**Previous months:**

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2014 - 1401(190) - 1402(150) - 1403(843) - 1404(263) - 1405(331) - 1406(180) - 1407(205) - 1408(222) - 1409(228) - 1410(190) - 1411(494) - 1412(256)

2015 - 1501(237)

Any replacements are listed further down

[9856] **viXra:1501.0255 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-31 13:07:08*

**Authors:** Pierre Réal Gosselin

**Comments:** English, 7 pages, also in French, Web site: http://phrenocarpe.org/zhp/index.html .

We review Hubble’s law formulation, we reduce Ho to a combination of three fundamental constants and define the Hubble surface σH.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9855] **viXra:1501.0254 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-31 14:23:45*

**Authors:** Antonio A. Blatter

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Spanish

This paper presents the linear momentum, the angular momentum and the radial momentum of a system of N particles, which give rise to the conservation laws of linear momentum, angular momentum and energy.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[9854] **viXra:1501.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-31 15:05:19*

**Authors:** Miloje M. Rakocevic

**Comments:** 9 Pages. This is fifth part of the work

In this fifth part of the work on the completeness of the genetic code, we present further connections and relations between nucleotide doublets and triplets within Genetic Code Table; in all cases through balances of atom number, nucleon number and isotope number.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[9853] **viXra:1501.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-30 12:14:34*

**Authors:** Michael Pogorsky

**Comments:** 6 Pages. The third version of analogously based proofs of FLT

This is the shortest and most direct version of proofs of FLT based on deduced for two main cases of the equation a^n+b^n=c^n polynomial expressions a=uwv+v^n; b=uwv+w^n; c=uwv+v^n+w^n. Contradiction revealed in the polynomials does not allow them to become integer numbers and proves the Theorem.

**Category:** Number Theory

[9852] **viXra:1501.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-30 11:22:56*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 26 Pages. Some charts and illustrations

Vedic Particle Physics posits 56 types of spaces in the atomic nucleus, 28 positive and 28 negative in terms of energy loss or gain. Energy is derived from functioning Dark Matter via structures which probably are isomorphic to Spinor Fields, called Sakti and Asakti in Sanskrit, and which relate directly to the Octonions and Sedenions. This paper describes this process and establishes isomorphic relations between concepts in Vedic Particle Physics and contemporary western mathematical physics, with some quantification given for both, especially S7.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[9851] **viXra:1501.0250 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-30 01:30:44*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This is an essay I entered in a competition about the Bhagavad Gita. Probably written about 2,000 years ago; this writing is perhaps the greatest philosophical expression of Hinduism. I was attracted to the contest because the website included a very favourable comment about the Bhagavad Gita by Albert Einstein (see below). For a while, I actually considered it possible that I’d win the contest. But that time has passed. The winner has been announced and I can now see my entry for what it is – a naïve attempt to preach science to the religionists, as well as a naïve attempt to preach religion to the scientists.
There’s a statement in the essay which I’m wondering about. I said, “However, the concept of possessing a soul is not automatically supported. The idea of having a reincarnating soul would be an easy way of explaining immortality thousands of years ago when people were completely unfamiliar with the scientific facts of an eternal universe, Einstein’s Unified Field, and fractal geometry.” I still think this might be correct. But “might” is the word. I’m wondering about something I later wrote – could the ghostly immaterial body described below be what we call the soul? If such a body is developed in the future to overcome present limitations, could it be referred to as a soul if it travels into the past and is absorbed into a physical body? (It might be what the Bhagavad Gita refers to as the Supersoul, and might be quantum entangled with all space and all time. And if the physical brain is receptive to this so-called entangled soul’s knowledge of everything in space and time, the presently accepted limits to acquiring knowledge would, to use the below quote of Einstein’s, be “superfluous”).
From “Physics and Philosophy Beyond the Standard Model” (http://vixra.org/abs/1411.0585) – “In 1925, the Austrian physicist Wolfgang Pauli discovered the exclusion principle. This says two similar particles cannot have both the same position and velocity. If two electrons could have identical positions and velocities, they could all collapse into a roughly uniform, dense “soup”. Protons and neutrons would do the same, and there would be no well-defined atoms. So we need the exclusion principle. Force-carrying particles like photons and gravitons do not obey the exclusion principle so we might assume the immaterial body wouldn’t be well-defined and would collapse into a ghostly soup. But perhaps a well-defined structure can be built if the photons are first stopped. The potential for photons to possess mass by having their digital sequence altered and being converted to other particles – or the potential for programming the photons - may make this definition possible. A chrononaut whose body is defined by mass would still have a gravitational effect, and be dark matter. But if she or he would rather not be a lump of dark matter, her or his body might be defined by programming photons and gravitons; creating a body of “light matter”. The beginnings of this technology may be in [43] which speaks of one photon being “stuck” to another.”

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[9850] **viXra:1501.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-29 16:28:47*

**Authors:** Andro Antonopoulis

**Comments:** 22 Pages. Thank you!

A coin users guide to navigating legacy financial systems.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[9849] **viXra:1501.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-29 10:06:49*

**Authors:** Anatoly V. Belyakov

**Comments:** 16 Pages. 16 p., 3 fig.

In this paper on a unified basis in terms of mechanistic interpretation of J.Wheeler’s geometrodynamic concept the attempt to explain the nature of nuclear forces as the result of the complex nucleons structure and to submit the model of the structure of atomic nuclei is done. It is shown that the assumption of the existence of closed contours, including electron and proton quarks leads to a conclusion about the existence of W, Z-bosons and also the Higgs boson whose mass is calculated. Values of the coupling constants in the strong and weak interactions are calculated, and it is shown that they do not indicate the strength of the interaction, but indicate only the strength of bonds between the elements of nucleon structure. The binding energy of the deuteron, triton and alpha particles are defined. Dependence of the nucleon-nucleon interaction of the distance is explained. The structural scheme of nuclei is proposed, the inevitability of presence of envelopes in nuclei is proved, the expressions allowing to estimate the features of nuclear structure, as well as correctly to assess the binding energy of nuclei and their mass numbers are obtained. The results of calculations at the level of the model suggest the possibility to use this model for the construction of an appropriate theory.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[9848] **viXra:1501.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-28 21:42:43*

**Authors:** V.B. Smolenskii

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: the article presents the purpose of creation and the original principle of PI-Theory of fundamental physical constants.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9847] **viXra:1501.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-28 14:49:07*

**Authors:** Ali R. Hadjesfandiari

**Comments:** 12 Pages. 1 figure, 5 references

In this paper, the symmetric character of the thermal conductivity tensor for linear anisotropic material is established as the result of arguments from tensor analysis for Duhamel’s generalization of Fourier’s heat conduction. The non-singular nature of the conductivity tensor plays the fundamental role in establishing this symmetry, as well as its positive (or negative) definiteness. Significantly, the second law of thermodynamics does not contribute here in establishing these characteristics, but does ultimately decide that the conductivity tensor is indeed positive definite.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[9846] **viXra:1501.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-28 10:10:14*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. in the next version a necessary translation into English

We emphasize the need for more experiments to measure the variation of the speed of light in a gravitational field. Indicate an experimental procedure on the surface of the Earth that can provide a reasonable estimate of the true value of the speed of light in the absence of gravitational field. The speed of light in the absence of gravitational field is either infinite or very large (greater than we now know), and in the presence of gravitational field can vary throughout the day, like the Earth's surface, this according to General Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9845] **viXra:1501.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-28 07:48:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Entanglement Makes Quantum Particles Measurably Heavier, Says Quantum Theorist. The discovery is a long sought-after link between the theories of quantum mechanics and general relativity. [8]
Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9844] **viXra:1501.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-28 08:18:26*

**Authors:** Wolfgang Westenberger

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

SUMMARY. Recent observations show that merging galaxies usually result in a disc
structure. The reason for that is explained by the Merging Theory.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[9843] **viXra:1501.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-28 05:05:22*

**Authors:** Nikolaj Roerich

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The paper briefly shows how all paradoxes of modern Science including Physics are solved leading to Unified Field Theory.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[9842] **viXra:1501.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-27 20:54:40*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache, Ilanthenral K.

**Comments:** 169 Pages.

The distance between row matrices was defined by Hamming. However the distance between column matrices or for that matter and any two matrices of same order are not defined systematically. Here in this book this concept is defined and it can help in the analysis of storage of data, deviation in eigen values and in difference in opinions of experts using some fuzzy models. Some open problems are suggested.

**Category:** Algebra

[9841] **viXra:1501.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-27 22:04:28*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Sphere Discontinuity Theory of the Universe proposes that the Universe is a sphere made of spheres, that again is made of spheres. In addition there would be many essentially equal universes of quantity of about Universes. This theory proposes a theory of why the Universe and particles can be modeled as a hollow spheres but still not be a hollow sphere, but rather a sphere with very few discontinuities in relation to the spheres overall size. Further, it paints a picture of the structure of the levels of the Universe and its properties.
To further extend the Sphere Discontinuity Theory it will be shown how the discontinuities can account for the Lorentz Transformations.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9840] **viXra:1501.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-27 13:21:48*

**Authors:** Charles Nunno

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is hypothesized that although all Black hole theories are pseudoscience the concept may be useful for visualizing the vacuum of space. The universe is built inside a black hole called vacuum.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[9839] **viXra:1501.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-27 13:34:34*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The origin of water on the Earth, and the reason why there is more liquid water on the Earth than on the other terrestrial planets of the Solar System is not completely understood. Here we show that these facts are related to a water vapor cloud formed by the vaporization of part of an ice belt that was formed in the beginning of the Solar System.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[9838] **viXra:1501.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-27 09:51:22*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Some illustrations

The structure of the Da Liu Ren Cosmic Board mirrors the atomic nuclear structure in the paradigm of Vedic Particle Physics. Da Liu Ren is the most advanced form of divination known to Chinese culture. This mirrored structure implies that Da Liu Ren originated in Vedic culture, and was borrowed millenia ago by the Chinese. This paper discusses the structures common to Da Liu Ren and Vedic Particle Physics.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[9837] **viXra:1501.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-27 12:24:18*

**Authors:** Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Talk at the X Mexican School on Gravitation and Mathematical Physics, Playa del Carmen, Mexico, December 1-5, 2014. To be published in Proceedings.

On the basis of the Silagadze research[1], we investigate the question
of the definitions of the discrete symmetry operators both on the
classical level, and
in the secondary-quantization scheme [2,3]. We studied the physical content
within several bases: light-front form formulation [4],
helicity basis, angular momentum basis, and so on, on several practical examples.
The conclusion is that we have ambiguities in the definitions of the
corresponding operators P, C; T, which lead to different physical
consequences [5,6].

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[9836] **viXra:1501.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-26 17:04:47*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

Graphic Cover summarizes TSC Fusion of D in 147-atom Palladium Clusters; Jitterbug Icosa - Cubocta - Icosa Transformation reloading D into Pd Clusters; and Zeolite Steam Engine utilizing Fusion Energy. The body of the paper gives details of the Pd - D TSC Jitterbug Fusion Process: Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures: Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral: 1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation; 2 - Pd clusters with absorbed Deuterium have two states: Icosahedral ground state Cuboctahedral metastable state; 3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in Icosahedral Pd-D produces Fusion; 4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra; 5 - Cuboctahedra reload TSC sites and Jitterbug back to Icosahedra; 6 - Repeat the Cycle.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[9835] **viXra:1501.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-26 17:47:16*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Informally we explain the concept of space-time, we calculate the changes in space and time in a static gravitational field and with spherical symmetry (Schwarzschild solution) and, the most importantly, we obtained the corresponding variability of the speed of light in this field. Can be great the loss of speed of light in a gravitational field, which may explain the dark matter. More experiences with the speed of light must be made.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9834] **viXra:1501.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-26 17:28:17*

**Authors:** JinHua Fei

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, we assume that Hardy-Littlewood Conjecture, we got a better upper bound of the exceptional real zero for a class of module.

**Category:** Number Theory

[9833] **viXra:1501.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-26 15:06:09*

**Authors:** Jan A Bergstra

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A survey of issues concerning the pragmatic logic of fractions is presented, including a seemingly paradoxical calculation. The presence of nested ambiguity in the language of fractions is documented. Careful design of fraction related datatypes and of logics appropriate for such datatypes is proposed as a path towards novel resolution of these complications. The abstract datatype of splitting fractions is informally described. A rationale of its design is provided. A multi-threaded research plan on fractions is outlined.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[9832] **viXra:1501.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-26 15:15:47*

**Authors:** Miloje M. Rakocevic

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Part IV of the work

In this fourth part of the work about the completeness of the genetic code, we present further connections and relations between nucleotide doublets and triplets within Genetic Code Table.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[9831] **viXra:1501.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-25 14:47:30*

**Authors:** Bolonkin A.A.

**Comments:** 111 Pages.

Это краткий конспект лекций по курсу "Теория оптимальных систем", прочитанных автором для студентов старших курсов, аспирантов, инженеров и преподавателей в 1967-1969гг в Московском авиационном технологическом институте и в 1969-1971гг в МВТУ им. Баумана.
Автор излагает принципиально новые методы оптимизации, поиска глобального минимума и применяет их в технических задачах автоматики, динамики полета, авиации, космонавтике, комбинаторике, в теории игр, задачах с противодействием и т.п.
This is a brief summary of lectures for the course "Theory of optimal systems", read by the author for senior students, graduate students, engineers and lecturers in 1967-1969 at the Moscow Aviation Institute of Technology and in 1969-1971 at MVTU. named Bauman.
The author presents the fundamentally new optimization techniques, search for the global minimum and applies them to the technical problems of automation, flight dynamics, aviation, aerospace, combinatorics, game theory, problems with resistance, etc.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[9830] **viXra:1501.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-25 12:08:37*

**Authors:** Bolonkin A.A.

**Comments:** 111 Pages.

Это краткий конспект лекций по курсу "Теория оптимальных систем", прочитанных автором для студентов старших курсов, аспирантов, инженеров и преподавателей в 1967-1969гг в Московском авиационном технологическом институте и в 1969-1971гг в МВТУ им. Баумана.
Автор излагает принципиально новые методы оптимизации, поиска глобального минимума и применяет их в технических задачах автоматики, динамики полета, авиации, космонавтике, комбинаторике, в теории игр, задачах с противодействием и т.п.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[9829] **viXra:1501.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-25 04:34:01*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Submitted to EJP

The dependence of free fall acceleration on speed in the Schwarzschild space-time is obtained. It is confirmed that gravitation mass coincides with inertial mass

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9828] **viXra:1501.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-24 23:57:21*

**Authors:** Lutz Kayser

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

The Einstein Postulates of Special Relativity (SR), namely the invariance of the speed of light c relative to the observer, the symmetry of relative velocities, and the Galilean Principle independent of velocity and gravitational potential are falsified. The replacement is Law 1: There exists an absolute universal velocity reference (Cosmic Velocity Reference, CVR) and Law 2: The speed of light c is invariant and isotropic only relative to absolute universal space CVR. Experimental evidence like Smoot’s anisotropy of the cosmic microwave radiation background CMB and the one-way measurements of the speed of light are given. From the new Laws it follows (in vector notation) c_rel = c - v_CVR This results in the elimination from physics the Minkovski four-vector spacetime symmetry, time dilation, length contraction, velocity and acceleration symmetrical Lorentz transformation, Einstein vector addition, covariance, invisible and unphysical net of monolithic worldlines, and other weird mathematical constructs without physical meaning resulting from Special Relativity SR and General Relativity GR. The mass increase of particles with speed by the so-called Lorentz Factor 〖ϒ=(1-v^2 /c^2 )〗^(-1/2) is so often cited by Relativists as empirical proof of SR. ϒ was fraudulently smuggled into SR without mathematical proof applying it to relative velocities which gives wrong results. We show that the Lorentz Factor is a simple part of the system of classical dynamic equations. But it is only valid with absolute cosmic velocity v_CVR . The increases of mass, momentum, and energy with an object’s velocity are correct but not part of or caused by SR. This is true also for the change of clock rate as a function of velocity and Newtonian gravity potential.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9827] **viXra:1501.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-25 03:13:24*

**Authors:** Binyamin Tsadik Bair-Moshe

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A solution to the mechanism of forces and space-time that is too simple to be true, yet too elegant to be ignored.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9826] **viXra:1501.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-24 09:35:46*

**Authors:** Antonio A. Blatter

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This paper is written in Spanish.

In classical mechanics, this paper presents a simple rotational classical mechanics which can be applied in any reference frame inertial or non-inertial.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[9825] **viXra:1501.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-24 10:50:01*

**Authors:** Koji KOBAYASHI

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article prove that P is not NP by using difference of bases cardinality. About NP-Complete problems, we can divide some problems to infinite disjunction of P-Complete problems. These P-Complete problems are independent of each other in disjunction. The other hand, any P-Complete problem have at most a finite number of basis of P-Complete. The reason is that each P problems have at most finite number of Least fixed point operator. Therefore, we cannot describe NP-Complete problems in P.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[9824] **viXra:1501.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-24 11:07:52*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Originally published in FQXi Forum

Time is a functional entity, derived from fundamental property of basic 3D matter-particles (photons) to move at a constant linear seed with respect to surrounding universal medium. 3D matter has no ability to act or move. It is the surrounding (all-encompassing) universal medium, which moves basic 3D matter-particles at the highest possible linear speed. Unit of time is related to interval required by a photon to traverse definite extent of universal medium in space. Relating various activities about 3D matter-bodies to time helps us to rationalise in terms of cause and effect relations. Due to its lack of physical form, time can neither expand nor contract nor flow in any direction.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[9823] **viXra:1501.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-24 11:19:26*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 9 pages. This paper is the French version of «MARS BLUE CLEARING AND ALLAIS EFFECT» on viXra.org/abs/1501.0219.

Une flambée de luminosité et des tempêtes se produisent sur Mars lorsque la Terre se trouve entre le Soleil et Mars. L’atmosphère et les nuages peuvent alors être vus et photographiés à la lumière bleue par des télescopes sur Terre équipés d’un filtre Wratten 47. Il arrive que l’écran bleu du filtre se mette soudain à disparaître et que la surface martienne devienne visible. Nous estimons que l’« effet Allais de syzygie » peut expliquer ce phénomène appelé « blue clearing ». L’opposition causerait une « tension gravito-électromagnétique ». Ce qui provoquerait des fluctuations dans le potentiel gravitationnel de Mars. En supposant que la gravité martienne diminue un tant soit peu, une diffusion Raman Stokes se manifesterait au niveau intramoléculaire de l’atmosphère martienne. Dès lors, ce sont surtout les ondes qui correspondent aux régions spectrales jaune, orange ou rouge qui sont diffusées, ce qui écarte les ondes courtes. On déduit que les dimensions des inhomogénéités résultant de l’animation thermique s’avèrent supérieures à la longueur des ondes lumineuses des régions violette ou bleue du spectre.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9822] **viXra:1501.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-24 12:17:28*

**Authors:** Stephen I. Ternyik

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Liberty; ethics; revolution; economics;The Bible

The economics of American Independence is analyzed; a deep explanation of historical events is given,from the viewpoint of political Hebraism and economic thought.

**Category:** Social Science

[9821] **viXra:1501.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-23 16:21:09*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

An outbreak of brightness and storms occur on Mars when the Earth is between the Sun and Mars. The atmosphere and clouds can then be seen and photographed at short wavelengths by Earth-based telescopes equipped with a Wratten 47 filter. It happens that the blue screen of the filter suddenly begins to disappear and that the Martian surface becomes visible. We believe that the "Allais syzygy effect" may explain this phenomenon known as "blue clearing". The opposition would generate a "gravito-electromagnetic tension", which would spawn fluctuations in the gravitational potential of Mars. Assuming that the Martian gravity decreased slightly, a Stokes Raman scattering would manifest at intramolecular level of the Martian. Therefore, it is mainly the waves corresponding to the spectral regions yellow, orange or red that are diffused, what eliminates short wavelengths. We deduce that the size of the inhomogeneities resulting from thermal excitation turns out to be greater than the length of the light waves of blue or purple regions of the spectrum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9820] **viXra:1501.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-23 16:18:10*

**Authors:** Emmanuel Kanambaye

**Comments:** 24 Pages. The document is in french

LM Theorem proposed in this paper is a new simple and elegant physical theorem ; it allows the invalidation of theories such as String Theory and Loop Quantum Gravity.
LM Theory is itself an extraordinarily simple theory; it rests on a single hypothesis can:
-To impose the wave-particle duality any moving mass; while eliminating the infinite that appear in a Quantum Field Theory.
-To introduce naturally a new field can explain the accelerating expansion of the universe, as well as inflation to its origins; and eliminating gravitational singularities in General Relativity etc....
So it is a Theory that provides a solution to most problems raised by the current theories and observations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9819] **viXra:1501.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-23 17:01:32*

**Authors:** Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 9 Pages. To be published in the "Proceedings of Science", http://pos.sissa.it/

Recently, several discussions on the possible observability of 4-vector fields have been published
in literature. Furthermore, several authors recently claimed existence of the helicity=0 fundamental
field. We re-examine the theory of antisymmetric tensor fields and 4-vector potentials.
We study the massless limits. In fact, theoretical motivation for this venture is the old papers
of Ogievetskiı and Polubarinov, Hayashi, and Kalb and Ramond. They proposed the concept of
the notoph, whose helicity properties are complementary to those of the photon. We analyze the
quantum field theory with taking into account mass dimensions of the notoph and the photon. We
also proceed to derive equations for the symmetric tensor of the second rank on the basis of the
Bargmann-Wigner formalism. They are consistent with the general relativity. Particular attention
has been paid to the correct definitions of the energy-momentum tensor and other Nöther currents.
We estimate possible interactions, fermion-notoph, graviton-notoph, photon-notoph.
PACS number: 03.65.Pm , 04.50.-h , 11.30.Cp

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9818] **viXra:1501.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-23 18:35:49*

**Authors:** Florentino Muñiz Ania

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

English (traslation): It is described here as the electric charge is not invariable, but depends on the solar orbit. It also equates with what could be considered as gravitational charge, both by the diamond related parameters. Is also shown, as to vary the frequencies at different orbits, one can conclude the actual temperature of Sol. It is stated that the brightness per unit area is constant. And he concludes that both sunspots and magnetic reversals are caused by the permutation of links between gravitons and sets of stars of matter and antimatter.
Spanish (original): Se describe aquí como la carga eléctrica no es invariable, sino que depende de la órbita solar. Se equipara, además, con lo que se podría considerar como carga gravitatoria, relacionadas ambas mediante los parámetros diamante. Se muestra también, como al variar las frecuencias en las distintas órbitas, se puede concluir la temperatura real del Sol. Se expone que la luminosidad por unidad de superficie es constante. Y se concluye afirmando que tanto las manchas solares como las inversiones magnéticas están causadas por la permutación de enlaces entre los gravitones y los conjuntos de estrellas de materia y antimateria.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[9817] **viXra:1501.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-23 20:15:34*

**Authors:** Mark Krinker

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The paper unites different phenomena of Physics and human life, having nothing common from a first look, on a base of the angular momentum and its conservation in various manifestations like the Nipher effect, aerodynamic circulation, mind-matter events and others.
All the dissimilar objects, including even social ones, can be physically represented with the Field Gyroscope, which is a quantum object having measurable parameters like a power, angular momentum and others. The instruments for that have been developed by the author. This approach enables analysis of relations between wide classes of phenomena in terms of their interconnectedness.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[9816] **viXra:1501.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-23 21:01:10*

**Authors:** Kyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This article applies the work of Hawking and Bekenstein to get basic provisions on the conclusion of the entanglement entropy of the gravitational field and is given a completely different interpretation of the curvature geometry through quantum entanglement between matter and space-time. The entanglement entropy of the gravitational field as a parameter occurs in geometric flows Ricci .

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9815] **viXra:1501.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-23 10:14:50*

**Authors:** Yuri I. Ozhigov

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

This article focuses on the approach to biology in terms of quantum mechanics. Quantum biology is a hypothesis that allows experimental verification, and pretends to be a further refinement of the known gene-centric model. The state of the species is represented as the state vector in the Hilbert space, so that the evolution of this vector is described by means of quantum mechanics. Experimental verification of this hypothesis is based on the accuracy of quantum theory and the ability to quickly gather statistics when working with populations of bacteria. The positive result of such experiment would allow to apply to the living computational methods of quantum theory, which has not yet go beyond the particular ''quantum effects''.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[9814] **viXra:1501.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-23 11:27:17*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Yes in a way a black hole can act as a time machine. [14]
Quasars, even those that are billions of light years away, are some of the “brightest beacons” in the universe. Yet how can quasars radiate so much energy that they can be seen from Earth? One explanation is that at each quasar’s center is a growing supermassive black hole (SMBH). [13]
If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12]
For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11]
Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[9813] **viXra:1501.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-22 17:20:04*

**Authors:** Timkov V. F., Timkov S.V.

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Sources and physical nature of dark energy and dark matter can be explained, to find and to determine if it is assumed that after the Big Bang expanding spherical space of the Universe revolves around one of their central axes. Under this condition, loses its meaning and the concept of dark energy, and the imaginary phenomenon of divergence of the objects of the Universe, which is registered as a red shift based on the Doppler effect due to the increase of the linear velocity of these objects with increasing distances from the observer in a rotating spherical space of the Universe. The kinetic energy of the rotating Universe may be the source of dark matter. The energy of the accelerated expansion of the Universe by the pressure of the vacuum does not depend on the absolute value of the vacuum pressure, but it depends on the relative value. Relative value vacuum pressure is equal to the difference between the values of vacuum pressure at the boundary of the Universe to expand and beyond. Since this difference is equal to zero, then does not exist of dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9812] **viXra:1501.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-22 23:18:34*

**Authors:** editor Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 79 Pages.

Acesta este un jurnal de lecturi încropit de matematicianul şi scriitorul Florentin Smarandache. Mai precis, un jurnal de α-lecturi, cum ni se precizează în subtitlu, cu adăugirea: instante. Această instaneitate a devenit deja un stil al autorului, de sesizat mai ales în fotojurnalele instantanee (http://fs.gallup.unm.edu/).
Nişte lecturi dorit expeditive, diagonalizând textul în căutarea esenţialului, spărgând carcasa pentru a extrage miezul.
Editorul vine, deci, cu o nouă propunere: reducerea lecturii la o stare de cvasi-absenţă a eului, o stare alfa. [Octavian Blaga]

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[9811] **viXra:1501.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-22 14:59:02*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Impedance may be defined as a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the flow of
a current. Impedance is a fundamental concept, of universal validity. Impedances govern energy flow. Classical or quantum impedances, geometric or topological, scale invariant or scale dependent,
fermionic or bosonic, mechanical or electromagnetic or gravitational - impedance matching governs the flow of energy. This is a universal principle. As such, it is not surprising to find that quantized impedances provide an interesting sensibility when taken as a template for the Big Bang, presenting a detailed perspective on the first few zeptoseconds.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9810] **viXra:1501.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-22 06:27:08*

**Authors:** F. F. Mende

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In the article is described the new physical of phenomenon, which indicates that in the superconductors the stationary electric field can exist. This field exists in the surface layer of superconductor and it is directed normal to its surface. Since the field indicated is the consequence of the kinetic motion of charges in the superconductor, it can be named electrokinetic electric field. The value of this field is small, but it are new, previously unknown, property of the superconductive state.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[9809] **viXra:1501.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-22 03:58:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9808] **viXra:1501.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-22 05:39:13*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract I comment on the background meaning, beneath Boolean encodings,
used in the paper by Tomasz Paterek et al.
Keywords foundations of quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum
randomness, quantum indeterminacy, quantum information, prepared state,
measured state, unitary, orthogonal, scalar product, mathematical logic, logical
independence, mathematical undecidability.
DOI: 10.13140/2.1.4703.4883

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9807] **viXra:1501.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-21 23:02:21*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

According to “Galileo's Big Mistake” By Peter Tyson - Posted 10.29.02 (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/earth/galileo-big-mistake.html) -
"It was in 1595 when Galileo, just shy of his 30th birthday, first came up with his explanation for the tides. The idea occurred to him while traveling on a barge that was ferrying freshwater to Venice. (Galileo lived in nearby Padua and often visited Venice.) He noticed that whenever the barge's speed or direction altered, the freshwater inside sloshed around accordingly. If the vessel suddenly ground to a halt on a sandbar, for instance, the water pushed up towards the bow then bounced back toward the stern, doing this several times with ever decreasing agitation until it returned to a level state. Galileo realized that the Earth's dual motion—its daily one around its axis and its annual one around the sun—might have the same effect on oceans and other great bodies of water as the barge had on its freshwater cargo. The key, as Galileo saw it, was that even though we don't sense it, different parts of our planet move at different speeds depending on the time of day. It's as if the Earth were a barge, which sped up, slowed down, and periodically changed direction.The chief objection to Galileo's argument was that his model should have called for only one high tide a day, whereas there are roughly two. Galileo explained this away by stating that many other factors play a role in creating a specific tidal situation. These include the length of a basin, its orientation, its depth, the shape of its coasts, the effect of winds, and so forth."
I believe an idea of partly revised gravity requires the idea of Newton and Kepler that the moon causes the tides, to be joined with Galileo’s partly correct idea that the Earth’s movements slosh its water.

**Category:** Geophysics

[9806] **viXra:1501.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-21 18:32:38*

**Authors:** Jan A. Bergstra

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Algebraic Algorithmics, a phase taken from G.E. Tseitlin, is given a specific interpretation for
the line of work in the tradition of the program algebra and thread algebra. An application
to algebraic algorithmics of preservationist paraconsistent reasoning in the style of
chunk and permeate is suggested and discussed.
In the first appendix nopreprint is coined as a tag for new a publication category,
and a rationale for its use is given. In a second appendix some rationale is provided for the affiliation
from which the paper is written and posted.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[9805] **viXra:1501.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-21 17:08:45*

**Authors:** Wu Sheng-Ping

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The main idea of this article is simply calculating integer
functions in module. The algebraic in the integer modules is studied in
completely new style. By analysis in module and a
careful constructing, a condition of non-solution of Diophantine
Equation $a^p+b^p=c^q$ is proved that:
$(a,b)=(b,c)=1,a,b>0,p,q>12$, $p$ is prime. The proof of this
result is mainly in the last two sections.

**Category:** Number Theory

[9804] **viXra:1501.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-21 12:00:06*

**Authors:** V.B. Smolenskii

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In the article, within the PI-Theory of fundamental physical constants (PI-Theory), presents the original formula to determine the values of the fine structure constant and the numerical results exact analytical calculations. Based on the analysis of the results concluded that the numerical value of the specified constant it is only because the number of dimensions is equal to three and the number PI is a numerical value. Also, based on the analysis results, it is assumed that there is an unknown physical community a new fundamental constant of nature - a constant deviation of the fine structure and this hypothetical constant can, in turn, be the option of living matter. The above numerical results exact analytical calculation of the constant deviation of the fine structure.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[9803] **viXra:1501.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-21 04:39:51*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In the present paper I correct two Newton´s laws of motion First law and Third law.
Keywords: inertia, generalized law of inertia, action, reaction, transmission medium, waves, particles,
PACS number: 01.55.+b

**Category:** Classical Physics

[9802] **viXra:1501.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-21 04:47:40*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 38 Pages. Physics in the past formulated at least part of the truth about the physical phenomena. Some ideas, even if they were doubtful and rejectable, are still valid today

All is building on experiments. The theory is valid if and only if it can explain everything
earlier known experiments and can predict something new in physics, which will be confirmed in the future. Metrology must be paramount. All equations must be dimensionally correctly, that is, to use the correct units for each physical quantity. Correct nomenclature and correct terminology.
Form of the interference field must be non-linear.
Form of Intensity of the Moving Charge Electric Field must be asymmetrical.
Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values: Kinetic energy against direction of motion as wave
Tkin ad = mc2[ln |1+v/c|- (v/c)/(1+v/c)]
Kinetic energy in direction of motion as particle
Tkin id = mc2[ln|1-v/c|+ (v/c)/(1-v/c)]
Wave - particle duality as kinetic energy against and In direction of motion.
Physicist must to have a healthy arrogance, do not be afraid criticize of the great physicists, if he is adamantly confident on the basis of experiments metrological and mathematically about their truth. Not afraid to speak out about errors in the theory and about their consequences.
Physicist must have a flight and constantly looking partners, who can discuss with him, who can jointly develop and explore.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[9801] **viXra:1501.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-21 04:58:33*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 36 Pages. Physics in the past formulated at least part of the truth about the physical phenomena. Some ideas, even if they were doubtful and rejectable, are still valid today

In the article we prove that:
1.Form of Intensity of the Moving Charge Electric Field is asymmetrical,
2. Form of the interference field is non-linear,
3. Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values:
Kinetic energy against direction of motion as wave
Tkin ad = mc2[ln |1+v/c|- (v/c)/(1+v/c)]
Kinetic energy in direction of motion as particle
Tkin id = mc2[ln |1-v/c|+ (v/c)/(1-v/c)]
An electron moving at a speed ve= 0,003c creates spectral line Hα. Accurate electron speeds are given in the table in this article. Confirmation of Doppler´s principle in hydrogen for Balmer line Hα.
Accompanying activity of reaction on movement of stable particles in the transmission medium are waves.
Stable electrons moving with speeds (0,99 c – c ) creates leptons (μ−, τ−), neutrinos (νe, νμ, ντ) and bosons W +, W-, Z (= β electrons). Weak interactions are caused with stable electrons, which creates leptons (μ−, τ−) = ( particles = electrons different speeds), neutrinos νe, νμ, ντ (= waves) , bosons W +, W-, Z (= particles = β electrons moving at nearly the speed of light ) and gamma rays (=waves of extremely high frequency >1019 Hz ).
Stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α) moving with speeds ( 0,3 c – 0,99 c ) creates baryons and mesons.
The strong interactions are caused with stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α ), which creates baryons and mesons.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[9800] **viXra:1501.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-20 21:23:05*

**Authors:** Frank H. Makinson

**Comments:** 3 Pages. This is more about classical physics than biology.

The pathology of shell shock, contemporaneously referred to as post-traumatic stress disorder, has been identified by researchers. Why the brain injury occurs primarily inthe frontal lobes and its ‘distinctive honeycomb pattern of broken and swollen nerve fibres’ was not identified. Every munitions explosion emits a broadband pulse of electromagnetic energy. The electromagnetic energy pulse reaches the victim before the compression and particle components of the explosion. The characteristics of the head protection used by soldiers explains why the particular brain injury is as prevalent today as it was in World War I, but without the massive artillery barrages. The victims are receiving what can be termed an electric shock frontal lobotomy.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[9799] **viXra:1501.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-20 14:52:58*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 10 Pages. In portuguese

We examined the variations of space and time that occur under the influence of a gravitational field produced by a mass M, following the Foundations of General Relativity, by Einstein (1916). We conclude that when we use the conventional units for the speed of light resulting values are very different from those obtained by adopting the speed of light equal to 1, and that certainly could not be in agreement with the experimental values. The shortening of the rulers (scales) and slowness of the clocks would be much higher, as would no longer divided by the square of the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9798] **viXra:1501.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-20 10:47:39*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A 4x4 table represents interactions of the 4 forces of physics with several conservation laws, most notably energy, entropy, causality, and symmetry. The table may be read in the order of an English paragraph - left to right, top to bottom. The first row represents the "Big Bang", which initiates our cosmic system. The origin is assumed to consist of an input of light (free electromagnetic energy), a perfectly symmetric energy form, perhaps derived as a quantum fluctuation (of zero net energy and charge) from the Multiverse.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[9797] **viXra:1501.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-20 08:32:37*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Six page letter

Louis Marmet, in a paper titled: “On the Interpretation of Red-Shifts: A quantitative comparison of red-shift mechanisms-II” Dated 4th December 2014, [1] has briefly compiled around 59 candidate mechanisms, including the standard Big Bang Cosmology, attempting to explain the observation of the ‘cosmological red-shift’. This paper proposes some criteria for short-listing the most likely explanations; and adds some more explanations to the list. The need for considering alternative mechanisms arises because the Big Bang cosmology is based on the assumption of homogeneity and isotropy of space at 100 M pc scale, for the explanation of the ‘cosmological red-shift’, whereas linear Hubble law is observed even at 1 M pc distances, where distribution of matter and energy is clearly not homogeneous. And Big Bang Cosmology demands 95 % ‘dark-energy’ which is not yet found. Alternative explanations for ‘cosmological red-shift’ are rejected under a pre-text that they are not compatible with the observation of ‘time-dilation of super novae light-curves’; but a paper by Tank, titled “Wave-theoretical insight into the Relativistic Length-contraction and Time-dilation of Super novae Light-curves” [2] has shown that any mechanism which can cause ‘cosmological red-shift’ will also cause ‘time-dilation of super novae light-curves’, so every possible mechanism needs to be considered without any bias. The criteria for short-listing proposed here is: that the loss in energy of cosmologically red-shifting photon is proportional to the strength-ratio of gravitational and electric forces ( G me mp / e^2), which suggests that the energy of inter-galactic photon seems to get branched-out into gravitational and electrostatic potential-energy parts, and gravitational potential-energy-part is getting subtracted from the energy of the photons. Then this paper proposes some new mechanisms adding to the list.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9796] **viXra:1501.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-20 04:15:40*

**Authors:** Nicolae Bratu

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This article generalizes and makes some additions to the method used in this demonstration theorem for exponents 3 and 5. In this regard, this paper presents a complete algebraic demonstration of Fermat’s Last Theorem.

**Category:** Number Theory

[9795] **viXra:1501.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-19 22:01:50*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This was inspired by a Letter to the journal Nature. The letter’s “Rapid formation of large dust grains in the luminous supernova 2010jl” by Christa Gall, Jens Hjorth, Darach Watson, Eli Dwek, Justyn R. Maund, Ori Fox, Giorgos Leloudas, Daniele Malesani & Avril C. Day-Jones. It was published online on July 9, 2014 (http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature13558.html)
My slightly alternative view about dust produced by a supernova includes topics such as E=mc^2, black holes, dark energy, and deletion of the big bang/inflation.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[9794] **viXra:1501.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-20 00:44:02*

**Authors:** Yu-Lin Chou

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is proved that, for every triple of integers $a, b, c \geq 3,$
the Beal equation $x^{a} + y^{b} - z^{c} = 0$ has no solution in
integers
$x, y, z > 0$ such that gcd$(x, y, z) = 1$.
Different than standard Diophantine methods,
our method is to view the expression $x^{a} + y^{b} - z^{c}$ as the
dot product of the linearly independent vectors $(x, y, -z)$ and
$(x^{a-1}, y^{b-1}, z^{c-1})$ and then deduce a contradiction that
the plane through the origin $(0, 0, 0)$ spanned by these two
vectors is not a plane. The proof also shows how the Pythagorean
equation $x^{2} + y^{2} - z^{2} = 0$ does not likewise lead to a
contradiction.

**Category:** Number Theory

[9793] **viXra:1501.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-20 02:52:14*

**Authors:** Ștefan Vlăduțescu, Claudiu Marian Bunăiașu, Xenia Negrea

**Comments:** 78 Pages.

Social Sciences and Education Research Review (SSERR) – Print ISSN: 2392-9863, ISSN-L: 2392-9863, Online ISSN
2393-1264, ISSN-L 2392-9863 – is an academic international, bi-annual, press and online journal published by
members of the Department of Communication, Journalism and Education Sciences of the Faculty of Letters from
the University of Craiova, Romania. The printed edition is published by Sitech Publishing House – Craiova, a
prestigious publishing house acknowledged by the Ministry of National Education of Romania.

**Category:** Social Science

[9792] **viXra:1501.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-20 02:54:28*

**Authors:** Ștefan Vlăduțescu, Claudiu Marian Bunăiașu, Xenia Negrea

**Comments:** 79 Pages.

Social Sciences and Education Research Review (SSERR) – Print ISSN: 2392-9863, ISSN-L: 2392-9863, Online ISSN
2393-1264, ISSN-L 2392-9863 – is an academic international, bi-annual, press and online journal published by
members of the Department of Communication, Journalism and Education Sciences of the Faculty of Letters from
the University of Craiova, Romania. The printed edition is published by Sitech Publishing House – Craiova, a
prestigious publishing house acknowledged by the Ministry of National Education of Romania.

**Category:** Social Science

[9791] **viXra:1501.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-19 09:29:03*

**Authors:** Tomer Shushi

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Quantum field theory and general relativity are considered very successful theories that together describe the four fundamental forces in the universe. However, it is difficult to combine them into one unified theory. We propose a novel model, based on two postulates, which provides a new perspective on the fundamental forces using special and general relativity concepts. Many studies address the relations between the particles and the spacetime manifold, and the latter's physical structure, whether it is Continuous or Discrete. In the proposed model the properties of the particles are classical in the sense of general relativity, whereas their quantum properties arises due to the experiments, the differences of the inertial reference frames and energy values between the measurement device and the particles. We consider all of the discrete values of the particles to be constructed by an interference between fields. Under this approach we show that the model dismisses hidden variables. The model provides general field equations for the interactions of the particles, and their Lagrangian density, where the Lagrangian densities of Yang-Mills theory for SU(n), n=1,2,3,4, and of general relativity theory arises as a special cases.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9790] **viXra:1501.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-19 09:46:47*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 3 pages

The relativistic Doppler shift formula is shown to be based on a contradictory equation, revealing the unviability of the Special Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9789] **viXra:1501.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-19 11:39:48*

**Authors:** Stefan Mehedinteanu

**Comments:** 28 Pages. an original paper on dark matter origin

In the present work a different view is advanced on the origin of this new field at reheating, respectively, a primordial magnetic field. For its creation, it has been proposed that at the end of Inflation, a spectrum for blackbody radiation of temperature when photons creation as quanta takes place,. The opacity (equilibrium of following Thomson scattering) begins to be very thick ( ), that means not all the photons escape as radiation. Simultaneously, but following Breit-Wheeler photons pairs collisions it remain available only two photons pairs which transform in (quark) pair, from as were been produced. This pair generates an electrical field , that being of string type and supercritical , it captures the vacuum gluons-monopoles pairs, thus, generating the first primordial electromagnetic ( ) vortex called as , and by using a simple QCD analytical model are calculated their components and dimensions. Thus, the by Schwinger effect at the end of the reheating period of Hubble length , or when the symmetry between the weak and electromagnetic interactions breaks, it generates directly different kinds of particles but of a precise number as: fermions (quarks, electrons), gluons with structure of gluons-monopoles (abelian in extra-core and nonabelian in core), photons.
This process continues till the cosmological time at curvature radius , when , after that it ceases since .
Later, at CMB time and after, the PMF reactivates with creation of a new type of composed particle called polariton of very small mass , which, recently it was very much investigated experimentally in semiconductors. It is shown that the PMF construction permits the existence of Quantum Well (QW) as necessarily for polaritons production.
Also, it is demonstrated that the scaled at the CMB time, generates pattern of the same values as obtained in BICEP2 and Planck Mission, mostly probable due of the polarized photoluminescence (blueshift light!) of polaritons. Also, it will be shown, that in fact, the total mass of the created polaritons sustains the accelerated expansion of Universe, or in other words, these particles play the role of the dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9788] **viXra:1501.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-19 08:22:25*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It is well known among physicists that two different kinds of experiments give an anomaly in the proton-radius. The anomaly is: When a muon orbits the proton the proton-radius is 4% smaller than when an electron orbits the proton. This anomaly is a puzzle in standard physics. This puzzle is solved in a new cosmological theory with a new dark energy-force. This article describes the solution. The solution is put in perspective of new physics by a combination of quantum-gravity and sub-quantum dark matter-force in one formula, within the new cosmological theory, called the Double Torus Theory for the universe.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[9787] **viXra:1501.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-19 04:48:35*

**Authors:** Robert Watson

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Kaluza's 1921 theory of gravity and electromagnetism using a fth
wrapped-up spatial dimension is inspiration for many modern attempts
to develop new physical theories. For a number of reasons the theory
is incomplete and often considered untenable. An alternative approach is
presented that more fully unies gravity and electromagnetism. Emphasis
is placed on admitting important electromagnetic elds not present in
Kaluza's original theory, and on deriving a Lorentz force law. This is
done by identifying 5D momentum with charge. By doing so the usual
assumption of Ricci
atness for sourceless electromagnetic elds is made
obsolete and replaced by the simple and physically intuitive assumption
that background 5D momentum is vanishing. An electromagnetic limit is
imposed by assuming a constant scalar eld.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4387] **viXra:1501.0249 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-31 06:56:00*

**Authors:** Andro Antonopoulis

**Comments:** 22 Pages. Thank you

A coin users guide to navigating legacy financial systems.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[4386] **viXra:1501.0245 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-30 04:30:33*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We emphasize the need for more experiments to measure the variation of the speed of light in a gravitational field. Indicate an experimental procedure on the surface of the Earth that can provide a reasonable estimate of the true value of the speed of light in the absence of gravitational field. The speed of light in the absence of gravitational field is greater than we now know, and in the presence of gravitational field can vary throughout the day, like the Earth's surface, this according to General Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4385] **viXra:1501.0233 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-27 11:59:43*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Informally we explain the concept of space-time, we calculate the changes in space and time in a static gravitational field and with spherical symmetry (Schwarzschild solution) and, the most importantly, we obtained the corresponding variability of the speed of light in this field. Can be great the loss of speed of light in a gravitational field, which may explain the dark matter. More experiences with the speed of light must be made.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4384] **viXra:1501.0230 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-27 15:12:12*

**Authors:** Miloje M. Rakocevic

**Comments:** 4 Pages. In relation to V1, three Surveys and Table 3 are added

In this fourth part of the work about the completeness of the genetic code, we present further connections and relations between nucleotide doublets and triplets within Genetic Code Table.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[4383] **viXra:1501.0224 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-28 15:14:16*

**Authors:** Antonio A. Blatter

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This paper is written in Spanish.

In classical mechanics, this paper presents a simple rotational classical mechanics which can be applied in any reference frame inertial or non-inertial.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[4382] **viXra:1501.0224 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-24 19:35:12*

**Authors:** Antonio A. Blatter

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This paper is written in Spanish.

In classical mechanics, this paper presents a simple rotational classical mechanics which can be applied in any reference frame inertial or non-inertial.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[4381] **viXra:1501.0223 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-27 09:02:02*

**Authors:** Koji KOBAYASHI

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article provide new approach to solve P vs NP problem by using cardinality of bases function. About NP-Complete problems, we can divide to infinite disjunction of P-Complete problems. These P-Complete problems are independent of each other in disjunction. That is, NP-Complete problem is in infinite dimension function space that bases are P-Complete. The other hand, any P-Complete problem have at most a finite number of P-Complete basis. The reason is that each P problems have at most finite number of Least fixed point operator. Therefore, we cannot describe NP-Complete problems in P. We can also prove this result from incompleteness of P.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[4380] **viXra:1501.0218 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-26 14:17:41*

**Authors:** Emmanuel Kanambaye

**Comments:** 27 Pages. The document is in french

LM Theorem proposed in this paper is a new simple and elegant physical theorem ; it allows the invalidation of theories such as String Theory and Loop Quantum Gravity.
LM Theory is itself an extraordinarily simple theory; it rests on a single hypothesis can:
-Impose the wave-particle duality any moving mass; while eliminating the infinite that appear in a Quantum Field Theory.
-Introduce naturally a new field can explain the accelerating expansion of the universe, as well as inflation to its origins; and eliminating gravitational singularities in General Relativity etc....
So it is a Theory that provides a solution to most problems raised by the current theories and observations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4379] **viXra:1501.0213 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-29 05:04:44*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It is assumed in the mainstream cosmology that at the Chandrasekhar limit the white dwarfs explode due to the conditions in a Fermi gas. Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Everlasting Theory (S-SET), I showed that there appears the tower of the Chandrasekhar limits and that the stars/white-dwarfs with the threshold masses explode via a neutron-star state. Neutron stars behave as liquid crystal. There are the needed flat structures and the elongated rectangular prisms. There appears the upper limit for mass of neutron star, i.e. of the neutron black hole, equal to 24.81 solar masses. But due to perfect energy flow from core of a star toward its surface there as well appear at least three Chandrasekhar limits i.e. masses of stars which explode as Type Ia supernovae via sudden collapse of whole star to the neutron-star state which leads to violent full volumetric explosion so there is not created a neutron-star remnant – the threshold masses are 1.395, 11.20 and 0.891 solar masses. The first mass is the very well known Chandrasekhar limit whereas the second was the mass of, for example, the SN 1987A supernova. Energy is carried by the condensates of the Einstein-spacetime components which are the black holes in respect of the weak interactions or is carried by energetic neutrinos. The condensates with a mass 52.828 MeV are produced in centres of muons, with a mass 424.124 MeV are produced in centres of baryons, whereas energy of the neutrinos is the one fourth of the mass of neutral pion (33.743 MeV). Their number densities increase rapidly for the threshold masses of stars. Here, as well, are calculated the lower (0.000768 s) and upper (4,228 s) limits for spin periods of pulsars i.e. for stars with neutron core and iron crust. Presented here model is very simple and leads to observational facts.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4378] **viXra:1501.0202 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-22 03:24:00*

**Authors:** Thierry Periat

**Comments:** 5 Pages. No change in the text - Administrative modifications

In that short note, I demonstrate formally the existence of a logical path implying the automatic resolution of the magnetic reconnection problem. The latter has been the motivation for numerous articles and is actually explored by the ARTEMIS mission.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[4377] **viXra:1501.0201 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-28 20:13:35*

**Authors:** Wu Sheng-Ping

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The main idea of this article is simply calculating integer
functions in module. The algebraic in the integer modules is studied in
completely new style. By analysis in module and a
careful constructing, a condition of non-solution of Diophantine
Equation $a^p+b^p=c^q$ is proved that:
$(a,b)=(b,c)=1,a,b>0,p,q>12$, $p$ is prime. The proof of this
result is mainly in the last two sections.

**Category:** Number Theory

[4376] **viXra:1501.0201 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-28 11:18:10*

**Authors:** Wu Sheng-Ping

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The main idea of this article is simply calculating integer
functions in module. The algebraic in the integer modules is studied in
completely new style. By analysis in module and a
careful constructing, a condition of non-solution of Diophantine
Equation $a^p+b^p=c^q$ is proved that:
$(a,b)=(b,c)=1,a,b>0,p,q>12$, $p$ is prime. The proof of this
result is mainly in the last two sections.

**Category:** Number Theory

[4375] **viXra:1501.0201 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-24 05:38:48*

**Authors:** Wu Sheng-Ping

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

**Category:** Number Theory

[4374] **viXra:1501.0201 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-23 17:35:12*

**Authors:** Wu Sheng-Ping

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

**Category:** Number Theory

[4373] **viXra:1501.0196 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-25 22:15:10*

**Authors:** Frank H. Makinson

**Comments:** 3 Pages. This is more about electromagnetics than biology.

The pathology of shell shock, contemporaneously grouped with post-traumatic stress disorder, has been identified by researchers. Why the brain injury occurs primarily in the frontal lobes and its “distinctive honeycomb pattern of broken and swollen nerve fibres” was not identified. Every munitions explosion emits a broadband pulse of electromagnetic energy. The electromagnetic energy pulse reaches the victim before the compression and particle components of the explosion. The characteristics of the head protection used by soldiers explains why the particular shell shock brain injury has an inordinate prevalence today, but without the massive artillery barrages. The victims are receiving what can be termed an electric shock frontal lobotomy.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[4372] **viXra:1501.0195 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-26 05:28:21*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We examined the variations of space and time that occur under the influence of a gravitational field produced by a mass M, following the Foundations of General Relativity, by Einstein (1916). We conclude that when we use the conventional units for the speed of light resulting values are very different from those obtained by adopting the speed of light equal to 1, and that certainly could not be in agreement with the experimental values. The shortening of the rulers (scales) and slowness of the clocks would be much higher, because would no longer divided by the square of the speed of light.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[4371] **viXra:1501.0195 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-21 21:35:12*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We examined the variations of space and time that occur under the influence of a gravitational field produced by a mass M, following the Foundations of General Relativity, by Einstein (1916). We conclude that when we use the conventional units for the speed of light resulting values are very different from those obtained by adopting the speed of light equal to 1, and that certainly could not be in agreement with the experimental values. The shortening of the rulers (scales) and slowness of the clocks would be much higher, because would no longer divided by the square of the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4370] **viXra:1501.0195 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-20 21:25:50*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We examined the variations of space and time that occur under the influence of a gravitational field produced by a mass M, following the Foundations of General Relativity, by Einstein (1916). We conclude that when we use the conventional units for the speed of light resulting values are very different from those obtained by adopting the speed of light equal to 1, and that certainly could not be in agreement with the experimental values. The shortening of the rulers (scales) and slowness of the clocks would be much higher, as would no longer divided by the square of the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4369] **viXra:1501.0194 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-30 16:58:14*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Adding links and electroweak summary

A 4x4 table represents interactions of the 4 forces of physics with several conservation laws, most notably energy, entropy, causality, and symmetry. The table may be read in the order of an English paragraph - left to right, top to bottom. The first row represents the "Big Bang", which initiates our cosmic system. The origin is assumed to consist of an input of light (free electromagnetic energy), a perfectly symmetric energy form, perhaps derived as a quantum fluctuation (of zero net energy and charge) from the Multiverse.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[4368] **viXra:1501.0194 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-29 15:08:17*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 8 Pages. numerous small changes

The 4x4 table above represents interactions of the 4 forces of physics with several conservation laws, most notably energy, entropy, causality, and symmetry. The table may be read in the order of an English paragraph - left to right, top to bottom. The first row represents the "Big Bang", which initiates our cosmic system. The origin is assumed to consist of an input of light (free electromagnetic energy), a perfectly symmetric energy form, perhaps derived as a quantum fluctuation (of zero net energy and charge) from the Multiverse.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[4367] **viXra:1501.0194 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-22 23:23:05*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The 4x4 table above represents interactions of the 4 forces of physics with several conservation laws, most notably energy, entropy, causality, and symmetry. The table may be read in the order of an English paragraph - left to right, top to bottom. The first row represents the "Big Bang", which initiates our cosmic system. The origin is assumed to consist of an input of light (free electromagnetic energy), a perfectly symmetric energy form, perhaps derived as a quantum fluctuation (of zero net energy and charge) from the Multiverse.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[4366] **viXra:1501.0193 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-21 05:33:04*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Ten page paper

Louis Marmet, in a paper titled: “On the Interpretation of Red-Shifts: A quantitative comparison of red-shift mechanisms-II” Dated 4th December 2014, [1] has briefly compiled around 59 candidate mechanisms, including the standard Big Bang Cosmology, attempting to explain the observation of the ‘cosmological red-shift’. This paper proposes some criteria for short-listing the most likely explanations; and adds some more explanations to the list. The need for considering alternative mechanisms arises because the Big Bang cosmology is based on the assumption of homogeneity and isotropy of space at 100 M pc scale, for the explanation of the ‘cosmological red-shift’, whereas linear Hubble law is observed even at 1 M pc distances, where distribution of matter and energy is clearly not homogeneous. And Big Bang Cosmology demands 95 % ‘dark-energy’ which is not yet found. Alternative explanations for ‘cosmological red-shift’ are rejected under a pre-text that they are not compatible with the observation of ‘time-dilation of super novae light-curves’; but a paper by Tank, titled “Wave-theoretical insight into the Relativistic Length-contraction and Time-dilation of Super novae Light-curves” [2] has shown that any mechanism which can cause ‘cosmological red-shift’ will also cause ‘time-dilation of super novae light-curves’, so every possible mechanism needs to be considered without any bias. The criteria for short-listing proposed here is: that the loss in energy of cosmologically red-shifting photon is proportional to the strength-ratio of gravitational and electric forces ( G me mp / e^2), which suggests that the energy of inter-galactic photon seems to get branched-out into gravitational and electrostatic potential-energy parts, and gravitational potential-energy-part is getting subtracted from the energy of the photons.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4365] **viXra:1501.0186 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-20 08:36:06*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 5 pages. [v2] added further contradictions emerging from the speed of light principle.

The relativistic Doppler shift formula is shown to be based on a contradictory equation, revealing the unviability of the Special Relativity. In addition, the light speed postulate is shown to result in contradictions with the Special Relativity equations, when expressed in terms of the light wave characteristics, with the relativistic Doppler shift formula being applied in the resulting expression. An absurd relation between the wave frequency and wave period would emerge to satisfy the Special Relativity time dilation. An actual time dilation factor emerging from the speed of light principle is revealed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4364] **viXra:1501.0185 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-20 07:52:36*

**Authors:** Stefan Mehedinteanu

**Comments:** 28 Pages. I do some small corrections.

In the present work a different view is advanced on the origin of this new field at reheating, respectively, a primordial magnetic field. For its creation, it has been proposed that at the end of Inflation, a spectrum for blackbody radiation of temperature when photons creation as quanta takes place,. The opacity (equilibrium of following Thomson scattering) begins to be very thick ( ), that means not all the photons escape as radiation. Simultaneously, but following Breit-Wheeler photons pairs collisions it remain available only two photons pairs which transform in (quark) pair, from as were been produced. This pair generates an electrical field , that being of string type and supercritical , it captures the vacuum gluons-monopoles pairs, thus, generating the first primordial electromagnetic ( ) vortex called as , and by using a simple QCD analytical model are calculated their components and dimensions. Thus, the by Schwinger effect at the end of the reheating period of Hubble length , or when the symmetry between the weak and electromagnetic interactions breaks, it generates directly different kinds of particles but of a precise number as: fermions (quarks, electrons), gluons with structure of gluons-monopoles (abelian in extra-core and nonabelian in core), photons.
This process continues till the cosmological time at curvature radius , when , after that it ceases since .
Later, at CMB time and after, the PMF reactivates with creation of a new type of composed particle called polariton of very small mass , which, recently it was very much investigated experimentally in semiconductors. It is shown that the PMF construction inherently permits the existence of Quantum Well (QW) inside, as to be necessarily for polaritons production.
Also, it is demonstrated that the scaled at the CMB time, generates pattern of the same values as obtained in BICEP2 and Planck Mission, mostly probable due of the polarized photoluminescence (blueshift light!) of polaritons. Also, it will be shown, that in fact, the total mass of the created polaritons sustains the accelerated expansion of Universe, or in other words, these particles play the role of the dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4363] **viXra:1501.0184 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-21 08:52:22*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It is well known among physicists that two different kinds of experiments give an anomaly in the proton-radius. The anomaly is: When a muon orbits the proton the proton-radius is 4% smaller than when an electron orbits the proton. This anomaly is a puzzle in standard physics. This puzzle is solved in a new cosmological theory with a new dark energy-force. This article describes the solution. The solution is put in perspective of new physics by a combination of quantum-gravity and sub-quantum dark matter-force in one formula, within the new cosmological theory, called the Double Torus Theory for the universe.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics