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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[15889] viXra:1609.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 11:39:24

Regular Rational Diophantine Sextuples

Authors: Philip E Gibbs
Comments: 13 Pages.

A polynomial equation in six variables is given that generalises the definition of regular rational Diophantine triples, quadruples and quintuples to regular rational Diophantine sextuples. The definition can be used to extend a rational Diophantine quintuple to a weak rational Diophantine sextuple. In some cases a regular sextuple is a full rational Diophantine sextuple. Ten examples of this are provided
Category: Number Theory

[15888] viXra:1609.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 12:05:28

Stellar Evolution and Planet Formation are Mass Loss Phenomenon

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

A logical proof is provided to prove that planet formation is a mass loss phenomenon.
Category: Astrophysics

[15887] viXra:1609.0423 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 12:06:37

Antiferromagnetic Correlations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Solid state physics offers a rich variety of intriguing phenomena, several of which are not yet fully understood. Experiments with fermionic atoms in optical lattices get very close to imitating the behaviour of electrons in solid state crystals, thus forming a well-controlled quantum simulator for these systems. Now a team of scientists around Professor Immanuel Bloch and Dr. Christian Groß at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics have observed the emergence of antiferromagnetic order over a correlation length of several lattice sites in a chain of fermionic atoms. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[15886] viXra:1609.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 12:52:05

Poster for the 22nd International Spin Symposium @ UIUC. "Geometric Clifford Algebra and Quantum Interpretation of the Proton's Anomalous Magnetic Moment"

Authors: Michaele Suisse, Peter Cameron
Comments: 1 Page.

The role of the anomalous moment in the geometric algebra of proton topological mass generation suggests that the anomaly is not an intrinsic property of the free space proton, but rather a topological effect of applying the electromagnetic bias field required to define the eigenstates probed by the magnetic moment measurement. Quantum interpretations strive to explain emergence of the world we observe from formal quantum theory. This variant on the canonical measurement problem is examined in the larger context of quantum interpretations. A more detailed presentation of the poster content may be found here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uyM4cZgSprI
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[15885] viXra:1609.0421 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 08:00:08

Complex Boolean Variables and Symmeric Logic Structures.

Authors: Emshanov Dima
Comments: 15 Pages.

This article contains a description representing the logical formula 3-SAT as a conjunction of two polynomial logical formulas.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[15884] viXra:1609.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 08:20:02

Free Space Tem Transmission Lines Radiation Losses Model

Authors: Reuven Ianconescu, Vladimir Vulfin
Comments: 21 Pages.

There are three kind of losses in transmission lines: ohmic, dielectric and radiation losses. While the first two are local phenomena which are easy to model, the radiation losses lack a simple model. This work analyzes the radiation losses from two conductors transmission lines in free space, and derives a radiation model within the RLCG transmission lines model.
Category: Classical Physics

[15883] viXra:1609.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 05:28:28

Thought Intervention Through Biofield Changing Metal Powder Characteristics Experiments on Powder Characterisation at a PM Plant

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In earlier papers the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s thought intervention through biofield in his physical presence on the atomic, crystalline and particle characteristics of first series of transition metal powders, group four metals and carbon allotropes are discussed. In the present paper we demonstrate this unusual effect on sieve size distribution, apparent density and flow of several metal powders under PM plant conditions.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[15882] viXra:1609.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 05:31:36

Receptor Proteins in X-ray Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

An international team of scientists has learned how to determine the spatial structure of a protein obtained with an X-ray laser using the sulfur atoms it contains. This development is the next stage in the project of a group led by Vadim Cherezov to create an effective method of studying receptor proteins. [11] When cryoEM images are obtained from protein nanocrystals the images themselves can appear to be devoid of any contrast. A group of scientists from the Netherlands have now demonstrated that lattice information can be revealed and enhanced by a specialized filter. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[15881] viXra:1609.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 05:31:30

Evaluation of Physical, Thermal and Spectral Parameters of Biofield Energy Treated Methylsulfonylmethane

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

The methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is an organosulfur compound having sulfonyl functional group. It is occurred naturally in some primitive plants and used in disease related to chronic pain, inflammation, and arthritis. This study was attempted to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal, and spectral properties of MSM. The study was performed in two groups viz. the control group was remained as untreated, while the treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. After that, both the control and treated samples were analyzed using surface area analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysisderivative thermogravimetry (TGA-DTG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The surface area analysis exhibited a significant decrease in the surface area of treated sample by 22.96% as compared to the control. The XRD analysis showed the significant increase in average crystallite size by 49.20% in the treated sample with respect to the control. The DSC analysis showed the significant increase (67.20%) in latent heat of fusion of treated sample with respect to the control. The TGA analysis showed the onset temperature of thermal degradation at 170°C in the control sample that was slightly decreased to 168.05°C after biofield treatment. Moreover, the Tmax (maximum thermal degradation temperature) was also decreased slightly from 186.66°C (control) to 183.38°C (treated). This indicated the early phase of vaporization in treated sample as compared to the control. The FT-IR spectroscopic study exhibited the alteration in wavenumber of S=O group that suggests the effect of biofield treatment on force constant and bond strength of MSM molecules.
Category: Chemistry

[15880] viXra:1609.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 05:32:47

Physical and Structural Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated Carbazole

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Carbazole is a class of phytochemical associated with cancer prevention. It attracted a significant interest in recent time for their usefulness in synthetic heterocyclic chemistry, analytical chemistry and pharmacology. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on carbazole by various analytical methods. The study was performed in two groups i.e. control and treatment. The treatment group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, both the samples were characterized with respect to physical and structural properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), laser particle size analyzer, and surface area analyzer. The XRD study revealed that the crystallite size of treated carbazole was decreased significantly with 37.5% as compared to the control. In addition, the intensity of XRD peaks was slightly decreased as compared to the control. The latent heat of fusion (ΔH) of treated carbazole was substantially increased by 253.6% as compared to the control. Maximum degradation temperature (Tmax) of treated carbazole was increased by 41.46°C as compared to the control (211.93°C to 253.39°C). FT-IR spectra showed similar stretching frequencies in both control and treated carbazole samples. GC-MS data revealed that isotopic abundance ratio of either 13C/12C or 15N/14N or 2H/1H (PM+1/PM) of treated carbazole was significantly increased up to 278.59%. Particle size analysis showed substantial decrease in average particle size (d50) and d90 of the treated carbazole by 25.24% and 4.31%, respectively as compared to the control. The surface area analysis exhibited an increase in the surface area of treated sample by 4.8% as compared to the control. Overall, the experimental results suggest that biofield energy treatment has significant effect on physical, spectral and thermal properties of carbazole.
Category: Chemistry

[15879] viXra:1609.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 07:20:50

Polarized Nuclear Imaging

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

A unique new imaging method, called "polarized nuclear imaging" – combining powerful aspects of both magnetic resonance imaging and gamma-ray imaging and developed by physicists in the University of Virginia's departments of Physics and Radiology – has potential for new types of high-resolution medical diagnostics as well as industrial and physics research applications. [12] An international team of scientists has learned how to determine the spatial structure of a protein obtained with an X-ray laser using the sulfur atoms it contains. This development is the next stage in the project of a group led by Vadim Cherezov to create an effective method of studying receptor proteins. [11] When cryoEM images are obtained from protein nanocrystals the images themselves can appear to be devoid of any contrast. A group of scientists from the Netherlands have now demonstrated that lattice information can be revealed and enhanced by a specialized filter. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[15878] viXra:1609.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 02:22:28

A Transcendental Approach to Changing Metal Powder Characteristics

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 8 Pages.

It's not often that Metal Powder Report departs from the path of hard facts into the somewhat ‘mushier’ area of metaphysics, but opportunities crop up. While recognising that science has its fair share of charlatans, one such opportunity was presented by a paper submitted by an Indian researcher in which he details work aimed at probing the effects on powder samples where changes were apparently generated by thought. Some will laugh, others will cry, but perhaps among our readers there are those who might be able to help elucidate further the phenomena described…
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[15877] viXra:1609.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 02:24:59

In Vitro Evaluation of Antifungal Sensitivity Assay of Biofield Energy Treated Fungi

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 4 Pages.

Fungi are the group of eukaryotic organisms such as yeast, mold, and mushrooms. The present work investigated the impact of biofield treatment on different pathogenic species of fungi in relation to antifungal sensitivity pattern. Each fungal sample was divided into three parts: C, control; T1, treatment (revived); T2 treatment (lyophilized). Treatment groups received the biofield treatment, and control group was remained as untreated. Mini-API ID32C strip employed for evaluation of antifungal sensitivity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The results showed that sensitivity of Candida albicans in T1 cells was changed against itraconazole from intermediate (I) to resistance (R) on day 10. The Candida kefyr exhibited a change in susceptibility against itraconazole in T2 cell from S→I, on day 10. Likewise, Candida krusei showed the alterations in sensitivity against two antifungal drugs: fluconazole from S→I (T1 on day 10) and itraconazole S→I (T1 and T2 on all assessment days). The Cryptococcus neoformans changed from S→I in T1 cell on day 5 and 10, against itraconazole. Sensitivity of Candida tropicalis was also altered from I→R against flucytosine (T1 and T2, on all assessment days). Similarly, Saccharomyces cerevisae altered from S→I (T1) and S→R (T2) on day 10. The MIC values of antifungal drugs were altered in the range of 2-8 folds, as compared to the control. Fungal identification data showed the significant changes in species similarity of few tested fungi as C. albicans changed from 91.9% to 98.5 and 99.9% in T1 and T2 cells, respectively on day 10. C. krusei was changed from 97.9% to 85.9% (T2 day 10), and C. tropicalis was altered from 88.7% to 99.6% (T1 day 5) and 99.0% (T2). These findings suggest that biofield treatment could be applied to alter the susceptibility pattern of antifungal drug therapy in future.
Category: Biochemistry

[15876] viXra:1609.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 02:34:32

Atoms in Optical Microtraps

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Single neutral atoms trapped individually in optical microtraps are incredibly useful tools for studying quantum physics, as the atoms then exist in complete isolation from the environment. Arrays of optical microtraps containing single atoms could enable quantum logic devices, quantum information processing, and quantum simulation. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15875] viXra:1609.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-28 18:58:44

Laws of Orbital Semimajor Axes and Periods of Exoplanets, and Their Application

Authors: G.P. Zhang
Comments: 3 Pages.

Analyze the data of orbital semimajor axes and periods of planets in extrasolar multi-planets systems, and discover the laws of orbital semimajor axes and periods of exoplanets. Link the laws with the orbital semimajor axis and the period of the pseudo-planet orbiting a star at its surface with Keplerian velocity. Apply the laws to predict the position of unknown exoplanets and to calculate the unknown orbital semimajor axes of known exoplanets, such as those of Kepler-20 and Kepler-102’s known planets. Propose that the original reason of the laws is that planets were born from periodic bursts of stars in their youth. The strong stellar wind near the stars pushed them away to their present orbits.
Category: Astrophysics

[15874] viXra:1609.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-28 13:33:58

Killer Electrons in Space

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

New findings by a UCLA-led international team of researchers answer a fundamental question about our space environment and will help scientists develop methods to protect valuable telecommunication and navigation satellites. [12] A small team of researchers with Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München and the Max-Planck-Institute of Quantum Optics, both in Germany has successfully demonstrated a means for shaping electron beams in time through interactions with terahertz electromagnetic fields. [11] A new scientific instrument at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory promises to capture some of nature's speediest processes. It uses a method known as ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and can reveal motions of electrons and atomic nuclei within molecules that take place in less than a tenth of a trillionth of a second – information that will benefit groundbreaking research in materials science, chemistry and biology. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[15873] viXra:1609.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-28 08:16:34

Manipulate the Wave Function of Electron

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Scientists have, for the first time, identified a method of visualizing the quantum behaviour of electrons on a surface. The findings present a promising step forward towards being able to manipulate and control the behaviour of high energy, or 'hot', electrons. [18] Physicists have proposed what they believe to be the first method to control the transport of energy at the level of single energy quanta (which are mostly phonons). They show that it's theoretically possible to control the flow of single energy quanta through a quantum magnet using lasers with carefully controlled frequencies and intensities. [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15872] viXra:1609.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-28 08:41:24

New Physics Elements in the Quantum Function Follows Form Model.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 18 Pages. 18

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the FORM and structure of elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles. In Quantum Function Follows FormModel, the Higgs is interpreted as a massless transformer particle able to create the universe by transforming its shape after real mechanical collision and merge with other shaped particles into complex and compound knots. What are the main differences with the standard model? 1, A Fermion repelling- and producing electric dark matter black hole. 2, An electric dark matter black hole splitting Big Bang with a 12x distant symmetric instant entangled raspberry multiverse result, each with copy Lyman Alpha forests. 3, Fermions are real propeller shaped rigid convertible strings with dual spin and also instant multiverse entanglement ( Charge Parity symmetric) . 4, The vacuum is a dense tetrahedral shaped lattice with dual oscillating massless Higgs particles ( dark energy). 5, All particles have consciousness by their instant entanglement relation between 12 copy universes, however, humans have about 500 m.sec retardation to veto an act. ( Benjamin Libet)
Category: Astrophysics

[15871] viXra:1609.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-28 08:59:01

Special Relativity Direct Refutation with Mathematical Justification

Authors: Radwan M. Kassir
Comments: 5 pages

It is revealed with mathematical justification that the Lorentz transformation is actually limited to events with coordinates satisfying the light speed space-time relation (i.e., x = ct). It is therefore shown that applying the LT on certain events while maintaining the above limitation, leads to mathematical contradictions.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15870] viXra:1609.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-28 04:54:05

A Topological Theory of Knowledge in the Human Brain

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
Comments: 16 Pages.

Experience is a process of awareness and mastery of facts or events, gained through actual observation or second-hand knowledge. Recent findings reinforce the idea that a naturalized epistemological approach is needed to further advance our understanding of the nervous mechanisms underlying experience. This essay is an effort to build a coherent topological-based framework able to elucidate particular aspects of experience, e.g., how it is acquired by a single individual, transmitted to others and collectively stored in form of general ideas. Taking into account concepts from neuroscience, algebraic topology and Richard Avenarius’ philosophical analytical approach, we provide a scheme which is cast in an empirically testable fashion. In particular, we emphasize the foremost role of variants of the Borsuk- Ulam theorem, which tells us that, when a pair of opposite (antipodal) points on a sphere are mapped onto a single point in Euclidean space, the projection provides a description of both antipodal points. These antipodes stand for nervous functions and activities of the brain correlated with the mechanisms of acquisition and transmission of experience.
Category: Mind Science

[15869] viXra:1609.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-28 05:56:22

Evolution of the Universe as a Simple Grand Unification Theory

Authors: Nikola Perkovic
Comments: 11 Pages. A first step to an effective Grand Unification Theory

This paper will provide some well based scientific arguments that time is neither a product of space nor an illusion; instead time is in a state of constant motion. That motion inflated space from the very beginning, the Big Bang, and it still does so now. We will name it “temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion inflates space and creates the relationship between space and time known as the space-time continuum; time is dominant in this relationship since its motion started the initial inflation of space, giving birth to the Universe, and continues to inflate space. Evolution will be explained as one of the basic laws of physics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15868] viXra:1609.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-28 04:35:23

Quantum Photonic Circuit

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

For the first time, scientists now have succeeded in placing a complete quantum optical structure on a chip, as outlined Nature Photonics. This fulfills one condition for the use of photonic circuits in optical quantum computers. [15] The intricately sculpted device made by Paul Barclay and his team of physicists is so tiny it can only be seen under a microscope. But their diamond microdisk could lead to huge advances in computing, telecommunications, and other fields. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15867] viXra:1609.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-28 04:41:16

Controlling Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Now, a team of scientists in Japan may have overcome this obstacle. Using laser light, they have developed a precise, continuous control technology giving 60 times more success than previous efforts in sustaining the lifetime of "qubits," the unit that quantum computers encode. [16] Physicists at the Australian National University (ANU) have brought quantum computing a step closer to reality by stopping light in a new experiment. [15] The intricately sculpted device made by Paul Barclay and his team of physicists is so tiny it can only be seen under a microscope. But their diamond microdisk could lead to huge advances in computing, telecommunications, and other fields. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15866] viXra:1609.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-28 04:42:00

Topology Underlying GIBSON’S Echological Theory of Perception

Authors: James F Peters, Arturo Tozzi, Sheela Ramanna
Comments: 12 Pages.

During the exploration of the surrounding environment, the brain links together external inputs in a complex of sensations, giving rise to the perception of a persisting object. During imaginative processes, the same object can be recalled in mind even if it is out of sight. Here, Borsuk’s theory of shape and the Borsuk-Ulam theorem provide a mathematical foundation for Gibson’s notion of persistence perception. Real-scene visual signals are collectively the umbra of physical shapes impinging on the optic nerves, which we map to similar shape representations. We show how Gibson’s ecological theory of perception accounts for our knowledge of world objects by borrowing a concept of invariance in topology. A series of transformations can be endlessly and gradually applied to a pattern, in particular to the shape of an object, without affecting its invariant properties, such as connectedness and boundedness of parts of a visual scene. In sum, high-level representations of objects in our environment are mapped to simplified views (our interpretations) of the objects, in order to construct a symbolic representation of the environment. The fact that our perception of an object continues even when it is out of sight, can be explained by viewing regions on a sphere surface as multiple representations of object shapes. The representations can be projected continuously to an ecological object that we have seen and continue to see, thanks to the mapping from shapes in our memory to shapes in Euclidean space.
Category: Mind Science

[15865] viXra:1609.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-27 14:04:00

Quantum Computing by Stopping Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Physicists at the Australian National University (ANU) have brought quantum computing a step closer to reality by stopping light in a new experiment. [15] The intricately sculpted device made by Paul Barclay and his team of physicists is so tiny it can only be seen under a microscope. But their diamond microdisk could lead to huge advances in computing, telecommunications, and other fields. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode,
Category: Quantum Physics

[15864] viXra:1609.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-27 14:41:12

Conjectures de C.goldbach ou Inéquation de Goldbach

Authors: BERKOUK Mohamed
Comments: 12 Pages.

Ceci est une démonstration de la conjecture de C.Goldbach émise en 1742 , aussi bien la faible que la forte , elle repose essentiellement sur le théorème fondamentales des nombres premiers , et quatre autres théorèmes plus quatre lemmes ...la démarche consiste à démontrer pour chaque pair ou impair l’existence d’au moins un couplet ou un triplet dont les éléments sont premiers qui répondent aux deux énoncés de la conjecture , et que plus ce nombre pair ou impair est grand , plus le nombre de couplets ou triplets premiers est grand ...
Category: Number Theory

[15863] viXra:1609.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-27 16:38:02

Einstein Rebooted, Bell's Theorem Refuted, Etc.

Authors: Gordon Watson
Comments: 8 Pages.

Rebooting Einstein's ideas about local-causality, an engineer brings local-causality to quantum theory via operators and variables in 3-space. Taking realism to be the view that external reality exists and has definite properties, his core principle is common-sense local realism (CLR): the union of local-causality (no causal influence propagates superluminally) and physical-realism (some physical properties change interactively). Endorsing Einstein-separability — system X is independent of what is done with system Y that is spatially separated from X — Bell's famous mission is advanced. That is, by means of parameters λ, a more complete specification of EPRB's physics is successful. A consequent locally-causal refutation of Bell's theorem allows EPRB correlations to be explained in a classical way, in line with Einstein's ideas, without reference to Hilbert space, quantum states, etc. Conclusion: Bell's theorem is based on a mathematical error; an error in reduction is inconsistent with Bell's opening assumptions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15862] viXra:1609.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-27 22:09:45

The Higgs Boson and the Alternative Charge Carriers: Part III

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 5 Pages. 3 of 3 parts (due to length)

The four forces of physics are considered in terms of the broken symmetry of our "matter only" Universe
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[15861] viXra:1609.0395 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-28 00:35:47

Understanding Today's Science with Help from Special Relativity and General Relativity

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 13 Pages. Cite: Bartlett, Rodney (2016): Understanding Today's Science with Help from Special Relativity and General Relativity. figshare. https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.3863556.v1 Retrieved: 05 21, Sep 28, 2016 (GMT)

This article began to take shape in my mind when I read an item in Astronomy magazine. That item mentioned how timing by GPS (the Global Positioning System) requires input from both Special Relativity - where time slows down fractionally for the fast-moving satellites in orbit – and General Relativity, where the satellites' distance from Earth's gravity causes their time to speed up fractionally. This led to the conclusions that 1) the gravitational waves making up the gravity field are, as Einstein suggested in a paper written four years after publication of the general theory, involved in production of mass, 2) these waves participate with the other long-range force, electromagnetism, to also produce the two nuclear forces associated with the mass (making nuclear forces non-fundamental and the Higgs force another name for gravitational-electromagnetic coupling), 3) black holes are composed of gravitational and electromagnetic waves focused on them from deep space, and this accounts for their extreme gravity as well as extreme mass, 4) there's a link between the macroscopic black holes of astronomy and the subatomic gluons of particle physics, and 5) Einstein's contributions don't end with the two Relativities, or even the paper written 4 years after the general theory, but can be extended to his Unified Field Theory. His Unified Field might not be generally accepted today because it was incomplete, just as he described quantum mechanics as incomplete. In 1957, Charles Misner and John Wheeler, in the “Annals of Physics”, claimed Albert Einstein’s latest equations demonstrated the unified field theory. However, the necessary completion of the unified field may not exclusively lie with the mathematics Einstein seemed to increasingly rely on as he aged but with concepts in computer science as well as intuitions in the mathematical branch called topology. Einstein was a Superman at exploring new ideas in his youth. Had electronic computers been invented 30 or 40 years earlier, it appears likely we’d be living with the fruits of the unified field now. PS This article also mentions superconductivity, imaginary time, complex number plane, quark-gluon plasma, antigraviton, shape of space, dark energy, dark matter and antimatter.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15860] viXra:1609.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-28 00:48:41

Физика: Кризис и Возможный Прорыв (Physics; the Crisis and a Possible Breakthrough)

Authors: George Kirakosyan
Comments: 263 pages with the appendix, Russian language

В книге даются вразумительные ответы на дискуссионные, глобальные вопросы физики относящиеся к сущности элементарных частиц, феномена гравитации, физического смысла квантовых и релятивистских теорий. Нынешнее кризисное состояние в проблемных разделах физики и неутихающая критика в ее адрес представлены в книге, как следствия неэффективной аналитической методологии и отсутствия единой базовой концепции. Старая проблема физической науки, дуализм в законах природы (причинных и квантовых), объясняется произвольностью интерпретации соответствующего круга явлений. Показывается путь ее решения и концептуального объединения, искусственно разделенных ныне, двух частей фундаментальной науки - классической и формальной физики. Вырисовывающаяся в книге картина мировосприятия основывается на естественных суждениях и отчетливых количественных соображениях, приводящих к логически завершенному мировоззрению. Представленные пояснения и простые решения выглядят неожиданными, вопреки бытующему убеждению о чрезвычайной сложности фундаментальных задач физики. Внятная трактовка изучаемых вопросов, с реалистической точки зрения, глубоко отличается от современных формальных теорий, основанных на разобщенных, абстрактных гипотезах. С учетом большого количества решенных задач фундаментального значения и конкретные результаты, представленный труд может оказаться востребованным как среди оппозиционно настроенных мыслителей, так и в официальной науке.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[15859] viXra:1609.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-28 01:15:43

The Elementary proof of The Fermat's Last Theorem (Complete Edition)

Authors: Sattawat Suntisurat
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper describe about the elementary proof of FLT by using the graph and irrational number (complete)
Category: General Mathematics

[15858] viXra:1609.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-27 12:58:51

Origin of the Universe

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: put forward a viewpoint of the origin of our universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15857] viXra:1609.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-27 07:36:35

Worlds in Collision and the Origin of Life

Authors: Rainer W. Kühne
Comments: 8 Pages. Published in: Proceedings of the Conference "On the Origin of Life", 7 August 2015, London, United Kingdom

Earth and Moon were formed 4.6 billion years ago by the collision of the two protoplanets Gaia and Theia. Afterwards the Earth formed a crust where colliding comets provided the water of the oceans. This Hadean Eon was terminated 3.9 billion years ago during the Late Heavy Bombardment when an eccentric orbit of Jupiter caused a bombardment of the Earth by asteroids. Soon thereafter, 3.8 billion years ago, there is geochemical evidence of terrestrial life which performed photosynthesis. The terrestrial life witnessed and survived several cataclysms including the snowball Earth 760 to 580 million years ago, an ice age 440 million years ago which was possibly caused by a gamma-ray burst, and an asteroid impact 65 million years ago which generated the Chicxulub crater and contributed to the extinction of the dinosaurs. The 1908 Tunguska explosion was caused by a small stony asteroid. Amino acids, purines, pyrimidines and sugars, but no proteins, nucleotides or extraterrestrial unicellular organisms were detected in meteorites. This argues against the hypothesis of panspermia. The synthesis of amino acids, small peptides, purines and pyrimidine ribonucleotides under conditions of the primitive Earth (Stanley Miller experiments) and the polymerization of RNA nucleotides on clay minerals suggests that viroids and an RNA world could have existed during the Hadean Eon.
Category: Biochemistry

[15856] viXra:1609.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-27 09:47:13

A Surgical Simulator for Training Surgeons in a Few Tasks Related to Minimally Invasive Surgery

Authors: Kirana Kumara P
Comments: 8 Pages. This is the complete specification for the application filed for Indian patent (the patent application filed on September 17, 2016; application number: 201641031739).

The present invention relates to a surgical simulator that may be used to train surgeons for minimally invasive surgery. The simulator makes use of the Boundary Element Method together with a simulation approach that was proposed in an academic paper authored by this inventor. Moreover, the simulator makes use of the boundary element codes developed by this inventor. The simulator consists of a computer screen, a keyboard, a mouse, a haptic device, and a multicore CPU. The simulator would include the geometry of representative human kidney and human liver. The simulator has provisions for moving and changing the orientation of the liver and the kidney, and detecting the collision between the liver or the kidney and the mouse pointer. The simulator also has provisions for interactively displaying the deformed shape of the liver or the kidney, depending on the position of the mouse pointer (mouse cursor (pointer) represents the tip of surgical tools). The simulator can be used to train surgeons in the following tasks: eye-hand coordination, manipulating 3D objects while deformation of the objects is observed on 2D screens.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[15855] viXra:1609.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-27 06:09:15

Quantum Nanophotonics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

The intricately sculpted device made by Paul Barclay and his team of physicists is so tiny it can only be seen under a microscope. But their diamond microdisk could lead to huge advances in computing, telecommunications, and other fields. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15854] viXra:1609.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-27 06:51:59

Appearance of Magic Numbers in the Unified Approach for the Nuclear Structure

Authors: Ranjeet Dalal
Comments: 6 Pages.

Taking the clues from the recently observed phenomena like correlated neutron-proton ejection from nuclei by energetic e-/protons, EMC effect and inconsistent assumptions of liquid drop and shell models for the same set of nuclei (for explanation of different nuclear properties), a unified approach for the nuclear structure was suggested by the author [1]. In the proposed approach, instead of freely moving individual neutrons/protons, nucleons exist in the form of tightly bound np and npn (and pnp also for proton rich nuclei) quasi-particles, which move in overall Coulomb well due to all other quasi-particles. The proposed approach was found to be very useful in understanding many unexplained phenomena [1]. Now, the existence of np and npn quasi-particles is found to be strongly confirmed by the presence of magic numbers across the periodic table where many stable nuclei with different atomic number are found to be have same number of np and npn. For example, there are 30 different stable (or most stable isotope of nuclei with no stable isotope) nuclei with different Z having the magic number of 38 np, 20 nuclei with the magic number of 32 np and 16 with magic number of 40 np.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[15853] viXra:1609.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-26 17:14:28

Electromagnetic Time Dilation and Contraction, and a Geometrodynamic Foundation of Classical and Quantum Electrodynamics

Authors: Jay R. Yablon
Comments: 74 Pages.

We summarize how the Lorentz Force motion observed in classical electrodynamics may be understood as geodesic motion derived by minimizing the variation of the proper time along the worldlines of test charges in external potentials, while the spacetime metric remains invariant under, and all other fields in spacetime remain independent of, any rescaling, i.e., re-gauging of the charge-to-mass ratio q/m. In order for this to occur, time is dilated or contracted due to repulsive and attractive electromagnetic interactions respectively, in very much the same way that time is dilated due to relative motion in special relativity and due to gravitational fields in general relativity, without contradicting the well-corroborated experimental content of standard electrodynamic theory and both special and general relativity. As such, it becomes possible to lay an entirely geometrodynamic foundation for classical electrodynamics in four spacetime dimensions, in which mechanical motions and objects are merely promoted into canonical motions and objects in accordance with well-established local symmetry principles. Further, when we consider the self-interactions of individual leptons understood to be responsible for the magnetic moment anomalies, and upon identifying a universal relation between time and energy whereby all forms of energy dilate (or contract) time regardless of their kinetic or interaction origin, it is shown how these magnetic moment anomalies which are quintessential hallmarks of quantum field theory, both measure and empirically validate electromagnetic time dilation, and are a direct and immediate consequence of local abelian and non-abelian gauge symmetries.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15852] viXra:1609.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-26 20:12:14

Why Young Stars are So Big and a Hypothesis for CMEs

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is hypothesized that since stars are not hot enough to engage fusion reactions, it is reasoned that electrostatic pressure from extremely ionized stars makes them really large.
Category: Astrophysics

[15851] viXra:1609.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-26 21:46:39

An Appell Series Over Finite Fields

Authors: Bing He, Long Li
Comments: 16 Pages.

In this paper we give a finite field analogue of one of the Appell series and obtain some transformation and reduction formulae and the generating functions for the Appell series over finite fields.
Category: Number Theory

[15850] viXra:1609.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-26 23:16:52

Beal Conjecture Proved & Specialized to Prove Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: A. A. Frempong
Comments: 6 Pages. Copyright © by A. A. Frempong

Beal conjecture has been proved on a single page; and the proof has been specialized to prove Fermat's last theorem, on half of a page. The approach used in the proof is exemplified by the following system. If a system functions properly and one wants to determine if the same system will function properly with changes in the system, one would first determine the necessary conditions which allow the system to function properly, and then guided by the necessary conditions, one will determine if the changes will allow the system to function properly. So also, if one wants to prove that there are no solutions for the equation c^z = a^x + b^y when x, y, z > 2, one should first determine why there are solutions when x, y, z = 2, and note the necessary condition in the solutions for x, y, z = 2. The necessary condition in the solutions for x, y, z = 2, will guide one to determine if there are solutions when x, y, z > 2. The proof in this paper is based on the identity (a^2 + b^2 )/c^2 = 1 for a primitive Pythagorean triple (a, b, c). It is shown by contradiction that the uniqueness of the x, y, z = 2, identity excludes all other x, y, z-values, x, y, z > 2 from satisfying the equation c^z = a^x + b^y. One will first show that if x, y, z = 2, c^z = a^x + b^y holds, noting the necessary condition in the solution; followed by showing that if x, y, z > 2 ( x, y, z integers), c^z = a^x + b^y has no solutions. Two proof versions are covered. The first version begins with only the terms in the given equation, but the second version begins with the introduction of ratio terms which are subsequently and "miraculously" eliminated to allow the introduction of a much needed term for the necessary condition for c^z = a^x + b^y to have solutions or to be true. Each proof is very simple, and even high school students can learn it. The approach used in the proof has applications in science, engineering, medicine, research, business, and any properly working system when desired changes are to be made in the system.
Category: Number Theory

[15849] viXra:1609.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-27 00:52:16

The Elementary proof of The Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Sattawat Suntisurat
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper describe about the elementary of the Fermat's Last Theorem by using the graph.
Category: General Mathematics

[15848] viXra:1609.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-26 13:36:04

Twisting Photons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Measurement of the twisting force, or torque, generated by light on a silicon chip holds promise for applications such as miniaturized gyroscopes and sensors to measure magnetic field, which can have significant industrial and consumer impact. [14] A new technique detects spatial coherence in light at smaller scales than had been possible. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15847] viXra:1609.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-26 15:13:52

The Possibility of Achieving a Superluminal Velocity in the Physical Vacuum.

Authors: Aleksandr Tsybin
Comments: 4 Pages.

Currently, most research suggests that the physical vacuum is not empty, and the medium is composed of dark matter and dark energy and this allows hope that the speed of light in the physical vacuum can be transcended.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15846] viXra:1609.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-26 10:40:12

Физика ZMV. Основы новой физики \\ Physics ZMV. the Basics of New Physics

Authors: Mihail Vasile Zastavnitchi
Comments: 31 Pages. In Russian. © «Физика ZMV. Основы новой физики». Конгресс – 2016, Материалы. Фундаментальные проблемы естествознания и техники. Серия: «Проблемы исследования Вселеннй». Санкт-Петербург 2016, том37, №1, С. 202 – 231. ISSN 2304-0300.

The Beginning of the Beginning is the gravitational field. It is formed of gravitons in chaotic motion. Graviton is an elementary quantum of energy when it is in state of motion and an indivisible particle of mass when it is in state of rest. Mass is a conglomerate of gravitons in the state of rest, that is, of gravitons which gave to mass their kinetic energy of motion. It is possible to explain scientifically many physical phenomena that classical physics cannot explain them or explain them naive, if at the basis of physics put the existence of the gravitational field independent of mass and mass created by gravitational field, independent of the gravitational field: where does the energy of the stars come from? Why are the planets nuclei hot? What kind of relation is there between the potential and thermal energy in any point inside the mass? What is the propagation medium of the electromagnetic field? Why is the mass accelerating when a constant force acts upon it? Why is the mass moving by inertia? What is the maximum speed at which the given mass can move by inertia? Why do fluxes and refluxes take place on the Earth? The masses are not attracted to each other. The potential energies of the gravitational field (distorted by the masses) compress the masses. The compression of masses by the gravitational field (distorted by masses) is named Universal Compression of Masses. Universal Compression of Masses by Gravitational Field (distorted by the masses) is the first fundamental law of Physics ZMV. The thermal energy of the mass (received from the gravitational field at the mass penetration) heats the mass. Heating of Mass by Gravitational Field (during its penetration through the mass) is the second fundamental law of Physics ZMV. That part of gravitons, which gave up their energy to the mass and contributed to the creation of the potential energy of the gravitational field and the thermal energy of mass, remain in the mass and increase the amount of the mass. Growth of Mass by Gravitational Field (during its penetration through the mass) is the third fundamental law of Physics ZMV. Motion of Mass by Inertia Energy of Gravitational Field is the fourth fundamental law of Physics ZMV. Flux and Reflux of Mass, as a result of rectilinear and rotational motion of the mass is the fifth fundamental law of Physics ZMV.
Category: Classical Physics

[15845] viXra:1609.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-26 10:52:00

Quantum Radar

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Chinese Quantum Physics Breakthrough Enables New Radar Capable of Detecting 'Invisible' Targets 100 Kilometers Distant. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[15844] viXra:1609.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-26 11:05:09

Conjectures de C.goldbach-Démonstration

Authors: Brekouk
Comments: 12 Pages.

Ceci est une démonstration de la conjecture de C.Goldbach émise en 1742 , aussi bien la faible que la forte , elle repose essentiellement sur le théorème fondamentales des nombres premiers , et quatre autres théorèmes plus quatre lemmes ...la démarche consiste à démontrer pour chaque pair ou impair l’existence d’au moins un couplet ou un triplet dont les éléments sont premiers qui répondent aux deux énoncés de la conjecture , et que plus ce nombre pair ou impair est grand , plus le nombre de couplets ou triplets premiers est grand .
Category: Number Theory

[15843] viXra:1609.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-26 11:30:05

Undulating Relativity + §24 Variational Principle

Authors: Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia
Comments: 120 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know: -The dilatation of time, and -The contraction of the Lorentz Length. The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15842] viXra:1609.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-26 11:35:38

Relatividade Ondulatória + §24 Princípio Variacional

Authors: Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia
Comments: 120 Pages.

A Teoria da Relatividade Especial conduz a dois resultados, considerados incompreensíveis por vários renomados físicos, que são a dilatação do tempo e a denominada contração espacial de Lorentz. A solução desses paradoxos me conduziu ao desenvolvimento da Relatividade Ondulatória onde a variação temporal é devida à diferença nos percursos de propagação da luz e o espaço é constante entre os observadores. Da análise do desenvolvimento da Relatividade Ondulatória podemos sintetizar as seguintes conclusões: -é uma teoria com princípios totalmente físicos, -as transformações são lineares, -matem intactos os princípios Euclidianos, -considera a transformação de Galileu distinta em cada referencial, -une a velocidade da luz e o tempo em um único fenômeno, -desenvolve uma translação real entre os referenciais.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15841] viXra:1609.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-26 10:09:55

Collatz Conjecture for $2^{100000}-1$ is True - Algorithms for Verifying Extremely Large Numbers

Authors: Wei Ren
Comments: 17 Pages.

Collatz conjecture (or 3x+1 problem) is out for about 80 years. The verification of Collatz conjecture has reached to the number about 60bits until now. In this paper, we propose new algorithms that can verify whether the number that is about 100000bits (30000 digits) can return 1 after 3*x+1 and x/2 computations. This is the largest number that has been verified currently. The proposed algorithm changes numerical computation to bit computation, so that extremely large numbers (without upper bound) becomes possible to be verified. We discovered that $2^{100000}-1$ can return to 1 after 481603 times of 3*x+1 computation, and 863323 times of x/2 computation.
Category: Number Theory

[15840] viXra:1609.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-26 10:14:45

Induction and Code for Collatz Conjecture or 3x+1 Problem

Authors: Wei Ren
Comments: 22 Pages.

Collatz conjecture (or 3x+1 problem) has not been proved to be true or false for about 80 years. The exploration on this problem seems to ask for introducing a totally new method. In this paper, a mathematical induction method is proposed, whose proof can lead to the proof of the conjecture. According to the induction, a new representation (for dynamics) called ``code'' is introduced, to represent the occurred $3*x+1$ and $x/2$ computations during the process from starting number to the first transformed number that is less than the starting number. In a code $3*x+1$ is represented by 1 and $x/2$ is represented by 0. We find that code is a building block of the original dynamics from starting number to 1, and thus is more primitive for modeling quantitative properties. Some properties only exist in dynamics represented by code, but not in original dynamics. We discover and prove some inherent laws of code formally. Code as a whole is prefix-free, and has a unified form. Every code can be divided into code segments and each segment has a form $\{10\}^{p \geq 0}0^{q \geq 1}$. Besides, $p$ can be computed by judging whether $x \in[0]_2$, $x\in[1]_4$, or computed by $t=(x-3)/4$, without any concrete computation of $3*x+1$ or $x/2$. Especially, starting numbers in certain residue class have the same code, and their code has a short length. That is, $CODE(x \in [1]_4)=100,$ $CODE((x-3)/4 \in [0]_4)=101000,$ $CODE((x-3)/4 \in [2]_8)=10100100,$ $CODE((x-3)/4 \in [5]_8)=10101000,$ $CODE((x-3)/4 \in [1]_{32})=10101001000,$ $CODE((x-3)/4\in [3]_{32})=10101010000,$ $CODE((x-3)/4\in [14]_{32})=10100101000.$ The experiment results again confirm above discoveries. We also give a conjecture on $x \in [3]_4$ and an approach to the proof of Collatz conjecture. Those discoveries support the proposed induction and are helpful to the final proof of Collatz conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[15839] viXra:1609.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-26 04:30:36

Effect of Biofield Energy Treatment on Physical and Structural Properties of Calcium Carbide and Praseodymium Oxide

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Calcium carbide (CaC2) is known for its wide applications in the production of acetylene and calcium cyanamide, whereas praseodymium Oxide (Pr6O11) is used in sensors and high-temperature pigments. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physical and structural properties of CaC2 and Pr6O11 powder. The powder samples of both compounds were equally divided into two parts, referred as control and treated. The treated part of both compounds was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. After that, both control and treated samples were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XRD data revealed that the biofield energy treatment has increased the lattice parameter of unit cell by 3.35% in the treated CaC2 sample as compared to the control. The density of treated CaC2 sample was reduced upto 4.49% and molecular weight was increased upto 4.70% as compared to the control. The crystallite size of CaC2 was reduced from 98.19 nm (control) to 52.93 nm in the treated CaC2 sample as compared to the control. The FT-IR analysis exhibited that the absorption band attributed to C=C stretching vibration was shifted to higher wavenumber as compared to the control. Thus, above data suggested that biofield energy treatment has considerable impact on the physical and structural properties of CaC2. Besides, in Pr6O11, the XRD did not show any significant change in lattice parameter, density and molecular weight. However, the FT-IR spectra revealed that the absorption band attributing to Pr-O stretching vibration was shifted from 593 cm-1 (control) to higher wavenumber 598 cm-1 in the treated Pr6O11 sample. Therefore, the biofield energy treatment could be applied to modify the CaC2 and Pr6O11 powder for the use in chemical industries.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[15838] viXra:1609.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-26 06:39:35

Nanoscale Mirror

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15837] viXra:1609.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-26 06:59:01

On-Demand Routing Algorithm with Mobility Prediction in the Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

Authors: Trung Kien Vu, Sungoh Kwon
Comments: Preprint submitted to Computer Networks, 10 pages, 15 figures

In this paper, we propose an ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing algorithm for mobile ad-hoc networks taking into account node mobility. Changeable topology of such mobile ad-hoc networks provokes overhead messages in order to search available routes and maintain found routes. The overheadmessages impede data delivery from sources to destination and deteriorate network performance. To overcome such a challenge, our proposed algorithm estimates link duration based neighboring node mobility and chooses the most reliable route. The proposed algorithm also applies the estimate for route maintenance to lessen the number of overhead messages. Via simulations, the proposed algorithmis verified in variousmobile environments. In the low mobility environment, by reducing routemaintenance messages, the proposed algorithm significantly improves network performance such as packet data rate and end-toend delay. In the high mobility environment, the reduction of route discovery message enhances network performance since the proposed algorithm provides more reliable routes.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[15836] viXra:1609.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-26 01:59:35

Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Reason of the Polarity Reversal of Magnetic Field of the Earth the Hypothesis of the Reason of a Polarity Reversal of Magnetic Field of Earth as Result of the Relative Movement of a Cloak and Bark is Made

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The hypothesis of the reason of a polarity reversal of magnetic field of Earth as result of the relative movement of a cloak and bark is made
Category: Astrophysics

[15835] viXra:1609.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-26 02:15:43

Modified Emission Theory an Alternative to the Special Theory of Relativity

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 10 Pages.

The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment is a strong and compelling evidence for emission theory of light. Emission theory, unlike ether theory, can also explain Bradley stellar aberration easily. There is also the less known Bryan G Wallace analysis of Venus planet radar range data anomaly, which could be explained only by emission theory. The emission theory was abandoned because : 1) it was not compatible with Maxwell's electrodynamics: it predicted frozen light for a light source moving with velocity of light away from an observer 2) moving source experiments showed that the speed of light is independent of source velocity. The first of these problems is solved by a new interpretation of Einstein's thought experiment ( 'chasing a beam of light ' ): constant phase velocity and variable group velocity of light. For an observer moving away from a light source at the speed of light, the phases will still move at the speed of light relative to the observer, but the group will be 'frozen'. This interpretation requires that Doppler effect depend only on source observer relative velocity, demanding a new symmetrical law for Doppler effect of light. This is the Exponential Law of Doppler effect of light proposed in this paper, which can easily explain the Ives-Stilwell experiments. The second problem is resolved by a new hypothesis that the effect of absolute motion of a light source is to change the speed of light relative to the source so that the speed of light is independent of source velocity. Ether theory and emission theory are seamlessly united into a new theory. This is also in line with light having both wave and particle properties. The ether doesn't exist. The conception of the Michelson-Morley experiment was fundamentally flawed in that they considered light as ordinary material waves . A new interpretation of absolute motion is proposed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15834] viXra:1609.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-25 16:24:49

Playing with the Landscape

Authors: Miguel Castro
Comments: 9 Pages.

A main concept of the geographical science is the landscape. It is from its observation and study that much of the research in Geography has developed. Training to look deeply at the landscape should start from an early age, since the children get into the educational system. We carried out activities based on games and situations of clear opponents and spatial thought with the students of Pedagogical Practice, in order to train the acuity of observation of the landscape and the coherence of its fundamental elements by the children. In a playful way, children will more easily apprehend and develop skills which will allow them to become more interventional citizens. This reflection is the product of the results achieved by the students and the supervisor’s field notes about new didactical and pedagogical intervention of the geographical approach in kindergartens and the 1st Cycle of Basic Education.
Category: Education and Didactics

[15833] viXra:1609.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-25 16:27:36

Candidates Teachers' Classroom Management Self-Efficacy Levels

Authors: Süleyman Göksoy
Comments: 12 Pages.

This research aimed to determine the classroom management self-efficacy beliefs of students have been studying in Faculty of Education and students have been maintaining pedagogical formation certificate program. It employed survey model. The study group was composed of 362 trainees who attended to pedagogical formation certificate program in Duzce University in 2015/16 academic year spring term and 255 sophomores, junior and senior class students in Classroom Teaching and Science Teaching Departments in Duzce University Faculty of Education in 2015/16 academic year. In the study, it was aimed to reach the whole population and a scale was implemented instead of sampling. The research was conducted with 410 returning scales. “Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale” was conducted in order to determine the classroom management self-efficacy perceptions of the student teachers. Since the data were not normally distributed, Mann-Whitney U Test which is a nonparametric test. The following results were obtained: Classroom management self-efficacy perceptions of the students who have been studying in Faculty of Education and students who have been attending the pedagogical formation certificate program are high in terms of “Providing the student participation”, “Utilization of Teaching Strategies” and “Classroom management”. The difference between the classroom management self-efficacy perception averages of the two groups was not statistically meaningful. Also, there was no statistically meaningful difference between the students who have been studying in Faculty of Education and students who have been attending the pedagogical formation certificate program in terms of gender variable.
Category: Education and Didactics

[15832] viXra:1609.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-25 18:17:04

An Additional Brief Solution of the CPP Limiting Case of the Problem of Apollonius Via Geometric Algebra (Ga)

Authors: James A. Smith
Comments: 5 Pages.

This document adds to the collection of GA solutions to plane-geometry problems, most of them dealing with tangency, that are presented in References 1-7. Reference 1 presented several ways of solving the CPP limiting case of the Problem of Apollonius. Here, we use ideas from Reference 6 to solve that case in yet another way.
Category: Geometry

[15831] viXra:1609.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-25 21:12:02

Computational Factorization of Variants [of Stringy] in Metamorphic Space

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

At a certain point computation will initiate catastrophe. One must then impose computational factorization of variants [of stringy] in metaspace.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[15830] viXra:1609.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-25 22:24:39

Life Against Heat Death

Authors: Michail Zak
Comments: 13 Pages.

This work is inspired by the discovery of a new class of dynamical system described by ODE coupled with their Liouville equation. These systems called self-controlled since the role of actuators is played by the probability produced by the Liouville equation. Following the Madelung equation that belongs to this class, non-Newtonian properties such as randomness, entanglement, and probability interference typical for quantum systems have been described. Special attention was paid to the capability to violate the second law of thermodynamics, which makes these systems neither Newtonian, nor quantum. It has been shown that self-controlled dynamical systems can be linked to mathematical models of livings. The discovery of isolated dynamical systems that can decrease entropy in violation of the second law of thermodynamics, and resemblances of these systems to livings implies that Life can slow down heat death of the Universe, and that can be associated with the Purpose of Life.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[15829] viXra:1609.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-25 22:35:28

Evolution of the Universe v3

Authors: Nikola Perkovic
Comments: 11 Pages.

This paper will provide some well based scientific arguments that time is neither a product of space nor an illusion; instead time is in a state of constant motion. That motion inflated space from the very beginning, the Big Bang, and it still does so now. We will name it “temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion inflates space and creates the relationship between space and time known as the space-time continuum; time is dominant in this relationship since its motion started the initial inflation of space, giving birth to the Universe, and continues to inflate space. Evolution will be explained as one of the basic laws of physics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15828] viXra:1609.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-25 23:30:48

The Shortest Proof in the World of the Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Sattawat Suntisurat
Comments: 1 Page.

The paper describe about the simplest method to proove the FLT by using irrational number.
Category: General Mathematics

[15827] viXra:1609.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-25 13:51:26

A Possible Proof of the Even Goldbach Conjecture.

Authors: Prashanth R. Rao
Comments: 3 Pages.

The odd Goldbach conjecture states that every odd integer greater than seven may be expressed as the sum of three odd primes whereas the even Goldbach conjecture states that every even integer greater than four may be expressed as the sum of two odd primes. Harald Helfgott has provided a convincing proof of the Odd Goldbach conjecture. The even Goldbach conjecture, however remains unproven. We start with the assumption that first counterexamples of both the even and odd Goldbach conjectures exist. We identify a relationship between the first counterexample of the odd conjecture with the counterexample of the even. Invoking Helfgott’s proof of the Odd Goldbach conjecture, we study the value of the first possible even counter-example and it must be infinitely large so that the first odd counter-example may also be infinitely large thereby non-existent.
Category: Number Theory

[15826] viXra:1609.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-25 14:40:38

Physical Model of a Real Photon with Substructure and Mass

Authors: Kenneth D. Oglesby
Comments: 7 Pages. Related to MC Physics or Mono-Charge Physics theories

A physical model of a photon with substructure and mass is presented that satisfies all known properties and characteristics of photons. The model shows that relativistic enhanced rotating mono-charges cause the EMF signature of light, scattering effects, gravity affects, and momentum/ kinetic energy. A photon's kinetic energy (KE) includes both linear KE from its mass travelling at the average speed of light, c, and its rotational KE from instant mass rotating at the frequency required velocity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[15825] viXra:1609.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-25 11:28:38

About Prime Numbers

Authors: N.Prosh
Comments: 6 Pages.

About prime numbers and new way of find prime numbers
Category: Number Theory

[15824] viXra:1609.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-25 12:00:34

Consciousness Creates Motion Forming 2D Energetic Software for a 3D Body

Authors: Royan Rosche
Comments: 3 Pages.

: Consciousness is you; the powers of yourselves are used everyday by failed introspective mankind whom is oblivious to their own nature. This paper makes it clear what consciousness is and what it creates in respect to the body, and how actually doing contemplative thought is necessary for biological nourishment because the mind of humans is their unique trait like infrared sensing is for snakes. Unified theories with atoms are like taking a mirror, shattering it, and then calculating how the pieces fit to create a backwards image. All reality is MENTAL based; all perception is tied to belief. All matter is moved by imagination, thought and willpower which have equal energy manifestations of electromagnetic waves, sound, and heat-aspects of one single energy.
Category: Mind Science

[15823] viXra:1609.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-25 12:58:51

Foundations of Unified Gravito-Kinematics Theory

Authors: Peter Hlavačka
Comments: 13 Pages.

Unified gravito-kinematics theory unifies gravity and kinematics on deeper level as current theories. It is generally compatible with equotations of General relativity, but it extends it and introduces different explanations to selected underlying principles on which is General relativity based. Unified gravito-kinematics theory explains or solves following open problems: primary cause and underlying mechanism of inertia, explanation of speed of light as speed limit, primary cause and underlying mechanism of relativity (Lorentz transformations), explanation of creation of rings of planets explanation of increasing speed of expansion of universe (dark energy), explanation of galaxy rotation problem, solving of some singularities in relativity theory and solution for compatibility of relativity theory with quantum mechanics, which will open door to merge of quantum mechanics and what is now relativity theory. What is most important, Unified gravito-kinematics theory makes very specific predictions, which can be tested by experiments and by astronomic observations. This paper includes one proposed rotation experiment and explanation of creation of rings around planets and smaller objects.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15822] viXra:1609.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-25 07:48:46

The Brilliance of Dreams

Authors: Aneesh R Swamy
Comments: 3 Pages. Limbic System,Dreams,Cognitive Neuroscience,

Dreams. A concept very little understood by neuro-scientists. Why don't we know how we dream even after decades of research? To find the answer to that question;how we dream, one has to think out of the box. Or out of the mind.
Category: Mind Science

[15821] viXra:1609.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-25 08:34:28

Universe Has no Direction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

The universe is not spinning or stretched in any particular direction, according to the most stringent test yet. [8] A discrepancy in the measurement of how quickly the universe is expanding has been found by researchers at the John Hopkins University in Baltimore, and released online. [7] Dark matter and dark energy are two of the greatest mysteries of the universe, still perplexing scientists worldwide. Solving these scientific conundrums may require a comprehensive approach in which theories, computations and ground-based observations are complemented by a fleet of spacecraft studying the dark universe. One of the space missions that could be essential to our understanding of these mysteries is European Space Agency's (ESA) Euclid probe, designed to unveil the secrets of dark energy and dark matter by accurately measuring the acceleration of the universe. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[15820] viXra:1609.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-25 09:09:01

Démonstration Des Deux Conjectures de C.goldbach

Authors: Brekouk
Comments: 12 Pages.

ceci est une démonstration de la conjecture de C.Goldbach émise en 1742 , aussi bien la faible que la forte , elle repose essentiellement sur le théorème fondamentales des nombres premiers , et quatre autres théorèmes plus quatre lemmes ...la démarche consiste à démontrer pour chaque pair ou impair l’existence d’au moins un couplet ou un triplet dont les éléments sont premiers qui répondent aux deux énoncés de la conjecture , et que plus ce nombre pair ou impair est grand , plus le nombre de couplets ou triplets premiers est grand .
Category: Number Theory

[15819] viXra:1609.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-25 09:19:29

Time Symmetry Breaking in Pre-Big Bang Vacuum State

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters, Clifford Chafin, Domenico De Falco
Comments: 8 Pages.

The vacuum catastrophe refers to the discrepancy between the predicted and detected values of repulsive vacuum energy. To tackle the issue, we start from a model of inflation in a time-symmetric quantistic vacuum, which, due to the Mandelstamm-Tamm inequality, leads to a trapping of a part of the original vacuum during the formation of our closed Universe. We show how the energy of our cosmos is stored in two different compartments, the microscopic quantistic vacuum and the macroscopic detectable cosmos. If we take into account, at the time of the Big Bang, the occurrence of time symmetry breaking into our Universe, we achieve a macroscopic energetic system governed by the second law of thermodynamics, where time acts like a continuous gauge field able to progressively increase the entropy. Our framework makes it possible to assess, among other issues, the vacuum catastrophe, to calculate the minimum three-dimensional volume of the pre-Big Bang vacuum and to make previsions for the future evolution of the two energetic compartments.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15818] viXra:1609.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-25 05:14:06

Comparative Studies of Element Periodic Table and Tables in Element Periodic Table —No.1 of Comparative Chemistry Series Papers

Authors: Fu Yuhua
Comments: 5 Pages.

As No.1 of comparative chemistry series papers, running the comparative studies between the element periodic table and the concepts of “fractal in fractal”, “sub-library in library”, and the like, and reaching the concept of “tables in element periodic table”. Then, some special forms of “tables in element periodic table” are discussed. Also pointing out that in the big data analysis of chemical elements, “tables in element periodic table” will have a good prospect.
Category: Chemistry

[15817] viXra:1609.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-25 06:38:55

Photon Carries 10 Bits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Physicists have smashed the record for the amount of information a single photon can carry. Their experiment has immediate implications for quantum cryptography. [16] Engineers in the US have developed a chip that can convert visible light into infrared and back again, while preserving the quantum state of the original photons. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15816] viXra:1609.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-25 01:25:44

Solutions for Euler and Navier-Stokes Equations in Finite and Infinite Series of Time

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 17 Pages.

We present solutions for the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations in finite and infinite series of time, in spatial dimension N=3, firstly based on expansion in Taylor’s series of time and at end concluding on necessity of solutions for velocity given by irrotational vectors, for incompressible flows and conservative external force.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[15815] viXra:1609.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-24 16:41:04

An Attempt to Explain the Flyby Anomaly and to Account for the Anomalous Torque of the Gravity Probe-b Gyroscopes Using LITG

Authors: Mutasim A. Ahmed
Comments: 7 Pages.

The first attempt to construct a gravitational theory similar to Maxwell,s electromagnetic theory was done by the English physicist Oliver Heaviside, then it was improved by the German physicist Hermann Minkowski , and given the name Lorentz Invariant Theory of Gravity or LITG for short, so from the name it's Lorentz transformation's invariant in conformity with the special theory of relativity, again it was further improved and generalized by the Russian mathematician Sergey Fedosin to be known as the co-variant theory of gravitation, the co-variant theory will reduce to LITG at low velocities and week gravitational fields, therefore for our work we need only use the LITG theory as a special case of the co-variant theory, and we will use the similarity between electromagnetism and gravitomagnetism to drive laws. To explain flyby effect we argue that the individual photons of the telemetry signal emitted from the free-falling spacecraft being themselves a source of gravitomagnetic field, interact with the field generated by the relatively moving Earth, because the spacecraft is in free-fall state an observer on-board it can claim to be at absolute rest according to the equivalence principle, therefore an observer and in this case the telemetry photons can assume being emitted from the spacecraft which is at rest towards the Earth which is now moving towards them with the same velocity of the spacecraft, the gravitomagnetic force in this case will be attractive, and due to the highly symmetric trajectory of the spacecraft an equivalent force of repulsion will be experienced by telemetry photons during the departure of the spacecraft, because in this case the photons and the Earth will be moving in the same direction, the force of attraction will manifest in the form of a blue-shift and that of the repulsion will manifest as a red-shift, so if we measure the effect equally during the inbound and the outbound, the two effects will add to zero, the effect is highly dependent on the way we observe it, that is why the effect is minimum when the trajectory is symmetrical about the equator, because the DSN antennae are distributed near the equator, hence the blue-shift and the red-shift cancel out. As for the gravity probe-b case, we argue that, one of the most important results of the theory of relativity, is that there is no absolute frame of reference, we have to ask a particular observer about the results of his observations within his frame, we are not allowed to dictate or force our own conceptions on him, this condition wasn't fulfilled in the case of gravity probe-b theoretical framework, the researchers assumed that the spacecraft is revolving around Earth along with the four perfectly manufactured gyroscopes, from our point of view as observers on Earth this is true but for an observer on-board the spacecraft the situation is totally different, in this case the spinning gyroscopes are in free fall state which is according to the equivalence principle is a privileged inertial frame of reference, where Newton's first law of motion is perfectly operational, therefore anyone of the four gyroscopes have the full right to claim the state of absolute rest while the Earth is revolving around them with the same period by which the spacecraft is revolving around Earth as judged by us on Earth, also the gyroscopes as observers they claim that the Earth is spinning around an axis perpendicular to its own axis of rotation, with the same period of about 97.5 minutes of the spacecraft, using this reasoning and applying the approximate version of the co-variant theory of gravitation namely LITG, we obtained a gravitomagnetic effect nearly 100 times as large as that expected by the researchers, as we will show.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15814] viXra:1609.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-24 20:56:16

Gravity, Cosmological Constant and Cosmic Acceleration

Authors: Kapil Chandra
Comments: 4 Pages. prepared for Reseach proposal for Doctoral studies

The cosmological problem has been a long standing unsolved problem of physics. In this manuscript, we propose a new hypothesis to solve it and we reported that the theoretically calculated value is in good agreement with its current observed value. We also derived a new mathematical expression of gravity which is inverse of classical Newton gravity, our hypothesis suggests; the inversion of gravity is responsible for cosmic acceleration. It has been also explained, why the gravity is too weak force of nature. We reported here, there is a close link between the weak gravity and cosmological constant problem.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15813] viXra:1609.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-24 11:38:11

Escape Velocity and Schwarzschild's Solution for Black Holes

Authors: Amir Ali Tavajoh
Comments: 9 Pages.

Escape velocity for black holes depends on the region we are at. When we are on the Schwarzschild’s sphere, it’s equal to the velocity of light and when we are inside the Schwarzschild’s sphere, it exceeds the velocity of light. On the other hand, tidal forces act on the object and turn it apart into pieces. Based on angular momentum conservation, as the pieces of object go inside the Schwarzschild’s radius, because their distance with singularity decreases, their velocity increases in order to make a balance and the angular momentum stay constant. The Schwarzschild’s solution for schwarzschild’s sphere and inside, will show what happens to the space-time; in the Schwarzschild’s sphere, the space would be undefined and the time warps, but inside the sphere, "r" and “t” change their place in equation and because of "θ" and "φ" object’s geodesic will bend and object swirl around the singularity but "r" behaves like time and "t" behaves like space. Needless to say, g_μυ will be different.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15812] viXra:1609.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-24 08:39:22

Deterministic Quantum Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Quantum measurements are often inherently unpredictable, yet the usual way in which quantum theory accounts for unpredictability has long been viewed as somewhat unsatisfactory. In a new study, University of Oxford physicist Chiara Marletto has developed an alternative way to account for the unpredictability observed in quantum measurements by using the recently proposed theory of superinformation—a theory that is inherently non-probabilistic. The new perspective may lead to new possibilities in the search for a successor to quantum theory. [21] Scientists have known for a long time that an atom or molecule can also be in two different states at once. Now researchers at the Stanford PULSE Institute and the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have exploited this Schrödinger's Cat behavior to create X-ray movies of atomic motion with much more detail than ever before. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[15811] viXra:1609.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-24 09:36:48

Nature of Black Holes and Space-Time Around Them

Authors: Amir Ali Tavajoh
Comments: 16 Pages.

Based on the Mach’s principle, black holes warp the space time in a way that geodesic for every object which is moving toward black hole start to bend and object starts to rotate around the black hole. Even light cannot be able to escape from the strong gravitational field of black hole. Before arriving to the Schwarzschild’s Sphere, object faces with length extension because of the difference between amount of tidal forces on the nearest and furthest points of object that take the object apart and after passing the Schwarzschild’s sphere, based on the Special relativity of Einstein, the parts of object face with length contraction. At the Ergo sphere Region of black hole, a particle that gets into it will divide into 2 pieces, one of them falls into the black hole and another gets out of the Schwarzschild sphere very fast and it’s called the black hole radiation. According to the Diagram drawn by R. Rafini and J. Weeler, an object gets out of white hole in past space-time, it can be able to send signals to us and we can receive it but black hole which is located in future space-time, after object enters to the Schwarzschild’s Sphere, the signals it sends won’t be received. In order to reach the third space-time which is like a mirror to our universe, our speed needs to exceed the speed of light to pass the Einstein-Rosen Bridge.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15810] viXra:1609.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-24 02:20:58

Magnetic Field in Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

A world record for a trapped field in a superconductor, was achieved in 2014 by a team of engineers led by Professor David Cardwell. [28] The first practical proposal was formulated 50 years ago by the American physicist Richard Garwin. He proposed that a transmission line of 1000 km, transporting 100 Gigawatt (at that time, all the energy produced in the U.S.) could be transmitted through a single underground superconductive cable, just a mere 30 cm wide, including its cooling system. The drawback was that cooling the wire down to a few degrees above absolute zero would have been too costly. [27], and collaborators have produced the first direct evidence of a state of electronic matter first predicted by theorists in 1964. The discovery, described in a paper published online April 13, 2016, in Nature, may provide key insights into the workings of high-temperature superconductors. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[15809] viXra:1609.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-24 02:52:09

Lepton Flavor Violation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

The Standard Model allows for the Higgs boson to decay to identically flavored pairs of leptons, such as electrons and muons, but not to mixed pairings of lepton flavors. Evidence of the latter would be a sign of new physics. [14] It may only take scientists a few more years to solve one of the biggest puzzles in modern elementary particle physics, the so-called "muon mystery." Russian scientists from the National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI) will make a significant contribution to this research. [13] A large team made up of researchers from across the globe has repeated experiments conducted several years ago that showed a different radius for a proton when it was orbited by a muon as opposed to an electron—a finding dubbed the proton radius puzzle—using a deuterium nucleus this time and has found the same puzzle. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes the experiments they conducted, what they found and offer a few possible ideas to help dispel the notion that the puzzle indicates that there may be some problems with the Standard Model. [12] The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[15808] viXra:1609.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-23 20:11:08

Modeling the "Falling Slinky"

Authors: James A. Smith
Comments: 25 Pages. Document is in Spanish

This document attempted to obtain analytical solutions for the "Falling Slinky" in three ways. The first two, which used the wave equation, failed for different reasons. The first attempt used Fourier series, which could not satisfy the initial and boundary conditions. The second attempt used Laplace transforms; this method did give a solution, which correctly predicted the acceleration of the center of mass, but which predicted that the upper part of the Slinky should "fall through" the lower part, which is impossible. This false prediction is not a defect of the use of Laplace transforms, but an artifact of the use of the wave equation to treat the falling Slinky, which is a shock-wave phenomenon. The third attempt at a solution used the impulse-momentum theorem, obtaining a result whose predictions are internally consistent, as well as agreeing with empirical results. However, we must point out that the model used here treats only the Slinky's longitudinal behavior, ignoring its torsional behavior.
Category: Classical Physics

[15807] viXra:1609.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-23 20:31:46

Qin-Jiushao and Chinese Remainder Theorem

Authors: Shi-YuanDong
Comments: 9 Pages.

On the Qin-JiuShao and Chinese remainder theorem(CRT) 秦九韶的大衍求一术及其矩阵表示
Category: General Mathematics

[15806] viXra:1609.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-23 13:38:56

Magnetic Monopoles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

If you chop a magnet in half, you end up with two smaller magnets. Both the original and the new magnets have "north" and "south" poles. But what if single north and south poles exist, just like positive and negative electric charges? These hypothetical beasts, known as "magnetic monopoles," are an important prediction in several theories. [16] A new study by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory determined that magnetic skyrmions – small electrically uncharged circular structures with a spiraling magnetic pattern – do get deflected by an applied current, much like a curveball getting deflected by air. [15] Researchers at Aalto University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have demonstrated that polaron formation also occurs in a system of magnetic charges, and not just in a system of electric charges. Being able to control the transport properties of such charges could enable new devices based on magnetic rather than electric charges, for example computer memories. [14] The electronic energy states allowed by quantum mechanics determine whether a solid is an insulator or whether it conducts electric current as a metal. Researchers at ETH have now theoretically predicted a novel material whose energy states exhibit a hitherto unknown peculiarity. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15805] viXra:1609.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-23 15:24:04

Short Note: Unintended Printing Error in Equation (7a) in “ Investigations on the Theory of the Brownian MOVEMENT” by Albert Einstein in 1926

Authors: M.Khoshnevisan
Comments: 1 Page.

Albert Einstein in 1926 published his book entitled “INVESTIGATIONS ON THE THEORY OF THE BROWNIAN MOVEMENT”, during the time that he was lecturing at Berliner Universität. This book was edited by Professor Reinhold Heinrich (Henry) Furth.There is anunintended printing error in equation (7a) on page 81. It appears that this unintended printing error in equation (7a) has not been amended in this book since 1926.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[15804] viXra:1609.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-23 07:07:24

Invalidity of the Special Relativity Formulation

Authors: Radwan M. Kassir
Comments: 5 pages

In this paper the Lorentz Transformation (LT) is shown to be merely a set of equations applicable under the conditions reflecting the theorized principle of the speed of light invariance implemented in the direction of relative motion. It is revealed the LT is limited to events with coordinates satisfying the light speed space-time relation (i.e., x = ct). Einstein’s prediction of time dilation and length contraction is based on applying the LT equations to restricted coordinates. It is shown that such LT applications lead to mathematical contradictions.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15803] viXra:1609.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-23 07:27:55

Superconductive Energy Transmission

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

The first practical proposal was formulated 50 years ago by the American physicist Richard Garwin. He proposed that a transmission line of 1000 km, transporting 100 Gigawatt (at that time, all the energy produced in the U.S.) could be transmitted through a single underground superconductive cable, just a mere 30 cm wide, including its cooling system. The drawback was that cooling the wire down to a few degrees above absolute zero would have been too costly. [27], and collaborators have produced the first direct evidence of a state of electronic matter first predicted by theorists in 1964. The discovery, described in a paper published online April 13, 2016, in Nature, may provide key insights into the workings of high-temperature superconductors. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15802] viXra:1609.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-23 09:08:57

Four Forces are the Four Elements

Authors: Royan Rosche
Comments: 3 Pages.

All matter and energy make use of the four forces in modern sciences as they are made up of the four forces which mean that ancient elemental unification is the exact same thing as unification of the four forces. This paper points out that human beings are “calculating” in order to actually see what reality is instead of “observing” it. The author is reveals the uncertainty principle can be bypassed when we know what we are looking at by connecting the above celestial bodies to the below quantum world. All reality is mental based, i.e. on imagination. The meaning of the four elements is explained for modern comprehension.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15801] viXra:1609.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-23 06:00:56

Addendum

Authors: Prado, Pf et al
Comments: 1 Page.

Addendum to hypothesis
Category: Mathematical Physics

[15800] viXra:1609.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-23 06:37:57

Photon-Qubits Frequency Conversion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Engineers in the US have developed a chip that can convert visible light into infrared and back again, while preserving the quantum state of the original photons. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15799] viXra:1609.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-23 01:52:00

Microworld_30. the Hidden Matter Problem

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 8 Pages. English and russian texts

A Reason for Stagnation in the Problem of Hidden Mass - Academic Insufficiency of the Quantum Theory and of the Relativity Theory
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[15798] viXra:1609.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-22 16:05:32

Pseudo-Random Data Testing The Scales Used In Rasch Pairs Analysis/ Adaptive Comparative Judgement

Authors: Austin J. Fearnley
Comments: 5 pages.

Pseudo-random data are used to illustrate the relationship between errors in raw data being comparatively judged and the resulting Rasch pairs location parameters, first for data which are relatively homogeneous and second for data which have various amounts of heterogeneity. For each data type, various error sizes are used. Rasch location parameters are designed to be on an interval scale and are here demonstrated to be plotted on a more contracted scale when the objects are more homogeneous.
Category: General Mathematics

[15797] viXra:1609.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-22 23:36:31

Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern of Pseudomonas Fluorescens After Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Global emergence of Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) displays a mechanism of resistance to all existing antimicrobials. Due to its strong ability to acquire resistance, there is a need of some alternative treatment strategy. Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of P. fluorescens. P. fluorescens cells were procured from MicroBioLogics in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 49838) number. Two sets of ATCC samples were taken in this experiment and denoted as A and B. ATCC-A sample was revived and divided into two groups (Gr) i.e. Gr.I (control) and Gr.II (revived); likewise, ATCC-B was labeled as Gr.III (lyophilized). Gr.II and III were given biofield treatment and were measured by MicroScan Walk-Away® system before and after treatment. Parameters studied in experiment were antimicrobial sensitivity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical reactions, and biotype number of both control and treatment groups using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. Experimental results showed antimicrobials such as cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin, tetracycline, and tobramycin showed altered sensitivity and MIC values in treated group as compared to control. Biochemical reactions showed positive reaction in malonate, melibiose, nitrate, galactosidase, ornithine, raffinose, sorbitol, sucrose, tobramycin and Voges-Proskauer in Gr.II. Arabinose, colistin, glucose, and rhaminose also showed positive reactions in Gr.II on day 10 while arginine and cetrimide showed negative reaction in Gr.III as compared to control. Biochemical tests results revealed a change in biotype number in Gr.II (34101173, day 5), (77103177, a very rare biotype on day 10) and Gr.III (40000043) as compared to control (02041722). Organism was identified as Enterobacter cloacae (GrII, day 10) and Vibrio fluvialis (Gr.III, day 10) with respect to control. These findings suggest that biofield treatment made significant alteration in sensitivity pattern, MIC values, and biotype number of P. fluorescens.
Category: Biochemistry

[15796] viXra:1609.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-22 23:37:48

An Effect of Biofield Treatment on Multidrug-resistant Burkholderia Cepacia: A Multihost Pathogen

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Burkholderia cepacia (B. cepacia) is an opportunistic, Gram negative pathogen which causes infection mainly in immunocompromised population and associated with high rate of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis patients. Aim of the present study was to analyze the impact of biofield treatment on multidrug resistant B. cepacia. Clinical sample of B. cepacia was divided into two groups i.e. control and biofield treated. The analysis was done after 10 days of treatment and compared with control group. Control and treated group were analyzed for susceptibility pattern, MIC value, biochemical studies and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away® system.Sensitivity assay results showed a change in pattern from resistant to intermediate in aztreonam, intermediate to resistant in ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, and levofloxacin while sensitive to resistant in meropenem and piperacillin/ tazobactam.The biofield treatment showed an alteration in MIC values of aztreonam, ceftazidime, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, levofloxacin, meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam and tetracycline. Biochemical reactions of treated group showed negative reaction in colistin, lysine, and ornithine while positive reactions to acetamide,arginine, and malonate as compared to control. Overall results showed an alteration of 38.9% in susceptibility pattern, 30% in MIC values of tested antimicrobials and 18.2% change in biochemical reaction after biofield treatment. A significant change in biotype number (02063736) was reported with green pigment as special characteristics after biofield treatment as compared to control (05041776) group with yellow pigment. In treated group, a new species was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as compared to control. Study findings suggest that biofield treatment has a significant effect on the phenotypic character and biotype number of multidrug resistant strain of B. cepacia.
Category: Biochemistry

[15795] viXra:1609.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-22 23:39:13

Evaluation of Biofield Modality on Viral Load of Hepatitis B and C Viruses

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Study background: Nowadays, hepatitis is a major challenge for clinical research, regulatory bodies, and clinicians who are trying to assess the more effectiveness of antiviral therapy against patients. Viral load count is the amount of particular viral DNA or RNA in a blood samples. It is one of the surrogate biomarker of hepatitis. High viral load indicates that the immune system is failed to fight against viruses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield modality on hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in terms of viral load as surrogate marker. Method: The viral load assay was performed on stock human plasma samples of HBV and HCV before and after 7 days of biofield treatment using Roche COBAS® AMPLICOR analyzer according to manufacturer’s instructions. Viremia (viral DNA for HBV, RNA for HCV) was considered as surrogate marker for assessment of the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Result: The viral load of HBV DNA in infected plasma samples showed a significant alteration in the biofield treated group as compared to control. Additionally, viral load count of HCV RNA in infected plasma samples was significantly reduced by 67% in the biofield treated group as compared to control. As the biofield treatment has significantly reduced HCV RNA, it could be beneficial for particularly HCV infected populations. Conclusion: Altogether, data suggest that biofield treatment has significantly alteration in HBV and reduced the viral load count in HCV infected plasma samples and could be a suitable alternative treatment strategy for hepatitis patients in near future.
Category: Biochemistry

[15794] viXra:1609.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-22 23:40:30

Impact of Biofield Treatment on Yield, Quality and Control of Nematode in Carrots

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 4 Pages.

This study tested the Null Hypothesis for the effect of biofield treatment when used for control of nematode on carrot crops, Daucus carota , under typical growing conditions in year 2012 at Guadalupe, California, USA. Following biofield treatment, carrot seeds were planted in replicate plots with mechanical seeder and their development was recorded compared to control seed growth from untreated plots and plots treated with the commercial standard nematicide, further Vydate L was applied three times at rates of 1 and 0.5 gal/A, at 1, 18 and 35 days after seeding, respectively. At 70 and 109 days after the first application root galling severity in biofield treated crops was reduced by 54% and 22% respectively as compared to untreated while the Vydate response showed 0% and 25% control, respectively. Plots planted with biofield treated seeds resulted in the greatest number and weight of marketable carrot roots. Total yield and gross return were greatest in biofield treated group producing an approximately 33% increase over the untreated controls and 15% increase over those treated with the commercial standard, Vydate L. Vitamin A (beta carotene) was significantly greater (6512 IU/100 g) in biofield treated carrots compared with both the untreated controls (4941) and the commercial standard (5143). The results concluded that, Biofield treatment caused the numerical improvement in yield along with nematode control in carrots however, caused statistically significant increase in Vitamin A content.
Category: Biochemistry

[15793] viXra:1609.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-22 14:48:45

Electron-Phonon Interactions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A ‘nonlinear’ effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC’s LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom - for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Condensed Matter

[15792] viXra:1609.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-22 10:24:35

The CNO Cycle and Proton-Proton Chain Reaction Powering Stars is Pseudoscience

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

The Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen (CNO) cycle and the Proton-Proton Chain Reaction processes supposedly powering stars are pseudoscientific.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15791] viXra:1609.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-22 05:04:48

Schrödinger's Cat Molecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Scientists have known for a long time that an atom or molecule can also be in two different states at once. Now researchers at the Stanford PULSE Institute and the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have exploited this Schrödinger's Cat behavior to create X-ray movies of atomic motion with much more detail than ever before. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15790] viXra:1609.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-22 05:44:02

Magnetic Skyrmions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

A new study by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory determined that magnetic skyrmions – small electrically uncharged circular structures with a spiraling magnetic pattern – do get deflected by an applied current, much like a curveball getting deflected by air. [15] Researchers at Aalto University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have demonstrated that polaron formation also occurs in a system of magnetic charges, and not just in a system of electric charges. Being able to control the transport properties of such charges could enable new devices based on magnetic rather than electric charges, for example computer memories. [14] The electronic energy states allowed by quantum mechanics determine whether a solid is an insulator or whether it conducts electric current as a metal. Researchers at ETH have now theoretically predicted a novel material whose energy states exhibit a hitherto unknown peculiarity. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15789] viXra:1609.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-22 06:58:49

Microworld_29. Magnetism and Matter

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 12 Pages. English and russian texts

Which structures of the material world are formed through magnetism?
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[15788] viXra:1609.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-22 01:13:11

Silicene Superconductivity Due to the Kapitza-Dirac Effect

Authors: Miroslav Pardy
Comments: 7 Pages. The original ideas

We consider the Kapitza-Dirac configuration for the generation of the standing waves. Electrons are then diffracted by standing waves and Bragg equation is valid. The situation is considered also in a plane and in the three dimensions. The electron-photon system forms the electron-photon superconductor. The Kapitza-Dirac effect is then applied to silicene.
Category: Condensed Matter

[15787] viXra:1609.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-21 22:02:01

Mechanical Behaviors of Banana Fibres with Different Mechanical Properties

Authors: Mithun K V, Kennath Joseph D'Couthoy, Ligin Cyrilz, Mohammed Mufeed abdullax, Kripa Suvarna
Comments: 12 Pages.

World is as of now concentrating on alternate material sources that are environment agreeable and biodegradable in nature. Because of the expanding natural concerns, bio composite produced out of regular fiber and polymeric resin, is one of the late advancements in the business and constitutes the present extent of experimental work. The use of composite materials field is increasing gradually in engineering. The composite consists of mainly two phases i.e. matrix and fiber. The accessibility of characteristic fiber and simplicity of assembling have enticed scientists worldwide to attempt by regional standards accessible inexpensive fiber and to learning their achievability of fortification determinations and to what degree they fulfill the obliged particulars of great strengthened polymer composite aimed at structural requisition. Fiber reinforced polymer composites has numerous preferences, for example, generally minimal effort of creation, simple to create and better quality contrast than perfect polymer tars due with this reason fiber strengthened polymer composite utilized within an assortment of provision as class of structure material. This work describe the fabrication and the mechanical behavior of banana fiber reinforced polymer composite at varying composition (25\%, 30\%, 35\%) with that of silicon carbide at 4\%, 8\%, 12\% respectively. Also the test such as the tensile test, hardness test and the bending test are carried out and the mechanical properties of the composite material are studied.
Category: General Mathematics

[15786] viXra:1609.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-21 13:19:05

Development of User-Friendly Software to Design Dairy Heat Exchanger and Performance Evaluation

Authors: Dipankar Mandal
Comments: 7 Pages. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications ISSN : 2248-9622,Vol. 5, Issue 2,2015, pp.111-117

The paper proposes a calculation algorithm and development of a software in Visual Basic(Visual Studio 2012 Express Desktop) used in heat transfer studies when different heat exchangers are involved (e.g. Helical Type Triple Tube Heat Exchanger , Plate Type Heat Exchanger).It includes the easy calculation of heat transfer coefficient and followed by the design and simulation of heat exchanger design parameter by inputting general known parameters of a heat exchanger into the developed software—DAIRY-HE. A parametric study is conducted using the software interface to determine the length of tubes or dimensions of heat exchanger.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[15785] viXra:1609.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-21 15:31:00

ذوالقرنین، مسیح و احمد

Authors: امیر دلجو
Comments: 13 Pages. This is a persian paper about Dhul-Qarnayn, Christ and Ahmad.

این نوشتار روایتی ست مختصر بر تاریخ و منشأ زبان و فرهنگ انسان از طوفان نوح تا ابراهیم و پس از آن آغاز شکل گیری خاورمیانه در چند هزاره قبل، و نیز شرایط ظهور ذوالقرنین یعنی منجی اول به عنوان مقدمه و پیش¬شرط آمدن دو منجی بعدی یعنی مسیح و احمد. همچنین در اینجا نمایی از توزیع ادیان در جهان و یکسان بودن منشأ آنها نشان داده می شود. و نیز رازهایی بسیار مهم از دوران باستان پس از چند هزاره آشکار می گردند، از جمله: مکان وقوع طوفان نوح، محل اختفای تابوت عهد، محل درگذشت و مقبره ارمیای نبی و تبار و مقبره اصلی کوروش پادشاه ایران باستان.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[15784] viXra:1609.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-21 15:38:36

چکیده ی همه چیز

Authors: امیر دلجو
Comments: 30 Pages. This a Persian translation of the same paper in English at http://vixra.org/abs/1605.0185

This a Persian translation of the same paper in English at http://vixra.org/abs/1605.0185 دو بنیادی ترین پرسش های بشر در همه دوران ها عبارت بوده اند از: ما که هستیم و آیا خدایی وجود دارد. در سراسر تاریخ هزاران تجربه به انحاء مختلف وجود داشته که تلاش کرده اند به این پرسش ها پاسخ دهند. البته در سال های اخیر دانشمندان نیز به عنوان پیشگامان جهان نوین در این پرسش ها وارد شده و در پی فرمول بندی یک نظریه ی همه چیز دست کم در حوزه¬ی فیزیک بوده اند. در این نوشتار من این مبحث را مطرح می¬کنم که خدایی یگانه وجود دارد و هستی یک ارگانیسم خودآگاه و دارای مکانیسمی کامل است. چکیده ی همه چیز را ارائه می کنم، الگویی منحصربه فرد برای فهم کل هستی با همه جنبه های آن.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[15783] viXra:1609.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-21 15:44:10

ابرانسانها

Authors: امیر دلجو
Comments: 5 Pages. This is a Persian paper about superhumans.

This is a Persian paper about superhumans. این یک پیش بینی بر اساس دو مقاله ی "چکیده ی همه چیز" منتشرشده به آدرس http://viXra.org/abs/1605.0185 و نیز "ذوالقرنین، مسیح و احمد" نوشته همین مولف است که بنا بر آن ساختار کیهان دستخوش تغییراتی خواهد شد و بر مبنای آن انتظار می رود، تکوین آن و تکامل انسان به عنوان موجودی در بطن کیهان به شیوه ای توسعه پیدا کند که در اینجا توصیف می شود.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[15782] viXra:1609.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-21 11:21:34

Does GW Generation Has Semi Classical Features?

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 15 Pages. In review process for possible acceptance by JHEPGC

Physics Department, Chongqing University, College of Physics, Chongqing University Huxi Campus, No. 44 Daxuechen Nanlu, Shapinba District, Chongqing 401331, People’s Republic of China rwill9955b@gmail.com,abeckwith@uh.edu Abstract. We argue in this document that initial vacuum state values possibly responsible for GW generation in relic conditions in the initial onset of inflation may have a temporary un squeezed, possibly even coherent initial value, which would permit in certain models classical coherent initial gravitational wave states Furthermore, several arguments pro and con as to if or not initial relic GW should be high frequency will be presented,. The existence of higher dimensions, in itself if the additional dimensions are small and compact will have no capacity to influence the frequency values of relic GW, as predicted by Giovanni, and others in 1995. Furthermore, to consider are the results of Sahoo, Mishra, and Pacif (2016) which via Bianchi universes, removes the necessity of an initial space-time singularity, which may have bearing on the issue of the degree of the initial coherent states, so postulated for gravitational waves, as is brought up in the conclusion.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15781] viXra:1609.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-21 12:24:50

Development of a Multipurpose Cold Storage Design Software MCS_BCKV V.1.14.1

Authors: Dipankar mandal
Comments: 15 Pages. International Journal of Engineering Science & Advanced Technology ISSN: 2250-3676. Volume-4, Issue-6, 519-535

The paper proposes development of an interactive, flexible and user friendly software for designing a multipurpose cold storage in Visual Studio Express Desktop2012 environment and evaluation. The developed software-MCS_BCKV has a criterion for typical load estimation and designing of cold storage, selection of evaporator, compressor and condenser in developing country. Load estimating and designing through computer automation is likely to make a positive impact in the dynamic nature of cold storage applications.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[15780] viXra:1609.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-21 07:22:05

Artificial Intelligence Discover New Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[15779] viXra:1609.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-21 04:43:32

Comment on the Isotropic Expansion of the Universe

Authors: Stephen J. Crothers
Comments: 2 Pages.

Saadeh et al recently reported in Phys. Rev. Lett. that ''anisotropic expansion of the Universe is strongly disfavoured, with odds of 121,000:1 agains'', using CMB temperature and polarisation data from the WMAP and Planck satellites. However, it is impossible to determine anything about expansion of the Universe from the WMAP and Planck datasets for a number of reasons.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15778] viXra:1609.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-21 06:26:37

Acoustic Superconducting Resonator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Yale researchers have developed a high-frequency version of a device known as an acoustic resonator that could advance the field of quantum computing and information processing. [29] Scientists at the National University of Singapore (NUS) have demonstrated a new way of controlling electrons by confining them in a device made out of atomically thin materials, and applying external electric and magnetic fields. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15777] viXra:1609.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-21 02:45:19

Venkatesha Ekamoorthy Bhaavana - 2

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 4 Pages.

This article, a continuation of the previous article under same title, elaborates further upon the form of Venkatesha, and details how one can visualize forms of divinity corresponding to Abrahamic faiths in the Lord, who is the Universal Mother Bala Ambika Herself as the salvation for the present age of the Kali Yuga.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[15776] viXra:1609.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-21 03:22:21

Quantum Internet

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15775] viXra:1609.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-20 17:52:36

The Gravelectric Generator

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 5 Pages.

The electrical current arises in a conductor when an outside force acts upon the free electrons of the conductor. This force is called, in a generic way, of electromotive force (EMF). Usually, it has electrical nature. Here, we show that it can have gravitational nature (Gravitational Electromotive Force). This fact led us to propose an unprecedented system to convert Gravitational Energy directly into Electrical Energy. This system, here called of Gravelectric Generator, can have individual outputs powers of several tens of kW or more. It is easy to be built, and can easily be transported from one place to another, on the contrary of the hydroelectric plants, which convert Gravitational Energy into Hydroelectric energy.
Category: Condensed Matter

[15774] viXra:1609.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-20 21:14:36

Lithium Abundance to Determine Future Size of Star

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new idea is presented to try and predict the future size of stars as they cool and solidify into solid worlds many billions of years into their metamorphosis, by utilizing the abundances of lithium.
Category: Astrophysics

[15773] viXra:1609.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-20 22:38:05

Is there Proton Neutrino

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 6 Pages. Include Chinese version

This work based on my previous works. I postulate that there is proton neutrino just like electron neutrino since protons are also the elementary particles just like electrons. Then I point out that there must be proton meson that consisted with proton and proton neutrino. In this paper, I analysis the proton meson’s decay model by diagrammatic scheme. I also calculate some parameters of proton meson, and give some advises on how to detect these particles.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[15772] viXra:1609.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-20 22:49:31

On Feynman’s Speculations About the Origin of the Fine-Structure Constant

Authors: Lamont Williams
Comments: 2 Pages.

When thinking about the origin of the fine-structure constant, renowned physicist Richard Feynman speculated that it might be related to pi or the base of the natural logarithm. However, he could not envision how pi or the natural logarithm’s base could be associated with the constant. This article presents an equation that helps to address Feynman's question.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[15771] viXra:1609.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-20 10:25:17

Generation and Transmutation of Metals from 2D Atomic Systems.

Authors: Royan Rosche
Comments: 4 Pages.

A new theory combining ancient and modern thought for the generation and transmutation of metals from a 2D matter wave state, a quantum version of thermonuclear fusion.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15770] viXra:1609.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-20 11:51:06

Melting Frozen Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have visualized the 'melting' of electrons inside a special class of insulators that allows electrons to move freely; the process turns the insulator into a metal and possibly later into a superconductor. The results have been published in Nature Physics. [29] Scientists at the National University of Singapore (NUS) have demonstrated a new way of controlling electrons by confining them in a device made out of atomically thin materials, and applying external electric and magnetic fields. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[15769] viXra:1609.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-20 08:04:15

Determining the Size, Mass, Gravity and Density of the Present and Primordial Universe by Means of a Modified Einstein’s Gravitational Field Equation

Authors: Tibor Endre Nagy
Comments: 11 Pages.

In the theory of general relativity, it is possible to calculate the size and age of the cosmos using a new Einsteinian gravitational field equation. The equation describing the radius of the universe contains the mass of the Earth, of which the mass under certain conditions is equivalent to the mass of the cosmos. Looking back in time at the point when the universe was the same size as the Earth as a black hole, the mass of the Earth would increase in parallel with the universe’s decreasing size, in the end resulting in the total mass of the cosmos (5.4976•1053kg). Under these conditions, the average main mass density of the present cosmos would be 5.9814•10-26kg∙m-3. Using the masses calculated on the basis of the equatorial and polar radius of the Earth, it is possible to determine the ‘inside mass of the horizon of the cosmos’ in a figure of 2.9075•1051kg, when the mass density of the universe is 3.1634•10-28kg∙m-3. Solving the newfound equation for g, given that the size of the universe equals to that of the Earth as black hole, it is also possible to determine the total gravity of the primordial universe, which is 9.0273•1029m∙s-2. Replacing these results with the original equation, it is possible to determine both the initial radius and mass of the cosmos in figures of 1.5334•10-32m and 6.4877•10-5 kg (both ≈948.8 times the Planck length and Planck mass), while the primordial density is 4.29•1090 kg∙m-3. Under the premise of the above information, the time when the universe may have been formed can be calculated (5.1151•10-41s).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15768] viXra:1609.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-20 09:37:38

“The Road to Understanding of Neutrinos – the Hidden Truth About Neutrinos and Other “quanticles““

Authors: Imrich Krištof
Comments: 21 Pages.

This actual submitted publication refers about recent facts and phenomenas, elusive or real particles called neutrinos. During last few months was revealed in giant neutrino's projects in Europe–CERN–LHC (Large Hadron Collider) ATLAS DETECTOR and in MINOS EXPERIMENT / MAIN INJECTOR NEUTRINO OSCILLATION SEARCH) Fermilab NUMI / Illinois near Chicago, U.S.A. many new realities about these elementary nuclear particles, which consists of whole cosmic matter. Were studied and observed properties of neutrinos, like emission, oscillation (Nobel Prize for Physics 2015), detection and the most interesting (qm) superposition in Project MINOS (735 km of distance between place with Detector 1 in Fermilab and place with Detector 2 in Soudan), under leading of David Kaiser from M.I.T. / Massachussett's Institute of Technology) in Cambridge, U.S.A. D. Kaiser easily said: “The particles neutrinos can existed in many quantum states at the same time.“ According this theory, particles neutrinos can rotate according direction of clocks hands and against their direction at the same time, or could be together nonexcited and excitated. About (QM) SUPERPOSITION before 100 years was reflected already Erwin Schrödinger in mind–experiment the Schrödinger's cat. In July's number of Journal Physical Review Letters, Physicist David Kaiser and his team studied distribution of all types of neutrinos produced in Chicago's Fermilab and compared it with distribution of all types on neutrinos detected in Soudan. Finally they had come to believe that, observed particles distributions are the best explanated, that neutrinos are during the flight between Chicago's Fermilab and Mine Soudan, in MINNESOTA, in state known like quantum-mechanic superposition, and not take resemblence of one's concretely type of neutrino. From upper sets realities are offered questions like “are neutrinos immortal or like hologram“. Further parts of this article is dedicated to summarizing of data from Superkamiokande and Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (Nobel Prize for Physics 2015), and emission and detection of neutrinos and other “quanticles“ defined by principles of Prof. Joseph Weber and other scientists. In the ending part of this article is dedicated a chapter to theory of Fermi's Golden Rule (respectively neutrino–antineutrino cross section).
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[15767] viXra:1609.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-20 09:37:28

Nucleon Quantum Phase Transition

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Research led by North Carolina State University sheds new light on the ways in which protons and neutrons can bind and even undergo a quantum phase transition. The work has implications for understanding the connections between nuclear interactions and nuclear structure found in nature. [15] For the first time, researchers at the University of Basel in Switzerland have coupled the nuclear spins of distant atoms using just a single electron. [14] Experiments using inelastic neutron scattering at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering have found indications of a possible new quantum spin state in a novel antiferromagnetic material barium ytterbium zinc oxide (Ba3Yb2Zn5O11) which provides both a challenge and validation of the third law of thermodynamics. [13] An international consortium led by researchers at the University of Basel has developed a method to precisely alter the quantum mechanical states of electrons within an array of quantum boxes. The method can be used to investigate the interactions between various types of atoms and electrons, which is essential for future quantum technologies, as the group reports in the journal Small. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15766] viXra:1609.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-20 05:21:48

Randomness for Computer Security

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Randomness is vital for computer security, making possible secure encryption that allows people to communicate secretly even if an adversary sees all coded messages. Surprisingly, it even allows security to be maintained if the adversary also knows the key used to the encode the messages. [15] Researchers at the University of Rochester have moved beyond the theoretical in demonstrating that an unbreakable encrypted message can be sent with a key that's far shorter than the message—the first time that has ever been done. [14] Quantum physicists have long thought it possible to send a perfectly secure message using a key that is shorter than the message itself. Now they've done it. [13] What once took months by some of the world's leading scientists can now be done in seconds by undergraduate students thanks to software developed at the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing, paving the way for fast, secure quantum communication. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15765] viXra:1609.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-20 05:59:02

Relativistic Dynamics of Gravitational Motions

Authors: Daniele Sasso
Comments: 23 Pages.

This paper has the aim to study the relativistic behaviour of motions that happen in a gravitational field with respect to two reference frames that are in relative motion in the field. Let us consider the two main gravitational motions: the free fall of a body in a gravitational field of first type and the orbital motion in a gravitational field of second type. We will study different physical situations and we will distinguish situations in which the complete physical process happens inside a laboratory (Galilean reference frames) from situations in which physical process happens in open systems (Einsteinian reference frames).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15764] viXra:1609.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-20 06:34:03

Космологическое красное смещение.The Cosmological Red Shift.

Authors: Akovantsev Petr Ivanovich
Comments: 6 Pages.

Аннотация: В статье изложен другой взгляд на наличие фраунгоферовых линий в спектрах, что в корне меняет представление о межгалактическом космологическом красном смещении. Ключевые слова: спектр, излучение, галактики, красное Abstract: the article outlines a different view of the existence of Fraunhofer's lines in the spectra that radically changes the picture of the intergalactic cosmological redshift. Key words: spectrum, radiation, galaxy, red
Category: Astrophysics

[15763] viXra:1609.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-20 01:18:03

Propagation of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[15762] viXra:1609.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-20 04:06:22

On the Quantum Mechanics

Authors: José Francisco García Juliá
Comments: 4 Pages.

There are two supposed equivalent versions of the quantum mechanics: the matrix mechanics and the wave mechanics. I think that both would be false.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15761] viXra:1609.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-19 22:44:15

Comparative Studies of Law of Gravity and General Relativity—No.1 of Comparative Physics Series Papers

Authors: Fu Yuhua
Comments: 10 Pages.

As No.1 of comparative physics series papers, this paper discusses the same points of law of gravity (including improved law of gravity) and general relativity: they are all the effective theories of gravitational interaction, and can be used to solve the problems of advance of planetary perihelion and deflection of photon around the Sun; and the different points of them: general relativity can conform to general relativity principle while law of gravity cannot conform to this principle, and law of gravity can solve the constraint problems in gravitational field (such as a small ball rolls along the inclined plane) while general relativity cannot solve these problems. These two theories can also overcome their own weak points by learning from each other's strong points, and jointly present the new explanation that the advance of planetary perihelion is the combined result of two motions: the first elliptical motion decided by law of gravity creates the perihelion, and the second vortex motion creates the advance of perihelion in which the advance parameters can be decided by general relativity. The common defect of these two theories is that they cannot take into account the principle of conservation of energy, comparing with the result that applying the principle of conservation of energy to derive Newton's second law and law of gravity, the further topic is applying the principle of conservation of energy to derive the related formulae and equations of general relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15760] viXra:1609.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-20 00:07:49

Impact of Biofield Treatment on Growth and Anatomical Characteristics of Pogostemoncablin (Benth.)

Authors: Gopal Nayak, Trivedi Science
Comments: 9 Pages.

Pogostemoncablin is a known aromatic plant which is cultivated for its essential oil widely applicated in perfumery and cosmetic industries. In the present study, the effect of biofield treatment was studied on the growth of P. cablin. For this study an in-vitro culture system was set up in two groups, viz., control and treatment, each of which was derived from three different explant sources, namely leaf, node and petiole. Further these in-vitro plantlets were hardened and transferred to external environment. The stomatal cells and epidermal hair growth were also studied at various morphogenetic stages. The study revealed that a single spell of biofield energy treatment produced significant increase in growth in treated group throughout all the morphogenetic phases from in-vitro to in vivo level. A remarkable increase in stomatal cells and epidermal hair was also seen in treated group.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[15759] viXra:1609.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-20 00:09:49

Impact of an External Energy on Yersinia Enterocolitica [atcc "23715] in Relation to Antibiotic Susceptibility and Biochemical Reactions: an Experimental Study

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 6 Pages.

Background : While spiritual and mental energies are known to man, their impact has never been scientifically measurable in the material world and they remain outside the domain of science. The present experiments on Yersinia enterocolitica [ATCC -23715], report the effects of such energy transmitted through a person, Mr. Mahendrakumar Trivedi, which has produced an impact measurable in scientifically rigorous manner. Methods: Yersinia enterocolitica strains in revived and lyophilized state were subjected to spiritual energy transmitted through thought intervention and/or physical touch of Mr. Trivedi to the sealed tubes containing strain and were analyzed within 10 days after incubation. Results: The results indicated that Mr.Trivedi's energy has changed 20 of 33 biochemical characteristics of Yersinia enterocolitica along with significant changes in susceptibility pattern in 15 of 32 antibiotics. The Biotype number has changed from the original control strain giving rise to 2 different biotypes in treated samples while the external energy /treatment given was the same for all treated samples suggestive of random polymorphism as analyzed through an automated machine. Conclusions: These results cannot be explained by current theories of science, and indicate a potency in Mr.Trivedi's energy, providing a model for science to be able to investigate the impact of spiritual energy in a rigorous manner. In lyophilized state, biochemical and enzymatic characteristics could be altered.
Category: Biochemistry

[15758] viXra:1609.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-20 00:26:28

Impact of an External Energy on Enterococcus Faecalis [atcc – 51299] in Relation to Antibiotic Susceptibility and Biochemical Reactions – an Experimental Study

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 14 Pages.

Background: While spiritual and mental energies are known to man, their impact has never been scientifically measurable in the material world and they remain outside the domain of science. The present experiments on Enterococcus faecalis [ATCC –51299], report the effects of such energy transmitted through a person, Mahendra Trivedi, which has produced an impact measurable in scientifically rigorous manner. Methods: Enterococcus faecalis strains in revived and lyophilized state were subjected to spiritual energy transmitted through thought intervention and/or physical touch of Mr. Trivedi to the sealed tubes containing strain, the process taking about 3 minutes and were analyzed within 10 days after incubation. All tests were performed with the help of automation on the Microscan Walkaway System in Microbiology Laboratory – accredited by The College of American Pathologists. Results: The results indicated that Mr.Trivedi’s energy has changed 9 of 27 biochemical characteristics of Enterococcus faecalis along with significant changes in susceptibility pattern in 5 of 31 antibiotics. The Biotype number has changed from the original control strain giving rise to 2 different biotypes in treated samples while the external energy /treatment given was the same for all treated samples suggestive of random polymorphism as analyzed through the automated machine. Conclusions: These results cannot be explained by current theories of science, and indicate a potency in Mr.Trivedi’s energy, providing a model for science to be able to investigate the impact of spiritual energy in a rigorous manner. In lyophilized state, biochemical and enzymatic characteristics could be altered.
Category: Biochemistry

[15757] viXra:1609.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-19 14:39:03

Temptive Math Model

Authors: Prado, PF et al
Comments: 1 Page.

Temprtive Math exploration
Category: Mathematical Physics

[15756] viXra:1609.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-19 15:20:52

On the Possibility of Constructing a Spatial Diagram of Feynman

Authors: Aleksandr Tsybin
Comments: 2 Pages.

Richard Feynman in his famous lectures on physics and popular 4 lectures on quantum electrodynamics (QED), use arrows of different lengths rotating in the plane.I have already mentioned that all these processes are described on the plane, butactually they come in 3-dimensional space.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15755] viXra:1609.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-19 15:42:49

The Majority of the Beginnings of Life Evolution have no Evidence on Earth

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis, stars are the locations for the beginning of life. In this paper it is reasoned that no real evidence for the earliest of life evolution can be found on Earth, as the processes begin in early star evolution, when the Earth was vastly more alien.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15754] viXra:1609.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-19 15:44:40

Changing Worldview due to New Stellar Evolution Theory

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis the worldview of the objects in the galaxy, the Earth, and life and humans is very different than what is accepted by modern scientists.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15753] viXra:1609.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-19 12:50:05

Quantum Entanglement Measurement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15752] viXra:1609.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-19 01:08:12

Effect of Biofield Treatment on the Physical and Thermal Characteristics of Vanadium Pentoxide Powders

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In the present investigation V2O5 powders are exposed to biofield. Both the exposed and unexposed powders are later characterized by various techniques. The average particle size is found to decrease with increase in number of days after treatment upto a maximum of 15.9% in 110 days indicating severe fracture at agglomerate/crystallite boundaries. The BET surface area showed a surprising decrease (it should increase as particle size is decreased) of 7.22% in 109 days indicating the surface densification/removal of sharp surface corners/formation of large particles. SEM photographs indeed showed that samples exposed to biofield after 20 days showed increase in size as well as rounded corners. Thermal analysis indicated an increase in melting temperature by 9.9% in samples treated after 57 days along with a much reduced change in weight.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[15751] viXra:1609.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-19 01:10:09

Atomic, Crystalline and Powder Characteristics of Treated Zirconia and Silica Powders

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 6 Pages.

In the present investigation Zirconium oxide and silicon dioxide powders are exposed to Bio-field. Both the exposed and unexposed powders are later characterized by various techniques. The treated powders when characterized by X-ray diffraction are found to exhibit significant increase and decrease in the lattice parameters of the unit cell, crystallite size and density. The lattice parameters are then used to compute the molecular weight and total number of protons and neutrons in the molecule, which showed an increase up to 0.24 and decrease up to 0.31 percent. It is speculated that the Biofield energy transmitted by Mr. Trivedi is acting on the nucleus in the atoms through some reversible weak interaction of larger cross section causing changes in the proton to neutron ratios and thus energy to mass and mass to energy. Thus the effect is felt by all the atoms, and hence the unit cell, single crystal grain and grain boundaries. The stresses generated in turn may have caused deformation and fracture of the weak interfaces in the polycrystalline powders such as the crystallite and grain boundaries.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[15750] viXra:1609.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-19 01:12:07

Effect of a Biofield Treatment on Plant Growth and Adaptation (Benth.)

Authors: Gopal Nayak, Trivedi Science
Comments: 9 Pages.

Quantum mechanics was developed when human energies of consciousness were found to influence observations at the scale of elementary particles, here referred as non-contact biofield treatment or biofield energies . Quantum mechanics has also proved efficacious in biological processes. The present experiments found an enhanced and significant impact of the biofield treatment on adaptive micropropagation response and callus induction of two plant species, Withania somnifera and Amaranthus dubius. The enhancement was perhaps due to greater focus on adaptation rather than specific mechanisms, showing high potential including at biochemical and genetic levels. Possible reasons for the enhancement are discussed and a possible model is presented, consistent with current scientific theory.
Category: Biochemistry

[15749] viXra:1609.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-19 01:16:55

Impact of an External Energy on Staphylococcus Epidermis [atcc –13518] in Relation to Antibiotic Susceptibility and Biochemical Reactions – an Experimental Study

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 10 Pages.

While spiritual and mental energies are known to man, their impact has never been scientifically measurable in the material world and they remain outside the domain of science. The present experiment on Staphylococcus epidermis [ATCC –13518], validate the effects of such energy transmitted through a person, Mahendra Trivedi, which has produced an impact measurable in scientifically rigorous manner.
Category: Biochemistry

[15748] viXra:1609.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-19 03:08:25

Violation of no-Signaling Via Local Quantum Measurement Discrimination

Authors: Youbang Zhzn
Comments: 14 Pages.

The discrimination of quantum measurements is an important subject of quantum information processes. In this paper we present a novel protocol for local quantum measurement discrimination (LQMD) with multi-qubit entanglement systems. It is shown that, for two space-like separated parties, the local discrimination of two different kinds of measurement can be completed via numerous eight-qubit GHZ entangled states and selective projective measurements without help of classical information. This means that no-signaling constraint can be violated by the LQMD.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15747] viXra:1609.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-19 04:08:46

Equation for Orbital Distances of Rocky Planets is Found

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 5 Pages. In Russian

Three forces, which according to author determine orbital distances of rocky planets are sufficiently deciphered here.
Category: Classical Physics

[15746] viXra:1609.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-18 16:30:10

The Flaw in Einstein’s Box and Its Essentially Non-Destructive Impact on the General Relativity Theory

Authors: Pavel Voráček
Comments: 4 Pages.

A trivially easy argument, which – in fact – follows from the General relativity theory, is used in order to point out an evident flaw in the commonly accepted interpretation of the Principle of equivalence in Einstein’s box. It is shown that the flaw by itself has no destructive impact on the Theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15745] viXra:1609.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-18 20:30:28

Langrangian Vertex Operator for Electrostatic Background Field in Ω

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

It's expected that electrostatic background signatures surmounts at the supersymmetric [SUSY] energy scale. These electrostatic background signatures is intrinsic to metamorphic space. In order to derive a Lagrangian vertex operator one must treat SUSY as a metamorphic phenomenon.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[15744] viXra:1609.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-18 22:01:54

The Observer Effect

Authors: Robert T. Longo
Comments: 26 Pages.

This paper discusses how an observer, when properly defined, can lead to a different interpretation of the universe by providing a way to connect General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. First, this was used to investigate the mass of the Milky Way Galaxy, and the result suggests that dark matter does not exist. Then, Hubble's Law was examined, and we were led to the same conclusion, i.e., dark energy does not exist. Finally, the linkage of quantum mechanics and relativity provides another explanation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and casts doubt on the Big Bang theory. All of these observations and conclusions were made possible by examining the philosophical foundation provided by a better understanding of how intelligent life forms make sense of the physical world. First, we discuss the intelligent life forms that are responsible for all observations and theories related to the universe. With this new understanding of ourselves, from a physics perspective, a philosophy emerges that alters our understanding of space and time. A theory is developed on this philosophical foundation that provides a way to connect the background dependence of quantum mechanics and the background independence of general relativity.
Category: Astrophysics

[15743] viXra:1609.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-18 22:43:52

Comment on the Black Hole in Markarian 1018

Authors: Stephen J. Crothers
Comments: 1 Page. This Comment was submitted to the editors of 'Astronomy and Astrophysics' on 18 September 2016, for publication in accordance with its Comment criteria.

It has recently been reported in the journal 'Astronomy and Astrophysics' that the active galactic nucleus of Markarian 1018 has likely changed optical type due to the effects of a supermassive black hole or a binary system consisting of two such black holes. It is however impossible for any type or form of black hole to be involved with Mrk 1018 because the mathematical theory of black holes violates the rules of pure mathematics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15742] viXra:1609.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-19 01:04:55

Effect of Bio Field Treatment on the Physical and Thermal Characteristics of Silicon, Tin and Lead Powders

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 7 Pages.

In the present investigation silicon, tin and lead powders are exposed to bio field. Both the exposed and unexposed powders are later characterized by various techniques. The average particle size, after an initial decrease is found to increase with increase in number of days after treatment although the size is lee than that exhibited by untreated powder, suggesting the operation of competing mechanisms fracture and sintering. The BET surface area increased slightly in silicon powder but did not change in tin and lead powders. SEM photographs showed that samples exposed to bio field after 20 days showed fracture paths and fractures at inter and intra particle boundaries in treated powders. Thermal analysis indicated a decrease in heat of reaction and decrease in mass in treated samples.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[15741] viXra:1609.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-18 10:23:45

Seeing With the Two Systems of Thought—a Review of ‘Seeing Things As They Are: a Theory of Perception’ by John Searle (2015)

Authors: Michael R Starks
Comments: 34 Pages.

As so often in philosophy, the title not only lays down the battle line but exposes the author’s biases and mistakes, since whether or not we can make sense of the language game ‘Seeing things as they are’ and whether it’s possible to have a ‘philosophical’ ‘theory of perception’ (which can only be about how the language of perception works), as opposed to a scientific one, which is a theory about how the brain works, are exactly the issues. This is classic Searle—superb and probably at least as good as anyone else can produce, but lacking a full understanding of the fundamental insights of the later Wittgenstein and with no grasp of the two systems of thought framework, which could have made it brilliant. As in his previous work, Searle largely avoids scientism but there are frequent lapses and he does not grasp that the issues are always about language games, a failing he shares with nearly everyone. After providing a framework consisting of a Table of Intentionality based on the two systems of thought and thinking and decision research, I give a detailed analysis of the book.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15740] viXra:1609.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-18 07:08:06

Mod Graphs

Authors: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, K. Ilanthenral, Florentin Smarandach
Comments: 350 Pages.

In this book authors for the first time introduce study and develop the notion of MOD graphs, MOD directed graphs, MOD finite complex number graphs, MOD neutrosophic graphs, MOD dual number graphs and so on using edge weights from Z_n, C(Z_n), and so on. Likewise MOD directed natural neutrosophic graphs are defined. Further type I, type II and type III. MOD directed graphs and MOD natural neutrosophic graphs are defined and developed. This book has over 185 examples and over 250 figures. This book gives the probable applications of these concepts to MOD mathematical models like MOD Cognitive Maps model and MOD Relational Maps model which have been introduced by the authors. There are open conjectures which can help the researchers in graph theory. Several innovative results are obtained.
Category: General Mathematics

[15739] viXra:1609.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-18 09:09:58

Quantum and Classical Mechanics of Hamiltonian Systems Having Exponential-Type Potentials

Authors: J. Akande, L. H. Koudahoun, D. K. K. Adjaï, Y. J. F. Kpomahou, M. D. Monsia
Comments: 2 pages

The problem to solve consists of finding explicit solutions for the classical equation of motion of a particle subject to an exponential-type potential and for the quantum version.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[15738] viXra:1609.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-17 19:10:20

Supernovae Are Young Stars that Have Popped

Authors: Baz J. Taylor
Comments: 1 Page. Images taken from http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2016/g11/

This paper proposes that Supernovae are the remnants of young stars that have expanded and ‘popped’.
Category: Astrophysics

[15737] viXra:1609.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-17 19:55:16

„Să Schimbăm Lumea Numai cu Puterea Gândului…”

Authors: Andrușa R. Vătuiu
Comments: 4 Pages.

Florentin Smarandache a revenit cu un nou fotovideojurnal instantaneu ˮViitorul a început în trecutˮ, continuând cu o serie de flashuri narative, după cum ne-a obișnuit deja, surprinzând în mod magistral esența experiențelor trăite pe alte meleaguri.
Category: Education and Didactics

[15736] viXra:1609.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-17 20:02:50

"Am Ajuns in Rai!"

Authors: Andrușa R. Vătuiu
Comments: 2 Pages.

În vara anului 2015, profesorul universitar dr. Florentin Smarandache ne-a surprins cu o noua carte „Am ajuns în Rai!”- un foto-reportaj instantaneu din Polinezia Franceza.
Category: Education and Didactics

[15735] viXra:1609.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-18 00:13:23

Fermat's Last Theorem Proved on a Single Page Revisited

Authors: A. A. Frempong
Comments: 6 Pages. Copyright © by A. A. Frempong

Honorable Pierre de Fermat could have squeezed the proof of his last theorem into a page margin. Fermat's last theorem has been proved on a single page. Three similar versions of the proof are presented, using a single page for each version. The approach used in each proof is exemplified by the following system: If a system functions properly and one wants to determine if the same system will function properly with changes in the system, one will first determine the necessary conditions which allow the system to function properly, and then guided by the necessary conditions, one will determine if the changes will allow the system to function properly. So also, if one wants to prove that there are no solutions for the equation c^n = a^n + b^n when n > 2, one should first determine why there are solutions when n = 2, and note the necessary conditions in the solution for n = 2. The necessary conditions in the solutions for n = 2. will guide one to determine if there are solutions when n > 2.. For the first two versions, the proof is based on the Pythagorean identity (sin x)^2 + (cos x)^2 = 1; and for the third version, on (a^2 + b^2)/c^2 = 1, with n = 2, where a, b, and c are relatively prime positive integers. It is shown by contradiction that the uniqueness of the n = 2 identity excludes all other n-values, n > 2, from satisfying the equation c^n = a^n + b^n. One will first show that if n = 2 , c^n = a^n + b^n holds, noting the necessary conditions in the solution; followed by showing that if n > 2 (n an integer), c^n = a^n + b^n does not hold. For the first version of the proof, the proof began with reference to a right triangle. The second version of the proof began with ratio terms without any reference to a geometric figure. The third version occupies about half of a page. The third version of the proof began without any reference to a geometric figure or ratio terms. The second and third versions confirmed the proof in the first version. Each proof version is very simple, and even high school students can learn it. The approach used in the proof has applications in science, engineering, medicine, research, business, and any properly working system when desired changes are to be made in the system. Perhaps, the proof in this paper is the proof that Fermat wished there were enough margin for it in his paper. With respect to prizes, if the prize for a 150-page proof were $715,000, then the prize for a single page proof (considering the advantages) using inverse proportion, would be $107,250,000.
Category: Number Theory

[15734] viXra:1609.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-17 15:49:01

Structure Theorem for Abelian Groups (General Case, Finite or Not)

Authors: Eli Halylaurin
Comments: 4 Pages. This document is french written.

This document is an attempt to demonstrate a general structure theorem for abelian groups (finite or not). Such a theorem already exists in the finite case, but the infinite case does not seem to have been deeply studied. This is what it is proposed to do in this document. To achieve this task, Zorn Lemma will be used. We will try to prove each abelian group can be written, modulo isomorphism, as a direct product of groups that we will called elementary, because they can be represented upon a circle or a line. This work may be very valuable for every mathematicians who like to better understand the structure of groups.
Category: Algebra

[15733] viXra:1609.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-17 12:07:14

The Derivation of the Hertz-Kilogram Relationship Constant, via the Democritean Indivisible Particle / Unit, Y' and the Relative Ratios of the 13/12 Schematic

Authors: Vito R. D'Angelo
Comments: 7 Pages.

The Hertz-kilogram relationship constant, although obscure, is nonetheless a bona fide constant listed in the National Institute of Standards and Technology's (CODATA values) fundamental constants list[pg.6]. The Hertz-kilogram relationship constant is being used due to its value of (7.372497201 x10^-51 (91)) being very close to the Democritean indivisible unit, Y' (8.134865168 10^-54) It is shown that the 13/12 schematic of U-theory [2] theoretically calculates the fundamental constants within the uncertainty limits of (NIST) CODATA values [1]; utilizing twelve dimensionless constants.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[15732] viXra:1609.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-17 08:51:16

Generalized Modified Emden Equation Mapped into the Linear Harmonic Oscillator Equation

Authors: J. Akande, D. K. K. Adjaï, L. H. Koudahoun, Y. J. F. Kpomahou, M. D. Monsia
Comments: 5 pages

The generalized modified Emden equation also known as the generalized second order Riccati equation, is exactly solved in terms of the periodic solution of the linear harmonic oscillator. The solutions for specific values of parameters are discussed. The conditions for isochronous oscillations are also investigated.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[15731] viXra:1609.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-17 09:37:47

A Definition for 1 Second

Authors: Junnichi Fujii
Comments: 2 Pages.

The definition in time in the present-day physics is insufficient. Several problems which are to reconsider a definition in time and concern in time can be settled.
Category: Number Theory

[15730] viXra:1609.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-17 04:52:25

Biofield and Fungicide Seed Treatment Influences on Soybean Productivity, Seed Quality and Weed Community

Authors: Trivedi Science
Comments: 6 Pages.

Soybean production in Iowa USA is among the most productive for raínfed regions in the world. Despite generally having excellent soils, growing season temperatures and rainfall, soybean yields are decreased by weed interference and inadequate available soil water at key stages of crop development. A field study was conducted at two locations in lowa in 2012 to determine if seed-applied fungicide or biofield treatments influenced weed community, soil volumetric water concentration and soybean yield and quality. Application of biofield treatment resulted in lower density of tall waterhemp density, greater soybean stand density at R8 stage and greater seed pod-1 compared to the absence of seed fungicide and biofield­ Soil volumetric water content varied by seed fungicide x biofield x date interaction but differences were not consistent among treatment combinations. Overall, seed fungicide and biofield treatments had similar effects on soybean productivity, however additional research is necessary to determine if biofield treatment is a suitable replacement for seed fungicide application.
Category: Biochemistry

[15729] viXra:1609.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-17 04:56:55

Impact of Biofield Treatment on Ginseng and Organic Blueberry Yield

Authors: Frank Sances, Eric Flora, Shrikant Patil, Amy Spence, Vishal Shinde, Mahendra Trivedi
Comments: 8 Pages.

This study tested the Null Hypothesis for the effect of BioField Energy applied to two separate crops under typical growing conditions, namely ginseng and organic blueberry in commercial plantings in Wisconsin and California, respectively. Following treatment to replicated plots in standard experimental design, data were collected at harvest for yield quantity and quality. Ginseng plants treated both pre-harvest and a combination of pre- and post-harvest showed market grade increases of 33.3% and 40.0%, respectively. Point of sale gross return for this crop is dependent upon tuber quality, and from these data the economics of these treatments were calculated. Based on stand adjusted yields and quality values, a combination of pre- and post-harvest treatment increased gross income by 57.4%. The second crop showed similar trends in positive responses. In the two blueberry varieties studied, Emerald treated plants showed 96% statistical increase in yield, while Jewel showed 31% increase. At the time of treatment, each variety was in a different stage of flowering. The Emerald variety was in the flowering stage, and Jewel was predominately in the fruiting stage. Both treated cultivars however demonstrated increased yield quantity and quality. The specific mechanisms that lead to these preliminary results need further investigation.
Category: Biochemistry

[15728] viXra:1609.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-17 04:59:00

Redshift Anomalies Are Key to Understanding Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Black Holes and the Unobservable Universe.

Authors: H.S. Dhaliwal
Comments: Pages.

A galaxy's redshift is not related to the Hubble velocity alone. Numerous redshift anomalies have been detected which suggest this. This papers goal is to explain the nature of these redshifts. Redshift anomalies in Quasars with a high-z, binary galaxies with a mass gaining companion with a discordant high-z, and the furthest galaxies with high-z values all have a similar trait, their mass is increasing at a high rate at time of observation. This paper proposes that when an objects gravity well is in the process of strengthening (by gaining mass), the light observed during its gravity well strengthening phase is redshifted accordingly. I provide numerous observations of objects that are closer than their high z values places them under current interpretation that support the hypothesis. The greater the look back time, the younger the galaxy, the younger the galaxy when observed, the faster its gravity well is strengthening. The faster a gravity well is figuratively deepening, the further photons will be stretched that traverse and depart the morphing gravity well. The implications of this phenomenon have one of three outcomes for the nature of the observable universe. A. the universe is not expanding as fast as estimated. B. the universe is static (redshifts will still appear higher the farther we look). C. the universe is contracting (the redshifts still appear higher the farther we look). The redshift anomaly can help us understand dark matter also. Z total = the affects of (change in GW well of the observable universe) + (change in GW of Milky Way) + (change in GW of observed galaxy) + (Velocity of observed galaxy). The paper contains numerous tests that may prove the hypothesis presented. To not even glance at these redshift anomalies because they don't agree with today's model of measuring expansion is just preventing advancement in the field, halting future discoveries. Correction: (Obs. 2) Here, object 2 (z=0.243) and Object 3 (z=0.391) is gaining mass from their surroundings. Object 3 (z=0.391) has a higher z than object 2 (z=0.243) because object 3 (z=0.391) is gaining a higher rate of mass relative to its own size than object 2 (still both are gaining mass from the bridge). Object 1 (z=0.057) has a higher z value than NGC 7603 (z=0.029), which may mean object 1 (z=0.057) is gaining mass from NGC 7603 (z=0.029) through the arm connecting them.
Category: Astrophysics

[15727] viXra:1609.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-17 05:05:15

Effect of Biofield Treatment on the Physical and Thermal Characteristics of Aluminium Powders

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Aluminium powders are used in a wide range from propelling rockets to improving personal hygiene. More popular industrial applications include manufacture of silver metallic pigments, paints, inks, plastics, packaging, textiles and aerospace industry. As thick film pastes used in the manufacture of silicon solar cells, and as reducing agent and sources of heat, used in alumina thermic and exothermic applications. In the present investigation, Aluminium powders were exposed to non-contact Biofield treatment. Both the exposed and unexposed powders were later characterized by various techniques. The average particle size, after a slight initial decrease was found to increase after 80 days of treatment substantially, which suggested the operation of competing mechanisms fracture and sintering (micro welding). The BET surface area monotonically decreased which was consistent with increase in particle size. SEM photographs showed that samples exposed to Biofield after 38 days showed growth in particle size and particles joined at inter and intra particle boundaries. X-ray diffraction of the powder samples indicated both increase and decrease in crystallite size, unit cell volume, change in nuclear charge per unit volume of atom and atomic weight of samples exposed to Biofield even after 106 days. These results indicated that properties of Aluminium powders could be changed even up to atomic level by exposure to Biofield.
Category: Biochemistry

[15726] viXra:1609.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-17 05:12:00

Effect of Superconsciousness External Energy on Atomic, Crystalline and Powder Characteristics of Carbon Allotrope Powders

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 9 Pages. 9

Scientists are searching for eluding link between spirituality and science. Some believe fundamental essences of universe to be energy and information. As per current understanding, energy and matter always coexisted and is considered one and the same. Energy is considered as 'matter in perpetual motion' and matter as 'stationary energy'. Interconversion between matter and energy has been defined by Einstein's famous energy–mass equation (E=mc2) which has been proven by nuclear physicists using complex nuclear reactions involving high energy particles. However, many spiritual masters have claimed to realise this energy–matter interconversion using their spiritual powers/energy but scientifically unknown and unverified. It is the first time that the lead author (M. K. Trivedi) has been using his unique superconsciousness energy in the form of thought intervention and information signals to bring about dramatic and radical transformations in the physical and structural properties of organic and inorganic materials. The present paper is the first scientific report that deals with the effect of consciousness energy which M. K. Trivedi uniquely communicates through thought intervention by sending an information signal that transforms carbon allotropes. The changes the energy has caused at the atomic, molecular and crystalline levels in diamond, graphite and activated charcoal have been studied very systematically and are reported in this paper. It has been observed that the superconsciousness energy when transmitted to carbon allotropes has changed the lattice parameters of unit cells, crystallite sizes and densities. Computed weight and effective nuclear charge of the treated atoms exhibited significant variation. It is believed that the energy is acting on the nuclei causing their transmutation.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[15725] viXra:1609.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-17 06:02:30

Evolution of Modern Communication Systems

Authors: Krishn Kumar Gupt, Vinay Kumar Singh
Comments: 6 Pages.

Modern communications technology revolutionized the way, mobility and efficiency of electronic communications. Starting from with Alexander Graham Bells’ telephone experiments to widely practiced W-CDMA network and the nearly achieved 4G mode of communications, all had and will have great contributions in today’s voice/data network arena. Wireless technology has achieved evolutionary success aiming at unified target: efficiency, performance and feasibility in high mobile environment. The mobile experience is expanding everywhere fulfilling the basic electronic communication needs. The first generation (1G) was analog. 1G established seamless mobile connectivity used for basic mobile voice until being replaced by the second generation (2G) digital telecommunications technologies which increased voice capacity delivering mobile to the masses with network infrastructure supporting text messaging. The success of digital voice and simple data prompted to the development of cellular wireless communication system with improved data connectivity and more accessible features leads to followed by the third generation (3G). Third generation system having mobile optimization for data enabling mobile broadband services with better and higher speed of data transfer and connectivity. The fourth generation (4G) having more capacity for faster and better wireless mobile broadband experiences with accessing capability to wide range of communication services, including advanced mobile services, and enhancement in the quality of services with increase in the bandwidth. In this paper we address the evolution of wireless modern mobile communication systems, from first generation (1G) to the widely practiced third generation (3G), recently introduced fourth generation (4G) and some glimpse of foreseeable future of fifth generation (5G).
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[15724] viXra:1609.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-17 06:33:22

Material Interfaces on Atomic Scale

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Interfaces between different materials and their properties are of key importance for modern technology. Together with an international team, physicists of Würzburg University have developed a new method that allows them to closely analyze these interfaces and to model their properties. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[15723] viXra:1609.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-16 13:04:20

Quantum Statistical Theory of Quantum Cognition

Authors: Elio Conte
Comments: 13 Pages.

In quantum mechanics a wave function is connected to a quantum system. This abstract entity represents a description of the quantum state of this system. The wave function is a complex-valued probability amplitude and the probabilities for the possible results of measurements made on the system can be derived from it . In the present paper it is demonstrated that the tentative often adopted from scholars to attribute a wave function as representation of a mental state in current quantum cognition studies cannot be accepted. A mental state is a so complex structure , depending contextually at each instant from a so complex structure of inner and subjective elements and psychological and neurological components, to exclude its representation by a simple and elementary wave function, The mental state may be represented by a quantum wave function that, owing of the complex structure of the mental state, has an intrinsic indetermination and fluctuation of the basic probability amplitudes to respond to the basic notion of intrinsecally , incompletely specified system that was introduced by P. T. Landsberg in 1961. As consequence a simple quantum wave function cannot be adopted and instead an averaging statistical formulation is absolutely required. Therefore, the subsequent quantum statistical theory is formulated.
Category: Mind Science

[15722] viXra:1609.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-16 13:12:21

Degree of Light Coherence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A new technique detects spatial coherence in light at smaller scales than had been possible. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15721] viXra:1609.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-16 13:54:39

Math Continuity in Nature and Conjectured Math Models Exploring the Resonance Play in Fundamental Physics. Addition to Nextex Set of Conjectures: Version 1.0.

Authors: Prado, PF et al
Comments: 4 Pages.

Offers a math framework to the Perspective: Is there a structural resonant ruler in Nature? An exploratory framework to neuroscience and fundamental physics studies. Addition to Nextex set of conjectures: Version 1.0. Concluding that the resonant phenomenon probably is just the best signaling mark to the Principal phenomenon underlayered in Nature:the physical (realistic) implementation of the Fundamental theorem of Calculus or the called Theorem of Stokes.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[15720] viXra:1609.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-16 19:33:43

Evolution of the Universe v2

Authors: Nikola Perkovic
Comments: 11 Pages. This is an updated version of the paper.

This paper will provide some well based scientific arguments that time is neither a product of space nor an illusion; instead time is in a state of constant motion. That motion inflated space from the very beginning, the Big Bang, and it still does so now. We will name it “temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion inflates space and creates the relationship between space and time known as the space-time continuum; time is dominant in this relationship since its motion started the initial inflation of space, giving birth to the Universe, and continues to inflate space. Evolution will be explained as one of the basic laws of physics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15719] viXra:1609.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-16 20:14:01

1Determining the Ages of Stars Mathematically Using Luminosity

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis, stars exhibit exponential decay. A simple mathematical relationship based off luminosity as compared to the Sun is given so that stars can have their ages determined. This paper is up for continued revision, as it only serves as a starting point to develop stellar metamorphosis in a mathematical sense.
Category: Astrophysics

[15718] viXra:1609.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-16 10:16:10

On the Local Discrimination of Quantum Measurements

Authors: Youbang Zhan
Comments: 14 Pages.

The discrimination of quantum measurements is an important subject of quantum information processes. In this paper we present a novel protocol for local quantum measurement discrimination (LQMD) with multi-qubit entanglement systems. It is shown that, if both two observers (Alice and Bob) agreed in advance that one of them (e.g. Alice) should measure her qubits before an appointed time t, the local discrimination of two different kinds of measurement can be completed via numerous eight-qubit GHZ entangled states and selective projective measurements without help of classical information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15717] viXra:1609.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-16 10:36:16

Geodesic Integration in the Schwarzschild Gravitational Field

Authors: C. A. Laforet
Comments: 8 Pages.

It is demonstrated in the present work that the standard integration of the proper time along a freefalling geodesic in Schwarzschild spacetime does not properly account for the coordinate curvature in the vicinity of the event horizon. It is shown that that the condition given by the metric, namely that the change in proper time of the freefalling observer per change of coordinate time goes to zero at the horizon can be maintained while still allowing for an infinite proper time to the horizon. With the aid of a transformation of the radial Schwarzschild coordinate and analysis of light signals, we find that observers at rest will see the freefalling observer slow exponentially as she approaches the horizon, while the freefaller will see rest observers slow asymptotically as she approaches the horizon.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15716] viXra:1609.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-16 07:42:26

Determining the Ages of Stars Mathematically Using Luminosity

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis, stars exhibit exponential decay. A simple mathematical relationship based off luminosity as compared to the Sun is given so that stars can have their ages determined. This paper is up for continued revision, as it only serves as a starting point to develop stellar metamorphosis in a mathematical sense.
Category: Astrophysics

[15715] viXra:1609.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-16 09:20:23

Researchers See Individual Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[15714] viXra:1609.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-16 05:22:30

Biofield Treatment: An Effective Strategy for Modulating the Physical and Thermal Properties of O-Nitrophenol, M-Nitrophenol and P-Tertiary Butyl Phenol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Phenolic compounds are commonly used for diverse applications such as in pharmaceuticals, chemicals, rubber, dyes and pigments. The objective of present research was to study the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment on physical and thermal properties of phenol derivatives such as o-nitrophenol (ONP), m-nitrophenol (MNP) and p-tertiary butyl phenol (TBP). The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control and treated compounds were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and surface area analysis. XRD analysis showed increase in crystallite size by 16.05% in treated ONP as compared to control. However, the treated MNP showed decrease in crystallite size by 16.17% as compared to control. The treated TBP showed increase in crystallite size by 5.20% as compared to control. DSC of treated MNP exhibited increase in melting temperature with respect to control, which may be correlated to higher thermal stability of treated sample. However, the treated TBP exhibited no significant change in melting temperature with respect to control. TGA analysis of treated ONP and TBP showed an increase in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) as compared to control. However, the treated MNP showed slight decrease in Tmax in comparison with control sample. Surface area analysis of treated ONP showed decrease in surface area by 65.5%. However, surface area was increased by 40.7% in treated MNP as compared to control. These results suggest that biofield treatment has significant effect on physical and thermal properties of ONP, MNP and TBP.
Category: Biochemistry

[15713] viXra:1609.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-15 16:32:52

Qualitative Properties of Nonlinear Oscillations in Hamiltonian Systems Having Exponential-Type Restoring Force

Authors: D. K. K. Adjaï, Y. J. F. Kpomahou, J. Akande, L. H. Koudahoun, M. D. Monsia
Comments: 4 pages

In this paper the qualitative properties of a family of an anharmonic oscillator equations of motion were carried out with phase portraits.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[15712] viXra:1609.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-15 19:25:33

Revision on Fuzzy Artificial Potential Field for Humanoid Robot Path Planning in Unknown Environment

Authors: Mahdi Fakoor, Amirreza Kosari, Mohsen Jafarzadeh
Comments: 10 Pages.

Path planning in a completely known environment has been experienced various ways. However, in real world, most humanoid robots work in unknown environments. Robots' path planning by artificial potential field and fuzzy artificial potential field methods are very popular in the field of robotics navigation. However, by default humanoid robots lack range sensors; thus, traditional artificial potential field approaches needs to adopt themselves to these limitations. This paper investigates two different approaches for path planning of a humanoid robot in an unknown environment using fuzzy artificial potential (FAP) method. In the first approach, the direction of the moving robot is derived from fuzzified artificial potential field whereas in the second one, the direction of the robot is extracted from some linguistic rules that are inspired from artificial potential field. These two introduced trajectory design approaches are validated though some software and hardware in the loop simulations and the experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed approaches in humanoid robot real-time trajectory planning problems.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[15711] viXra:1609.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-15 23:24:11

Experiment Data Indicates Quantum Entanglement May not Exist

Authors: Krishan Vats
Comments: 8 Pages.

Till date, all experiments prove existence of quantum entanglement by analyzing overall statistical correlations and demonstrating that Bell’s inequality is violated. No detailed data analysis has been published yet. This article presents a first of its kind experimental analysis and it indicates that there is a real chance that entanglement may not be real. This is a huge claim by any means. But it is necessary to make such claim due to two reasons – 1) Due to the tremendous amount of hype around entanglement – Experiments are conducted even today that attempt to prove entanglement. 2) It is necessary to make such dramatic claim so that the QM community makes a fair attempt to analyze detailed data to scrutinize the reality of entanglement. Due to large amount of data involved, experimentalists only look at data in an easily computable manner and do not scrutinize the raw data in full detail. When data of this experiment was analyzed at detail level, it was observed that existence of entanglement can not be settled until this kind of analysis is completed on data from multiple such experiments. The natural and prompt reaction from many may be to point out flaws with this analysis without presenting the evidence that such analysis has already been completed. Obviously, the observation is subtle, but it is odd enough to be probed. This article does not claim “classical mechanics” to be the solution, but it presents an intuitive mechanism that can explain statistical correlations without entanglement being necessary, or entanglement being defined in a different way then it currently is. The scope of this article is only statistical data. Anti correlation (when measured in the same angle) is always true, therefore it is not statistical in nature and is left out of scope. Moreover anti correlation can easily be explained as a direct consequence of conservation laws. This is a statistical analysis of the experimental data used in a recent paper [M. Giustina et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250401 (2015)]. The data for this analysis was graciously made available by the authors as a private communication. This analysis gives an indication that the outcomes may not be totally probabilistic and so, entanglement may not exists in theist currently claimed form.
Category: Quantum Physics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[7023] viXra:1609.0396 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-28 16:04:03

The Higgs Boson and the Alternative Charge Carriers: Part III

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 6 Pages. 3 of 3 parts due to length - adding new section

The four forces of physics are considered in terms of the "broken symmetry" of our "matter-only" Universe
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[7022] viXra:1609.0395 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-29 03:42:57

Understanding Today's Science with Help from Special Relativity and General Relativity

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 15 Pages. Cite: Bartlett, Rodney (2016): Understanding Today's Science with Help from Special Relativity and General Relativity. figshare. https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.3863556.v2 Retrieved: 08 20, Sep 29, 2016 (GMT)

This article began to take shape in my mind when I read an item in Astronomy magazine. That item mentioned how timing by GPS (the Global Positioning System) requires input from both Special Relativity - where time slows down fractionally because the satellites in orbit are fast-moving – and General Relativity, where the satellites' distance from Earth's gravity causes their time to speed up fractionally. This led to the conclusions that 1) the gravitational waves making up the gravity field are, as Einstein suggested in a paper written four years after publication of the general theory, involved in production of mass, 2) these waves participate with the other long-range force, electromagnetism, to also produce the two nuclear forces associated with the mass (making nuclear forces non-fundamental and the Higgs force another name for gravitational-electromagnetic coupling), 3) black holes are composed of gravitational and electromagnetic waves focused on them from deep space, and this accounts for their extreme gravity as well as extreme mass, 4) there's a link between the macroscopic black holes of astronomy and the subatomic gluons of particle physics, and 5) Einstein's contributions don't end with the two Relativities, or even the paper written 4 years after the general theory, but can be extended to his Unified Field Theory. His Unified Field might not be generally accepted today because it was incomplete, just as he described quantum mechanics as incomplete. In 1957, Charles Misner and John Wheeler, in the “Annals of Physics”, claimed Albert Einstein’s latest equations demonstrated the unified field theory. However, the necessary completion of the unified field may not exclusively lie with the mathematics Einstein seemed to increasingly rely on as he aged but with concepts in computer science as well as intuitions in the mathematical branch called topology. Computer science's binary digits (bits) result from apparently random Virtual Particles that conceal Chaos theory's "order within disorder". These bits are encoded in programs taking the form of topology's Mobius strips, and these combine into four-dimensional figure-8 Klein bottles that make particles sensible (bottles affect every sense and scientific probe because the pulses forming them also form the complete properties of the Gravitational-ElectroMagnetic Field). The bottles also explain space-time's positive and negative curvatures, as well as the flatness of infinity/eternity. Einstein was a Superman at exploring new ideas in his youth. Had electronic computers been invented 30 or 40 years earlier, it appears likely we’d be living with the fruits of the unified field now. PS This article also mentions Hawking radiation, spin, superconductivity, imaginary time, complex number plane, quark-gluon plasma, antigraviton, shape of space, tachyons, dark energy, dark matter, antimatter, etc.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7021] viXra:1609.0392 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-27 22:33:02

Origin of the Universe

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: put forward a viewpoint of the origin of our universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7020] viXra:1609.0360 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-25 14:06:25

A Possible Proof of the Even Goldbach Conjecture.

Authors: Prashanth R. Rao
Comments: 3 Pages.

The odd Goldbach conjecture states that every odd integer greater than seven may be expressed as the sum of three odd primes whereas the even Goldbach conjecture states that every even integer greater than four may be expressed as the sum of two odd primes. Harald Helfgott has provided a convincing proof of the Odd Goldbach conjecture. The even Goldbach conjecture, however remains unproven. We start with the assumption that first counterexamples of both the even and odd Goldbach conjectures exist. We identify a relationship between the first counterexample of the odd conjecture with the counterexample of the even. Invoking Helfgott’s proof of the Odd Goldbach conjecture, we study the value of the first possible even counter-example and it must be infinitely large so that the first odd counter-example may also be infinitely large thereby non-existent.
Category: Number Theory

[7019] viXra:1609.0349 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-29 09:09:56

Solutions for Euler and Navier-Stokes Equations in Finite and Infinite Series of Time

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 17 Pages.

We present solutions for the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations in finite and infinite series of time, in spatial dimension N=3, firstly based on expansion in Taylor’s series of time and at end concluding on necessity of solutions for velocity given by irrotational vectors, for incompressible flows and conservative external force.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[7018] viXra:1609.0337 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-26 12:33:47

Discovery of an Unintended Mathematical Error in Equation (7a) on Page 81 in “ Investigations on the Theory of the Brownian MOVEMENT” by Albert Einstein in 1926 Perhaps After 88 Years

Authors: Khoshnevisan, M Ph.D
Comments: 1 Page.

Professor Albert Einstein in 1926 published his book entitled “INVESTIGATIONS ON THE THEORY OF THE BROWNIAN MOVEMENT”, during the time that he was a Professor of Physics at the University of Berlin. This book was edited by Professor Reinhold Heinrich (Henry) Furth in 1926.He was co-author with Professor Albert Einstein of the Theory of Brownian Movement.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[7017] viXra:1609.0337 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-23 15:45:26

Short Note: Unintended Printing Error in Equation (7a) in “ Investigations on the Theory of the Brownian MOVEMENT” by Albert Einstein in 1926

Authors: Khoshnevisan, M Ph.D
Comments: 1 Page.

Albert Einstein in 1926 published his book entitled “INVESTIGATIONS ON THE THEORY OF THE BROWNIAN MOVEMENT”, during the time that he was lecturing at Berliner Universität. This book was edited by Professor Reinhold Heinrich (Henry) Furth. There is an unintended printing error in equation (7a) on page 81. It appears that this unintended printing error in equation (7a) has not been amended in this book since 1926.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[7016] viXra:1609.0313 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-21 14:38:18

Does GW Generation Have Semi Classical Features?

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 15 Pages. Change to the title with Has changed to Have

Andrew Walcott Beckwith Physics Department, Chongqing University, College of Physics, Chongqing University Huxi Campus, No. 44 Daxuechen Nanlu, Shapinba District, Chongqing 401331, People’s Republic of China rwill9955b@gmail.com,abeckwith@uh.edu Abstract. We argue in this document that initial vacuum state values possibly responsible for GW generation in relic conditions in the initial onset of inflation may have a temporary un squeezed, possibly even coherent initial value, which would permit in certain models classical coherent initial gravitational wave states Furthermore, several arguments pro and con as to if or not initial relic GW should be high frequency will be presented,. The existence of higher dimensions, in itself if the additional dimensions are small and compact will have no capacity to influence the frequency values of relic GW, as predicted by Giovanni, and others in 1995. Furthermore, to consider are the results of Sahoo, Mishra, and Pacif (2016) which via Bianchi universes, removes the necessity of an initial space-time singularity, which may have bearing on the issue of the degree of the initial coherent states, so postulated for gravitational waves, as is brought up in the conclusion. Key words: Infinite quantum statistics, Quantum gas, semi classical approximation, nonsingular cosmology
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7015] viXra:1609.0305 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-29 08:00:18

The Gravelectric Generator

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 7 Pages.

The electrical current arises in a conductor when an outside force acts upon the free electrons of the conductor. This force is called, in a generic way, of electromotive force (EMF). Usually, it has electrical nature. Here, we show that it can have gravitational nature (Gravitational Electromotive Force). This fact led us to propose an unprecedented system to convert Gravitational Energy directly into Electrical Energy. This system, here called of Gravelectric Generator, can have individual outputs powers of several tens of kW or more. It is easy to be built, and can easily be transported from one place to another, on the contrary of the hydroelectric plants, which convert Gravitational Energy into Hydroelectric energy.
Category: Condensed Matter

[7014] viXra:1609.0276 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-26 06:47:10

The Flaw in Einstein's Box and Its Essentially Non-Destructive Impact on the General Relativity Theory

Authors: Pavel Voráček
Comments: 4 Pages.

A trivially easy argument, which – in fact – follows from the General relativity theory, is used in order to point out an evident flaw in the commonly accepted interpretation of the Principle of equivalence in Einstein’s box. It is shown that the flaw by itself has no destructive impact on the Theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7013] viXra:1609.0275 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-20 18:04:40

An Explanation of the Ecliptic Alignment of CMB Anisotropy

Authors: Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen
Comments: 3 Pages.

A simple and clear explanation to the seemingly strange observed phenomenon of the ecliptic alignment of CMB anisotropy is presented. The proposed explanation is based on the wrongly excluded cosmological model of spherical space and radial time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7012] viXra:1609.0274 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-19 18:35:20

Lagrangian Vertex Operator for Electrostatic Background Field in Ω

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

It's expected that electrostatic background signatures surmounts at the supersymmetric [SUSY] energy scale. These electrostatic background signatures is intrinsic to metamorphic space. In order to derive a Lagrangian vertex operator one must treat SUSY as a metamorphic phenomenon.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[7011] viXra:1609.0237 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-23 00:02:31

Experiment Data Indicates Quantum Entanglement May not Exist

Authors: Krishan Vats
Comments: 8 Pages.

Till date, all experiments prove existence of quantum entanglement based upon overall statistical correlations and thus demonstrating that Bell’s inequality is violated. No detailed data analysis has been published yet. This article presents a first of its kind experimental analysis and it indicates that there is a real chance that entanglement may not be real. This is a huge claim by any means. But it is necessary to make such dramatic claim due to two reasons – 1) It is based upon experimental data and can be tested and verified. 2) So that the QM community makes an effort to analyze detailed data to scrutinize the reality of entanglement. Due to large amount of data involved, experimentalists only look at data in an easily computable manner and do not scrutinize the raw data in full detail. When data of this experiment was analyzed at detail level, it was observed that existence of entanglement can not be settled until this kind of analysis is completed on data from multiple such experiments. The natural and prompt reaction from many may be to look for faults with this analysis without presenting the evidence that such analysis has already been completed. For curious people, observation is odd enough to be probed further. The complacent ones will look only for the faults. If this observation does not trigger more of similar analysis, then it will demonstrate complacency of the QM world. This article does not claim “classical mechanics” to be the solution, but it presents an intuitive mechanism that can explain statistical correlations without entanglement being necessary or entanglement being defined in a different way then it currently is. The scope of this article is only statistical data. Anti correlation (when measured in the same angle) is always true, therefore it is not statistical in nature and is left out of scope. Moreover anti correlation can easily be explained as a direct consequence of conservation laws. This analysis gives an indication that the outcomes may not be totally probabilistic and so, entanglement may not exists in its currently claimed form. The data is so close to being probabilistic that it is very difficult to spot anything other than probability if the data is not looked at with extreme care.
Category: Quantum Physics

[7010] viXra:1609.0237 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-21 23:29:06

Experiment Data Indicates Quantum Entanglement May not Exist

Authors: Krishan Vats
Comments: 8 Pages.

Till date, all experiments prove existence of quantum entanglement based upon overall statistical correlations and thus demonstrating that Bell’s inequality is violated. No detailed data analysis has been published yet. This article presents a first of its kind experimental analysis and it indicates that there is a real chance that entanglement may not be real. This is a huge claim by any means. But it is necessary to make such dramatic claim due to two reasons – 1) It is based upon experimental data and can be tested and verified. 2) So that the QM community makes an effort to analyze detailed data to scrutinize the reality of entanglement. Due to large amount of data involved, experimentalists only look at data in an easily computable manner and do not scrutinize the raw data in full detail. When data of this experiment was analyzed at detail level, it was observed that existence of entanglement can not be settled until this kind of analysis is completed on data from multiple such experiments. The natural and prompt reaction from many may be to look for faults with this analysis without presenting the evidence that such analysis has already been completed. For curious people, observation is odd enough to be probed further. The complacent ones will look only for the faults. If this observation does not trigger more of similar analysis, then it will demonstrate complacency of the QM world. This article does not claim “classical mechanics” to be the solution, but it presents an intuitive mechanism that can explain statistical correlations without entanglement being necessary or entanglement being defined in a different way then it currently is. The scope of this article is only statistical data. Anti correlation (when measured in the same angle) is always true, therefore it is not statistical in nature and is left out of scope. Moreover anti correlation can easily be explained as a direct consequence of conservation laws. This is a statistical analysis of the experimental data used in a recent paper [M. Giustina et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250401 (2015)]. The data for this analysis was graciously made available by the authors as a private communication. This analysis gives an indication that the outcomes may not be totally probabilistic and so, entanglement may not exists in its currently claimed form.
Category: Quantum Physics

[7009] viXra:1609.0237 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-20 02:16:41

Experiment Data Indicates Quantum Entanglement May not Exist

Authors: Krishan Vats
Comments: 8 Pages.

Till date, all experiments prove existence of quantum entanglement based upon overall statistical correlations and thus demonstrating that Bell’s inequality is violated. No detailed data analysis has been published yet. This article presents a first of its kind experimental analysis and it indicates that there is a real chance that entanglement may not be real. This is a huge claim by any means. But it is necessary to make such dramatic claim due to two reasons – 1) It is based upon experimental data and can be tested and verified. 2) So that the QM community makes an effort to analyze detailed data to scrutinize the reality of entanglement. Due to large amount of data involved, experimentalists only look at data in an easily computable manner and do not scrutinize the raw data in full detail. When data of this experiment was analyzed at detail level, it was observed that existence of entanglement can not be settled until this kind of analysis is completed on data from multiple such experiments. The natural and prompt reaction from many may be to look for faults with this analysis without presenting the evidence that such analysis has already been completed. For curious people, observation is odd enough to be probed further. The complacent ones will look only for the faults. If this observation does not trigger more of similar analysis, then it will demonstrate complacency of the QM world. This article does not claim “classical mechanics” to be the solution, but it presents an intuitive mechanism that can explain statistical correlations without entanglement being necessary or entanglement being defined in a different way then it currently is. The scope of this article is only statistical data. Anti correlation (when measured in the same angle) is always true, therefore it is not statistical in nature and is left out of scope. Moreover anti correlation can easily be explained as a direct consequence of conservation laws. This is a statistical analysis of the experimental data used in a recent paper [M. Giustina et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250401 (2015)]. The data for this analysis was graciously made available by the authors as a private communication. This analysis gives an indication that the outcomes may not be totally probabilistic and so, entanglement may not exists in its currently claimed form.
Category: Quantum Physics

[7008] viXra:1609.0237 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-17 23:09:15

Experiment Data Indicates Quantum Entanglement May not Exist

Authors: Krishan Vats
Comments: 8 Pages.

Till date, all experiments prove existence of quantum entanglement based upon overall statistical correlations and thus demonstrating that Bell’s inequality is violated. No detailed data analysis has been published yet. This article presents a first of its kind experimental analysis and it indicates that there is a real chance that entanglement may not be real. This is a huge claim by any means. But it is necessary to make such dramatic claim due to two reasons – 1) It is based upon experimental data and can be tested and verified. 2) So that the QM community makes an effort to analyze detailed data to scrutinize the reality of entanglement. Due to large amount of data involved, experimentalists only look at data in an easily computable manner and do not scrutinize the raw data in full detail. When data of this experiment was analyzed at detail level, it was observed that existence of entanglement can not be settled until this kind of analysis is completed on data from multiple such experiments. The natural and prompt reaction from many may be to look for faults with this analysis without presenting the evidence that such analysis has already been completed. For curious people, observation is odd enough to be probed further. The complacent ones will look only for the faults. If this observation does not trigger more of similar analysis, then it will demonstrate complacency of the QM world. This article does not claim “classical mechanics” to be the solution, but it presents an intuitive mechanism that can explain statistical correlations without entanglement being necessary or entanglement being defined in a different way then it currently is. The scope of this article is only statistical data. Anti correlation (when measured in the same angle) is always true, therefore it is not statistical in nature and is left out of scope. Moreover anti correlation can easily be explained as a direct consequence of conservation laws. This is a statistical analysis of the experimental data used in a recent paper [M. Giustina et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250401 (2015)]. The data for this analysis was graciously made available by the authors as a private communication. This analysis gives an indication that the outcomes may not be totally probabilistic and so, entanglement may not exists in its currently claimed form.
Category: Quantum Physics

[7007] viXra:1609.0237 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-16 04:26:57

Experiment Data Indicates Quantum Entanglement May not Exist

Authors: Krishan Vats
Comments: 8 Pages.

Till date, all experiments prove existence of quantum entanglement based upon overall statistical correlations and thus demonstrating that Bell’s inequality is violated. No detailed data analysis has been published yet. This article presents a first of its kind experimental analysis and it indicates that there is a real chance that entanglement may not be real. This is a huge claim by any means. But it is necessary to make such dramatic claim due to two reasons – 1) It is based upon experimental data and can be tested and verified. 2) So that the QM community makes an effort to analyze detailed data to scrutinize the reality of entanglement. Due to large amount of data involved, experimentalists only look at data in an easily computable manner and do not scrutinize the raw data in full detail. When data of this experiment was analyzed at detail level, it was observed that existence of entanglement can not be settled until this kind of analysis is completed on data from multiple such experiments. The natural and prompt reaction from many may be to look for faults with this analysis without presenting the evidence that such analysis has already been completed. For curious people, observation is odd enough to be probed further. The complacent ones will look only for the faults. If this observation does not trigger more of similar analysis, then it will demonstrate complacency of the QM world. This article does not claim “classical mechanics” to be the solution, but it presents an intuitive mechanism that can explain statistical correlations without entanglement being necessary or entanglement being defined in a different way then it currently is. The scope of this article is only statistical data. Anti correlation (when measured in the same angle) is always true, therefore it is not statistical in nature and is left out of scope. Moreover anti correlation can easily be explained as a direct consequence of conservation laws. This is a statistical analysis of the experimental data used in a recent paper [M. Giustina et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250401 (2015)]. The data for this analysis was graciously made available by the authors as a private communication. This analysis gives an indication that the outcomes may not be totally probabilistic and so, entanglement may not exists in its currently claimed form.
Category: Quantum Physics