar system, and are slowing down under the influence of the Sun's gravity.” as described by Wikipedia. Dynamic universe model of cosmology explains Pioneer anomaly. It shows effectively the acceleration due to gravity of SUN increases towards SUN, approximately beyond Mercury -4.44202E-07 m /sec^2 ; beyond MOON -2.11409E-08 m /sec^2 ; beyond Mars -2.11E-08 m /sec^2 ; beyond Jupiter -2.30844E-05 m /sec^2 ; beyond Saturn -2.44565E-06 m /sec^2 ; beyond Uranus -8.91522E-08 m /sec^2 and beyond Neptune -4.3E-09 m /sec^2. The negative sign indicates that the force is acting towards SUN in the same direction as SUN’s acceleration due to gravity. These values are approximate and depend not only on distance from SUN to the test particle, but also overall effect of gravitation of near by stars, Milkyway and its center, globular clusters and Local system.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14555] viXra:1606.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 10:31:49

Dynamic Universe Model Predicts the Trajectory of New Horizons Satellite up to Start of 2017 and Predictions Are Compared with NH Official Web Results.

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 25 Pages. Dynamic Universe Model solves many unsolved present physics problems. This paper predicts New Horizons satillite trajectory

In this paper, Dynamic Universe Model is used for prediction of trajectory of New Horizons (NH) satellite from 3rd Jan 2009 to 1st Jan 2017, taking trajectory ephemerides data of Jan 1&2, 2009 from official web of NH as basis. The New Horizons official web gives data up to 1st Sept 2015 as on 20 Jul 2014. The present calculated data from Dynamic Universe Model is given up to 1st Jan 2017, which is 16 months more than available data. And further data also can be calculated. It may please be noted the error percentage in predictions went to a maximum of 0.239356 %, -0.00086751 %, -0.0493872 % of NH NASA's web in XYZ coordinates, where as error percentages started from -0.00225 %, 0.000159 %, -0.00029 % for XYZ coordinates respectively.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14554] viXra:1606.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 12:16:59

Atomic Clocks and Gravitational Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

A proposal for a gravitational-wave detector made of two space-based atomic clocks has been unveiled by physicists in the US. [8] The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14553] viXra:1606.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 07:20:17

GW150914: Are Cows Spherical?

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 5 Pages. Comments wecomed

I argue that vacuum spacetime with T^ab = 0 is highly exaggerated approximation, like the famous 'spherical cow'. If you are a cowboy and wish only to count the number of cows in your herd, you may of course think of them as 'spherical objects'. But imagine the following situation: as you walk in your grassland, you notice that the grass on a loan has been hardly pressed to the ground, as if some heavy object has passed through your grassland. Would you say that some brand new spherical cows have rolled over the grass? That will be just like GW150914, the alleged discovery of gravitational waves and black holes in vacuum spacetime.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14552] viXra:1606.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 07:49:01

Studies of the Atomic and Crystalline Characteristics of Ceramic Oxide Nano Powders after Bio field Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 6 Pages.

Transition metal oxides (TMOs) have been known for their extraordinary electrical and magnetic properties. In the present study, some transition metal oxides (Zinc oxide, iron oxide and copper oxide) which are widely used in the fabrication of electronic devices were selected and subjected to biofield treatment. The atomic and crystal structures of TMOs were carefully studied by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. XRD analysis reveals that biofield treatment significantly changed the lattice strain in unit cells, crystallite sizes and densities in ceramics oxide powders. The computed molecular weight of the treated samples exhibited significant variation. FT-IR spectra indicated that biofield treatment has altered the metal-oxygen bond strength. Since biofield treatment significantly altered the crystallite size, lattice strain and bond strength, we postulate that electrical and magnetic properties in TMOs (transition metal oxides) can be modulated by biofield treatment.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[14551] viXra:1606.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 08:33:12

Uniformity of CMB in our Dynamic Universe

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 10 Pages. Dynamic Universe Model solves many unsolved present physics problems. This is for CMB.

In this paper the experimentally verified Stephan Boltzmann Law and Planks law are used to calculate the Cosmic Microwave Background or CMB radiation received on earth in all directions from the sky. This radiation from SUN, planets, asteroids, stars, interstellar dust and Galaxies is in Microwave range covering all the frequencies including the K, Ka, Q, V and W bands as measured in WMAP mission. This method explains theoretically about the origin, propagation uniformity of CMB in our universe. The reasons for this amazing theoretical uniformity are many. One of the reasons is the uniformity of stars and Galaxies in all most all directions in the sky. Another reason is the averaging done by main lobe of dish antenna for few degrees around the main direction, which is a measuring instrument sensor of WMAP satellite. In addition, the side lobe pickup of bright sources in the sky also adds to the problem, which depends on the three-dimensional gain pattern of the dish. Additional analysis is done, which results into large angle multipole-l systematic errors. It is found that NO additional Bigbang generated Microwave background radiation was there after excluding radiation from Stars and Galaxies in these WMAP CMB measurements.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14550] viXra:1606.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 08:52:52

Information, Reality and Relics of Cosmic Microwave Background

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 9 Pages. Dynamic Universe Model solves many unsolved present physics problems. This is CMB uniformity.

“Material objects are more fundamental” is being proposed in this paper; or in other words “IT from Bit” is true. It is well known that there is no mental experiment, which produced material. There were double slit experiments by John Wheeler which show some mental dependencies on electron behaviour, but still he did not produce material from information. Information describes material properties. But a mere description of material properties does not produce material. Similarly creation of matter from empty space as required in Steady State theory or in Bigbang is another such problem in the Cosmological counterpart. As evidence the Bigbang based Cosmologies show the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), as relics of Bigbang. In this paper we will see about CMB, how it is generated from stars and Galaxies around us. And here we show that NO Microwave background radiation was detected till now after excluding radiation from Stars and Galaxies. Pictures by COBE and WMAP satellites show variation in CMB intensities in 10-4 scales. In Bigbang based Cosmology, these pictures were discussed as though they are the starting information for the formation of future Galaxies. This information is the counter part of “IT from Bit or Bit from IT” in Cosmology. This paper shows a way that we can exclude Cosmology from this concept.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14549] viXra:1606.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 08:47:15

Continued Radicals

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 11 Pages.

We give some formulas related with the continued radicals
Category: General Mathematics

[14548] viXra:1606.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 08:50:32

Mathematical Formulas : Part 4

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 16 Pages.

In this paper we give some formulas related with the constant pi
Category: General Mathematics

[14547] viXra:1606.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 08:58:53

'no Dark Matter' Prediction from Dynamic Universe Model Came True!

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 18 Pages. Dynamic Universe Model solves many unsolved present physics problems. This is is onNO-Dark matter Prediction

This paper discusses about the theoretical "non-requirement" of Dark matter, or in other words, there is no missing mass in Galaxies. A Singularity free and collision free N-body problem solution called Dynamic Universe Model was used to find out the theoretical star circular velocity curves in a Galaxy. Here five cases are presented. In the first case a HUGE mass at the center of galaxy, Sun like stars and external Galaxies are assumed, when plotted, the graph of last iteration shows disk formation and velocities achieved. This circular velocities verses radius graph looks exactly similar to observations by astronomers. In all the other cases, either the central mass is missing or external Galaxies are missing or both are missing where resulting graphs look different. It can be inferred that the theoretical requirement of dark matter is calculation error, that No dark matter (Missing mass) is required according to Dynamic Universe Model. This prediction was first presented in Tokyo University in 2005. Later the findings from LUX in 2013 the (Large Underground Xenon) experiment confirmed this prediction. This new Tensor math in Dynamic Universe Model were used for solving a large variety of physical problems which are otherwise not possible with present day Physics. This method solved many unsolved problems earlier like Existence of blue shifted Galaxies Galaxy Disk formations, Missing mass in Galaxies, Pioneer anomaly, Non-collapsing Large scale mass structures, New horizons trajectory predictions etc. AMS Subject Classifications: 70F10 (n- Body problems) , 70F15 (Celestial Mechanics), 70E55 ( Dynamics of Multi body systems) 70-05 (Experimental work) 70-08 (Computational methods)
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14546] viXra:1606.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 09:19:15

Prediction of Large Number of Blue Shifted Galaxies by Dynamic Universe Model Came True

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 25 Pages. Dynamic Universe Model solves many unsolved present physics problems. This is on Prediction and finding BLUE shifted Galaxies.

There are many blue shifted Galaxies in our universe. Here in this paper we will see different simulations to make such predictions from the output pictures formed from the Dynamic Universe model. There are some old and a few new simulations where different point masses are placed in different distances in a 3D Cartesian coordinate grid; and are allowed to move on universal gravitation force (UGF) acting on each mass at that instant of time at its position. The output pictures depict the three dimensional orbit formations of point masses after some iterations. In an orbit so formed, some Galaxies are coming near (Blue shifted) and some are going away (Red shifted). In this paper the simulations predicted the existence of a large number of Blue shifted Galaxies, in an expanding universe, in 2004 itself. Over 8,000 blue shifted galaxies have been discovered extending beyond the Local Group, was confirmed by Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations in the year 2009. Thus Dynamic Universe model predictions came true.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14545] viXra:1606.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 09:38:24

Explaining Formation of Astronomical Jets Using Dynamic Universe Model

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 8 Pages. Dynamic Universe Model solves many unsolved present physics problems. This explains astro jets

Astronomical jets are observed from the centres of many Galaxies including our own Milkyway. The formation of such jet is explained using SITA simulations of dynamic universe model. For this purpose the path traced by a test neutron is calculated and depicted using a set up of one densemass of the mass equivalent to mass of Galaxy center, 90 stars with similar masses of stars near Galaxy center, mass equivalents of 23 Globular Cluster groups, 16 Milkyway parts, Andromeda and Triangulum Galaxies at appropriate distances. Five different kinds of theoretical simulations gave positive results. The path travelled by this test neutron was found to be an astronomical jet emerging from Galaxy center.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14544] viXra:1606.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 04:27:02

An Explanation for Galaxy Rotation Rates Without Requiring Dark Matter

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 2 Pages.

The rotation rates of stars in observed Galaxies are almost the same regardless of the distance from the galactic center and can currently only be explained by invoking a huge halo of invisible dark matter filling the space occupied by the galaxy. By realizing that space-time itself is an energy field that can flow, the rotation of galaxies can be explained qualitatively by space-time also being consumed by the black hole at the center of a galaxy.
Category: Astrophysics

[14543] viXra:1606.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 05:56:15

Universal Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Bringing together the best of two types of quantum computer for the first time, researchers at Google have created a prototype that combines the architecture of both a universal quantum computer and an analogue quantum computer. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14542] viXra:1606.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 06:32:06

Room Temperature Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

A research group in Japan found a new compound H5S2 that shows a new superconductivity phase on computer simulation. Further theoretical and experimental research based on H5S2 predicted by this group will lead to the clarification of the mechanism behind high-temperature superconductivity, which takes place in hydrogen sulfide. [29] A German-French research team has constructed a new model that explains how the so-called pseudogap state forms in high-temperature superconductors. The calculations predict two coexisting electron orders. Below a certain temperature, superconductors lose their electrical resistance and can conduct electricity without loss. [28] New findings from an international collaboration led by Canadian scientists may eventually lead to a theory of how superconductivity initiates at the atomic level, a key step in understanding how to harness the potential of materials that could provide lossless energy storage, levitating trains and ultra-fast supercomputers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[14541] viXra:1606.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 20:47:45

On the Distribution of Prime Numbers

Authors: Clive Jones
Comments: 10 Pages.

On the distribution of primes and a look at prime prediction
Category: General Mathematics

[14540] viXra:1606.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 20:50:39

On the Riemann Zeta Function

Authors: Clive Jones
Comments: 3 Pages.

On the Zeta function, cardioids and trig functions
Category: General Mathematics

[14539] viXra:1606.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 22:15:17

A Technical Study on 3D Effect on Denim Jeans

Authors: Elias Khalil
Comments: 9 Pages.

Washing is considered as the final process in denim jeans production and is the core of denim finishing. It is the key to create the style in denim garments which is now becoming an art of creating fashion trends. The three dimensional (3D) effect is one of the most demandable finishing techniques for producing vintage denim jeans. Various types of 3D making equipments and methods are applied to jeans after resin application for producing such 3D effects. Denim jeans are then dried and finally cured in an oven for specific time at right temperature for getting final product
Category: Chemistry

[14538] viXra:1606.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 15:20:55

The Grand Transformation Equation

Authors: Louai Hassan Elzein Basheir
Comments: 7 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show the derivation of the grand transformation equation from the Galilean transformation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14537] viXra:1606.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 15:44:15

New Ligo Data Applied to Polarizable Vacuum Theory

Authors: Jerry L. Decker
Comments: 12 Pages. New LIGO event identifies a preferred PV modification

New data from LIGO for event GW151226 was used to improve the modifications to Polarizable Vacuum Theory, and choose among the many possible solutions of energy and momentum at high speed for deep space transport. Heisenberg Uncertainty Limit provided the best known Modification to Polarizable Vacuum Theory. A constant coefficient was varied over the possible range and also changed to a variable, but provided no improvement over the Heisenberg Limit. Warp and frame dragging resulted from modifications of Polarizable Vacuum, but with more than one possible solution. A choice of solutions was made eliminating invariant Planck constant and previous cases derived from conservation of energy in blue shifted microwaves near a black hole. It was found that velocity terms could not be brought into PV theory without formalism for exchange of kinetic energy with the vacuum space. Energy changes in the local vacuum provide the driving force for relativistic frame dragging. Accumulating kinetic energy in space was found to polarize the vacuum in a way equivalent to the polarizing parameter K of Harold Puthoff. Frame dragging results from the continual increase of vacuum stress energy trailing longitudinally and propagating transversely from an accelerating deep space vehicle. Results predict that in the LIGO observations part of the mass loss and speed increase occur during the ring down phase.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14536] viXra:1606.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 10:16:01

The Complex Form of the Law of Cosines

Authors: Louai Hassan Elzein Basheir
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show the mathematical derivation of the complex form of the law of cosines and show how it can help in the vector algebra.
Category: Algebra

[14535] viXra:1606.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 10:21:36

Science in Crisis

Authors: Manjunath.R
Comments: 228 Pages.

Abstract: General public regards science as a beautiful truth and a true scientific inquiry which has been construed in such a way as to explain the complexities of cosmological world with an engaging combination of clarity and wit. It seems most appropriate, but, it is absolutely-absolutely false. Science has fatal limitations – filled with uncertainty, skepticism and deliberation participate in a powerfully deductive dialectic that enables us to rework our present understanding of nature — to step back from what we think we know, re-assess our preconceived notions, and bring forth newer, more fully formed views of our Universe. However, the scientific community as a whole is ignorant about it. While the modern science is surely incomplete – it is largely based on heuristic arguments and oversimplified models. It is strange that most brilliant and eloquent scientists are not raising the issues and the majority of the current scientific community is imbued with the dogmas of the academic club and the voice of dissent conveniently ignored or ridiculed, contrary to the true spirit of scientific inquiry. Science means truth (what we now think the world is made of and how it got that way), and scientists (persons engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world) are proponents of the truth. But they are teaching incorrect ideas to children (upcoming scientists) in schools /colleges etc. -- largely with flair and in a highly approachable fashion. One who will raise the issue will face unprecedented initial criticism. Anyone can read the book and encompass a rapid trip in a more gentle fashion from Newton through relativity to the expanding universe, the big bang, black holes, wormholes and all the traditional menagerie of the modern cosmologist and find out the truth. It is open to everyone.
Category: Astrophysics

[14534] viXra:1606.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 07:20:54

The Gravitational Field

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: Giving the composition of the gravitational field
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14533] viXra:1606.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 08:18:46

The Enigma that is Light

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies, Richard Lawrence Norman
Comments: 11 Pages.

The presently accepted notion of wave/particle duality, especially when applied to light, is undoubtedly a cause of great unease for many. Here the issue is examined afresh in the light of ideas put forward in recent years, especially by Mayants, while not forgetting the contributions of those great scientists of the past. Explanations and interpretations are then offered to account for seemingly paradoxical effects.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[14532] viXra:1606.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 05:02:29

Anti Info , Other Universes and the Connection Between Logic and Matter

Authors: John Peel
Comments: 25 Pages. May be an important basic idea.

The basic building blocks of the universe/multi - verses has been a matter of debate for millennia. It seems progress has been made recently in string theory. This paper is certainly not meant to challenge string theory, but rather, provide a mechanism as to how strings are formed.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14531] viXra:1606.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 06:32:42

Mixed Matter and Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

In a lovely demonstration of light's quantum effects, physicists in the UK have just mixed a molecule with light at room temperature for the first time ever. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14530] viXra:1606.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 18:38:28

Detected Gravitational Waves Were not Generated by Colliding Black Holes

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 4 Pages. none

The detail analysis of Gravity Wave waveforms detected by LIGO observatory shows that the waves could not have been generated by colliding Black Holes. Most likely they were generated by colliding collapsed stars (“gravistars’ or “collapstars”, G-stars for short), which do not have Event Horizons. This is shown by using a simple model of a Sun mass star orbiting a G-star with a mass of 100 Suns. The evaluation is based on the comparison of two different metrics, the Schwarzschild metric, and the new metric derived by the author earlier, which provide the Sun mass orbital frequencies as functions of a distance from the G-star center.
Category: Astrophysics

[14529] viXra:1606.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 19:25:55

Gravitational Waves

Authors: PV Raktoe
Comments: 3 Pages.

The discovery of a gravitational wave is scientific fraud because scientists claim that they have definite proof, that signal might be real but there is no definite proof that they found a gravitational wave. Scientific fraude can be tempering with data, but it can also be a deliberate misinterpretation of data. That is what they did (misinterpretation of data), and they claimed that there was definite proof but in fact there is not. That discovery of a gravitational wave is also the result of a fallacy, scientists are lost in fiction. The research might be correct but I don't believe it, the conclusions are incorrect and absurd. Scientists were able to claim that it was a gravitational wave because science journalists failed to see what was happening, they failed to see that there was no definite proof. Science journalists act like fans, they admire the scientists and therefore they don't ask too many or no questions. Scientists claim that gravity is the result of the curvature of a fictional space fabric (space-time), and those gravitational waves are shockwaves (wrinkles) in that fictional space fabric bit there is no proof that it exists. Scientists know that space and time are real (3D), but that also means that space and time cannot exist as real things in a fictional space fabric (4D). When you claim that space and time are merged in a fictional space fabric, then you are saying that space and time don't exist (then you're talking about fiction). Space-time (4D) means that space and time cannot exist in reality (3D), and therefore Einstein's gravity, gravitational waves, etc cannot exist as well.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14528] viXra:1606.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 20:00:21

Energy-Scale of the Grand Unification Scheme

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

Why exactly should energy rise as we head further into the grand unification scheme [GRS]?
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[14527] viXra:1606.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 01:46:35

Supermassive Black Holes Jets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A simulation of the powerful jets generated by supermassive black holes at the centers of the largest galaxies explains why some burst forth as bright beacons visible across the universe, while others fall apart and never pierce the halo of the galaxy. [15] Astronomers from Chalmers University of Technology have used the giant telescope Alma to reveal an extremely powerful magnetic field very close to a supermassive black hole in a distant galaxy. The results appear in the 17 April 2015 issue of the journal Science. [14] Quasars, even those that are billions of light years away, are some of the " brightest beacons " in the universe. Yet how can quasars radiate so much energy that they can be seen from Earth? One explanation is that at each quasar's center is a growing supermassive black hole (SMBH). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[14526] viXra:1606.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 13:03:11

The Wave Pattern is a String of the Super String Theory.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 8 Pages.

Hadron superstring theory.(5) The wave pattern is a string of the super string theory. The mass is zero. It vibrates at velocity of light. It is a resident of the four-dimensional space. It has supersymmetry.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14525] viXra:1606.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 14:41:19

LIGO find Dark Matter?

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

When an astronomical observatory detected two black holes colliding in deep space, scientists celebrated confirmation of Einstein's prediction of gravitational waves. A team of astrophysicists wondered something else: Had the experiment found the "dark matter" that makes up most of the mass of the universe? [8] The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[14524] viXra:1606.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 15:42:27

The Stellar Foundation Structure Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

As stars evolve into stable rocky life hosting structures it is required to define the process of foundation structure formation with a simple principle according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[14523] viXra:1606.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 12:03:18

Gravitational Waves of Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14522] viXra:1606.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 08:52:45

Detecting Quantum Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

RMIT quantum computing researchers have developed and demonstrated a method capable of efficiently detecting high-dimensional entanglement. [15] More than 200 beryllium ions have been entangled in a record-breaking experiment done by researchers at NIST in the US. [14] Experiment suggests it might be possible to control atoms entangled with the light they emit by manipulating detection. [13] Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12] A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11] Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14521] viXra:1606.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 06:03:53

Formation of Cooper Pairs as a Consequence of Exchange Interaction

Authors: Stanislav Dolgopolov
Comments: 10 Pages.

The singlet state of two conduction electrons and the full overlap of their wave functions in the real space may minimize the energy of the electrons. This can be shown analyzing the energy of each conduction electron in the field of every particle of a crystal by use of exchange terms. It is possible that the exchange energy of two conduction electrons in the crystal is negative and, thus, the singlet state is favorable. Thus the Pauli Exclusion Principle and the exchange interaction cause a bond between two conduction electrons. The superconductivity in a metallic crystal occurs only if conduction electrons before the pairing are put closely on the Fermi surface in the momentum space. The motion of conduction electrons in the crystal may prevent the formation of Cooper pairs, because the kinetic energy of the motion is usually much larger than the binding energy in the pair. The conduction electrons as standing waves have a zero momentum, hence their momenta are synchronous; therefore the formation of Cooper pairs is more probable than in case of nonzero momenta. The approach of standing waves explains the inverse isotope effect, behavior at high pressures and many other facts about superconductors.
Category: Condensed Matter

[14520] viXra:1606.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 07:03:42

Found the Tetraneutron

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Recently, scientists in Japan uncovered the most convincing evidence to date of a tetraneutron, which is a particle with four neutrons but no proton—something that we shouldn’t see in physics. This evidence increases the possibility of the existence of this hypothetical particle. [15] In a new study published in EPJ A, Susanna Liebig from Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, and colleagues propose a new approach to nuclear structure calculations. The results are freely available to the nuclear physicists' community so that other groups can perform their own nuclear structure calculations, even if they have only limited computational resources. [14] The PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory uniquely capable of measuring how a proton's internal building blocks — quarks and gluons — contribute to its overall intrinsic angular momentum, or "spin." [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[14519] viXra:1606.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-18 22:01:39

Methods and Instruments to Increase a Signal-to-Noise Ratio in the Image-Addressing-Based Torsion Field Communication

Authors: Mark Krinker
Comments: 5 Pages.

To increase a signal to noise ratio in Torsion Field Communication Sessions, the emitted spinning signal proposed to form directly from video signals of images of transmitter and receiver. The receiver contains a mixer/multiplier fed with an identical reference video signal and the signal of the sensor.
Category: Classical Physics

[14518] viXra:1606.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-18 10:55:20

Interactions of the Dark-Matter Loops with Baryonic Matter Once More

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we present a recapitulation concerning the main formula describing the interactions of the dark-matter (DM) loops with baryonic vortex or stars via the condensates composed of the Einstein-spacetime components. We show that within the same model we can explain very different problems such as the non-gravitational orbital motions of stars outside the bulge of spiral galaxies, different upper limits for radii of accretion discs of black holes, the illusory changes in gravitational constant or the rotation braking of the main-sequence normal stars. We calculated upper limit for mass of single DM loop - it is about 17 powers of ten lower than the mass of electron. Here as well we motivate why the mainstream big bang of the Universe cannot be realized by Nature.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14517] viXra:1606.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-18 12:45:26

The Hadron is a Wave of the Darkness Energy to Pulsate.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 8 Pages.

De Broglie wave discovered a De Broglie wave . De Broglie wave is a wave to lead a particle. He interpreted it like that. The wave to lead was called a pilot wave. The pilot wave has phase velocity and group of series of waves speed. I regarded group speed as the movement speed of the free particle. The wave packet collapses immediately. The pilot waves exceed velocity of light. The material wave was finally interpreted as a wave of the probability to discover a particle. The people who had quantum mechanics such as de Broglie, Einstein, Schrodinger did not accept probability interpretation for life. It is super-high-speed, and the elementary particle pulsation principle interprets the wave packet of the material wave as one pulsating wave. I deny probability interpretation and correct quantum mechanics in the existence. The material wave pulsates in existing four-dimensional space. A material wave is a wave of the dark energy.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[14516] viXra:1606.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-18 14:49:26

Controlling Quantum States

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

An international consortium led by researchers at the University of Basel has developed a method to precisely alter the quantum mechanical states of electrons within an array of quantum boxes. The method can be used to investigate the interactions between various types of atoms and electrons, which is essential for future quantum technologies, as the group reports in the journal Small. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14515] viXra:1606.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-18 15:00:41

Quantum Materials in Curved Space

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Physicists observe behavior of quantum materials in curved space. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14514] viXra:1606.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-17 20:50:25

Internal Paradox of Special Relativity Theory and its Resolution

Authors: Tsuneaki Takahashi
Comments: 4 Pages.

Regarding to special relativity theory, there are some paradoxes. Almost these are derived from the theory. Then these should be resolved with the accurate deduction if possible. On the other hand, there may also be a paradox inside the theory. To solve it, more basic definition should be required.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14513] viXra:1606.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-17 22:27:04

The Laws of Hot Jupiters

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Five laws of hot Jupiters are given definition so that the reader can properly examine the validity and accuracy of establishment sciences’ claims according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[14512] viXra:1606.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-17 22:38:08

1. Universal Relative Metric That Generates A Field Super-Set To The Fields Generated By Some Number Of Distinct Relative Metrics 2. Universal Function Generation (MP)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 18 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘Universal Relative Metric That Generates A Field Super-Set To The Fields Generated By Various Distinct Relative Metrics’.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[14511] viXra:1606.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-17 22:38:57

1. Universal Relative Metric That Generates A Field Super-Set To The Fields Generated By Some Number Of Distinct Relative Metrics 2. Universal Function Generation (NT)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 18 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘Universal Relative Metric That Generates A Field Super-Set To The Fields Generated By Various Distinct Relative Metrics’.
Category: Number Theory

[14510] viXra:1606.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-17 22:39:41

1. Universal Relative Metric That Generates A Field Super-Set To The Fields Generated By Some Number Of Distinct Relative Metrics 2. Universal Function Generation (GM)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 18 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘Universal Relative Metric That Generates A Field Super-Set To The Fields Generated By Various Distinct Relative Metrics’.
Category: General Mathematics

[14509] viXra:1606.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-17 22:40:41

Universal Natural Memory Embedding -3 (DSAA)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 18 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘Universal Relative Metric That Generates A Field Super-Set To The Fields Generated By Various Distinct Relative Metrics’.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[14508] viXra:1606.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-17 22:41:17

Universal Natural Memory Embedding -3 (AI)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 18 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘Universal Relative Metric That Generates A Field Super-Set To The Fields Generated By Various Distinct Relative Metrics’.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[14507] viXra:1606.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-17 22:42:03

1. Universal Relative Metric That Generates A Field Super-Set To The Fields Generated By Some Number Of Distinct Relative Metrics 2. Universal Function Generation (FAA)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 18 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘Universal Relative Metric That Generates A Field Super-Set To The Fields Generated By Various Distinct Relative Metrics’.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[14506] viXra:1606.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-18 00:30:48

The Effect of Normalisation on Partition Function – a Brief Review

Authors: S. Saha, J. Datta
Comments: 02 Pages.

In this review we wish to report a most probale approach of normalisation on partition function. And also the nature of thermal wave function as a normalised parameter.
Category: Chemistry

[14505] viXra:1606.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-18 05:13:18

Superconductors, Lasers, and Bose-Einstein Condensates

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

However, as superconductors, lasers, and Bose-Einstein condensates all share a common feature, it has been expected that it should be able to see these features at the same time. A recent experiment in a global collaborative effort with teams from Japan, the United States, and Germany have observed for the first time experimental indication that this expectation is true. [30] The quantum behaviour of hydrogen affects the structural properties of hydrogen-rich compounds, which are possible candidates for the elusive room temperature superconductor, according to new research co-authored at the University of Cambridge. [29] A German-French research team has constructed a new model that explains how the so-called pseudogap state forms in high-temperature superconductors. The calculations predict two coexisting electron orders. Below a certain temperature, superconductors lose their electrical resistance and can conduct electricity without loss. [28] New findings from an international collaboration led by Canadian scientists may eventually lead to a theory of how superconductivity initiates at the atomic level, a key step in understanding how to harness the potential of materials that could provide lossless energy storage, levitating trains and ultra-fast supercomputers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14504] viXra:1606.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-17 11:54:44

200 Beryllium Ions Entangled

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

More than 200 beryllium ions have been entangled in a record-breaking experiment done by researchers at NIST in the US. [14] Experiment suggests it might be possible to control atoms entangled with the light they emit by manipulating detection. [13] Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12] A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11] Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14503] viXra:1606.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-17 08:48:45

1. Universal Holistic Beauty Primality Tree Of Any Set 2. Universal Growth Of Any Given Set (GM)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 16 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘Universal Holistic Beauty Primality Tree Of Any Set, Universal Growth Of Any Given Set’.
Category: General Mathematics

[14502] viXra:1606.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-17 08:49:58

1. Universal Holistic Beauty Primality Tree Of Any Set 2. Universal Growth Of Any Given Set (MP)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 16 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘Universal Holistic Beauty Primality Tree Of Any Set, Universal Growth Of Any Given Set’.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[14501] viXra:1606.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-17 08:50:55

1. Universal Holistic Beauty Primality Tree Of Any Set 2. Universal Growth Of Any Given Set (NT)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 16 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a theory of ‘Universal Holistic Beauty Primality Tree Of Any Set, Universal Growth Of Any Given Set’.
Category: Number Theory

Replacements of recent Submissions

[6617] viXra:1606.0246 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-23 09:27:15

Electrodynamics in Riemannian Space with Torsion

Authors: A.H.A.Alfedeel, A. I. Arbab
Comments: 9 Pages.

Based on the fact that electromagnetic radiation has energy and momentum, and it creates curvature in the space time, we have used the covariant derivative of second rank tensor , thus we show that its possible to derive an explicit expression for Maxwell's equations in curved space time with and without torsion as well as---This is a coupling between gravity to electromagnetism. We show that the coupling introduced an extra amount of charge and current density--the electromagnetic and gravitoelectric--which resulting in non vanishing divergence of the magnetic filed tensor, this is equivalent to a magnetic monopole density. This is similar to the result that found by Piplowski, which states that such a coupling breaks the symmetry of $U(1)$ group, and has only significant at early time of the universe or inside black holes where the energy is very high.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[6616] viXra:1606.0241 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-22 22:45:30

On the Misguided "Citation Culture"

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 1 Page.

The “citation culture” persists as systemic problem for the academic research, in general, and scientific publishing in particular. Contrary to popular beliefs, the number of citations, while useful as tracking tool, is often irrelevant in assessing the long-term viability of scientific publications or lines of inquiry.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[6615] viXra:1606.0228 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-24 15:12:11

GW150914: Are Cows Spherical?

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 6 Pages. One reference added and text expanded. Comments welcomed.

I argue that vacuum spacetime with T^ab = 0 is highly exaggerated approximation, like the famous 'spherical cow'. If you are a cowboy and wish only to count the number of cows in your herd, you may of course think of them as 'spherical objects'. But imagine the following situation: as you walk in your grassland, you notice that the grass on a loan has been hardly pressed to the ground, as if some heavy object has passed through your grassland. Would you say that some brand new spherical cows have rolled over the grass? That will be just like GW150914, the alleged discovery of gravitational waves and black holes in vacuum spacetime. Details at my website http://chakalov.net .
Category: Astrophysics

[6614] viXra:1606.0228 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-22 06:32:02

GW150914: Are Cows Spherical?

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 5 Pages. Text expanded, typos corrected.

I argue that vacuum spacetime with T^ab = 0 is highly exaggerated approximation, like the famous 'spherical cow'. If you are a cowboy and wish only to count the number of cows in your herd, you may of course think of them as 'spherical objects'. But imagine the following situation: as you walk in your grassland, you notice that the grass on a loan has been hardly pressed to the ground, as if some heavy object has passed through your grassland. Would you say that some brand new spherical cows have rolled over the grass? That will be just like GW150914, the alleged discovery of gravitational waves and black holes in vacuum spacetime. Details at my website http://chakalov.net .
Category: Astrophysics

[6613] viXra:1606.0218 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-22 05:53:17

An Explanation for Galaxy Rotation Rates Without Requiring Dark Matter

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 3 Pages.

The rotation rates of stars in observed Galaxies are almost the same regardless of the distance from the galactic center and can currently only be explained by invoking a huge halo of invisible dark matter filling the space occupied by the galaxy. By realizing that space-time itself is an energy field that can flow, the rotation of galaxies can be explained by space-time also being consumed by the black hole at the center of a galaxy.
Category: Astrophysics

[6612] viXra:1606.0207 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-21 06:54:39

Gravitational Field

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: Giving the composition of the gravitational field
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[6611] viXra:1606.0203 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-21 14:31:02

Detected Gravitational Waves Were not Generated by Colliding Black Holes

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 5 Pages. none

The detail analysis of Gravitational Waves waveforms detected by LIGO observatory shows that the waves could not have been generated by colliding Black Holes. Most likely they were generated by colliding collapsed stars (“gravistars’ or “collapstars”, G-stars for short), which do not have Event Horizons. This is shown by using a simple model of a Sun mass G-star orbiting a G-star with a mass of 100 Suns. The evaluation is based on the comparison of two different metrics, the Schwarzschild metric, and the new metric derived by the author earlier, which provide the orbital frequencies as functions of a distance from the main G-star center.
Category: Astrophysics

[6610] viXra:1606.0202 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-21 07:48:38

Gravitational Waves

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 4 Pages.

The discovery of a gravitational wave is scientific fraud because scientists claim that they have definite proof, that signal might be real but there is no definite proof that they found a gravitational wave. Scientific fraude can be tempering with data, but it can also be a deliberate misinterpretation of data. That is what they did (misinterpretation of data), and they claimed that there was definite proof but in fact there is not. That discovery of a gravitational wave is also the result of a fallacy, scientists are lost in fiction. The research might be correct but I don't believe it, the conclusions are incorrect and absurd. Scientists were able to claim that it was a gravitational wave because science journalists failed to see what was happening, they failed to see that there was no definite proof. Science journalists act like fans, they admire the scientists and therefore they don't ask too many or no questions. Scientists claim that gravity is the result of the curvature of a fictional space fabric (space-time), and those gravitational waves are shockwaves (wrinkles) in that fictional space fabric but there is no proof that it exists. Scientists know that space and time are real (3D), but that also means that space and time cannot exist as real things in a fictional space fabric (4D). When you claim that space and time are merged in a fictional space fabric, then you are saying that space and time don't exist (then you're talking about fiction). Space-time (4D) means that space and time cannot exist in reality (3D), and therefore Einstein's gravity, gravitational waves, etc cannot exist as well.
Category: Quantum Physics

[6609] viXra:1606.0191 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-19 06:31:44

Interactions of the Dark-Matter Loops with Baryonic Matter Once More

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we present a recapitulation concerning the main formula describing the interactions of the dark-matter (DM) loops with baryonic vortex or stars via the condensates composed of the Einstein-spacetime components. We show that within the same model we can explain very different problems such as the non-gravitational orbital motions of stars outside the bulge of spiral galaxies, different upper limits for radii of accretion discs of black holes, the illusory changes in gravitational constant or the rotation braking of the main-sequence normal stars. We calculated upper limit for mass of single DM loop - it is about 17 powers of ten lower than the mass of electron. Precise maximum mass for DM loop corresponds to the upper limit for frequency 1669 Hz. Intensity for the frequency 1669 Hz should be highest. But emphasize that the DM loops are the perfectly elastic structures. Here as well we motivate why the mainstream big bang of the Universe cannot be realized by Nature. The correct big bang, i.e. the inflation and the “soft” big bang of the Universe, is described within SST.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory