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2015 - 1501(228) - 1502(228) - 1503(254) - 1504(232) - 1505(220) - 1506(205) - 1507(211)

Any replacements are listed further down

[11088] **viXra:1507.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-31 07:39:39*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The qualitative equality between n = 2 and n = 3 spatial dimensions.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[11087] **viXra:1507.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-30 21:33:34*

**Authors:** Cheng Tianren

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this essays, we try to demonstrate the school life of Jeff. and we select more than 20 stories of him to explore our thoughts towards the most popular social events. In this paper, we publish essays nine to twelve as the third part of this work.

**Category:** Social Science

[11086] **viXra:1507.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-30 09:25:11*

**Authors:** Sundar Narayan

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper derives a formula for the lifetime of an unbound or free neutron and shows that neutron lifetime can be related to Newton’s gravitational constant, G, providing a much-needed theoretical formula for G, enabling G to be computed with greater accuracy than today’s experiments allow. Another equally accurate formula for G is derived based on the properties of the virtual electrons that very briefly exist in a quantum vacuum. Also, Newton’s law of gravity and Coulomb’s electrostatic law are derived from the same equation, providing a simple proof of the well-known connection between these two laws.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11085] **viXra:1507.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-30 09:37:56*

**Authors:** Han Geurdes

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In this paper the design and coding of a local hidden variables model is presented that violates the CHSH criterion in size larger than $1+\sqrt{2}$.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[11084] **viXra:1507.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-30 08:30:56*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Claes G. Granqvist, Sunil P. Khatri, Ferdinand Peper

**Comments:** 4 Pages. second draft

We introduce information-theoretic erasure based on Shannon’s binary channel formula. It is pointed out that this type of erasure is a natural energy-dissipation-free way in which information is lost in double-potential-well memories, and it may be the reason why the brain can forget things effortlessly. We also demonstrate a new non-volatile, charge-based memory scheme wherein the erasure can be associated with even negative energy dissipation; this implies that the memory’s environment is cooled during information erasure and contradicts Landauer’s principle of erasure dissipation. On the other hand, writing new information into the memory always requires positive energy dissipation.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[11083] **viXra:1507.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-30 08:57:12*

**Authors:** Klimets A.P.

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We are considering the possibility of placing the space of any length in the "point" (ie, in a small region of space), including the Universe at the "point" with to the Planck size. The problem is solved in a multidimensional space.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[11082] **viXra:1507.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-30 03:58:15*

**Authors:** Gibadullin Artur

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Model, Universe

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11081] **viXra:1507.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-29 23:15:12*

**Authors:** Dao Thanh Oai

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this note, I introduce three conjectures of generalization of the Lester circle theorem, the Parry circle theorem, the Zeeman-Gossard perspector theorem respectively

**Category:** Geometry

[11080] **viXra:1507.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-29 14:46:33*

**Authors:** Mirela Teodorescu, Daniela Gifu

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Abstract: Achieving a high quality product corresponding consumer requirements involves organizing and supporting
the production process with a suitable and flexible logistics process. The more the process/ production flow is better
organized, divided into subdomains (production, maintenance, quality), each with clearly defined indicators and
responsibilities, the more the process will be stable, easier to follow and to intervene on perturbations that can appear. In
a stable system, disturbance variables can be controlled, thus losses can be reduced. Everybody is looking for "the
optimal process", "best method" that would remove the uncertainty, ambiguity, defect, doubt and error.
This study aims to present ways of correcting the uncertainties arising in production systems through standardization,
communication, waste awareness, efficient logistics, states incertitude interpretation, analysis and performance
indicators, applying neutrosophy theory, because a product that has several options increases the grade of uncertainty in
the manufacturing process.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[11079] **viXra:1507.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-29 05:10:57*

**Authors:** Dao Thanh Oai

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In Euclidean geometry, Feuerbach-Luchterhand theorem is a generalization of Pythagorean
theorem, Stewart theorem and the British Flag theorem.....In this note, I propose two
conjectures of generalization of Feuerbach-Luchterhand theorem.

**Category:** Geometry

[11078] **viXra:1507.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-28 20:02:37*

**Authors:** Peng Wang, Xiang-Yun Wang, Kai-Yuan Cai

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This paper considers a new class of discrete event systems under partial observations. The problem is presented within the background of a manufacturing process where workpieces are loaded and transported, and this process is controlled with the partial information collected by sensors. The model extracted is novel because the observation of an event does not only depend on an event itself, but also the state where the system stays. Two standard problems are discussed in this paper: supervisor existence problem and supervisor synthesis problem. With a natural revision of observable languages, a necessary and sufficient condition is given for the existence of a supervisor. For supervisor synthesis problem, two algorithms are developed: one algorithm is to check the properties of a control specification given by a regular language, and the other one is to synthesize a supervisor if the properties hold. Within the background of manufacturing systems, an example is illustrated to show how the algorithms are applied to practical computing.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[11077] **viXra:1507.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-28 20:44:29*

**Authors:** Simon WW Manley

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Units of length, time and energy calculated by applying the Holographic Principle to the cosmological Event Horizon are concordant with the properties of the atomic nucleus, and remain so over the history of the universe from CMB decoupling into the infinite future. Such units differ from the Planck units by 20 orders of magnitude. The link between cosmology and particle physics is a non-zero cosmological constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11076] **viXra:1507.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-28 21:06:22*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The origins of the Indus Valley Civilization are shrouded in mystery. Two significant questions from this unsolved historical problem are the origins of the Brahmi and Indus scripts. In this light, the present paper performs a omparative feature based study of the Brahmi, Indus and Aramaic scripts, decisively proving that the Brahmi is indeed more closer to the Indus script than to Aramaic. Based on this result, and other established partial decipherments thus far, a hypothesis proposing the two-subsets nature of the Indus script is proposed. Separate phonetic and pictographic sets corresponding to Sanskrit and Tamil are identified, pointing towards a new way of comprehensively deciphering the Indus script.

**Category:** Linguistics

[11075] **viXra:1507.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-28 21:08:15*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Gomathi Balasubramanian, Ganapathy Ramanathan

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The current era of technology explosion and globalization has been witnessing steady transformations and transitions in Sciences and Arts towards an oriental philosophical basis. It is seen that management trends too necessitate such a shift, and the present work purports to the formulation of the principles for such a revolution - Holistic Management. Firstly, the traditional 6M model is extended to a more comprehensive 9M model. Following this, the nine enclosures and corresponding aspects and concepts depicted by the esoteric diagram of the Sri Yantra are explored and a mapping between its nine enclosures (Navavaranam) and the 9M model is done, yielding the Nine Realms of Holistic Management. Finally, various key philosophies underlying the Holistic Management paradigm are listed. While this model, like most others has to withstand the test of time, one derives hope from the success and continued application of the Sri Vidya philosophy at the individual and societal level for thousands of years.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[11074] **viXra:1507.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-28 21:09:37*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

After a brief review on the Higgs mechanism and the way it affects the perception of mass, the connection between mass and symmetry is visited. The computational universe model connecting quantum information theory with spacetime is then reviewed and the symmetry-mass connection is explored here as well. Based on these connections, a common thread linking entropy, symmetry, mass and information content is formulated. The key concepts of Kashmir Shaivism, mainly the Shuddha Vidyas are explored and the connection between these concepts and the common thread is elaborated upon. The remarkable similarity between the philosophical underpinnings between Kashmir Shaivism and Modern Physics reinforce the strong connections between the latter and Oriental Philosophy.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[11073] **viXra:1507.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-28 14:27:59*

**Authors:** M. E. Hassani

**Comments:** 7 Pages; 2 Figures; 1 Reference

More recently, G. G. Nyambuya published an article entitled "Azimuthally symmetric theory
of gravitation – II. On the perihelion precession of solar planetary orbits" [MNRAS451(3)3034-3043
(2015)], which considered by the author as an improved version of the "Azimuthally Symmetric
Theory of Gravitation (I) – On the Perihelion Precession of Planetary Orbits" [MNRAS403(3) 1381-1391(2010)]. This comment proves that the so-called ASTG-model is physico-mathematically
incorrect. Consequently, the said model cannot possibly be a (new) gravity theory.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[11072] **viXra:1507.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-28 07:24:38*

**Authors:** Jacob Biemond

**Comments:** 12 Pages, including 2 tables

An expression for the magnetic moment of a massive Dirac neutrino was deduced in the context of the electroweak interactions at the one-loop level in 1977. A linear dependence on the neutrino mass was found. In addition, a magnetic moment for a massive neutrino arising from gravitational origin is predicted by the so-called Wilson-Blackett law. The latter relation may also be deduced from a gravitomagnetic interpretation of the Einstein equations. Both formulas for the magnetic moment can be combined, yielding the value of the neutrino mass.

The gravitomagnetic moment, i.e., the magnetic moment from gravitational origin, may contain different *g*-factors for the massive neutrino eigenstates *m*_{1}, *m*_{2} and *m*_{3}, respectively. Starting from the Dirac equation, a *g*-factor *g* = 2 has been deduced for a neutrino in first order, related to the derivation of the g-factor of charged leptons. When a value *g* = 2 is inserted, a value 1.530 meV results for the lightest neutrino mass *m*_{1}, the main result of this work. In addition, the remaining neutrino masses can be calculated from observed neutrino oscillations.

Our results for the neutrino masses are compatible with the three-parameter semi-empirical neutrino mass formulas obtained by Królikowski. In addition, an empirical relation between the three neutrino masses proposed by Sazdović yields neutrino masses in fair agreement with our results.

[11071] **viXra:1507.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-28 08:04:53*

**Authors:** Stefan Mehedinteanu

**Comments:** 12 Pages. a new work

It will be shown how a magic number (equally with e-folds of inflation) of Planck Particles stay at the base of: the origin and evolution of Universe, the infraparticles creation of near mass-less and known as gauge bosons (photons/gluons), the quantization of gravitational charge inside the particles, the real mass and magnetic charge of gluons (less-mass considered) and of theirs condensate at symmetries breaking, etc. How the gravity is embedded in particles, it was also answered.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11070] **viXra:1507.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-28 08:54:55*

**Authors:** S. Reucroft, E. G. H. Wlliams

**Comments:** 7 pages, 1 figure

We present a simple, semi-classical e-model of the neutron that gives the neutron mass, charge, spin, magnetic moment and internal charge distribution all in good agreement with measurements.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[11069] **viXra:1507.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-28 05:14:41*

**Authors:** Gibadullin Artur

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

temporal physics, multitempal physics

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11068] **viXra:1507.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-27 18:50:52*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 225 Pages.

In this book for the first time the authors introduce a special type of topological spaces using the interval [0, n). Several of the properties enjoyed by these special spaces are analyzed. Over hundred problems are suggested, some of which are open conjectures. This book gives a new perspective to topological spaces.

**Category:** Topology

[11067] **viXra:1507.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-27 15:29:10*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: The boson count of 8 for the cyclic universe theory included 4 massless gauge bosons. These should not have been included in the particle count (all massive). Correction of this error results in an E8-symmetry cyclic universe of 248 different massive particles,

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11066] **viXra:1507.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-27 17:35:22*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This paper expounds the role of the non-trivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function ζ and supplements the author’s earlier papers on the Riemann hypothesis. There is a lot of mystery surrounding the non-trivial zeros.

**Category:** Number Theory

[11065] **viXra:1507.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-27 13:47:44*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 78 Pages.

The author has pledged in various papers, conference or seminar presentations, and scientific grant applications (between 2004-2015) for the unification of fusion theories, combinations of fusion rules, image fusion procedures, filter algorithms, and target tracking methods for more accurate applications to our real world problems - since neither fusion theory nor fusion rule fully satisfy all needed applications. For each particular application, one selects the most appropriate fusion space and fusion model, then the fusion rules, and the algorithms of implementation.
He has worked in the Unification of the Fusion Theories (UFT), which looks like a cooking recipe, better one could say like a logical chart for a computer programmer, but one does not see another method to comprise/unify all things.
The unification scenario presented herein, which is now in an incipient form, should periodically be updated incorporating new discoveries from the fusion and engineering research.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[11064] **viXra:1507.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-27 14:05:43*

**Authors:** BERKOUK Mohamed

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

la démonstration passe par trois étapes :
1° - l’unicité du cycle trivial
2° - la décroissance de tout N du départ
3° - l’atterrissage systématique vers le cycle trivial .
la démonstration de ces trois étape implique la démonstration de la conjecture de Collatz.

**Category:** Number Theory

[11063] **viXra:1507.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-27 07:18:36*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian, Gomathi Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The immense power of Sanskrit Sounds and Mantras and their mention in Spirituality and contemporary science cannot be over-emphasized. Upon a cursory glance, it is seen that the Sanskrit alphabets (Aksharas) could be mapped to certain concepts such as Creation, Balance, Success and Variety; stringing together such Aksharas could form Mantras and words. Based on this, a hypothesis is formulated which leads to a listing of concepts from Akshara descriptions given in Tantric Texts such as the Matruka Nighantu, Mantra Vidhanam and Siddha Sapara Tantra. Finally, sample interpretations of various words and Seed (Bija) Mantras using the Aksharas are presented.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[11062] **viXra:1507.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-27 07:23:07*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Etymology, as the flagship study of linguistics, relates phonetic aspects of words in different languages through the connected meanings. The present paper provides a listing of names of countries and continents (modern and ancient included) and through the etymologies in the source languages, reconstructs the Sanskrit names for such countries. The ability to reconstruct Sanskrit etymologies of country names with etymological roots in a diverse collection of languages with reasonable phonetic closeness suggests at a common link between diverse language families of the world, and forms the highlight of the present paper.

**Category:** Linguistics

[11061] **viXra:1507.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-27 05:09:58*

**Authors:** Diego Liberati

**Comments:** Pages.

The so called strong form is shown to derive from the recently proved so called weak form

**Category:** Number Theory

[11060] **viXra:1507.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-26 18:47:31*

**Authors:** BERKOUK Mohamed

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Ceci est une démonstration de la conjecture du C.GOLDBACH aussi bien la forte que la faible dans sa version moderne , qui repose sur le théorème de WARING ,puis sur un théorème sur les NP que j'avais développé pour conclure sur la primalité (v.multimorielle), enfin un 3° théorème qui annonce la propriété de la parité de la somme et le produit de tout entier naturel .

**Category:** Number Theory

[11059] **viXra:1507.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-26 09:44:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Researchers propose that dark matter is a kind of invisible, intangible version of a pion, or a type of meson — a category of particles made up of quarks and antiquarks. [15]
A new theory says dark matter acts remarkably similar to subatomic particles known to science since the 1930s. [14]
How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can’t… not alone, anyway. [13]
The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12]
Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11]
Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[11058] **viXra:1507.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-26 02:34:53*

**Authors:** Klimets A.P.

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Model of special relativity is built. The model shows the basic formulas of the special relativity and their physical sense.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11057] **viXra:1507.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-25 20:44:12*

**Authors:** Gianluca Perniciano

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A solution of general relativity is presented that describes an Alcubierre [1]
propulsion system in which it is possible to travel at superluminal speed while
reducing the components of the energy-impulse tensor (thus reducing energy
density) by an arbitrary value. Here we investigate the negative energy in the
Pfenning zone, and the quantum inequalities involved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11056] **viXra:1507.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-25 17:30:34*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Explicit deformations of the Lorentz (Conformal) algebra are performed by recurring to Clifford algebras. In particular, deformations of the boosts generators are possible which still retain the form of the Lorentz algebra. In this case there is an invariant value of the energy that is set to be equal to the Planck energy. A discussion of Clifford-Hopf $\kappa$-deformed quantum Poincare algebra follows. To finalize we provide further deformations of the Clifford geometric product based on Moyal star products associated with noncommutative spacetime coordinates.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11055] **viXra:1507.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-25 13:44:40*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The goal of this paper is to highlight the deep connection between Einstein's relativistic kinetic
energy formula and two quantum gravity laws' governing their respective domains: black holes and
particle physics. It seems this connection leads to a deeper understanding of the nature of the
intervening processes.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11054] **viXra:1507.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-25 13:20:22*

**Authors:** Raji Heyrovska

**Comments:** 10 pages, 4 Figures

Over the last decade, the bond lengths in many molecules including hydrogen bonds and bond angles in small molecules like water and oxides of nitrogen, sulphur and carbon, were interpreted quantitatively in terms of the appropriate atomic and or the Golden ratio based ionic radii. Recently, the structure and formation of stratospheric ozone were explained using the atomic and ionic radii of oxygen. Presented here is a new, precise and simple explanation of the bond lengths and angles of the oxides of chlorine which cause depletion of stratospheric ozone. This work brings the simplest interpretation compared with existing complicated theories.

**Category:** Chemistry

[11053] **viXra:1507.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-25 04:28:23*

**Authors:** Solo Blue

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

if we manage to understand the content of this document, perhaps our greatest dreams may appear very small in comparison with the world we can buid. but...are we capable of believing?

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[11052] **viXra:1507.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-25 05:10:50*

**Authors:** Maik Becker-Sievert

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Proofed
Bertrands Postulate
Goldbach´s Ternär and Binär Conjecture
Levy´s Conjecture

**Category:** Number Theory

[11051] **viXra:1507.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-25 05:35:16*

**Authors:** S. Chandra, S. Chandra, G. Lat, P. Par

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Published in Annals of Food Research © 2015, Vol. 42, (12)

Malus domestica, commonly known as the apple, has recently been analyzed with the new stroboscopic techniques to reveal new and unknown properties of this species. We present the results here which may demonstrate novel health benefits from consuming and digesting produce from this fruit.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[11050] **viXra:1507.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-24 08:35:24*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

One of the most outstanding and puzzling problem of particle physics is,
how come, no baryon number is needed to specify the spin-1/2 fermions of the
Eight Fold Way model. Recently the author has shown that all the models
proposed to solve this problem, at present, are fundamentally wrong. So
what is the resolution of this conundrum? Here we show that the topological
Skyrme model comes to our rescue. It is this model which fills the gap by
providing a topologically generated baryon number for the spin-1/2 baryons
in the Eight Fold Way model. The global nature of this baryon number
complements perfectly well the global nature of the Eight Fold Way model
baryons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[11049] **viXra:1507.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-24 05:04:06*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

By starting from a quaternionic separable Hilbert space as a base model the paper uses the capabilities and the restrictions of this model in order to investigate the origins of the electric charge and the electric fields. Also other discrete properties such as color charge and spin are considered.
The paper exploits all known aspects of the quaternionic number system and it uses quaternionic differential calculus rather than Maxwell based differential calculus.
The paper presents fields as mostly continuous quaternionic functions. The electric field is compared with another basic field that acts as a background embedding continuum.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[11048] **viXra:1507.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-24 05:36:19*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: shows the fundamental structure of the proton as an elementary particle.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[11047] **viXra:1507.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-24 06:21:02*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Companies like Google are using our search engine results to send us ads targeted towards hoping for an impulse buy or using what we search against us. Tracking of our search engine results and IP address by Google raises concerns of possible violations of privacy by many people. People such as Steven Aftergood state that we are beginning to have a higher lack of privacy and our data. Everything from our web browsing data, search engine results, and cookies are being tracked by both the government and third party sites to either send us targeted ads or to have something against us in the case if we ever get into any trouble. Deborah Hurley states, “We need to take account our human rights when it concerns our privacy.” The purpose of this paper is to bring about awareness of this current issue through a logical, yet philosophical standpoint.

**Category:** Social Science

[11046] **viXra:1507.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-23 16:17:29*

**Authors:** Hans van Kessel

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

This manuscript explores the restrictions that light velocity imposes on orbiting objects. It then applies the findings to the ‘entropy atom’, a concept that was introduced in an earlier publication (see http://vixra.org/abs/1408.0142)
The key results are:
1.Proof that Gravity travels a light velocity.
2.Orbit diameters are subject to Lorentz expansion (as opposed to Lorentz contraction).
3.The smallest observable object (thus elementary particle) has an entropy value of 2 bits. It has been named ‘entropy atom’.
4.There is a universal maximum limit to how much an entropy atom can contain: 228.97 GeV/c2.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[11045] **viXra:1507.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-23 19:18:18*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 9 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Foundations of Physics (FOOP). Your comments are welcome.

In this paper, I argue that it is possible to model many physical phenomena in terms of classical wave equation. I already discussed this issue for the case of Maxwell equations and Sachs-Wolfe effect, and then I shall show how linearised version of Einstein’s field equations reduce to wave equation form. The latter can be generalized further into a fractal wave equation for Cantor sets. The proposed equation may be called: Fractal gravitational wave on Cantor sets. As far as I know, such an equation has never been considered elsewhere before. However, I should emphasize that the proposed model as outlined here is not complete yet. Therefore, more research is needed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11044] **viXra:1507.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-24 01:03:12*

**Authors:** Cheng Tianren

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We study the group-like elements of a weak hopf algebra and derive an analogue of Radford’s formula for the fourth power of an antipode S. We also describe the shapes of the stable components containing modules with finite complexity. We show the equivalence of admissibility conditions for the parameters of cyclotomic BMW algebras. The main ingredient of our conjugacy proof is the classification of loop torsors over Laurent polynomial rings.

**Category:** Algebra

[11043] **viXra:1507.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-23 14:07:38*

**Authors:** Stephen I. Ternyik

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This text in the German tongue introduces social workers and volunteers into the essentials of non-profit management.

**Category:** Social Science

[11042] **viXra:1507.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-23 14:52:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A big part of the burgeoning science of quantum computation is reliably storing and processing information in the form of quantum bits, or qubits. One of the obstacles to this goal is the difficulty of preserving the fragile quantum condition of qubits against unwanted outside influence even as the qubits interact among themselves in a programmatic way. [8]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[11041] **viXra:1507.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-23 15:02:39*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 10 pages, 15 references

A modification of the Dirac extensible model of electron is applied to study both the universe and the electron. Frequencies of small oscillations of the nucleon and of the electron coupled to this universe are estimated. Two bold hypotheses combined with the models results permit us to estimate the nucleon-electron mass ratio. The mass and radius of the observable universe are also determined.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[11040] **viXra:1507.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-23 10:38:51*

**Authors:** Andrea Pignataro

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The goal of this paper is to explain that the real nature of the multiplication operation is based on its scaling factors and why is a common mistake to understand the multiplication as a repeated addition.

**Category:** Number Theory

[11039] **viXra:1507.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-22 20:25:03*

**Authors:** John C. Hodge

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Interference experiments with only one photon in the experiment at a time have also showed interference patterns. A previous paper that studied photon diffraction and interference (IntellectualArchive, Vol.1, No. 3, P. 20, ISSN 1929-4700, Toronto, July 2012.) required several photons in the experiment at the same time. The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model of photon, plenum, screen and mask; the Bohm Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics; and the Transaction Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics are combined. The speed of the plenum wave is much faster than the speed of photons/light. The reverse wave required by the Transaction Interpretation is provided by a reflected plenum wave rather than a reverse time wave. The photon distribution on a screen results in an intensity pattern well fit by the Fraunhofer diffraction equation. The resultant mathematical model corresponds to the Fraunhofer mathematical model without the peculiar assumptions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[11038] **viXra:1507.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-23 02:12:33*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A new theory says dark matter acts remarkably similar to subatomic particles known to science since the 1930s. [14]
How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can’t… not alone, anyway. [13]
The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12]
Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11]
Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[11037] **viXra:1507.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-22 12:58:16*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

Fock in 1931 showed that Fundamental Quantum Theory requires Linear Operators based on Kernel Functions. Hua showed that Kernel Functions correspond to Complex Classical Domains and Symmetic Spaces. Wolf showed which Symmetric Spaces correspond to Quaternionic Structure, which can represent 4-dim physical spacetime. Schwinger showed that physical elementary particles observed experimentally are not points, but are small geometric volumes he called Sources whose structure carries properties including Creation and Annihilation probability amplitudes. Creation and Annihilation operators lead to Clifford Algebra structure and E8 Physics. The Source structure is based on Green's Functions = Kernel Functions for the Geometry of each Source, which geometry has the symmetry of the Gauge Groups relevant to the particle represented by the Source. Wyler showed the basic process whereby Geoemtric Volumes related to Sources could be used to calculate force strengths and particle masses.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[11036] **viXra:1507.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-22 10:30:11*

**Authors:** Bezaliel Anotida Joshua

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper, we provide an elementary proof of Fermat,s Las Theorem

**Category:** Number Theory

[11035] **viXra:1507.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-22 10:43:24*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Prespacetime Journal for review. Your comments are welcome

In a recent paper I derived an exact analytical solution of Riccati form of 2D Navier-Stokes equations with Mathematica. Now I will present a possible route from an exact analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations to Navier-Stokes Cosmology on Cantor Sets. The route is by showing that Raychaudhury equation leads to Friedmann equation when the vorticity vector, shear tensor and tidal force tensor vanish. Then I show how one can generalize it further to Navier-Stokes systems on Cantor Sets. While this paper contains nothing new except for pedagogical purpose, it may serve as an outline towards Navier-Stokes Cosmology on Cantor Sets.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11034] **viXra:1507.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-21 15:48:24*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

These introductory lectures on affine and quantum algebras are motivated by the idea that triality and exceptional structures are crucial to gravity and color symmetry. We start with the ADE classification.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[11033] **viXra:1507.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-21 16:30:09*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter, P.e.

**Comments:** Five pages

Inertia of a mass sample directly depends on all the gravity radiation received by that sample from everywhere in the universe. Acceleration away from each gravity radiation source increases the gravity radiation received by any mass sample. Acceleration of the mass sample in the direction away from any gravity radiation source will add further to the strength of the gravity radiation received by the mass sample. This is the direct connection between mass generated gravity and artificial acceleration generated gravity, whether linear or centrifugal. Mach’s vague principle is clearly explained in this paper as well as the causes of inertia.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[11032] **viXra:1507.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-21 17:33:14*

**Authors:** Michael Emerson

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This is a continuation of this conceptual model of the fundamental properties of the
Universe. This model offers a new viewpoint conceptually on the fundamental properties of
Spacetime, Strings and Branes and in the forming of a new concept called the Probability of
Geometry. Further taking these concepts through Pre-Big Bang and Post-Big Bang Cosmology
concerning possible physics and cosmology beyond the Planck scale. With the added feature
of testability, and expansion of how to conceptually marry General Relativity, Quantum
Mechanics, M-Theory and Loop Quantum Gravity into one complete theory of Line Space.
With a more full understanding of Black Holes and how the modern concepts fails.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11031] **viXra:1507.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-21 21:07:14*

**Authors:** Morio Kikuchi

**Comments:** 242 Pages.

We protect an aircraft from an anti-aircraft missile disposing a flying object between them(4).

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[11030] **viXra:1507.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-21 22:29:57*

**Authors:** Gianluca Perniciano

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A solution of general relativity is presented that describes an Alcubierre [1]
propulsion system in which it is possible to travel at superluminal speed while
reducing the components of the energy-impulse tensor (thus reducing energy
density) by an arbitrary value. This solution also allows us to reduce or
completely remove Hawking radiation which would otherwise lead to the
explosion of the spaceship (horizon instability [7]).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11029] **viXra:1507.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-21 14:18:41*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

According to the new Newton's formula of gravity (the original law of gravity plus a correction term), i.e., improved Newton's formula of gravity, applying the methods of classical mechanics to solve the problem of advance of Mercury's perihelion and the problem of deflection of photon around the Sun respectively, and the results are the same as given by general relativity. Pointing out that the further topic is based on deriving original law of gravity and original Newton’s second law with law of conservation of energy to derive the new Newton's formula of gravity (the improved Newton's formula of gravity) with law of conservation of energy. To realize the purpose that partially replacing relativity and solving some problems that cannot be solved by relativity with the methods of classical mechanics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[11028] **viXra:1507.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-21 10:51:52*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Volume 3, No.7 (2015), Page 898--902.

We investigate the violation factor of the original Bell-Mermin inequality.
Until now, we have used an assumption
that the results of measurement are $\pm 1$.
In this case, the maximum violation factor is as follows:
$2^{(n-2)/2}(n={\rm even})$ and $2^{(n-1)/2}(n={\rm odd})$.
The quantum predictions by $n$-partite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger
state violate
the Bell-Mermin inequality by an amount that grows exponentially with $n$.
Recently, a new measurement theory is proposed
[{K. Nagata and T. Nakamura,
Int. J. Theor. Phys. {\bf 49}, 162 (2010)}].
The values of measurement outcome are $\pm 1/\sqrt{2}$.
Here we use the new measurement theory.
We consider a multipartite GHZ state.
We use the original Bell-Mermin inequality.
It turns out that the original Bell-Mermin inequality is satisfied irrespective of the number of particles.
In this case, the maximum violation factor is as follows:
$1/2(n={\rm even})$ and $1/\sqrt{2}(n={\rm odd})$.
Thus the original
Bell-Mermin inequality is satisfied by the new measurement theory.
We propose the following conjecture: {\it All
the two-orthogonal-settings experimental correlation functions
admit local realistic theories irrespective of a state
if we use the new measurement theory.}

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[11027] **viXra:1507.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-21 11:32:50*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7]
The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6]
They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[11026] **viXra:1507.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-21 08:07:57*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this note we shall give the simple formulation of the local explanation of EPR correlations [1] based on [2]. We also show that Bell inequalities cannot be derived in the modified Quantum Mechanics (QM).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[11025] **viXra:1507.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-21 09:33:57*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 3 Pages. A submission to EJP

Examples are presented that geometrical images of generated electromagnetic fields are emitted by the geometrical images of the electromagnetic fields, which are the sources

**Category:** Classical Physics

[11024] **viXra:1507.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-20 15:58:38*

**Authors:** Vilkovskii S.S.

**Comments:** Pages 14. English language and russian translation.

Existence of zero rotations for point particles with nonzero rest mass in the field of their quantum size is supposed. The assumption about coordinated interaction of these zero rotations of the above particles leads to possibility of the description of their wave properties.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[11023] **viXra:1507.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-20 18:36:10*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

All scientists know well: to achieve nucleus fusion, a temperature of hundreds of millions of degrees is required. Only in this case, the kinetic energy of nucleus overcomes the repulsive electric force of nucleus and connects two initial nucleuses into a single nucleus. In the last sixty years, scientists have spent tens of billion US dollars attempting to develop useful thermonuclear fusion energy.Yet, today they still cannot reach a stable long-period thermonuclear reaction. They still are promising publically, after many years of effort, and additional tens of billions of US dollars to finally design the expensive but ultimately workable industrial installation, which possibly will produce electric energy more expensive than current heat, wind and hydro-electric stations can in 2015.
Author, instead, uses well-known physical laws and shows the other andcheaperway: very low temperatures (0.01 ÷ 10K) and high-pressure (some thousands or millions of atmospheres) allows reaching the same results: thermonuclear fusion.He does not use kinetic energy of nucleus again repulsive force of nucleus, as in the long-touted conventional plasma confinement method. Instead, he uses the blocking the repulsive forces of nucleus by electrons (sphere Debya), very low-temperatureand high-pressure. In current time to reach these temperature and pressure are easily than hundreds millions degrees by magnetic or inertial confinement. New method for thermonuclear fusion is relatively cheap and allows use of other thermonuclear fuel which are less expensive and which produce theaneutronic reaction. Author offers new criterion for Ultra Cold Thermonuclear Fusion.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[11022] **viXra:1507.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-21 07:28:13*

**Authors:** Boris Arm

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We give an expression of the Arm function
which gives rise to the definition of
the Arm binomial coefficient
and the corresponding
Arm triangle.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[11021] **viXra:1507.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-21 07:29:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Galaxies in a cluster roughly 300 million light years from Earth could contain as much as 100 times more dark matter than visible matter, according to an Australian study. The research, published today, used powerful computer simulations to study galaxies that have fallen into the Coma Cluster, one of the largest structures in the Universe in which thousands of galaxies are bound together by gravity. [15]
A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14]
Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13]
Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[11020] **viXra:1507.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-20 13:32:31*

**Authors:** Richard Benish

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This single-page Chart (not a paper, per se) plots the masses and densities of physical objects spanning the whole Universe. It covers over 80 orders of magnitude of mass and over 70 orders of magnitude of density. All raw data are taken from standard literature. The pattern established thereby suggests a continuous extension at the high density end that deviates from General Relativity-based conceptions of "black hole" singularities. The Chart also strongly suggests that preoccupation with the "Planck-scale," as invoked in many standard unification and "quantum gravity" schemes, is a meaningless distraction that has nothing to do with our physical Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11019] **viXra:1507.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-20 09:54:29*

**Authors:** Laszlo G. Meszaros

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Despite of the general acceptance of Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity (STR) and its alleged experimental support, the relation to reality of its implications (such as length contraction and time dilation, for instance) still seems obscure. Here, a simple thought-experiment is put forward, which illustrates that relativistic length contraction, if not considered only illusory, contradicts the law of energy conservation and even the principle of relativity, one of the postulates the STR is based upon. It is also shown that length contraction, if real, should make a chemical clock tick faster, instead of slower as predicted by the STR. Stimulating discussions on the true merit of the STR are thus called for.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11018] **viXra:1507.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-20 12:21:41*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The calculations of Oppenheimer and Snyder revealed discrepancies in the behavior of a dust ball described using "standard" in place of "comoving" coordinates: periodic metric and energy density singularities that occur in "comoving" coordinates are completely eliminated by the Oppenheimer-Snyder transformation to "standard" coordinates. In addition, the definition of "comoving time" worryingly involves the clocks of an infinite number of different observers, removing it from the realm of what is physically observable. Nonetheless, the Oppenheimer-Snyder example of second-guessing "comoving" dust ball results by transforming them to physically less questionable coordinates has since rarely been emulated. We here treat a dust ball whose energy density always decreases; its "comoving" result has a familiar singularity at a sufficiently early time, which has prompted "age of the universe" terminology. But upon Oppenheimer-Snyder type transformation to "standard" coordinates, the singularity is eliminated, pulling the rug out from under "age" talk. Furthermore, the transformed dust ball was at no stage as small as its Schwarzschild radius. But in a time-reversed variant of well-known Oppenheimer-Snyder abrupt dust contraction, the transformed dust ball likely underwent an inflationary epoch. In addition to the above extension of the Oppenheimer-Snyder transformation, we point out why singular metrics are inconsistent with General Relativity fundamentals, and how "comoving coordinates" also contravene GR fundamentals.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11017] **viXra:1507.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-20 04:14:59*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

It is possible to buy this paper, your money will not be spent for entertainment and you will be rewarded in Heaven for spending your time and money to consume and promote (among your contacts and friends) the product of the Cripple author. Points for God they call not the proofs, but the ``arguments''. It is because they are illustrations of divine. As example: God exists, because word ``God'' means ``exists''. He has more right to exist than anyone else. Therefore the criticism against the arguments (main modern arguers: S.Hawking, R.Dawkins) is pointless. Dr. Marcelo Gleiser, in his article ``Hawking And God: An Intimate Relationship'' wrote: ``Maybe Hawking should leave God alone.'' The Universe could have been any. But it is the most complex in face of humans. Probability of such ``random'' event is zero. For sure, without God the complexity would be average, but not the top one.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[11016] **viXra:1507.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-20 04:10:32*

**Authors:** Yevgeniy Kutanov

**Comments:** 8 pages in English and 9 pages in Russian

This paper describes a model of gravity where gravitational pull is created by accelerating flow of space which is absorbed by mass. Proposed model of gravity is used to define the size of a zone of gravitational influence of mass and to explain the value of the rest mass energy and the phenomenon of time dilation. This model suggests that the gravitational influence of mass squeezes space cells and accelerates them towards the mass until a certain critical speed is reached at which the space cells collapse. The critical speed of the space cells is the mass’s space absorption speed which sets an absolute speed limit for a movement in space for any object. The total energy of mass is equal to the sum of its gravitational and kinetic energies. Stationary object with uniform space absorption from all directions has the highest gravitational energy for its mass but no kinetic energy. When an object is moving with the speed of light absorbing space from one direction it completely loses its gravitational influence but gains the highest possible kinetic energy. The last case defines the value of the total energy of mass as equal to its highest kinetic energy. Time for the particle of matter is measured in the acts of space cells absorption. Duration of the quantum of time is a function of the size of the space cells when they reach a particle of matter. The gravitational influence of mass is weakening when an object is moving in space. Lower gravity means bigger size of the space cells on the surface of the matter and therefore slower time for the moving mass. This model of mass shows that even moving with the speed of light particles experience time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5133] **viXra:1507.0218 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-30 03:34:38*

**Authors:** Dao Thanh Oai

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this note, I introduce three conjectures of generalization of the Lester circle theorem, the Parry circle theorem, the Zeeman-Gossard perspector theorem respectively

**Category:** Geometry

[5132] **viXra:1507.0216 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-30 03:26:55*

**Authors:** Dao Thanh Oai

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In Euclidean geometry, Feuerbach-Luchterhand theorem is a generalization of Pythagorean theorem, Stewart theorem and the British Flag theorem.....In this note, I propose two conjectures of generalization of Feuerbach-Luchterhand theorem.

**Category:** Geometry

[5131] **viXra:1507.0209 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-29 13:15:47*

**Authors:** M. E. Hassani

**Comments:** 7 Pages; 2 Figures; 1 Reference.

More recently, G.G.Nyambuya published anarticle entitled "Azimuthally symmetric theory of gravitation – II. On the perihelion precession of solar planetary orbits" [MNRAS 451(3)3034-3043
(2015)], which considered by the author as an improved version of the "Azimuthally Symmetric
Theory of Gravitation (I) – On the Perihelion Precession of Planetary Orbits" [MNRAS403(3)1381-
1391(2010)]. This comment proves that the so-called ASTG-model is physico-mathematically
incorrect. Consequently, the said model cannot possibly be a (new) gravity theory.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[5130] **viXra:1507.0202 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-29 13:06:11*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This paper expounds the role of the non-trivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function ζ and supplements the author’s earlier papers on the Riemann hypothesis. There is a lot of mystery surrounding the non-trivial zeros.

**Category:** Number Theory

[5129] **viXra:1507.0196 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-27 15:40:14*

**Authors:** BERKOUK Mohamed

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Ceci est une démonstration de la conjecture du C.GOLDBACH aussi bien la forte que la faible dans sa version moderne , qui repose sur le théorème de WARING ,puis sur un théorème sur les NP que j'avais développé pour conclure sur la primalité (v.multimorielle), enfin un 3° théorème qui annonce la propriété de la parité de la somme et le produit de tout entier naturel .

**Category:** Number Theory

[5128] **viXra:1507.0193 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-30 19:37:32*

**Authors:** Gianluca Perniciano

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A solution of general relativity is presented that describes an Alcubierre
propulsion system in which it is possible to travel at superluminal speed while
reducing the components of the energy-impulse tensor (thus reducing energy
density) by an arbitrary value. Here we investigate the negative energy in the
Pfenning zone, and the quantum inequalities involved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5127] **viXra:1507.0185 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-29 13:14:57*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

By starting from a quaternionic separable Hilbert space as a base model the paper uses the capabilities and the restrictions of this model in order to investigate the origins of the electric charge and the electric fields. Also other discrete properties such as color charge and spin are considered.
The paper exploits all known aspects of the quaternionic number system and it uses quaternionic differential calculus rather than Maxwell based differential calculus.
The paper presents fields as mostly continuous quaternionic functions. The electric field is compared with another basic field that acts as a background embedding continuum. The behavior of photons is used in order to investigate the long range behavior of these fields.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5126] **viXra:1507.0184 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-28 21:29:18*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: shows the fundamental structure of the proton as an elementary particle.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[5125] **viXra:1507.0184 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-27 00:37:58*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: shows the fundamental structure of the proton as an elementary particle.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[5124] **viXra:1507.0184 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-25 20:49:47*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[5123] **viXra:1507.0184 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-24 10:07:08*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[5122] **viXra:1507.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-30 08:17:43*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Companies like Google are using our search engine results to send us ads targeted towards hoping for an impulse buy or using what we search against us. Tracking of our search engine results and IP address by Google raises concerns of possible violations of privacy by many people. People such as Steven Aftergood state that we are beginning to have a higher lack of privacy and our data. Everything from our web browsing data, search engine results, and cookies are being tracked by both the government and third party sites to either send us targeted ads or to have something against us in the case if we ever get into any trouble. Deborah Hurley states, “We need to take account our human rights when it concerns our privacy.” The purpose of this paper is to bring about awareness of this current issue through a logical, yet philosophical standpoint.

**Category:** Social Science

[5121] **viXra:1507.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-29 12:53:57*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Companies like Google are using our search engine results to send us ads targeted towards hoping for an impulse buy or using what we search against us. Tracking of our search engine results and IP address by Google raises concerns of possible violations of privacy by many people. People such as Steven Aftergood state that we are beginning to have a higher lack of privacy and our data. Everything from our web browsing data, search engine results, and cookies are being tracked by both the government and third party sites to either send us targeted ads or to have something against us in the case if we ever get into any trouble. Deborah Hurley states, “We need to take account our human rights when it concerns our privacy.” The purpose of this paper is to bring about awareness of this current issue through a logical, yet philosophical standpoint.

**Category:** Social Science

[5120] **viXra:1507.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-29 09:14:03*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

**Category:** Social Science

[5119] **viXra:1507.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-28 15:00:05*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

**Category:** Social Science

[5118] **viXra:1507.0171 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-24 07:22:01*

**Authors:** Bezaliel Anotida Joshua

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Submitted to a formal journal for peer-review.

In this note, we provide an elementary proof of Fermat's Last Theorem.

**Category:** Number Theory

[5117] **viXra:1507.0166 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-28 19:30:35*

**Authors:** Morio Kikuchi

**Comments:** 242 Pages.

We protect an aircraft from an anti-aircraft missile disposing a flying object between them(4).

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[5116] **viXra:1507.0165 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-27 18:21:31*

**Authors:** Gianluca Perniciano

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A solution of general relativity is presented that describes an Alcubierre [1]
propulsion system in which it is possible to travel at superluminal speed while
reducing the components of the energy-impulse tensor (thus reducing energy
density) by an arbitrary value. This solution also allows us to reduce Hawking
radiation which would otherwise lead to the explosion of the spaceship (horizon
instability [7])

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5115] **viXra:1507.0157 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-25 06:29:00*

**Authors:** Arm Boris Nima

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We give an expression of the Arm function which gives rise to the definition of the Arm binomial coefficient and the corresponding Arm triangle.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[5114] **viXra:1507.0153 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-30 19:14:01*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The calculations of Oppenheimer and Snyder revealed discrepancies in the behavior of a dust ball described using "standard" in place of "comoving" coordinates: periodic metric and energy density singularities that occur in "comoving" coordinates are completely eliminated by the Oppenheimer-Snyder transformation to "standard" coordinates. In addition, the definition of "comoving time" worryingly involves the clocks of an infinite number of different observers, removing it from the realm of what is physically observable. Nonetheless, the Oppenheimer-Snyder example of second-guessing "comoving" dust ball results by transforming them to physically less questionable coordinates has since rarely been emulated. We here treat a dust ball whose energy density always decreases; its "comoving" result has a familiar singularity at a sufficiently early time, which has prompted "age of the universe" terminology. But upon Oppenheimer-Snyder type transformation to "standard" coordinates, the singularity is eliminated, pulling the rug out from under "age" talk. Furthermore, the transformed dust ball was at no stage as small as its Schwarzschild radius. But in a time-reversed variant of well-known Oppenheimer-Snyder abrupt dust contraction, the transformed dust ball likely underwent an inflationary epoch. In addition to the above extension of the Oppenheimer-Snyder transformation, we point out why singular metrics are inconsistent with General Relativity fundamentals, and how "comoving coordinates" also contravene GR fundamentals.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5113] **viXra:1507.0153 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-22 13:02:19*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The calculations of Oppenheimer and Snyder revealed discrepancies in the behavior of a dust ball described using "standard" in place of "comoving" coordinates: periodic metric and energy density singularities that occur in "comoving" coordinates are completely eliminated by the Oppenheimer-Snyder transformation to "standard" coordinates. In addition, the definition of "comoving time" worryingly involves the clocks of an infinite number of different observers, removing it from the realm of what is physically observable. Nonetheless, the Oppenheimer-Snyder example of second-guessing "comoving" dust ball results by transforming them to physically less questionable coordinates has since rarely been emulated. We here treat a dust ball whose energy density always decreases; its "comoving" result has a familiar singularity at a sufficiently early time, which has prompted "age of the universe" terminology. But upon Oppenheimer-Snyder type transformation to "standard" coordinates, the singularity is eliminated, pulling the rug out from under "age" talk. Furthermore, the transformed dust ball was at no stage as small as its Schwarzschild radius. But in a time-reversed variant of well-known Oppenheimer-Snyder abrupt dust contraction, the transformed dust ball likely underwent an inflationary epoch. In addition to the above extension of the Oppenheimer-Snyder transformation, we point out why singular metrics are inconsistent with General Relativity fundamentals, and how "comoving coordinates" also contravene GR fundamentals.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology