**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(58) - 0703(50) - 0704(5) - 0705(1) - 0706(8) - 0707(2) - 0708(3) - 0709(3) - 0710(1) - 0711(6) - 0712(3)

2008 - 0801(4) - 0802(4) - 0803(2) - 0804(9) - 0805(4) - 0806(1) - 0807(12) - 0808(6) - 0809(3) - 0810(16) - 0811(5) - 0812(9)

2009 - 0901(3) - 0902(7) - 0903(6) - 0904(5) - 0907(48) - 0908(110) - 0909(61) - 0910(66) - 0911(64) - 0912(52)

2010 - 1001(46) - 1002(52) - 1003(264) - 1004(138) - 1005(110) - 1006(67) - 1007(55) - 1008(91) - 1009(71) - 1010(61) - 1011(76) - 1012(52)

2011 - 1101(100) - 1102(55) - 1103(119) - 1104(82) - 1105(40) - 1106(59) - 1107(52) - 1108(48) - 1109(57) - 1110(69) - 1111(110) - 1112(84)

2012 - 1201(97) - 1202(77) - 1203(89) - 1204(92) - 1205(106) - 1206(89) - 1207(97) - 1208(221) - 1209(95) - 1210(156) - 1211(136) - 1212(138)

2013 - 1301(170) - 1302(143) - 1303(193) - 1304(147) - 1305(181) - 1306(203) - 1307(148) - 1308(138) - 1309(186) - 1310(237) - 1311(160) - 1312(197)

2014 - 1401(181) - 1402(139) - 1403(839) - 1404(244) - 1405(322) - 1406(172) - 1407(202) - 1408(214) - 1409(217) - 1410(182) - 1411(460) - 1412(235)

2015 - 1501(224) - 1502(212) - 1503(238) - 1504(209) - 1505(210) - 1506(200) - 1507(197) - 1508(344) - 1509(254) - 1510(448) - 1511(270) - 1512(428)

2016 - 1601(343) - 1602(337) - 1603(357) - 1604(321) - 1605(281) - 1606(304) - 1607(469) - 1608(397) - 1609(381) - 1610(353) - 1611(390) - 1612(389)

2017 - 1701(534) - 1702(299) - 1703(294) - 1704(364) - 1705(399) - 1706(411) - 1707(399) - 1708(459) - 1709(393) - 1710(307) - 1711(398) - 1712(596)

2018 - 1801(398) - 1802(332)

Any replacements are listed further down

[22347] **viXra:1802.0352 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-24 06:45:35*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 92 Pages.

E-book "Fizyka mało znana – Język i metodologia fizyki" zawiera pomocnicze materiały do prowadzonego przeze mnie seminarium dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim.
###
The e-book "Little-known physics – Language and methodology of physics" contains auxiliary materials for the seminar conducted by me for the listeners of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[22346] **viXra:1802.0351 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-24 06:50:48*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 132 Pages.

E-book "Fizyka mało znana – Pojęcia, które zrobiły karierę" zawiera pomocnicze materiały do prowadzonego przeze mnie seminarium dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim.
###
The e-book "Little-known physics – Concepts that made a career" contains auxiliary materials for the seminar conducted by me for the listeners of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[22345] **viXra:1802.0350 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-24 06:58:53*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 62 Pages.

E-book "Fizyka mało znana – Modele a rzeczywistość" zawiera pomocnicze materiały do prowadzonego przeze mnie seminarium dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim.
###
The e-book "Little-known physics – Models and reality" contains auxiliary materials for the seminar conducted by me for the listeners of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[22344] **viXra:1802.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-24 07:01:50*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 286 Pages.

E-book "Fizyka mało znana – Lista Ginzburga" zawiera pomocnicze materiały do prowadzonego przeze mnie seminarium dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim.
###
The e-book "Little-known physics – Ginzburg's List" contains auxiliary materials for the seminar conducted by me for the listeners of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[22343] **viXra:1802.0348 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-24 07:06:26*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

E-book "Fizyka mało znana – Zapomniane definicje, zasady, hipotezy i teorie" zawiera pomocnicze materiały do prowadzonego przeze mnie seminarium dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim.
###
The e-book "Little-known physics – Forgotten definitions, rules, hypotheses and theories" contains auxiliary materials for the seminar conducted by me for the listeners of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[22342] **viXra:1802.0347 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-24 07:11:01*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

E-book "Fizyka mało znana – Doświadczenia myślowe i rozstrzygające" zawiera pomocnicze materiały do prowadzonego przeze mnie seminarium dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim.
###
The e-book "Little-known physics – Thought and crucial experiments" contains auxiliary materials for the seminar conducted by me for the listeners of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[22341] **viXra:1802.0346 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-24 07:16:24*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 100 Pages.

E-book "Fizyka mało znana – Zasady zachowania w fizyce" zawiera pomocnicze materiały do prowadzonego przeze mnie seminarium dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim.
###
The e-book "Little-known physics – Conservation laws in physics" contains auxiliary materials for the seminar conducted by me for the listeners of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[22340] **viXra:1802.0345 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-24 07:20:15*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

E-book "Fizyka mało znana – Słynne paradoksy fizyki" zawiera pomocnicze materiały do prowadzonego przeze mnie seminarium dla słuchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku w Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim.
###
The e-book "Little-known physics – The famous paradoxes of physics" contains auxiliary materials for the seminar conducted by me for the listeners of the University of the Third Age at the University of Wroclaw.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[22339] **viXra:1802.0344 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-24 08:33:09*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

The puzzles of quantum mechanics are: 1. What is the medium for the photon and for the electron wave? i.e. what is waving? 2. How can a particle have an interference pattern 3. Observer effect. 4. Entanglement. In Quantum Erasure and Double-Slit experiments, how does the emitter know to direct the photon two both slits or only to one slit? And how does the detector know where to detect the photons to form an interference pattern and not a bell-shaped (Gaussian) pattern or vice versa? This paper proposes that the hint in the mystery of light waves without a medium (ether) is contained in the Planck’s relation itself: E = hf. It is shown that Planck’s relation itself hints on the mystery of light waves without medium, and is a consequence or manifestation of non-existence of a medium for light propagation. The subtle law of nature that has eluded physicists so far is that the photon energy density ( amplitude of electric and magnetic fields) at a given point in the spatial dimensions of the photon is directly related to the rate of change of the electric and magnetic fields at that point. The higher the frequency of the photon, the higher the rate of change of the fields at every point for that photon, compared to a photon of lower frequency. The higher the rate of change of the fields at a given point, the higher the amplitude of oscillation of the electric and magnetic fields at that point. It follows that the higher the frequency of the photon and the higher the amplitude of the electric and magnetic fields, which results in high intensity of vibration of the photon, the more localized it will be. A high frequency photon will spread less in space than a lower frequency photon of equal envelope amplitude because, if the high frequency photon spreads out, there would be high rates of change over a wider region of space, and the total energy would be greater than the finite photon energy. The photon energy will always be concentrated at regions of high rate of change of electric and magnetic fields. This theory explains how electric and magnetic fields can be their own ‘medium’ , 'dragging' of the electromagnetic energy by the wave, hence eliminating the need for any medium. Since the electromagnetic wave (the photon) is a traveling disturbance of electric and magnetic fields, the rate of change of the fields at a point in space will create the intensity (amplitude) of the fields at that point. Likewise, the electron wave is a travelling disturbance of the electron mass density wave on the electron ‘sea’. The higher the frequency of mass density variation of the electron at a given point of space, the higher the mass density of the electron at that point. This will make the electron ( the electron ‘sea’) its own medium of propagation. i.e. the electron ‘sea’ is the medium of propagation for the electron wave. This means that the electron wave 'drags' the electron with itself. The other theory proposed in this paper is the predetermination of interference fringes in double-slit experiments and predetermination of which slit the photon takes in which-way or quantum erasure experiments. We propose a fundamental law of nature that an electron, an atom or any source of electromagnetic waves will always emit a weak, continuous electromagnetic energy even when not excited, which implies that electrons and atoms are always in continuous, fundamental, weak vibrations (accelerations). Therefore, in double-slit experiments and in quantum erasure or which-way experiments, the atom (electron) of the light source is always emitting weak, continuous electromagnetic waves, even before the atom is excited. Therefore, even before the atom/the electron of the light source starts emitting a photon, a weak electromagnetic (light) wave exists as an entity, extending all the way from the light source (the atom) to the slits and to the detecting screen. This ‘precursor’ wave serves as the 'highway' for the propagation of the main photon energy packet, both of which are coherent and exist as an entity. When the atom is excited, it will just emit a photon that is coherent with the weak wave it had already been emitting continuously. Therefore, even before the atom is excited, a weak wave interference pattern already exists on the screen. The photon emitted after excitation simply follows the path already created by the weak ‘precursor’ wave and will land on the screen according to the predetermined interference pattern, collapsing to the point of detection at the instant of detection. The path to be taken by the photon is predetermined in which-way or quantum erasure experiments. The same theory explains quantum entanglement: the polarization of two entangled photons is predetermined even before the excitation of the atoms emitting the photons.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22338] **viXra:1802.0343 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-24 08:53:04*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 54 Pages.

This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22337] **viXra:1802.0342 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-24 09:33:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

Along with previous research that has demonstrated crystal motion in other types of crystals, the new results suggest that crystals appear to be promising candidates for robotics. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16]

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[22336] **viXra:1802.0341 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-24 09:48:23*

**Authors:** Stephen P. Smith, Robert D. Scarth, Bruce Tier

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A method of measuring linkage in sire reference schemes is described. The method consists of determining estimability and prediction error variance for linear contrasts when the assumed animal model includes genetic groups. Base animals in a herd are assigned a common genetic group and different herds correspond to different genetic groups. The set of linear contrasts used to determine linkage is the set of group differences. Groups differences can be scrutinized using a simplified lease-squares analysis.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[22335] **viXra:1802.0340 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-23 14:44:08*

**Authors:** DT Froedge

**Comments:** 20 Pages. This paper presents the first explanarion of charge.

In a previous paper “A Physical Electron-Positron Model”[1] an electron model was developed in a geometrical algebra (GA) construct developed by Doran et.al. [2] The model shows the mathematical structure, and the physical description required for the existence of a composite electron but not delineating the physical processes. This paper will develop the model from the perspective of classical and QM mechanics and make the connection to the QFT and Lorentz structure that underlies the physical basis, and illustrates how the interaction of photons can create charge. The path integral formulations of QFT fit well with the model and it is absent the infinities indicative of the standard model.
The concept of charge has heretofore not had any theoretical explanation, accept for some unknown substance sprinkling in with the mass. The model therefore offers the QFT community an idea on how to convert the concept of Charge and Pair Production from magic to mechanics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22334] **viXra:1802.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-23 23:19:18*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 8 Pages. -

Expansion of the universe by Hubble, allows you to calculate the expansion at a minimum distance. What makes it possible to set a correction to the limiting speed of information transfer, which is used in the theory of relativity. At the same time, the corrections in different local regions differ from each other. The amendments, albeit insignificantly small, can unexpectedly give some results, as shown in the example. And the example itself and subsequent conclusions can be exactly the step to a great unification of interactions.
ул. Софьи Ковалевской дом 14, корпус 1, квартира 70

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22333] **viXra:1802.0338 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-24 00:46:28*

**Authors:** Reginald B. Little

**Comments:** 124 Pages.

A cure for cancer is formulated by a new theory for cancer genesis by Ferrochemistry (Little Effect) and Laws of Ferrochemistry for disrupting the Kreb Cycle and accelerating the glycolysis due to enzymatic substitutions of primordial 12C, 14N, 16O, 24Mg, 31P, and 32S nuclides by less healthy nonprimordial 13C, 15N, 17O, 25Mg, 30P, 32P, and 33S nuclides. The nonprimordial nuclides fractionally fission to produce different QF and L continua for different enzymatic activity and biochemistry on the substrates for nuclear spins altering the chemical machinery and chemical operation of the cellular physicochemical chemistry for the origin of cancer. A theoretical cure for cancer (with few side effects) is discovered for killing these malfunctioning cancer cells of high nonprimordial isotopic concentrations by selectively energize these isotopes in strong static magnetic fields and many dynamic magnetic fields so as to selectively kill the cancer cells with minimal effects on normal cells.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[22332] **viXra:1802.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-24 01:14:54*

**Authors:** Robert DiGregorio

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Using a new technique called the power key, it’s possible to imply P ≠ NP using a proof by logical contradiction.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[22331] **viXra:1802.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-24 03:08:38*

**Authors:** Nicolas Bourbaki, Jr

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We prove that P != NP using a simple and elegant method.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[22330] **viXra:1802.0335 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-23 06:44:01*

**Authors:** Weiye Xu

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The interactions between waves and electrons are the basis of vacuum tubes and particle accelerators. In order to further understand the interactions, we proposed a new electromagnetic model. In this model, the photon is composed of two elementary particles – ephoton and mphoton, which are the basic particles that form the electric fields and magnetic fields, respectively. There are many ephotons around the electrons and the electrons can absorb the ephotons. The proposed electromagnetic model can well explain the electromagetic phenomena and the interactions between waves and electrons.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[22329] **viXra:1802.0334 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-23 07:40:52*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 55 Pages.

Researchers at Purdue University have performed the first experimental tests of several fundamental theorems in thermodynamics, verifying the relationship between them and providing a better understanding of how nanoparticles behave under fluctuation. [34] Identifying right-handed and left-handed molecules is a crucial step for many applications in chemistry and pharmaceutics. [33] A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information—known as qubits—that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22328] **viXra:1802.0333 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-23 08:12:14*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 57 Pages.

The old question, whether quantum systems show recurrences, can finally be answered: Yes, they do—but the concept of recurrence has to be slightly redefined. [35] Researchers at Purdue University have performed the first experimental tests of several fundamental theorems in thermodynamics, verifying the relationship between them and providing a better understanding of how nanoparticles behave under fluctuation. [34] Identifying right-handed and left-handed molecules is a crucial step for many applications in chemistry and pharmaceutics. [33] A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information—known as qubits—that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22327] **viXra:1802.0332 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-23 08:30:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 57 Pages.

An international team of researchers has taken an important step towards solving a difficult variation of this problem, using a statistical approach developed at the University of Freiburg. [35] Storing information in a quantum memory system is a difficult challenge, as the data is usually quickly lost. At TU Wien, ultra-long storage times have now been achieved using tiny diamonds. [34] Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22326] **viXra:1802.0331 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-23 10:24:19*

**Authors:** Coccia Mario

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is an introduction to scientific methods that are organized and systematic scientific approaches used by scholars for controlled investigations and experiments to efficiently solve theoretical and practical problems, generate discoveries and/or advance scientific fields. The paper presents, briefly, the development of methods of inquiry in the philosophy of science. After that it will be discussed general methods of inquiry (deduction, induction, abduction and hypothetical-deductive) and specific models of scientific inquiry in social sciences. In general, modern research fields are multifaceted, requiring diverse processes for generating new concepts, for creating new hypothesis and performing controlled experiments. Different methods of inquiry are never contradictory, often they are complementary tools that facilitate problem solving and knowledge creation within and between research fields.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[22325] **viXra:1802.0330 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-23 10:46:53*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 47 Pages.

AlphaZero plays very unusually; not like a human, but also not like a typical computer. Instead, it plays with "real artificial" intelligence. [27] Predictions for an AI-dominated future are increasingly common, but Antoine Blondeau has experience in reading, and arguably manipulating, the runes—he helped develop technology that evolved into predictive texting and Apple's Siri. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17]

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[22324] **viXra:1802.0329 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-22 14:00:52*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

The EF-axiom describes the Efremovifč proximity δ by V.A. Efremovič from 1934 and published in Russian in 1951. We interpret the operator δ to mean "nearby" or "in proximity". The size of an antecedent or consequent is not stated for the operator, so we determine that the operator applies to unrelated literals as as ((A∈ B) Nor (B∈ A)). The proof result is for 256-values because four theorems are evaluated as variables. We find the EF-axiom is not tautologous. The implications to topology are legion.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[22323] **viXra:1802.0328 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-22 14:33:20*

**Authors:** Soerivhe Iriene

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

atoms, have the same requirement, and receive this energy isotropically
through space in the form of extremely small
electromagnetic energy quanta, so far detected
(no upper or lower magnitude limits

**Category:** Classical Physics

[22322] **viXra:1802.0327 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-22 14:35:33*

**Authors:** Michael R. Feyereisen

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

A model of a quantum cosmology motivated from fundamental physical principles is proposed, in which the intrinsic spin of both matter and the vacuum explains the existence of a cosmological scale factor a with a constant H0, the existence and magnitude of the cosmological constant Λ, the thermal history of the Universe, and the nature of the Dark Matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22321] **viXra:1802.0326 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-23 00:22:26*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

An isolated physical system of gravitational force between two identical
particles is chosen to manifest the physics law,
conservation of momentum, in a random inertial reference frame under Lorentz Transformation.
In this random reference frame, the center of mass
moves at a constant velocity. By applying
Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both particles, total momentum
in this random inertial reference frame can be calculated and
is expected to remain constant as gravitational force accelerate both particles toward each other.
The calculation
shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold under Lorentz Transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22320] **viXra:1802.0325 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-23 04:21:27*

**Authors:** Paris Samuel Miles Brenden

**Comments:** 104 Pages. Final.

The universally complete natural laws of physics; in their derivation stem from the condition of which is their interpretative validity in the light of their consideration of one meaning of unique and equivalently mathematical and verbal expression; the understood measureless condition of which is their written and created hidden implementation of a known and verifiable articulation as one certainty of expressed inclusive difference of an equivocal and alternative extrapolated exterior found mannerism of verbal derivation to the end of noted included emptied practice in one true complete word.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[22319] **viXra:1802.0324 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-22 05:46:14*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[22318] **viXra:1802.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-22 05:52:49*

**Authors:** Ri Un-Chol, ＊ Kim Yong-Song, ，Kim Yong-Bae, Ri Chang Il, Ri Hye-Won, Yun Su-Bom

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this study, the optimum flash and evaporation temperatures have been selected for the following four geothermal power generation systems: single-flash system (SF), double-flash system (DF), flash-ORC system (FORC), and double-flash-ORC system (DFORC). The maximum net electricity generated is regarded as an objective function, with the pump and fan consumptions being taken into account. Under the given geofluid’s condition (T= 170℃; x= 0.2), the optimum flash temperature of SF, the optimum 2nd-stage flash temperature of DF, the optimum evaporation temperatures of FORC and DFORC are found to be 150℃, 100℃, 100℃, and 70℃, respectively. More geofluid’s conditions (T= 80~260 ℃ ; x= 0, 0.2, 0.4) have also been considered for the temperature optimization of each system. The optimization results are shown in Fig.4 which can be useful for engineering application.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[22317] **viXra:1802.0322 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-22 06:17:00*

**Authors:** Ri Un-Chol, ＊ Kim Yong-Song ，Kim Yong-Bae, Ri Chang Il, Ri Hye-Won, Kim Won-Zhu

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Taking the capacity expanded geothermal and trough type solar power combined generation system as the research object, the temperature at outlet of the solar energy collection was estimated to obtain the optimum outlet temperature. Evaluation models for such indexes as generation efficiency, the increasing ration of power generation capacity and solar energy utilization fraction were set up to analyze the thermal performance of this system. By applying the Aspen Plus software, the geothermal-solar energy combine power generation system model for the geothermal power station in DPR of Korea was established. Moreover sensitivity analysis and optimization tool were used to calculate major parameters of this system, to obtain the best capacity expansion temperature, which is helpful to the system’s capacity expansion. The results show that, after the optimization, the generation power of the system was 4 044.5KW, the generation efficiency was 13.1% the hot water consumption was 94Kg/(KW•h), the steam consumption rate was 9.2Kg/(KW•h), the solar energy utilization percentage was 58.1% and the power generation increment ratio was 30.0%. Each performance index of the system enhanced significantly.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[22316] **viXra:1802.0321 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-22 07:29:28*

**Authors:** Andrea Prunotto

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The condition of equiprobability among two events involving independent extractions of elements from a finite set is shown to coincide with Fermat's Diophantine equation. The problem of the division of the stakes, related to the events, is also discussed

**Category:** Number Theory

[22315] **viXra:1802.0320 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-22 08:05:02*

**Authors:** Andrei P. Kirilyuk

**Comments:** 7 pages, 3 eqs, 16 refs; paper presented at the FQXi essay contest 2017-2018 "What Is “Fundamental”", https://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/3052

We explain why exactly the simplified abstract scheme of reality within the standard science paradigm cannot provide the consistent picture of “truly fundamental” reality and how the unreduced, causally complete description of the latter is regained within the extended, provably complete solution to arbitrary interaction problem and the ensuing concept of universal dynamic complexity. We emphasize the practical importance of this extension for both particular problem solution and further, now basically unlimited fundamental science development (otherwise dangerously stagnating within its traditional paradigm).

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[22314] **viXra:1802.0319 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-22 08:12:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

ETH scientists have been able to prove that a protein structure widespread in nature – the amyloid – is theoretically capable of multiplying itself. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[22313] **viXra:1802.0318 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-22 09:48:18*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 56 Pages.

Storing information in a quantum memory system is a difficult challenge, as the data is usually quickly lost. At TU Wien, ultra-long storage times have now been achieved using tiny diamonds. [34]
Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33]
A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32]
Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31]
Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30]
Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
A collaboration between the lab of Judy Cha, the Carol and Douglas Melamed Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, and IBM's Watson Research Center could help make a potentially revolutionary technology more viable for manufacturing. [27]
A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26]
The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
A research team from the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22312] **viXra:1802.0317 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-22 09:58:16*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The dynamics of biological activities, such as cellular metabolic pathways, protein folding and brain activity, can be described in terms of curved trajectories in hyperbolic spaces, constrained by energetic requirements. Here we, starting from the theorems recently-developed by a deceased Field Medal young mathematician, show how it is feasible to find and quantify the shortest, energy-sparing functional trajectories taking place in biological systems’ concave phase spaces. This allows researchers to focus their studies on the few, most prominent paths and loops able to explain, elucidate and experimentally assess rather elusive biological functions.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[22311] **viXra:1802.0316 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-22 10:27:34*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[22310] **viXra:1802.0315 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-22 11:47:04*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 47 Pages.

While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16]
In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15]
A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14]
The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13]
Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12]
Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11]
Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10]
The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9]
A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8]
It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn’t be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we’re starting to understand why. [7]

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[22309] **viXra:1802.0314 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 17:04:22*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The atomic mass unit has already been applied for more than 200 years. This article shows that the current application, in terms of the atomic mass number, is a factor of 10million times less accurate than can simply be realized, still using the existing atomic mass unit.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[22308] **viXra:1802.0313 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 18:02:04*

**Authors:** Ryang Se-Hun, O Pong-Sik, Sin Gum-Chol, Hwang Guk-Nam, Hong Yong-Son

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The influence of temperature on the magnetic hysteresis and coercivity of Co magnetic nanowires was investigated by Monte Carlo method. Monte Carlo
simulation results of hysteresis loop indicated that both its tendency and the
coercivity were consistent with experimental results within a given error. The
coercivity was calculated with the temperature and the angle between nanowires
and magnetic field applied, varying the temperature from 50K to 300K for Co
nanowires with a diameter of 30nm. The coercivity decreased monotonically at all
values of angle with the increase of temperature T, following the parabolic curve of
T-γ. The power exponent γ, determined corresponding to angle between nanowires
and magnetic field, was 0.03~0.06 and was consistent with the previous
experimental results.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[22307] **viXra:1802.0312 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 18:32:44*

**Authors:** Ri Namhyok1, 2, Chen Zhihua1, Ri Yongsop2 1.School of Civil Engineering Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, PR of China 2.Department of Mechanics, Kim Il Sung University, Pyongyang, DPR of Korea Corresponding Author E-mail: rinamhyok@163.com

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper the influence of 3 dimension multi-layer welding procedure on the welding residual stress of super-big diameter WHSJ(welded hollow sphere joint) in the large-span structure has been evaluated by finite element method. First, a conception of equivalent state change time in the analysis of welding was newly defined, which is the virtual time of state change, representing the absorbing or abstracting heat during state change process between solid and fluid of welding material. By considering of equivalent state change time in real welding and cooling time, the correctness of the thermal analysis was increased. Next, the simulation of three welding methods including single-layer symmetric welding, multi-layer sequential welding and multi-layer symmetric welding was carried out, which shows that multi-layer symmetric welding not only increases the balance of supporting ability of structure but also decreases the maximum tensile residual stress so that it is better than the other two methods.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[22306] **viXra:1802.0311 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 18:41:06*

**Authors:** Yongsop Ri, Namhyok Ri, Jonggwang Pak, Iljin Kim, Zhihua Chen –Department of Mechanics Enineering, Kim Il Sung University, Pyongyang, DPR of Korea - School of Civil Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, PR of Chi

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this paper, the cause of crack initiation in 50Mw steam turbine rotors of “S” power station and a countermeasure for preventing it were studied. Many years ago, “S” power station restructured pipe paths to supply steam to turbines. The aim of the restructure was to save the heavy oil burning for startup. Since the restructure upto now, the turbines were started in a startup method different from standard. That is, the restructure made the current startup method different from the standard. Unfortunately, after having restructured them, cracks initiated in the rotors of the turbines in the case of starting in current startup method every certain period. The present study has been conducted to explain why the cracks initiated, and to establish a countermeasure for it.
In the cases of starting the turbines in accordance with both the current and the standard startup methods, the change of convection heat transfer coefficients (CHTCs) and transient temperature and thermal stress were analyzed. Through these analyses, the cause of crack initiation in the case of current startup method was explained. And the low-cycle fatigue life until the cracks initiated was calculated and compared with experimental data. A new reasonable startup method was suggested as a countermeasure of a crack initiation. The new method not only could prevent crack initiation in the steam turbine rotors but also gave economic benefit.
Keywords: steam turbine; thermal stress; low-cycle fatigue life; startup; rotor

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[22305] **viXra:1802.0310 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 18:46:48*

**Authors:** Yongsop Ri, Namhyok Ri, Jonggwang Pak, Iljin Kim, Zhihua Chen –Department of Mechanics Enineering, Kim Il Sung University, Pyongyang, DPR of Korea - School of Civil Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, PR of Chi

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

The topology optimization using the homogenization method is to find optimal layout of microstructures which satisfies design demand in the neighborhood of an arbitrary point in a given design domain. The homogenization approach is to compute proper mechanical properties of those microstructures in terms of integral averaging by accepting the periodicity assumption and characteristic function.
In this paper, we described a stiffness homogenization theory that is able to avoid the complication of the homogenization approach and reduce the computation cost by considering the topology optimization process in consistence with the finite element analysis. The method can be applied more flexibly to individual or simultaneous optimization of the topology, shape, size and material layout. We discussed a stiffness homogenization during meshing the space structure with different kinds of elements in detail. An optimal criterion for the minimum weight design problem, as one of typical optimization design problems, was derived and the computational algorithm was presented. Numerical results of an example were compared with previous methods, which show the validation of the method.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[22304] **viXra:1802.0309 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 19:03:59*

**Authors:** David Stacha

**Comments:** Pages.

In this article I will provide the solution of Brocard`s problem n!+1=x^2 and I will prove the existence of the finite amount of Brown numbers, where the largest Brown number is (7,71), which represents the equation 7!+1=71^2. Brocard`s problem represents one of the open problem in mathematics from the field of number theory, which has been formulated by Henri Brocard in 1876 and represents the solutions of the following Diophantine equation n!+1=x^2.

**Category:** Number Theory

[22303] **viXra:1802.0308 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 19:39:11*

**Authors:** Yong-Son Hong, Sok-Bong Pak, Yong-Uk Ryu, Sok-Jin Ri, Jong-Sob Kim, Jong-Hyok Yang

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this work, the As(V) sorption onto magnetic separable poly p-phenylenediamine-thiourea-formaldehyde polymer (MpPDTF) published by Elwakeel and Al-Bogami was reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DKM). As the result, the reaction order and the activation energies were newly calculated.

**Category:** Chemistry

[22302] **viXra:1802.0307 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 21:27:07*

**Authors:** Julian Williams

**Comments:** 66 Pages. Feedback is welcome, even where I am wrong it is usefull.

Einstein's Field Equations can be derived from a Lagrangian using Action Principles. This paper explores the possibility of gravity being the result of an Invariant Four Volume Action Density of Cosmic Wavelength Gravitons. Infinitesimal changes (at least locally) to the Energy Momentum Tensor are required, which can have profound effect at cosmic scale, such as exponentially increasing expansion with no need for Dark Energy. This may also relate with the present tension in the different ways of measuring the Hubble parameter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22301] **viXra:1802.0306 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 22:19:21*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

We evaluate higher-order logic based on the principle of mathematical induction. Meth8/VŁ4 treats sets and variables as variables. The quantification over quantification is not bivalent.
We alleviate this constraining condition by distributing the quantified expression over nested expressions. At each nested level, the quantification is explicitly distributed for clarity. We conclude that higher-order logic is not bivalent and that nested quantification is better expressed as explicitly distributed.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[22300] **viXra:1802.0305 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 22:20:41*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 Pages. For possible inclusion into FFP 15, pending acceptance by Jesus Cancier, of Alicante, Spain, and the FFP 15 committee

We are looking at comparison of two action integrals and we identify the Lagrangian multiplier as setting up a constraint equation (on cosmological expansion). This is a direct result of the fourth equation of our manuscript which unconventionally compares the action integral of General relativity with the second derived action integral, which then permits equation 5, which is a bound on the Cosmological constant. What we have done is to replace the Hamber Quantum gravity reference-based action integral with a result from John Klauder’s “Enhanced Quantization” . In doing so, with Padamabhan’s treatment of the inflaton, we then initiate an explicit bound upon the cosmological constant. The other approximation is to use the inflaton results and conflate them with John Klauder’s Action principle for a way to, if we have the idea of a potential well, generalized by Klauder, with a wall of space time in the Pre Planckian-regime to ask what bounds the Cosmological constant prior to inflation. And, get an upper bound on the mass of a graviton. We conclude with a redo of a multiverse version of the Penrose cyclic conformal cosmology to show how this mass of a heavy graviton is consistent from cycle to cycle. All this is possible due to equation 4. And we compare all this with results of reference [1] in the conclusion.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[22299] **viXra:1802.0304 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 23:25:05*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The derivation of the Lorentz transformation normally rests on two a priori demands, namely that reversing the direction of the transformation's constant-velocity boost inverts the transformation, and that the transformation leaves light-speed invariant. It is notable, however, that the simple light-clock concept, which is rooted entirely in light-speed invariance, immediately gives rise to special-relativistic reciprocal time dilation, whose existence implies that of special-relativistic length contraction as a
corollary. Reciprocal time dilation and length contraction are key consequences of the Lorentz transformation, so it would seem that demanding only inertial transformation-invariance of light-speed already uniquely implies the Lorentz transformation. We find that to indeed be so, but it can't be shown by solving directly for the undetermined parameters of a general x-direction inertial space-time transformation; one necessarily must work with the corresponding velocity transformation (that has the same undetermined parameters), which is pared down to equalities that refer as predominantly as is feasible to speed. In those equalities both untransformed and transformed speed are replaced by the constant c, after which the undetermined parameters of the inertial transformation are solved for, which shows it to be the Lorentz transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22298] **viXra:1802.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-22 00:31:26*

**Authors:** Pedro Caceres

**Comments:** 56 Pages.

The function x(j,k)=δ+ω(α+βj)^φk in C→C is a generalization of the power function y(α)=α^k in R→R and the exponential function y(k)=α^k in R→R. In this paper we are going to calculate the values of infinite and partial sums and products involving elements of the matrix Xjk=[x(j,k)]∈C
As a result, several new representations will be made for some infinite series, including the Riemann Zeta Function in C.

**Category:** Number Theory

[22297] **viXra:1802.0302 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-22 01:04:31*

**Authors:** Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Neena Dixit, Parthasarathi Panda, Kalyan Kumar Sethi, Snehasis Jana

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is a classical organometallic pharmaceutical compound used for the prevention and treatment of hypomagnesemia as a source of magnesium ion. The present research described the in-depth study on solid state properties viz. physicochemical and thermal properties of magnesium gluconate using sophisticated analytical techniques like Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), particle size analysis (PSA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)/differential thermogravimetric analysis (DTG), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Magnesium gluconate was found to be crystalline in nature along with the crystallite size ranging from 14.10 to 47.35 nm. The particle size distribution was at d(0.1)=6.552 µm, d(0.5)=38.299 µm, d(0.9)=173.712 µm and D(4,3)=67.122 µm along with the specific surface area of 0.372 m2 /g. The wavelength for the maximum absorbance was at 198.0 nm. Magnesium gluconate exhibited 88.51% weight loss with three stages of thermal degradation process up to 895.18 °C from room temperature. The TGA/DTG thermograms of the analyte indicated that magnesium gluconate was thermally stable up to around 165 °C. Consequently, the melting temperature of magnesium gluconate was found to be 169.90 °C along with the enthalpy of fusion of 308.7 J/g. Thus, the authors conclude that the achieved results from this study are very useful in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries for the identification, characterization and qualitative analysis of magnesium gluconate for preformulation studies and also for developing magnesium gluconate based novel formulation.

**Category:** Chemistry

[22296] **viXra:1802.0301 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 07:40:14*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[22295] **viXra:1802.0300 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 08:20:25*

**Authors:** Jack Wenger

**Comments:** 126 Pages. The symbol for pi may not translate from pdf to this program.

Abstract: Try another way of looking at the universe. Consider spatial dimensions as measurements of interfaces. These interfaces can have two or more sides. We can see this if we think of thick oil spreading on water. We have three 3D substances, water, oil, and air. There is a water/oil 2D interface, an oil/air 2D interface and ahead of the oil intrusion a water/air 2D interface. Furthermore there is a linear or 1D interface at the front where the oil is advancing and all 3D substances touch. This interface
has three sides. This relationship could also be described this way: Where two 3D substances meet they form a (3-1)D interface and where three or more 3D substances meet they form a (3-2)D interface. This allows the speculation that all higher dimensional systems may form interfaces in this fashion when substances within those systems interact in a manner similar to that described above.
The pattern suggested is:
When N (as in ND) is a whole number greater than 1, two adjacent ND substances can form an (N-1)D interface between them and three or more ND substances can meet at a (N-2)D interface. This
interface has three or more sides.
This in turn allows the suggestion that there could be an infinite 5D sphere made up of infinitely small 5D units that have settled into concentric fluidic layers according to some analogs to gravity and density, and that a higher (or lower) layer, having undergone a change in density, is in the process of
reestablishing itself in the layer hierarchy. This could entail its intrusion between two layers having only slightly different densities.
If this were the case and the 5D substances followed the pattern described above, it would have two 4D (5-1) interfaces where it contacted the fluids on either side and a 3D (5-2) interface where all three fluids met, at the front of intrusion.
Infinitely small 5D substance units (5D molecules, 5D atoms) would allow the layers to be extremely thin, thinner than any observable 3D object at the 3D interface but still the size of these units
could have ratios to the layer's thickness similar to the ratio of a water molecule's size to the depth of the deepest ocean. Much would be allowed under these conditions.
When considering a great circle along the 3D interface, the speed of its expansion would be 2pi
times the rate of intrusion. That is the change in the radius will always equal 1/2pi the change in
circumference size.
If the circumferential expansion of the 3D interface was equal to the expansion rate of our cosmic horizon, the intrusion rate would be 1.007 times our light speed. If its circumference was greater, maybe many times the size of our cosmic horizon, the rate of intrusion would be many times light speed. We suggests that the speed of intrusion within the Shear Dependant Universe (SDU) would probably be many times light speed. These speeds would not need to be constant. They would be affected by the rate of fluid entry at the source.
The high speed of intrusion and perhaps other characteristic of the fluids could create shear. This shear could be expressed as vortices at all interfaces, if all fluids were similar in "density". If the 5D sphere were rotating, vortices at the upper 4D interface would rotate opposite those at the lower, when moving in the same direction along the 3D interface, therefore the 3D interface would contact vortices of
both rotations. The picture here is of dense chaotic vortex fields on all sides of all interfaces. In addition, vortices can merge or concentrate to form structures at the 3D interface as described below.
Vortices create wakes by applying torque to the 3D interface as they move over it. Those at the upper 4D interface create torque wakes that are opposite those at the lower. Vortices tend to draw closer
together or concentrate with others having similar torque wakes and move way from those with incompatible wakes when traveling in the same 3D direction. However vortices having opposite rotation can concentrate if they are traveling in opposite 3D directions. Vortices with incompatible wakes move away from each other.
Combined torque wakes of sufficient intensity can capture "swarms of vortices" on any or all sides of the 3D interface. These swarms can result in fields with various shapes. The shape of some of these fields is cyclonic with tubular centers or eyes, their bases attached to the 3D interface via compatible torque. Others have an anti cyclonic form with oppositely rotating eyes that are also attached to the 3D interface through appropriate torque contours. A single torque pattern at the 3D interface can accommodate several cyclonic or anti cyclonic swarms on any of its sides, these swarms will simply rotate in appropriate directions. Opposite rotation is allowed because these swarms are on opposing sides of the 3D interface and cannot conflict with each other.
These are diffuse columnar swarms with highly concentrated centers where there is maximum torque or deformation of the 3D interface. If a swarm conglomerate is set in motion, torque is increased on the side of motion direction by an increased encountering and accumulation of background shear. This increased vortex concentration and torque, ahead of the eye causes the whole swarm to shift in this direction which in turn reestablishes the higher vortex concentration and maintains the off center torque, constantly reinforcing the direction of travel. This feedback loop with background shear becomes the basis for inertial mass.
Those solo swarms that occupy only the outside of one the 4D interfaces (one quark) are swept
away by the backflow immediately. Swarm pairs that occupy both sides of a single 4D interface (two
quarks) and have some attachment with the 3D interface remain in contact a little longer but are also swept away. Swarm trios or quartets, that occupy all sides of the 3D interface (three quarks) and are anchored by a common torque pattern at the 3D interface, remain attached. They are still occupying only three fluid sectors so they could appear as only three objects (three quarks) from the 3D point of view.
These would be matter and anti matter.
Torque energy is never gained or lost. It is always recaptured by background shear forming
photonic structures, other transient swarms or it transforms complex swarms or alters their motion.
Vortices also cause indentations to form on the 3D interface via drag. Large swarms of vortices have considerable drag and tend to allow collections within the indentations. The indentations do not
need to be very deep to be highly "attractive" because the 3D interface at the indentations is no longer perpendicular to the direction of intrusion, so they acquire a tiny fraction of the intense back flow from the interface advancement, forming "virtual wells" which when present in accumulations are the foundation of SDU gravity. These shear vortices contribute both to mass and "virtual wells" (gravity and become the grounds for an SDU Equivalence principle
Photonic structures follow the same rules stated above but form perpendicular sheets in response
to waves of passing torque (which are a winding and then unwinding of the 3D interface). Shear
vortices become oriented in one direction as the interface winds up. They also tend to coalesce to a point in response to their tendency to merge. As the wave meets its maximum and begins to unwind, vortices in the first orientation escape up the connecting 4D interface and shear immediately provides a second generation of vortices in the new orientation which again coalesce and so the action is continuously repeated until all cycles of torque have passed. Thus the wave is maintained and confined to the 3D interface by background shear. This involvement with the background shear also limits the speed of passing torque waves.
The action of coalescing is never completed in any of these structures. In light, background shear
continues to move in the direction of the highest torque during the whole cycle, so there is a field of vortex motion extending for quite a distance on either side of the coalescing point. In matter there are also merging fields of vortex motion all around the cylindrical swarms. All of these structures can interfere with themselves under the right conditions.
In this setting, vortex swarms become the currency between matter and energy.
If each fluid is viewed as a 5D compartment around the 3D interface, the system is compatible with
either 16D or 18D spacetime scenarios depending on whether time is the extra dimension of the whole or of each compartment.
5D+5D+5D+1D of time=16D
5D+1D of time+5D+1D of time+5D+1D of time=18D
However the collision debris characteristics of each compartment could seem to come from different 5D (or 6D spacetime) systems if compartmentalization is not considered.
Thus the properties of the least dense fluid in the upper compartment are consistent with those of a "bottom quark" in that the collision debris would contain many more "particles" and therefore have greater mass than the other two quarks. These particles would also have shorter life spans then those of the intruder compartment because of the upper fluid's backwash. The lower compartment debris would also have shorter life spans because of the lower fluid's backwash but fewer particles because of its greater density and be viewed as a "top quark".
The intruder compartment would have properties of "strange quarks" in that its collision debris would be comprised of varying percentages of "positive and negative" charged particles depending on the nature of the colliding matter.
It is relatively easy to describe many physical phenomena in these terms such as the four known
forces (gravitational, strong, weak, and electromagnetic) and the many quantum phenomena. Light speed is dependent upon the rate of shear creation. The universal expansion rate varies with fluid input at the source. Dark matter simply becomes a variant swarm configuration. Faster than light, waveforms are allowed within the fluids between the interfaces.
The above description becomes the scenario for a universe very similar to ours.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22294] **viXra:1802.0298 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 08:41:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

To clarify these processes, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has now developed a methodology with a resolution of quintillionths of a second. [30] A team of researchers at Pfizer, the pharmaceutical giant, has developed an automated flow chemistry system that is capable of carrying out 1500 reactions over a 24-hour Prof WANG Zhisong and his research team from the Department of Physics, NUS have developed two sets of conceptually new mechanisms that enable artificial nanowalkers to move in a self-guided direction using their internal mechanics. [28] Gene editing is one of the hottest topics in cancer research. A Chinese research team has now developed a gold-nanoparticle-based multifunctional vehicle to transport the "gene scissors" to the tumor cell genome. [27] Cells can be programmed like a computer to fight cancer, influenza, and other serious conditions – thanks to a breakthrough in synthetic biology by the University of Warwick. [26] This "robot," made of a single strand of DNA, can autonomously "walk" around a surface, pick up certain molecules and drop them off in designated locations. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22293] **viXra:1802.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 09:44:01*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26]
If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25]
The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24]
“We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit.” [23]
Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22]
They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21]
Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20]
Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19]
Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18]

**Category:** Astrophysics

[22292] **viXra:1802.0296 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 10:28:32*

**Authors:** Richard A Peters

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

The acceleration profile about a gravitational body (GB) defines the acceleration of an object (comprising matter particles) toward the GB vs the distance of the object from the GB. The acceleration profile is not prescribed solely by the strength of the gravitational field, but depends on how an object reacts to that field. In the Newtonian model of gravity, two distinct properties of mass of the object define this reaction. It is shown that, without exception, these two properties of mass are not represented explicitly in equations defining the acceleration profile about a GB, but are sequestered within the universal gravitational constant G itself.
The acceleration profile about a GB is proportional to the active gravitational mass of the GB and inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the GB. The universal gravitational constant G is a constant of proportionality in the profile. The acceleration profile is also proportional to the ratio of passive gravitational mass to inertial mass of objects in the gravitational field. However, this ratio is conspicuously absent in the equation for the acceleration profile about a GB.
The reason for this omission might be the belief that the ratio is unity; that the passive gravitational mass and inertial mass of matter objects are numerically equal, regardless of the composition of the objects. The actual ratio may be sequestered in the gravitational constant G itself, provided that the ratio is the same for all matter particles and objects comprising matter particles. This identity has been confirmed in numerous experiments, but an alternative model offers a compelling explanation for this identity.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[22291] **viXra:1802.0295 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 10:36:43*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Answering the question "How did galaxies form and evolve during the 13.8-billion-year history of the universe?" has been one top issue in modern astronomy. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[22290] **viXra:1802.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 10:54:53*

**Authors:** James A. Smith

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This document is the first in what is intended to be a collection of solutions of high-school-level problems via Geometric Algebra (GA). GA is very much "overpowered" for such problems, but students at that level who plan to go into more-advanced math and science courses will benefit from seeing how to "translate" basic problems into GA terms, and to then solve them using GA identities and common techniques.

**Category:** Algebra

[22289] **viXra:1802.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-20 12:58:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 55 Pages.

Cloning of quantum states is used for eavesdropping in quantum cryptography. [34]
Researchers at the Center for Quantum Nanoscience within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have made a major breakthrough in controlling the quantum properties of single atoms. [33]
A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32]
A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information—known as qubits—that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31]
Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30]
Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
A collaboration between the lab of Judy Cha, the Carol and Douglas Melamed Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, and IBM's Watson Research Center could help make a potentially revolutionary technology more viable for manufacturing. [27]
A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26]
The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
A research team from the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22288] **viXra:1802.0292 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-20 13:57:08*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 54 Pages.

Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[22287] **viXra:1802.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-20 14:41:29*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A 5-year female, who had suffered from a very mild strangury in the last few days, brought to the primary care pediatrician a urine sample in a winter morning, in order to perform a urine test strip for the rapid determination of ten parameters. When the mother opened the disposable urine container in front of the pediatrician, they realized that three ivory-white, half-round objects, unnoticed during the sampling, floated on the urine surface. They displayed a diameter of approximately 1 centimeters. In order to appreciate their size, notice that, in the Figure, the total diameter of the 150 ml cylinder is 5,8 cm. The three cupola-shaped structures were hard to the touch. Despite their hard plastic consistency, they cracked in 4-5 smaller pieces after a strong pressure between two fingers.
The test strip did not show urinary pathological findings. Physical examination did not reveal alterations in child’s perineal and genital areas. The young female did not suffer from systemic diseases, such as hyperoxaluria or metabolic alterations. She was taking levetiracetam (oral solution), because of a recent diagnosis of early onset occipital epilepsy The mother was fully reliable and trustworthy and did not suffer from any psychiatric or psycological diseases.
Note that the well mixed, non-centrifuged, protected from light, not older than two hours urine was collected in a clean, well rinsed container, free of detergents and preservatives. No one manipulated the container after the sampling.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[22286] **viXra:1802.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-20 14:59:35*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

The following is not confirmed as tautologous.
"A quantum observer has zero entropy flow. Examining the entropy flow due to the local observation shows that the quantum observer does not add a new entropy flow to the system in contrast to a standard thermodynamic heat bath. Inserting [Eq. (10)] into Eq. (9) shows that the entropy flux due to the quantum observer is zero. This means that a quantum observer changes the energy flow in the system directly, without having an entropy flow connected with it."

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[22285] **viXra:1802.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-20 17:06:35*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this work we discuss the nature of matter wave of quantum particles whose dynamics are described by Dirac equation. Since we have shown that both Dirac equation and Maxwell field equations can be derived from a general system of linear first order partial differential equations, it is reasonable to suggest that matter wave may have similar physical formation to that of the electromagnetic field in the sense that matter wave is also the result of a coupling of two physical fields, such as the electric field and the magnetic field in electromagnetism. In particular, we show that when Dirac equation is reformulated as a system of real equations, like Maxwell field equations, then Dirac equation describes a quantum particle as a string-like object whose cross-section vibrates as a membrane.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22284] **viXra:1802.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-20 18:20:10*

**Authors:** Hong-Chol Jin, Yong-Son Hong

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this communication, the adsorption of benzothiophene sulfone (BTO) over clay mineral adsorbents [Fuel 205 (2017) 153–160] was reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DKM). As the result, the reaction order and the activation energies were newly calculated.

**Category:** Chemistry

[22283] **viXra:1802.0286 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-20 21:32:41*

**Authors:** Robert Spoljaric

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The classical theories making up modern physics are: Newtonian mechanics, Maxwell’s equations, statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, special relativity and general relativity. We also mention nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. Excluding Maxwell’s equations the Newtonian concept of mass plays a fundamental role in each of these theories even though no one really knows what mass is. Starting with relativistic mass we will reason our way to the conclusion that mass is an illusion, and tidal effects are local. That is, behind the illusion of mass lay the mass-free foundations of a mass-free paradigm of Relativity that transcends all the theories mentioned and shows just why general relativity does not go far enough. Further, the true significance of Planck’s four-dimensional constant is to be found in this new paradigm of Relativity. The maths employed here have been used in [1] and [2].

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22282] **viXra:1802.0285 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 00:27:56*

**Authors:** Paris Samuel Miles Brenden

**Comments:** 104 Pages. Trust in the truism that is a ladder to a way; for then the light that is so; is found by what passes beneath.

The principles and foundation of our understanding of the universe are one; to that of the effect of an end found in that of the inquiry of man supported by the sentience of it's meaning in all that is; the verifiable true consideration is one word; the eventual ending of a pretense found in that of what is disclosed as fact; as in either of what we so consider of the eventual; the end of what is so; is a new beginning in that of life; the future as a world in one; as love; of the incarnation of all that is; the given of life to it's true form and kind treatment of another; as cooperatively all beings respectfully are endowed with the given of love; the explanation of which is the choice to deliver life upon life as the infinite compassion of which is the release to freedom from constraint; and the given of return of kindness as known for that of kind of meaning; the given of our existence upon all of created; as the form of the shapeless and only knowable truth of one world and people; since as in the only granted excepted truth and giving of a people so knowable in all eventualities is explained as the principle of motion of the immobility of the heart of meaning to all of existence to the truth of understanding in principle nature; to the given of what is being; the standing of it's continuance only then found in that of the freedom found in that of the giving of life; by the endowment of one for attention to their and other's consideration prior to another; as the expressed choice to one's self; and the forgiveness of all equivalences of people; worlds; and meanings found in the natural laws of this world; the next; and nature of a future yet to be; for then in what is; the given of each; is the endowed of all; and throughout what is creation; every being is dependent on the remainder of all of existence; as no such principle exemplified by purpose can mistreat another; the withholding of which is it's purpose to continuance in being and the only means of it's survival; the open difference of which is our inheritance; since as such as one is; all such other given's of people's do require another to support a self; a world; and this given; finally as known; since one self so only remains to exist if and in being as such as all such other supports do; foundationally true as one before another always is.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[22281] **viXra:1802.0284 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 01:37:23*

**Authors:** Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

At change of a condition of power space of Mars gas and power streams escape on his surface and, thereby, cause dust storms.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[22280] **viXra:1802.0283 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 01:54:24*

**Authors:** Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In Solar system there have to be seven planets because it has been so conceived and created by God.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[22279] **viXra:1802.0282 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 02:03:03*

**Authors:** Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The border of the Universe has the maximum density of dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[22278] **viXra:1802.0281 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 02:19:27*

**Authors:** Nikitin V.N., Nikitina M.I.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The structure and the nature of emergence and evolution of Jupiter and live stones are similar.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[22277] **viXra:1802.0280 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 03:28:12*

**Authors:** V. A. Kuz'menko

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is proposed to use the light-pulse atom interferometry for experimental study of some properties of quantum memory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22276] **viXra:1802.0279 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 04:09:12*

**Authors:** Ranganath G. Kulkarni

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The body can not contract to infinite density due to the existence of repulsive force. It is proved that the escape velocity of the maximum contracted body is equal to the free space velocity of light. Therefore the black holes do not exist.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[22275] **viXra:1802.0278 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-20 06:18:10*

**Authors:** Ero Sukna

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Timestamp : 20/Feb/2018

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[22274] **viXra:1802.0277 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-20 06:57:50*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2017 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

Eq 3.1.1 of Majorana was the basis for the angel particle named a chiral Majorana fermion. From Eq 3.1.2 Meth8 refutes that as a tautology because of the one value F in the truth table TFTT TTTT TTTT TTTT.
These results from mathematical logic make the experimental discovery of such a particle suspicious.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22273] **viXra:1802.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-20 08:09:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 54 Pages.

Identifying right-handed and left-handed molecules is a crucial step for many applications in chemistry and pharmaceutics. [33] A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information—known as qubits—that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22272] **viXra:1802.0275 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-20 08:37:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

A team of researchers working at the Weizmann Institute of Science has found that organoids can be used to better understand how the human brain wrinkles as it develops. [29] A team of biologists has found an unexpected source for the brain's development, a finding that offers new insights into the building of the nervous system. [28] Researchers discover both the structure of specific brain areas and memory are linked to genetic activity that also play important roles in immune system function. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25] Advances in microscopy techniques have often triggered important discoveries in the field of neuroscience, enabling vital insights in understanding the brain and promising new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [24]

**Category:** Mind Science

[22271] **viXra:1802.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-20 09:06:23*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The interaction of high-power laser light sources with matter has given rise to numerous applications including; fast ion acceleration; intense X-ray, gamma-ray, positron and neutron generation; and fast-ignition-based laser fusion. [13]
Conventional electron accelerators have become an indispensable tool in modern research. [12]
An outstanding conundrum on what happens to the laser energy after beams are fired into plasma has been solved in newly-published research at the University of Strathclyde. [11]
Researchers at Lund University and Louisiana State University have developed a tool that makes it possible to control extreme UV light - light with much shorter wavelengths than visible light. [10]
Tiny micro- and nanoscale structures within a material's surface are invisible to the naked eye, but play a big role in determining a material's physical, chemical, and biomedical properties. [9]
A team of researchers led by Leo Kouwenhoven at TU Delft has demonstrated an on-chip microwave laser based on a fundamental property of superconductivity, the ac Josephson effect. They embedded a small section of an interrupted superconductor, a Josephson junction, in a carefully engineered on-chip cavity. Such a device opens the door to many applications in which microwave radiation with minimal dissipation is key, for example in controlling qubits in a scalable quantum computer. [8]
Optical scientists from the Warsaw Laser Centre of the Institute of Physical
Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Faculty of Physics of the University of Warsaw have generated ultrashort laser pulses in an optical fiber with a method previously considered to be physically impossible. [7]
Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light in Erlangen have discovered a new mechanism for guiding light in photonic crystal fiber (PCF). [6]
Scientists behind a theory that the speed of light is variable - and not constant as Einstein suggested - have made a prediction that could be tested. [5]
Physicists’ greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought “theory of everything.”
This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4]

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[22270] **viXra:1802.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 13:20:01*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19]
A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient.
[18]
Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17]
Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16]
Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15]

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[22269] **viXra:1802.0271 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 13:32:02*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 51 Pages.

With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32]
A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31]
Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30]
Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
A collaboration between the lab of Judy Cha, the Carol and Douglas Melamed Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, and IBM's Watson Research Center could help make a potentially revolutionary technology more viable for manufacturing. [27]
A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26]
The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
A research team from the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22268] **viXra:1802.0269 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 17:14:55*

**Authors:** Ayal Sharon

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The Law of the Excluded Middle holds that either a statement "X" or its opposite "not X" is true. In Boolean algebra form, Y = X XOR (not X). Riemann's analytic continuation of Zeta(s) contradicts the Law of the Excluded Middle, because the Dirichlet series Zeta(s) is proven divergent in the half-plane Re(s)<=1. Further inspection of the derivation of Riemann's analytic continuation of $\zeta(s)$ shows that it is wrongly based on the Cauchy integral theorem, and thus false.

**Category:** Number Theory

[22267] **viXra:1802.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 17:08:03*

**Authors:** Phil A. Bloom

**Comments:** Pages.

For x ^ n + y ^ n = z ^ n with positive co-prime x, y, z and positive integral n, we take Fermat's last theorem (FLT) as if still unproven. For some value of n (n = 1,2, at minimum) there exist positive co-prime r, s, t for which r ^ n + s ^ n = t ^ n, our algebraic identity, holds. These two equations directly imply other true statements : (r s)/t determines uniquely (r, s, t); (x y)/z determines uniquely (x, y, z); {(r s)/t} = {(x y)/z}; So, {r, s, t}={x, y, z}. We show, for n > 2, that there exists no co-prime (r, s, t). Hence, for n > 2, no co-prime (x, y, z) exists. Thus, for n > 2, no integral (x, y, z) exists.

**Category:** Number Theory

[22266] **viXra:1802.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 17:56:17*

**Authors:** Ayal Sharon

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Euler's formula is used to derive a trigonometric version of the Dirichlet series $\zeta(s)=\sum n^{-s}$, which is divergent in the half-plane $\sigma \le 1$, wherein $s \in \mathbb{C}$ and $s=\sigma +it$. Abel's lemma and Dirichlet's test incorrectly hold that trigonometric $\zeta(s)$ is convergent in the critical strip $0<\sigma \le 1$ at $t\ne0$, because they fail to consider a divergent monotonically decreasing series (e.g. the harmonic series) in combination with a bounded oscillating function having an increasing period duration (e.g. $f(t, n) = \sin(t \cdot \ln(n))$).

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[22265] **viXra:1802.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 20:46:44*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Where all current notions of scientific historical materialism completely breakdown.

**Category:** Social Science

[22264] **viXra:1802.0263 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 23:19:08*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

An isolated physical system of elastic collision between two identical charged
particles is chosen to manifest the physics law,
conservation of momentum, in a random inertial reference frame under Lorentz Transformation.
In this random reference frame, the center of mass
moves at a constant velocity. By applying
Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both particles, total momentum
during the collision in this random inertial reference frame can be calculated and
is expected to remain constant.
The calculation
shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold under Lorentz Transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22263] **viXra:1802.0262 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 23:24:29*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 7 Pages. for possible submission to Marcel Grossman 15, as an entry

We are looking at comparison of two action integrals and we identify the Lagrangian multiplier as setting up a constraint equation (on cosmological expansion). What we have done is to replace the Hamber Quantum gravity reference-based action integral with a result from John Klauder’s “Enhanced Quantization” . In doing so, with Padamabhan’s treatment of the inflaton, we then initiate an explicit bound upon the cosmological constant. The other approximation is to use the inflaton results and conflate them with John Klauder’s Action principle for a way to, if we have the idea of a potential well, generalized by Klauder, with a wall of space time in the Pre Planckian-regime to ask what bounds the Cosmological constant prior to inflation. And, get an upper bound on the mass of a graviton. We conclude with a re do of a multiverse version of the Penrose cyclic conformal cosmology to ascertain how this mass of a heavy graviton is consistent from cycle to cycle.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[22262] **viXra:1802.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-20 00:36:57*

**Authors:** Chou Yu-Ching

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Einstein's general relativistic eld equation is a nonlinear partial dierential equation that lacks an easy way to obtain exact solutions. The most famous examples are Schwarzschild and Kerr's black hole solutions. The Kerr metric has astrophysical meaning because most of cosmic celestial bodies are rotating. The Kerr metric is even more diffcult to derive than the Schwarzschild metric specically due to off-diagonal term of metric tensor. In this paper, a derivation of Kerr metric was obtained by ellipsoid coordinate transformation, which causes elimination a large amount of tedious derivation. This derivation is not only physics enlightening, but also further deducing some
characteristics of the rotating black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22261] **viXra:1802.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-20 00:48:17*

**Authors:** Patel Arvind Rajkumar

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Sir I have made a formula on inertia. I have proven it both practically and mathematically. I want to see it. Help me make it public.I have also worked on some other topics that are available on my blog. This is my blog address - arvinrajsun1999.blogspot.

In this research I have given Formulas and Properties of Inertial force, law of required force for change in state of rest, state of motion with uniform velocity, state of motion with uniform angular velocity and law of required force for change in direction in straight line.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[22260] **viXra:1802.0259 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-20 00:51:57*

**Authors:** Patel Arvind Rajkumar

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Sir I have made a formula on inertia. I have proven it both practically and mathematically. I want to see it. Help me make it public.I have also worked on some other topics that are available on my blog. This is my blog address - arvinrajsun1999.blogspot.

In this research I have given Formula and hypothesis of Air pressure differential Force.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[22259] **viXra:1802.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-20 00:54:13*

**Authors:** Patel Arvind Rajkumar

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Sir I have made a formula on inertia. I have proven it both practically and mathematically. I want to see it. Help me make it public.I have also worked on some other topics that are available on my blog. This is my blog address - arvinrajsun1999.blogspot.

In this research I have given Hypothesis and formulas of Temperature Differential Force and law of increase or loss.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[22258] **viXra:1802.0257 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-20 00:57:16*

**Authors:** Patel Arvind Rajkumar

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Sir I have made a formula on inertia. I have proven it both practically and mathematically. I want to see it. Help me make it public.I have also worked on some other topics that are available on my blog. This is my blog address - arvinrajsun1999.blogspot.

In this research I have given Formula of Cohesive and Adhesive force.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[22257] **viXra:1802.0256 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-20 00:59:53*

**Authors:** Patel Arvind Rajkumar

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Sir I have made a formula on inertia. I have proven it both practically and mathematically. I want to see it. Help me make it public.I have also worked on some other topics that are available on my blog. This is my blog address - arvinrajsun1999.blogspot.

In this research I have given hypothesis of Arun and Arun temperature and formula of Arun Temperature.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[22256] **viXra:1802.0255 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-20 01:11:09*

**Authors:** Patel Arvind Rajkumar

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Sir I have made a formula on inertia. I have proven it both practically and mathematically. I want to see it. Help me make it public.I have also worked on some other topics that are available on my blog. This is my blog address - arvinrajsun1999.blogspot.

In this research I have given formula of gravitational field and hypothesis of gravitational volume. I have not given hypothesis of field of gravitational. I have given new hypothesis of gravitational boundary.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[22255] **viXra:1802.0254 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-20 02:09:09*

**Authors:** Patel Arvind Rajkumar

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Sir I have made a formula on inertia. I have proven it both practically and mathematically. I want to see it. Help me make it public.I have also worked on some other topics that are available on my blog. This is my blog address - arvinrajsun1999.blogspot.

In this research I have given Law of Equality and 2nd law of Law of Increase or Lass. I have given Equation of Law of Equality and 2nd law of Law of Increase or Loss.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[22254] **viXra:1802.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-20 02:12:39*

**Authors:** Patel Arvind Rajkumar

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Sir I have made a formula on inertia. I have proven it both practically and mathematically. I want to see it. Help me make it public.I have also worked on some other topics that are available on my blog. This is my blog address - arvinrajsun1999.blogspot.

In this research I have given hypothesis of field of buoyancy or buoyancy foce and its equation.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[22253] **viXra:1802.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-20 02:14:39*

**Authors:** Patel Arvind Rajkumar

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Sir I have made a formula on inertia. I have proven it both practically and mathematically. I want to see it. Help me make it public.I have also worked on some other topics that are available on my blog. This is my blog address - arvinrajsun1999.blogspot.

In this research I have given hypothesis and formula of intensity of buoyancy force or buoyancy.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[22252] **viXra:1802.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 06:17:18*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

This author has already proposed a new theory, Apparent Source Theory ( AST ), that can explain the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect, the Silvertooth experiment, the Roland De Witte experiment, the Venus planet radar range data anomaly ( analyzed and reported by Bryan G Wallace ) and other experiments. According to AST, there will be an apparent change in position of a light source as seen by the observer, for absolutely co-moving source and observer. The 'null' result of the Michelson-Morley experiment (MMX) is explained as follows. The effect of absolute motion is just to create an apparent change in position of the light source relative to the detector. There will be no (significant) fringe shift in the MMX for the same reason that there will be no (significant) fringe shift if the source position was actually, physically shifted slightly. The fringe shift in Sagnac effect is explained as follows. The source will be apparently shifted away relative to the detector when looking in the backward direction and shifted towards the detector when looking in the forward direction, hence creating a path difference. Einstein's thought experiment ( 'chasing a beam of light' ) is re-interpreted and used as one of the foundational arguments in this paper. The new interpretation is that it is the phase velocity of light that is always constant irrespective of source, observer and mirror velocity. The group velocity behaves in a more conventional way: it is independent of source (absolute) velocity but depends on observer and mirror velocity. For an observer moving near the speed of light away from a light source, the phases will still move past the observer at the speed of light while the group will be at rest relative to the observer. The new theoretical framework consists of two theories: 1. Apparent Source theory 2. Exponential Doppler Effect of light theory . The results of many light speed experiments can be derived from these two theories. Apparent Source Theory determines the phase and group delay of light, whereas Exponential Doppler Effect theory determines the frequency/wavelength of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22251] **viXra:1802.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 06:55:39*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This note presents a definite integral for pi.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[22250] **viXra:1802.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 06:58:12*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This note presents some integrals involving pi.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[22249] **viXra:1802.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 07:03:38*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This note presents some formulas related with pi.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[22248] **viXra:1802.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 07:08:03*

**Authors:** Lev I. Verkhovsky

**Comments:** 8 Pages. This is a translation into English of the abridged version of an article published in the Russian popular science journal `Chemistry and Life` (2006, No 6)

The groups of symmetry of regular polyhedra are considered. It is shown that a total number and types of gauge bosons in the Grand Unified Theory with the group SU(5) can be deduced from the structure of the cube rotation group. Possible connections of fundamental fermions with the icosahedral symmetry are discussed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[22247] **viXra:1802.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 07:27:20*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[22246] **viXra:1802.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 07:50:14*

**Authors:** Karan R.Takkhi

**Comments:** 4 pages, 1 figure

The value of the cosmological constant obtained according to the quantum field theory is 10^120 times larger than the observed small value of the cosmological constant. Such huge discrepancy with the cosmological constant, known as the cosmological constant problem would cause a vacuum catastrophe. Since the discrepancy involved with the cosmological constant is unimaginably very high, therefore, molecular diffusion model has been introduced in this paper as an alternative to dark energy in order to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe. The molecular diffusion model considers the distribution of large-scale structures as molecules inside a vacuum chamber. Since large-scale structures are ensemble of atoms, therefore, they can be treated as distribution of molecules possessing finite amount of energy. Instead of considering that space is expanding, the manuscript emphasizes upon the recession of large-scale structures upon a stationary space-time continuum. Since the discrepancy with the cosmological constant is very large, therefore, instead of considering that empty space possesses energy, it would be much more prudent to consider that large-scale structures possess energy by the virtue of which they recede, quite similar to a molecule that recedes by the virtue of energy that it possesses, after all, “the diffusion or free expansion of gas molecules inside a vacuum chamber by the virtue of vacuum energy or dark energy” has never been heard of; such claim, if true, would only suggest that gas molecules do not possess any energy. Instead of considering distant Type 1a supernova as a standard candle, I have considered the Sun as the standard candle. The study shows that the large-scale structures are receding at a constant rate, instead at an accelerated rate. The actual or the finite recessional velocity that a massive galaxy cluster attains by the virtue of its finite energy has also been unravelled in this paper along with the corresponding value of their “true” redshift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22245] **viXra:1802.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 08:20:52*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

Physicists Bart van Dam and Katerina Newell (Dohnalova) from the UvA Institute of Physics, in collaboration with Emanuele Marino and Peter Schall as well as colleagues from the University of Twente and Jiljin University in China, have shown that a single nanoparticle can be used to emit different colours of light. [27]
Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26]
Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25]
The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24]
In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for
Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23]
For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22]

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[22244] **viXra:1802.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 10:37:06*

**Authors:** Richard L Amoroso

**Comments:** 33 Pages. Scientific GOD Journal, August 2017, Volume 8 | Issue 7 pp 700-733

Under the panoply that natural science and theology are not mutually exclusive, but opposite ends
of a broad spectrum of human epistemology; what constitutes a pragmatic proof of God? The most
primitive tool of epistemology, Myth and Superstition, which guided civilization for thousands of
years, still exists to a surprising degree in modern cultures. The second tool, Logic and Reason can
produce egregiously valid arguments both for and against the existence of God. The third tool of
epistemology, empiricism, since Galileo has been the basis of modern experimental science; but
the challenge of repeatability remains between objective and subjective modes of measurement and
some experiments are deemed impossible to perform. The fourth tool, completing epistemology,
transcendence, perhaps had secular origin in the noetic writings of ancient Greek philosopher Plato.
It has always been possible to demonstrate the existence of God utilizing this fourth tool of
epistemology, but because transcendence is generally subjective; it has not been acceptable by
current definitions of pragmatic science or to nonbelievers unwilling/unable to achieve the required
state-of-mind. Because of the lack of a rigorous model for a Physics of the Observer, and limitations
imposed by the quantum uncertainty principle; the currently available tools of physical science
have not allowed an objectively oriented empirical proof of God. This however, changes to an
arguable degree with the addition of the 3rd regime of Natural Science - Unified Field Mechanics
(Classical-Quantum-UFM). The Perennial Philosophy promotes the idea that all world religions
are based on a single universal truth that promotes spiritual union with God. Stated another way,
the Perennial Philosophy says: If there is a God he has provided a way for Man to find him. In this
work, we review logical and metaphysical methods of fulfilling this premise; but most saliently
provide an empirical protocol that for the first time in history is able to demonstrate the existence
of a Life Principle tantamount to the Spirit of God as a physically real noumenon, hidden until now
behind the uncertainty principle. Although this represents a major step forward, there remains
ineffable properties of the Spirit of God unknowable to a temporal mind; and the subtleties of a
new physical UFM noetic action principle will remain engendered with concomitant bias of
interpretation in what is demonstrated depending on whether one is inclined or disinclined to
believe in the existence of God. Ultimately mystical experience provides the only proof of God.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[22243] **viXra:1802.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 11:17:43*

**Authors:** Richard L Amoroso

**Comments:** 53 Pages. Journal of Consciousness Exploration & Research, August 2017, Volume 8 Issue 7 pp. 537-554

The climate surrounding sexual preference is politically charged, and before the introduction of
Noetic Field Theory; contemporary science has been unable to describe the complex framework
for the origin of sexual preference, because science has not had either a comprehensive model of
living systems or consciousness able to delineate the correspondence between biophysics and the
noetic effect of the 3rd regime of unified field mechanics (UFM). This work begins reviewing
aspects of psychology, biology and cognitive science, then develops an anthropic telergic teleology
of mind-body interaction (physically real Cartesian interactive dualism) as the context for
developing a pragmatic scientific model for the fundamental origin of sexual preference. The
model utilizes archetypes originating in Jung’s concept of a collective unconscious which are also
presumed to be physically real elements of mind. This so-called Noetic Theory (relying on spirit
(chi, prana) as an inherent self-organized aspect of a vital field, as a physically real action principle
predicts a prenatal stressor acting during a key stage of embryonic development typically under a
panoply of one or both parents exhibiting a threshold (gradient of severity) personality disorder(s).
The resultant action of this noetic effect orients the anima and animus archetypes as they are
coupled into the biophysical substrate of the psyche (soul) and reverses, for the case of sexual
preference, the normal orientation hierarchy of the noetic field within the individuals
psychosphere. Initially, because of conceptual similarity, the periodic reversal of the Earth’s
geomagnetic field by the force of solar wind on the dynamo at the Earth’s core is utilized as a
metaphor to axiomatically illustrate the prenatal inversion of the Jungian anima and animus. This
scenario is followed by a more technical and experimentally testable scientific description utilizing
pertinent new principles related to the UFM domain discovery of physics of awareness.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[22242] **viXra:1802.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-18 13:58:51*

**Authors:** Alexander I.Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.

**Comments:** 6 Pages. dubinyansky@mail.ru http://universe100.narod.ru/ http://universe100.narod.ru/002-Oglavlenie-angl-jpg.html (English)

Development of the mathematical model of the elastic universe. The spins of the loks (0,0), (1,0) and (1,1) are calculated. Assumptions are made regarding other loks. Further conclusions were drawn on the identification of elementary particles in a set of loks.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[22241] **viXra:1802.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-18 16:27:24*

**Authors:** Kenneth D. Oglesby

**Comments:** 10 Pages. This paper is part of MC Physics' General Universe Theory

Four simple examples of the most basic mass particles in the Universe interacting with external charges and neutral matter are presented. Each example shows that the cause of the net attraction force of gravity, even at this most basic level of the Universe, is due to: required separation distance between postulated mono-charges/ monocharges; induction caused differential distances for repel and attraction forces (Rr>Ra causing Fr<Fa); and dispersion of weaker charges of the subject neutral mass particle.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[22240] **viXra:1802.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-18 17:16:26*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

We test counter examples of conditions for the speed of light as s:
If possibly c is not equivalent to s, and c is less than or greater than s, then: (1.2)
If possibly c is not equivalent to s, and possibly c is less than or greater than s, then: (1.3)
If possibly c is equivalent to s, or possibly c is less than or greater than s, then: (1.4)
The result is that E=mc^2 not tautologous after all.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22239] **viXra:1802.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-18 17:27:55*

**Authors:** Zeolla Gabriel martin

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This paper develops the divisibility of the so-called Simple Primes numbers-11 (1 to 11), the discovery of a pattern to infinity, the demonstration of the Inharmonics that are 2,3,5,7 and 11 and the harmony of 1. The discovery of infinite harmony represented in fractal numbers and patterns. This is a family before the prime numbers.
The simple prime numbers-11 are known as the 13-rough numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[22238] **viXra:1802.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-18 17:39:12*

**Authors:** Nirmal Tej Kumar

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Simple Technical Note on cryo-EM Image Processing using R Language

Researchers believe that an open-source programming language for statistical analysis “called R”,could certainly pave the way for solving demanding scientific applications like Cryo-EM image processing.As we see today, thousands of international scientists are participating in the R development community programs contributing towards the development of new tools and libraries.It is in this context,that the author intends to reap the benefits of R/RIPA/Magick Tools & Multivariate Analysis concept(MVA) to process Cryo-EM/TEM/SEM images.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[22237] **viXra:1802.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-18 18:17:32*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

[F]for every n > 1, there is always at least one prime p such that n < p < 2 n.(1.1)
For all n∈N>0, there exists a prime number p with n<p≤2n.(2.1)
Eqs. 1.2 and 2.2 as rendered are not tautologous, meaning both Bertrand expressions are suspicious.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[22236] **viXra:1802.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-18 18:53:04*

**Authors:** Vaggelis Talios

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The “theory of the chain reaction” is a new theory, for the creation of the Universe, the Universes, the Antiuniverses and the whole Cosmos, from the elementary particles to infinity

**Category:** Astrophysics

[22235] **viXra:1802.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 00:43:55*

**Authors:** Jack Bidnik

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Electrostatics, Gravity, and Galactic Force © US 2015
by Jack Bidnik
This paper is a continuation of my paper entitled Gravitational Forces Revisited (GFR), http://vixra.org/abs/1707.0128 and may be considered as Chapter 2 of the concepts developed in that paper.
Two corollaries of the derivation of Gs in GFR are elaborated here to show that the formula can be extended to include both the smallest and the largest masses and spaces. The same formula can give both the electrostatic force of the Hydrogen atom and also the force which counteracts the centrifugal force of large galaxies. I believe this development nullifies the most basic motive for postulating dark matter, which is that the gravitational force at such high speeds could not hold the galaxy together. Examples are given for galaxies of various size.
The paper starts with continuing analysis of the mathematical conclusion in GFR that the derived force Ft is equivalent to the centripetal force of the orbit vo2/r. This analysis is perhaps superfluous since there is no other acceleration present radially than the one derived for Ft , but I present various looks at the math to dispel any nagging doubts.
Another set of doubts to be dispelled involves the idea of frames of motion. It suffices to point out that when one uses the reduced mass, it is the equivalent of the motion of either mass in the frame of the other, since it is the equivalent of one mass being stationary.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[22234] **viXra:1802.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 02:00:50*

**Authors:** Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The perception of space in which objects and perhaps events have relative position and direction is one of first things people learn in their lives. Ultimately the space have always been important part of majority of physics theories, conceived as three linear infinite dimensions in classical mechanics or as four dimensional Einsteinian spacetime.
If there is a force acting onto some object in space it would indicate presence of some force field as ultimate cause of the force itself. The contemporary physics would consider that all force fields found in the space are contained by that space. According to current main understanding in physics the space itself does not require any force field to be present.
However there is no true evidence for existence of space without any force field(s) as well as there is no pure evidence for infinity of the space. It is only presumption.
In contradiction to this very basic principle of contemporary physics, we here propose new concept that space and physical force field are mutually dependent entities of the same phenomena. If force field does not exist, then the corresponding space does not exist as well. And vice versa, if space does not exist, there is no force field present. As result of such principle it is possible to describe each specific force field with universal space equation, which has significant consequences.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[22233] **viXra:1802.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 03:19:05*

**Authors:** Arjun Dahal, Sujan Bista

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Corruption is one of the major problem of present day world, that is intangible in itself, but, plays a major role in our daily life, which either, directly or indirectly, is effecting our lives. Through this paper, we have tried to classify the types of corruption under five major headings.

**Category:** Social Science

[22232] **viXra:1802.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-18 04:54:39*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Le Hoang Son, Assia Bakali, Mohamed Talea, Florentin Smarandache, Ganeshsree Selvachandran

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Neutrosophic set is a generalization of classical set, fuzzy set, and intuitionistic fuzzy set by employing a degree of truth (T), a degree of indeterminacy (I), and a degree of falsehood (F) associated with an element of the dataset. One of the most essential problems is studying set-theoretic operators in order to be applied to practical applications.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[22231] **viXra:1802.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-18 04:56:17*

**Authors:** Shyamal Dalapati, Surapati Pramanik, Shariful Alam, Florentin Smarandache, Tapan Kumar Roy

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Cross entropy measure is one of the best way to calculate the divergence of any variable from the priori one variable. We define a new cross entropy measure under interval neutrosophic set (INS) environment, which we call IN-cross entropy measure and prove its basic properties. We also develop weighted IN-cross entropy measure and investigats its basic properties.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[22230] **viXra:1802.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-18 04:58:01*

**Authors:** Seok-Zun Song, Madad Khan, Florentin Smarandache, Young Bae Jun

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this article, we apply the notion of interval neutrosophic sets to ideal theory in BCK/BCI-algebras.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[22229] **viXra:1802.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-18 04:59:36*

**Authors:** Qays Hatem Imran, F. Smarandache, Riad K. Al-Hamido, R. Dhavaseelan

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, we presented another concept of neutrosophic open sets called neutrosophic semi-alfa-open sets and studied their fundamental properties in neutrosophic topological spaces. We also present neutrosophic semi-alfa-interior and neutrosophic semi-alfa-closure and study some of their fundamental properties.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[22228] **viXra:1802.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-18 05:01:24*

**Authors:** Gulfam Shahzadi, Muhammad Akram, Arsham Borumand Saeid

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, we present the use of single-valued neutrosophic sets in medical diagnosis by using distance measures and similarity measures. Using interconnection between single-valued neutrosophic sets and symptoms of patient, we determine the type of disease. We define new distance formulas for single valued neutrosophic sets. We develop two new medical diagnosis algorithms under neutrosophic environment. We also solve a numerical example to illustrate the proposed algorithms and finally, we compare the obtained results.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[22227] **viXra:1802.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-18 05:02:31*

**Authors:** Tuhin Bera, Nirmal Kumar Mahapatra

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The motivation of this paper is to extend the concept of Neutrosophic soft matrix (NSM) theory. Some basic definitions of classical matrix theory in the parlance of neutrosophic soft set theory have been presented with proper examples. Then, a theoretical studies of some traditional operations of NSM have been developed. Finally, a decision making theory has been proposed by developing an appropriate solution algorithm, namely, score function algorithm and it has been illustrated by suitable examples.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[22226] **viXra:1802.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-18 05:03:51*

**Authors:** R. Narmada Devi, R. Dhavaseelan, S. Jafari

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper we introduce the concept of a new class of an ordered neutrosophic bitopological spaces. Besides giving some interesting properties of these spaces. We also prove analogues of Uryshon’s lemma and Tietze extension theorem in an ordered neutrosophic bitopological spaces.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[22225] **viXra:1802.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-18 05:05:48*

**Authors:** Dalbinder Kour, Kajla Basu

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The paper presents selection of transportation companies and their mode of transportation for interval valued neutrosophic data. The paper focuses on the application of distance measures to select mode of transportation for transportation companies. The paper also presents the application of multi-criteria decision making method using weighted correlation coefficient and extended TOPSIS for transportation companies.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[22224] **viXra:1802.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-18 07:17:31*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The solving the tasks of QM.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22223] **viXra:1802.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-18 11:09:01*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 6 pages

In its basic form, the Special Relativity’s famous mass-energy equivalence equation doesn’t seem to hold for massless particles. To get around this deficiency, another form (energy-momentum relation) of the same equation incorporating a momentum term has been introduced by the physics mainstream. The adopted mainstream derivation of the energy-momentum relation is based on certain assumptions using Minkowski spacetime four-momentum, forcing a solution towards the energy-momentum relation. This form of the mass-energy equivalence equation appears to hold for massless particles. However, in this paper, an analysis of the mainstream derivation of the energy-momentum relation is carried out, highlighting the made assumptions, and revealing a resulting contradiction. It is clearly shown, through a straight forward derivation, that the energy-momentum relation still doesn’t hold for massless particles. Consequently, the energy-momentum relation requires that a photon must have an infinitesimal rest mass, for which its speed only approaches c. Thus, the speed of light will no longer be invariant with respect to all inertial reference frames, as postulated by Einstein in his formulation of the Special Relativity!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22222] **viXra:1802.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-17 19:52:27*

**Authors:** Viktor Chibisov, Ivan Chibisov

**Comments:** 393 Pages.

S_theory belongs to the class of preon models of the structure of elementary particles from first-particles (the first brick). The basic idea of S_theory lies in the model for the formation of irst-particles of matter (simples) by stretching the electric vortices of virtual photons with a powerful magnetic field (PMF) of a bursting singularity into electromagnetic vortex-helixes. After the "shutdown" of the PMF, the vortex-spirals are shortened to resonance lengths (5 pcs.) and the longer ones (2 pcs.) fold into toroidal vortex-bagels, such as Zeldovich's anapoles. From Zel'dovich's anapoles, they are distinguished by the presence of an azimuthal electric vortex, which gives them a magnetic moment and an electric charge. From the formed spectrum of 2 standard sizes of simples-bagels and 3 standard sizes of simples-spirales S_models of formation of basic elementary particles, relic neutron, nucleosynthesis of isotope clouds, main nuclear reactions, neutron stars, black holes, particles of Dark matter are offered, and also to give an explanation reasons for the dispersal of galaxies (dark energy) and the dilemma of the imbalance of matter and antimatter in our Universe. The proposed S-models of these objects and the processes of their formation made it possible to establish the deterministic regularities of these processes, covering the era of the formation and evolution of the universe after the Big Bang. The proposed S-models of objects and the processes of their formation and transformation have an exclusively electromagnetic character, based on the interaction of electric and magnetic vortices. It was found that the theory of the interaction of electric and magnetic vortices (TEMV) is currently not fully developed, we had to postulate a number of TEMV provisions. In this paper, schemes for experimental verification of this postulates and consequences stemming from S-theory, such as the difference of masses of protons, neutrons and alpha particles in different isotopes, and the need to correct the reference masses of individual isotopes (in particular tritium) are proposed. An analysis of the appearance of virtual photons and the singularity at the time of the Big Bang led us to the assumption of a two-component space structure consisting of corpuscles containing related components K1 and K2, genealogically related to electric and magnetic vortices. The models of formation of virtual photons and the first singularity are given.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[22221] **viXra:1802.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-18 01:15:56*

**Authors:** Durgadas Datta.

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Review and re think.

Re look cosmology observations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22220] **viXra:1802.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-17 10:12:33*

**Authors:** Yu. N. Bratkov

**Comments:** 14 pages, Russian. Consciousness and Physical Reality, 2003, v. 8, N 5, pp. 40-51.

The main ideas of "Theory of Hyperobjects" (viXra:1207.0079) and new results. Mathematical (topological) modelling in mythology, with applications to geology. Some new classes of physical objects are described. Cybernetic level of geology (planetology) is demonstrated. The existence of the ideal preimage of the Earth is demonstrated.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[22219] **viXra:1802.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-17 10:38:14*

**Authors:** ANIRILASY Méleste

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We suggest that there exists, at least, one prime number in four intervals between n² and (n+1)² for any integer n 2 such that :
all intervals are half-open;
the excluded endpoints are multiples of n;
the number of elements in each interval is equal to the least even upper bound for the biggest prime number strictly less than n.
This conjecture is a strong form of Oppermann’s one.

**Category:** Number Theory

[22218] **viXra:1802.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-17 10:35:06*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse

**Comments:** 1 Page.

While the notion that it is better to avoid renormalization if one possibly can is an easy sell, the possibility that a naturally finite, confined, and gauge invariant quantum model has come over the horizon turns out to be a surprisingly hard sell.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[22217] **viXra:1802.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-16 14:42:23*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 29 Pages. Last paper in the author's series on Theory of Everything

Members of the public and intellectuals do appreciate that the universe appears to be something
beyond explanations. It is a colossal miracle, because there is no evidence of any kind, capable
of indicating how such an impossible reality could have arisen, without attributing it to superintelligent
induction, based on nothing like the science and physics we know of. We should not
use the limitation of human knowhow, to claim that it all of existence arose from nothing, or from
a few grams of vacuum energy, based on science which did not exist. This third article is the last,
before the author publishes his Theory of Everything, in his coming book, later this year, 2018.
Elaborating a genuine Theory of Everything (TOE) is obviously a very demanding proposition. To
start with, you can never be certain it has been correctly formulated, because we are just humans,
created without the capacity to possess supernatural knowledge. The TOE remains the only
universal unified concept having a future, after Glashow two years back openly admitted that the
Grand Unified Theory of his and Georgi, of 1974, was dead. To start with, the TOE should be an
all-encompassing model that provides answers to many questions from scientists and the public
about the origin and nature of our universe. Historically, the seeds of a theory of our universe
were sown in efforts to produce a field unification theory, in 1864, when Maxwell published his
dynamical theory of electromagnetic field. This influenced Einstein in 1905 to use Maxwell’s
constancy of the speed of light to unify space and time into the concept of spacetime. Later
Einstein conceived of curved four-dimensional spacetime to describe gravity in his General
Relativity. Some years later Weyl in 1919 came up with the gauge electromagnetic field theory,
which eventually led to the concept of Grand Unified Theory, which was believed to be one in
which all forces would merge into a single force, due to different fields being able to “merge” into
a unified one.
2
Kaluza in 1921 envisaged General Relativity as a 5-dimensional entity in which Klein, in 1926,
suggested that the fourth dimension could be curled up to illustrate gravitational force. These
varied developments were the earliest attempts at trying to understand the universe in unified
field theories, and it was in this rather confused context, as from 1930, that Einstein embarked on
an ambitious journey into a 25 year-dedication to formulate a classical Unified Field Theory, which
never materialised, and he was still scribbling some equations on his last day in 1955. A decade
later, there started a new realisation about unifying the electromagnetic force with the Weak
Interaction, arising from the work of Higgs, Glashow, Weinberg and Salam that produced the
unified Electroweak Theory, the unification of the electromagnetic and weak forces. This trend
encouraged physicists to contemplate that perhaps at very high energies, not yet possible under
contemporary technologies, all forces might unify into one grand unified theory, the GUT, which
when unified with gravity, would produce a theory of everything. Recent data suggest that a Grand
Unified Theory is either a theoretical curiosity, misunderstood, or a mirage. Speculations went
much further, for there have been suggestions that a GUT, championed by Salam and others,
would produce at the highest energy a single combined field of all forces, from which would
emerge evidence of the occurrence of superparticles, for each of the standard particles in today’s
physics. The important questions are why the universe requires such physical entities and how
do they fit into the final explanations of the realities of our laws of nature, for instance the nature
of consciousness and other phenomena of existence, like Darwin’s theory of evolution or black
holes or the Big Bang theory, or even about the origin of our universe.
This being so, several efforts, in the physics and cosmology domains, try to dig into the strata of
universal knowledge to search for our ultimate relevance and future, but the topic of finding a TOE
was seen to be even more elusive. However, scientists were convinced that the Theory of
Everything was first and foremost a concept of our ultimate realities and of existence. It is believed
it would harbour major components of physics in intimacy with philosophy. You need philosophical
inspiration to see the physics, which then tells you how the philosophy should be like, or you need
to see the philosophy to understand why the physics is as it is. The physics is pure physics and
the philosophy pure philosophy, but they might both be imperative towards understanding the
origin and the meaning of existence.
What we have currently is a collection of narratives about the origin of our universe, all spinning
around contrasting centres of philosophical influence. Even here in intellectual work, there is an
implication of entropy for once the culture of defining various theories of everything has reached
a certain maximum, the true Theory of Everything could find a greater likelihood to emerge. In
3
entropy, including intellectual entropy, there will be factors of determinism and indeterminism,
such that they would interplay in the process of the evolution of ideas, where entropy would ensure
we always move from maximum order, with loads of data, to maximum disorder, in framed
concepts on which little more conceptual work is possible, a fact which means that the Theory of
Everything, describing the most evolved universal tenets of existence, would represent the most
disorderly intellectual system, at the highest intellectual entropy. That would be the universal
explanatory key conceived by humans for humans, based on philosophy and physics, to unlock
the mysteries of the universe that was masterminded by a Supernatural Power.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22216] **viXra:1802.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-17 01:25:45*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 54 Pages.

Researchers at the Center for Quantum Nanoscience within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have made a major breakthrough in controlling the quantum properties of single atoms. [33] A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information—known as qubits—that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22215] **viXra:1802.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-17 01:50:17*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 53 Pages.

A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22214] **viXra:1802.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-16 06:19:14*

**Authors:** Alexander I. Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.

**Comments:** 7 Pages. dubinyansky@mail.ru http://universe100.narod.ru/ http://universe100.narod.ru/002-Oglavlenie-angl-jpg.html (English)

Development of the mathematical model of the elastic universe. The energy of the loks (0,0), (1,0) and (1,1) are calculated. Assumptions are made regarding other loks. The first conclusions on the identification of elementary particles in a set of loks are made.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[22213] **viXra:1802.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-16 08:45:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 52 Pages.

A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information—known as qubits—that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22212] **viXra:1802.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-16 09:06:29*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

A team of scientists has detected a hidden state of electronic order in a layered material containing lanthanum, barium, copper, and oxygen (LBCO). [33] Now in a new study, researchers have discovered the existence of a positive feedback loop that gratly enhances the superconductivity of cuprates and may shed light on the origins of high-temperature cuprate superconductivity— considered one of the most important open questions in physics. [33] Using ultracold atoms, researchers at Heidelberg University have found an exotic state of matter where the constituent particles pair up when limited to two dimensions. [32] Neutron diffraction at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering has clarified the absence of magnetic order and classified the superconductivity of a new next-generation of superconductors in a paper published in Europhysics Letters. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[22211] **viXra:1802.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-16 10:12:18*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Gaps in van der Waals Theory However, experimental support for theoretical modelling of the van der Waals interactions that hold these materials' layers together has been wanting. [15] The detection of handedness of electrons in a Weyl semimetal opens new experimental possibilities for studying and controlling these elusive massless particles and their quantum weirdness. [14] At TU Wien recently, particles known as 'Weyl fermions' were discovered in materials with strong interaction between electrons. Just like light particles, they have no mass but nonetheless they move extremely slowly. [13] Quantum behavior plays a crucial role in novel and emergent material properties, such as superconductivity and magnetism. [12] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[22210] **viXra:1802.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-16 10:16:11*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

this world has limited applications

**Category:** Classical Physics

[22209] **viXra:1802.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-16 10:33:58*

**Authors:** Mark Krinker, Galina Pana

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The paper deals with an ability of Laminine to induce pH-variation in isolated water.The acidic shift was measured in the isolated container with water in spite of that routine mixing Laminine in water causes the alkaline-shift. The phenomenon is explained due to a reduction of the potential barrier between hydronium ions caused by local spinning fields produced by Laminine.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[22208] **viXra:1802.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 12:14:36*

**Authors:** Zeolla Gabriel martin

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This paper develops the divisibility of the so-called Simple Primes numbers-5, the discovery of a pattern to infinity, the demonstration of the inharmonics that are 2,3,5 and the harmony of 1. The discovery of infinite harmony represented in fractal numbers and patterns. This is a family before the prime numbers. This paper develops a formula to get simple prime number-5 and simple composite number-5
The simple prime numbers-5 are known as the 7-rough numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[22207] **viXra:1802.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 13:28:11*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 52 Pages.

It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22206] **viXra:1802.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 14:18:02*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 4 Pages. none

This paper investigates the General Relativity Theory (GRT) by studying the relativistic free fall of a small test body in a uniform gravitational field. The paper compares the predictions of energy loss, perhaps by radiation, in a free fall obtained from the GRT and the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that the gravitational mass dependence on velocity in GRT is not correct, because it predicts a negative loss of energy while the MTG predicts correctly a positive loss.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22205] **viXra:1802.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 14:55:26*

**Authors:** John Yuk Ching Ting

**Comments:** 67 Pages. This research paper contains rigorous proofs for Riemann hypothesis, Polignac's and Twin prime conjectures.

L-functions form an integral part of the 'L-functions and Modular Forms Database' with far-reaching implications. In perspective, Riemann zeta function is the simplest example of an L-function. Riemann hypothesis refers to the 1859 proposal by Bernhard Riemann whereby all nontrivial zeros are [mathematically] conjectured to lie on the critical line of this function. This proposal is equivalently stated in this research paper as all nontrivial zeros are [geometrically] conjectured to exactly match the 'Origin' intercepts of this function. Deeply entrenched in number theory, prime number theorem entails analysis of prime counting function for prime numbers. Solving Riemann hypothesis would enable complete delineation of this important theorem. Involving proposals on the magnitude of prime gaps and their associated sets of prime numbers, Twin prime conjecture deals with prime gap = 2 (representing twin primes) and is thus a subset of Polignac's conjecture which deals with all even number prime gaps = 2, 4, 6,... (representing prime numbers in totality except for the first prime number '2'). Both nontrivial zeros and prime numbers are Incompletely Predictable entities allowing us to employ our novel Virtual Container Research Method to solve the associated hypothesis and conjectures.

**Category:** Number Theory

[22204] **viXra:1802.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 22:01:15*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 32 Pages. published by CEP (Center of Prospective study) n° 78-79 (March-June 2017), and Bulletin de l'académie Internationale Concorde (2018) review (2018).

The basic Cosmos concept is wiped out in our epoch, contrary to old traditions. The main cosmic phenomena, the galactic recession shows up a length, not a time as widely professed, which is related, via a canonical factor 2, to three main fundamental constants, the light celerity being excluded : three minutes of a mandatory elementary calculation leads to this Observable Universe radius 13.812 milliards light-years. Now the official cosmology says that the Universe age is precisely 13.8 milliards years. The two approaches are concordant, but, as fundamental constants are time-invariant, this excludes the Primordial Big Bang, replacing it by a Permanent Bang, a matter-antimatter oscillation at frequency 10^104 Hz. Modern mathematics have not recognized the Eddington's number as fundamental, while ancient Egypt has represented its decomposition 137 = 3 + 7 + 127, the Catalan-Mersenne series, in the Hypostyle Room of the Amon temple in Karnak. The following term 2^127 gives back the above Universe radius, with the unity for which the Bohr radius is about 137 : the electron wavelength. The couple electron-positron is so the basis of all, as predicted by the forgotten Eddington's statistical Fundamental Theory.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[22203] **viXra:1802.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 23:59:18*

**Authors:** Hiroshi Okumura

**Comments:** 3 Pages. This is a paper considering a problem in Wasan geometry.

A problem involving a square in the curvilinear triangle made by two touching congruent circles and their common tangent is generalized.

**Category:** Geometry

[22202] **viXra:1802.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-16 01:01:27*

**Authors:** Wei Xu

**Comments:** 5 Pages. The related articles are available at http://vixra.org/author/wei_xu

By discovering *Asymmetric World Equation*, we formulate the astonishing results: the *Third Universal Motion Equations, *which produce a consequence of laws of conservations and commutations, and characterize universal evolutions of *Ontology* and *Cosmology*:

- Flux Commutations and classical General Relativity,
- Animation and Reproduction of Physical Ontology,
- Creation and Annihilation of Virtual Ontology
- Motion Dynamics of Cosmology, and
- Field Equations of Cosmology.

Finally, the philosophical terminology is outlined as the inspirational highlights of “*Universal and Unified Field Theory”*.

[22201] **viXra:1802.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-16 02:05:51*

**Authors:** Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Красная почва внутренних планет Солнечной системы является кометной пылью. Спутник Юпитера Европа является остатком кометы.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[22200] **viXra:1802.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-16 02:16:09*

**Authors:** Nikitin I.V., Nikitin V.N.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

At the beginning there was information, and then already her materialization!

**Category:** Astrophysics

[22199] **viXra:1802.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 18:58:19*

**Authors:** Zeraoulia Rafik

**Comments:** 06 Pages. Thank's to the special function

In this note we present a new special function such that behaves
more like error function and since we arn’t able to express it as elementary
function using previous standard functions ,we only give it’s simple expression
in some range values using numerical approximation . and we will show how
it helps to get values of complicated integral which they arn’t available at
wolfram alpha and in the same time we will show it’s relationship with error
function and cumulative distribution function .

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[22198] **viXra:1802.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 21:46:19*

**Authors:** Mell Lenz, Baz Taylor

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The Lenz/Taylor theory is a prediction model derived from human development and suggests that the unification of several sciences including String Theory may be undeniable when placed into a cohesive context. For the purpose of this paper, String Theory was used comparatively for the overall concept and provides for it a more meaningful context.
5 stages of space and 5 stages of awareness... together they equal 10 stages of life and 2 stages of birth and death creating 12 stages (with 1 and 12 representing life and death respectively, in the broader sense of the Universe recycling matter) happening simultaneously.
“We looked inside Pandora’s Box and found hope.”
Mell Lenz

**Category:** Mind Science

[22197] **viXra:1802.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 00:28:31*

**Authors:** Jonathan Deutsch

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

ABSTRACT
THE QUANTUM AS BACKWARDS TIME, AND HOW THIS PERMITS A FIRST-EVER WORKING ALGEBRAIC QUANTUM GRAVITY
By Jonathan Deutsch
Backwards time is inferred to exist from the superluminal implications of the universe’s proven non-locality. It exists as well in the standard quantum-mechanical formalism as an “advanced solution” to the Schrodinger wave equation. Regrettably, backwards time is ignored by most physicists, students, and by the general public. Very, very recently, however, careful experiments performed in Europe have confirmed the existence of backwards time in certain quantum situations. But nature makes absolutely no distinction at all between the quantum and the classical realms! Therefore, it won’t be long before backwards time is experimentally confirmed for you and I.
We begin by creating and then using three original postulates:
1)The deBroglie wavelength (in centimeters) associated with the proton is really equal to –1.
2)The mass of the proton (in grams) is really equal to +1.
3)The time (In seconds) it takes light to travel the deBroglie wavelength associated with the proton is really equal to i, the square root of –1.
With these three postulates, we demonstrate that the quantum, h, could really be a unit of backwards time. The inscrutability of quantum mechanics would then be seen as entirely due to the inscrutability of backwards time. We then combine Newton’s equation for universal gravity with the three postulates to create the first algebraic equation for quantum gravity that works for planets, quanta and everything in-between. The new gravity equation contains four elements:
1)The tiny quantum, h
2)The minute deBroglie wavelength associated with the proton
3)The miniscule time it takes light to travel that distance
4)A variable - - a coefficient for h - - that’s actually composite “quantum Newton”!
We then demonstrate that this new equation magically reproduces, exactly, Newton’s classical gravity results! We begin to realize that the quantum, h, lies hidden in EVERY classical equation - - gravity, electromagnetism, etc. Therefore, classical physics becomes fully quantized too, uniting for the first time the very large - - classical physics, including gravity - - with the very small - - quantum physics - - into one essentially indivisible whole.
We conclude by seeing that spacetime is the universe’s prime mover. Though invisible, it is physically real and powerful enough to create all the matter and all the gravity in the entire universe. What’s thought of as the geometric backdrop for matter is really the creator of it as well. Matter affects (warps) spacetime causatively in the forwards time-direction in Einstein’s General Relativity. And spacetime affects (creates) matter in the backwards time-direction equally significantly. Thus, a completely new window to understanding matter and gravity is opened up to us.
But the outstanding feature of all this is backwards time - - a healing backwards time. Does the omnipresent existence of backwards time hold out any hope that we can get younger as we age? We strongly believe that such is the case, both quantumly and at the human, macro level. Older and younger simultaneously IS very quantum-like, after all. Could they somehow be EQUIVALENT? Again, we strongly believe that the answer is in the affirmative, and is mathematically provable!
I encourage readers to respond in the Disqus comment section on the Abstract page. Or contact me personally at spqrwin@outlook.com. I will reply to all. My next article, to be published in March or April, intends to remove quantum contradictions by proving that supposed opposites are really identical.
KEYWORDS
Advanced solution: a backwards-time solution
Backwards time: time running in reverse, from present to past; future to present; or future to past. This can be continuously, or discontinuously - - i.e., JUMPING to a much earlier time.
c: the speed of light
Classical physics: the science and mathematics of relatively large entities - - e.g., apples, people and planets. It also includes electromagnetism (See Entry.)
Coefficient: the number (amount) of something, e.g., for 5 quanta (5h), the number “5”. A coefficient needn’t be a whole number, but it is, or should be, a positive number.
deBroglie wavelength: the wavelength associated with every particle, according to Prince Louis deBroglie, famous 20th-century theoretical quantum physicist. Whether or not this deBroglie wavelength is physically real or not is a matter of some dispute, but the consensus leans toward the negative.
Electromagnetism: the classical science of visible light and of invisible rays such as X-rays, infrared rays and ultraviolet rays. Electromagnetism has a quantum counterpart.
General Relativity: Einstein’s theory of gravity (See the Entry for Gravity.) Its two essential ideas are:
1)Gravity is acceleration, not a force.
2)Gravity is matter warping (curving) spacetime, rather than “spooky action at a distance” - - one piece of matter affecting another without touching it.
Gravity: for Newton, the attractive force between any two pieces of matter. For Einstein, it’s the warping (curving) of spacetime, caused by the presence of matter.
h: the quantum of action, also known as Planck’s constant. It is absolutely central to all of quantum physics.
Newton’s equation for universal gravity: the product of the two masses involved, divided by the square of the distance between them, multiplied by the strength of gravity.
Non-locality: the proven fact that our world is supported by an invisible reality which links all points in space, making extremely large distances seem “on top of each other” - - i.e., very small. This means that SOME form of communication faster than light-speed exists, implying that backwards time exists for our whole universe. Non-locality does not diminish with distance.
Postulate: an assumption, at least initially unproven. Our theory contains just four - - all eventually proven true.
Quantized: measured in quanta - - i.e., in units of h (See Entry for h.) - - measured discontinuously, in little “chunks” or “packets”.
Quantum gravity: the as-yet unaccomplished union of Einstein’s theory of gravity - - General Relativity - - and quantum mechanics. We firmly believe that our theory takes a huge first step in this direction.
Quantum mechanics: that area of quantum physics which deals with the motion of extremely small subatomic particles.
Quantum physics: the science and mathematics of very small subatomic particles - - e.g., protons, electrons, neutrons and neutrinos - - and their antiparticles.
Schrodinger’s wave equation: the quantum mechanics equation that many physicists consider to be the only physical reality in the universe. Some physicists even believe that THIS is not physically real either.
Superluminal: faster than light-speed.
Unitless: a “pure” number - - e.g., 20.5 - - as opposed to 20.5 CENTIMETERS, in units
Universal G: the strength of gravity - - a universal constant
Variable: an entity with two or more possible values, as opposed to a constant which has one value. Variables are heavily used in algebra.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22196] **viXra:1802.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 03:22:43*

**Authors:** N.N. Leonov

**Comments:** 22 Pages. English and russian texts

Discovery of electron and neutron structures resulted in obtaining more information on the material world’s structure and at the same time revealed that the electrical charge of electron might be not a global constant.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[22195] **viXra:1802.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 04:06:59*

**Authors:** David Johnson

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

'Energy to Matter' (E2M) evolved from an energy-centric interpretation of electromagnetism into a descriptive explanation of the nature and structure of matter. It proposes a structure for quarks and nucleons, and uses these to generate 3-dimensional models of atomic structure and bonding, and to provide an explanation for Beta Decay, Electron Capture, Positron-Electron annihilation, Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) and the phenomena of Gravity.
The E2M models for atom structure challenge the view that the nucleus is an amorphous spherical grouping of nucleons surrounded by electrons moving at close to the speed of light in mathematically defined 'spdf' orbitals around the nucleus, and thus requires a rethink of many basic concepts.
E2M is a structured, bottom-up, explanation-focused approach with an emphasis on providing a detailed visual presentation (it contains more than 40 explanatory diagrams within its 38 pages). It doesn’t claim to have all the answers or to be 100% correct – no model can claim that. It does, however, provide a logically consistent intuitive theory which, as far as can be ascertained, is not contradicted by any scientific observations regarding the nature of normal matter.
It is difficult for any new theory to gain traction, particularly if it challenges the status quo. But it is hoped that everyone, regardless of academic background and science disposition, will give it a fair and impartial hearing, and that dissenters and supporters alike will see fit to provide the reasons for their opinions relating to E2M.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[22194] **viXra:1802.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 05:21:50*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Dit behoort bij het Hilbert Book Model Project

De fysieke werkelijkheid bezit duidelijk structuur, en deze structuur heeft een of meer fundamenten. Deze fundamenten zijn vrij eenvoudig en derhalve gemakkelijk te begrijpen. Het belangrijkste fundament evolueert zoals een zaadje in meer gecompliceerde niveaus van de structuur, zodat na een reeks van stappen een structuur resulteert die fungeert als de structuur van de fysieke werkelijkheid die mensen tenminste gedeeltelijk kunnen waarnemen. Om de kracht van deze aanpak te tonen, verklaart dit document de oorsprong van de zwaartekracht en de fijnstructuur van fotonen.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22193] **viXra:1802.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 06:33:28*

**Authors:** Misheck Kirimi

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Unification of Newton’s law of universal gravitation and Coulomb’s law of electrostatics is explored. The similarities and the differences in these laws have remained unexplained since 1784 when Coulomb published the latter law. It is noted here that no past research has paid attention to the fact that ‘gravitational mass’ (M1M2) and ‘electric charge’ (Q1Q2) are the only physical parameters that Newton’s and Coulomb’s laws do not share. The observation reduces ‘unification of gravity and electricity’ to ‘unification of mass and electric charge’. Despite the simplicity of this observation, physics literature is silent about the relation of mass to electric charge. Little effort has been devoted to this subject because the meaning of charge is ambiguous – charge has never been explained in terms of known physical parameters. An intelligible explanation of charge is suggested here. Based on the explanation, it is demonstrated that mass and charge are different aspects of the electron. Consequently, it is shown that gravitation and electrostatics are different facets of a common phenomenon. It is concluded that positron and negatron are the ultimate elementary units of matter, i.e. matter is nothing but equal positive and negative grains of electricity. The results solve a major problem in physics, namely the unification of gravitation and electrostatics, and also provide a theoretical foundation for attempts to manipulate gravity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[22192] **viXra:1802.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 07:36:33*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25]
The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24]
“We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit.” [23]
Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22]
They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21]
Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20]
Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19]
Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18]
CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17]
In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16]
But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time - from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15]
Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn’t dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14]
"The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment world-wide, commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[22191] **viXra:1802.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 07:40:11*

**Authors:** Renzun Lian

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Traditionally, all working modes of a perfect electric conductor are classified into resonant modes, inductive modes, and capacitive modes, and the resonant modes are further classified into internal resonant modes and external resonant modes. In this paper, the resonant modes are alternatively classified into intrinsically resonant modes and non-intrinsically resonant modes, and the intrinsically resonant modes are further classified into non-radiative intrinsically resonant modes and radiative intrinsically resonant modes. Based on the modal expansion corresponding to this new modal classification, an alternative modal decomposition method is proposed. In addition, it is also proved that: all intrinsically resonant modes and all non-radiative intrinsically resonant modes constitute linear spaces respectively, but all resonant modes and all radiative intrinsically resonant modes cannot constitute spaces respectively.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[22190] **viXra:1802.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 08:26:17*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 3 Pages. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

We evaluate prenex normal form of quantifier presentation on rules for the connectives of conjunction, disjunction, implication, and for negation. The format is not tautologous, not bivalent, and hence refuted. What follows is that many theorems produced with prenex for computer science, mathematics, and physics are now suspicious. A notable example is the satisfiability algorithms produced by Martin Davis and Hilary Putnam which are now mistaken.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[22189] **viXra:1802.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 08:47:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

The detection of handedness of electrons in a Weyl semimetal opens new experimental possibilities for studying and controlling these elusive massless particles and their quantum weirdness. [14] At TU Wien recently, particles known as 'Weyl fermions' were discovered in materials with strong interaction between electrons. Just like light particles, they have no mass but nonetheless they move extremely slowly. [13] Quantum behavior plays a crucial role in novel and emergent material properties, such as superconductivity and magnetism. [12] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[22188] **viXra:1802.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 09:03:56*

**Authors:** R. I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 3 Pages. 20th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, GR-20, Sydney Australia Jan 29-30, 2018. Conference Proceedings

As is well known, the energy-momentum pseudotensors of the gravitational field allow you to calculate the total mass of a body and its gravitational field. We performed such a calculation and found a positive contribution of the pseudotensor to the mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22187] **viXra:1802.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 09:49:17*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Aleksandra Dimić from the University of Belgrade and Borivoje Dakić from the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the University of Vienna have developed a novel method for which even a single experimental run suffices to prove the presence of entanglement. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22186] **viXra:1802.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 10:16:23*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that in the bottle experiments, measured mean lifetime of the neutron should be 879.9 s whereas the beam experiments should lead to 888.4 s. The difference is due to the fact that in a bottle, neutrons move in a disorderly way, while in a beam they move in an orderly manner. The ordered motions in the beam force creation of two virtual quadrupoles per decaying neutron (the total spin and charge of quadrupole is equal to zero) instead one quadrupole per neutron in the bottle. Obtained here results are consistent with experimental data.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[22185] **viXra:1802.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 11:11:56*

**Authors:** Theodore J. St. John

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Physics, to some, is the study of motion. To others, it is about the underlying essence of reality. But to many practical minded (and some outraged) scientists, contemporary theoretical physics has become an uncontrolled haven for speculative theorizing giving rise to fairytale physics. It seems to have “crossed an important threshold of a kind that cannot be tested, that cannot be verified or falsified, a kind that is not subject to the mercilessness of the scientific method. The discipline has retreated into its own small, self-referential world. Its product is traded by its advocates as mainstream science within the scientific community, and peddled (or even missold) as such to the wider public.” (Baggott, 2013)
The purpose of this essay is to present a practical perspective of what is meant by “time”– a perspective that opens a window to a better understanding of that “weird” world of quantum mechanics. The error of treating time as a real, absolute, independent, one-dimensional entity (that was created along with the rest of the universe in the big bang) is the source of the unanswerable question, “what happened before the beginning of time”. In this paper, by treating time as a measure of motion, quantum theory and relativity theory are integrated into a single model that makes practical sense of the particle-wave duality, the transformation of future into past, hidden variables, the constant that is perceived to be the speed of light, and the Schrodinger wave equation. Finally, it provides a practical basis for studying the holographic nature of physical reality and the field of consciousness.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22184] **viXra:1802.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 10:10:56*

**Authors:** Philip Gibbs

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A Diophantine m-tuple is a set of m distinct non-zero integers such that the product of any two elements of the set is one less than a square. The definition can be generalised to any commutative ring. A computational search is undertaken to find Diophantine 5-tuples (quintuples) over the ring of quadratic integers Z[√D] for small positive and negative D. Examples are found for all positive square-free D up to 22, but none are found for the complex rings including the Gaussian integers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[22183] **viXra:1802.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 11:48:27*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 13 pages. «SCÉNARIO POUR L'ORIGINE DE LA MATIÈRE» is the French version of «SCENARIO FOR THE ORIGIN OF MATTER» on viXra.org/abs/1802.0171

Comment est apparue la matière ? D’où vient la masse de la matière ? Les physiciens des particules ont fait appel aux connaissances acquises sur la matière et l’espace pour imaginer un scénario standard afin de fournir des réponses satisfaisantes à ces grandes interrogations. La pensée dominante pour expliquer l’absence d’antimatière dans la nature est qu’on avait un univers initialement symétrique fait de matière et d’antimatière et qu’une dissymétrie aurait suffi pour qu’il reste plus de matière ayant constitué notre monde que d’antimatière. Cette dissymétrie serait issue d’une anomalie dans le nombre de neutrinos provenant de réactions nucléaires qui laissent supposer l’existence d’un nouveau type de neutrino titanesque qui dépasserait les possibilités du modèle standard et justifierait l’absence d’antimatière dans le macrocosme. Nous pensons qu’un autre scénario pourrait mieux expliquer pour quelle raison on observe que de la matière. Il implique la validation de la solution d’énergie négative de l’équation de Dirac, issue elle-même de l’équation de l’énergie d’Einstein. La théorie de la Relation décrit un océan d’énergie négative avec création de paires particule/antiparticule réelles. L’origine des masses des particules proviendrait de cet océan. Un mécanisme physique permettrait leur séparation en sens inverse, d’où il résulterait un enrichissement de la matière au détriment de l’océan. La matière serait favorisée sans avoir recours à la négation ou l’annihilation de l’énergie négative, sans avoir besoin d’une violation de CP (différence de comportement entre particule et antiparticule) qui serait responsable de l’asymétrie matière/antimatière dans l’univers. Et sans l’apport salvateur d’un neutrino obèse indétectable : sa recherche nous apparaît plus un acte désespéré vers une « catastrophe ultramassive » qu’un effort véritable pour essayer de découvrir ce qui s’est vraiment passé.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22182] **viXra:1802.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 12:21:45*

**Authors:** Hartmut Traunmüller

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Scientific journals do not normally publish any paper that directly discredits the currently accepted doctrine within their field, no matter how wrong it is. This is because referees can easily identify deviations from current doctrine and established practice, while it requires a higher intellectual effort to assimilate a new point of view and to follow a non-traditional path of reasoning. Referees naturally tend to avoid this extra effort. Students, researchers and editors are aware of this and so are likely to choose a mode of action that does not threaten their own carrier. Thus, they prefer to follow the mainstream. These circumstances are apt to preclude fundamental progress in science for long periods of time. This is merely a case study about the history of a paper that illustrates this problem.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[22181] **viXra:1802.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 13:03:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 51 Pages.

A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information—known as qubits—that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22180] **viXra:1802.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 06:16:03*

**Authors:** Colin James III

**Comments:** 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

This refutes Tarski's theorem for the undefinability of truth as:
"no definable and sound extension of Peano Arithmetic can be complete"; or in abstract terms,
"the proof of a system cannot be demonstrated by itself".
Tarski's theorem is an arguable equivalent to Godel's incompleteness theorem, as based on the liar's paradox.
[Remark added later:
Tarski's theorem as used since about 1936 is an underpinning of quantum theory and a universal justification for atheism.]

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[22179] **viXra:1802.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 06:19:46*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Where did matter in the universe come from? Where does the mass of matter come from?
Particle physicists have used the knowledge acquired in matter and space to imagine a standard scenario to provide satisfactory answers to these major questions. The dominant thought to explain the absence of antimatter in nature is that we had an initially symmetrical universe made of matter and antimatter and that a dissymmetry would have sufficed for more matter having constituted our world than antimatter. This dissymmetry would arise from an anomaly in the number of neutrinos resulting from nuclear reactions which suggest the existence of a new type of titanic neutrino who would exceed the possibilities of the standard model and would justify the absence of antimatter in the macrocosm. We believe that another scenario could better explain why we observe only matter. It involves the validation of the negative energy solution of the Dirac equation, itself derived from the Einstein energy equation. The theory of Relation describes a negative energy ocean with the creation of real particle/antiparticle pairs. The origin of the masses of the particles would come from this ocean. A physical mechanism would allow their separation in the opposite direction and, therefore, the matter would be enriched at the expense of the ocean. The matter would be favored without resorting to negation or annihilation of negative energy, without the need for a CP (the behavioral difference between particle and antiparticle) violation that would be responsible for matter/antimatter asymmetry in the universe. And without the savior contribution of an undetectable obese neutrino: his search appears to us more a desperate act towards an "ultra-massive catastrophe" than a real effort to try to discover what really happened.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22178] **viXra:1802.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 06:25:55*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Alternative explanation for differences of propagation of seismic waves in Earth interior is presented in short.

**Category:** Geophysics

[22177] **viXra:1802.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 07:35:29*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper we propose a new and simple theory of quantum gravity, inspired by Newton, that gives the same prediction of light bending as Einstein's theory of general relativity. This new quantum gravity theory also predicts that non-light beams, that is to say beams of particles with rest-mass, such as electron beams, will only have half the bending of light as GR. In other words, this theory is testable. Based on this theory, we will suggest that it is a property of light that makes it bend twice as much as that amount of bending that is predicted by the Newtonian theory. This quantum gravity theory may also predict that the gravity force should be equal to the strong force when we are working at distances within the nucleus.
We are also suggesting a minor adjustment to the Newtonian gravitational acceleration field that renders that field always equal to the Planck acceleration at the Schwarzschild radius, and the same as predicted by Newton when we are dealing with weak gravitational fields. This stands in contrast to GR, which predicts an infinitely strong gravitational field at the Schwarzschild radius. It also stands in contrast to standard Newtonian theory, which predicts a very weak gravitational acceleration field at the Schwarzschild radius for super massive objects.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[22176] **viXra:1802.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 08:39:29*

**Authors:** Andrei P. Kirilyuk

**Comments:** 5 pages, abstract and extended abstract of a book, https://www.morebooks.de/store/gb/book/theory-of-everything,-ultimate-reality-and-the-end-of-humanity/isbn/978-3-659-31673-9

Instead of postulated fixed structures and abstract principles of usual positivistic science, the unreduced diversity of living world reality is consistently derived as dynamically emerging results of unreduced interaction process development, starting from its simplest configuration of two coupled homogeneous protofields. The dynamically multivalued, or complex and intrinsically chaotic, nature of these real interaction results extends dramatically the artificially reduced, dynamically single-valued projection of standard theory and solves its stagnating old and accumulating new problems, “mysteries” and “paradoxes” within the unified and causally complete picture of intrinsically evolving, dynamically complex reality. The permanently unfolding complexity progress thus revealed is fundamentally unlimited and does not need to stop at the directly observed diversity of usual matter complexity. The exciting, but rigorously substantiated and objectively inevitable prospects of further civilisation complexity development towards its superior levels of genuine sustainability and global Noosphere are outlined, with practically important conclusions for today’s critical problem solution.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[9144] **viXra:1802.0309 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-22 14:33:51*

**Authors:** David Stacha

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this article I will provide the solution of Brocard`s problem n!+1=x^2 and I will prove the existence of the finite amount of Brown numbers, where the largest Brown number is (7,71), which represents the equation 7!+1=71^2. Brocard`s problem represents one of the open problem in mathematics from the field of number theory, which has been formulated by Henri Brocard in 1876 and represents the solutions of the following Diophantine equation n!+1=x^2.

**Category:** Number Theory

[9143] **viXra:1802.0304 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-22 08:48:55*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The derivation of the Lorentz transformation normally rests on two a priori demands, namely that reversing the direction of the transformation's constant-velocity boost inverts the transformation, and that the transformation leaves light-speed invariant. It is notable, however, that the simple light-clock concept, which is rooted entirely in light-speed invariance, immediately gives rise to special-relativistic reciprocal time dilation, whose existence implies that of special-relativistic length contraction as a
corollary. Reciprocal time dilation and length contraction are key consequences of the Lorentz transformation, so it would seem that demanding only inertial transformation-invariance of light-speed already uniquely implies the Lorentz transformation. We find that to indeed be so, but it can't be shown by solving directly for the undetermined parameters of a general x-direction inertial space-time transformation; one necessarily must work with the corresponding velocity transformation (that has the same undetermined parameters), which is pared down to equalities that refer as predominantly as is feasible to speed. In those equalities both untransformed and transformed speed are replaced by the constant c, after which the undetermined parameters of the inertial transformation are solved for, which shows it to be the Lorentz transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9142] **viXra:1802.0288 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-23 01:14:55*

**Authors:** Stephen P. Smith, Karin Meyer, Bruce Tier

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

A QR algorithm was designed using sparse matrix techniques for likelihood evaluation in REML. The efficiency of the algorithm depends on how the order of columns in the mixed model array are arranged. Three heuristic orderings were considered. The QR algorithm was tested successfully in likelihood evaluation, but vector processing was needed to finish the procedure because of excess fill-ins. The improvements made for the QR algorithm also applied to the competing absorption approach, and hence absorption was found to be more competitive than the QR algorithm in terms of computing time and memory requirements. Absorption was made 52 times faster than a first generation absorption algorithm.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[9141] **viXra:1802.0268 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-22 20:24:40*

**Authors:** Phil A. Bloom

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

For x ^ n + y ^ n = z ^ n with positive co-prime values of x, y, z and positive integral values of n, we take Fermat's last theorem (FLT) as if it were still unproven. For some value of n (n = 1, 2, at minimum) there exist positive co-prime values of r, s, t for which r ^ n + s ^ n = t ^ n, our algebraic identity, holds. These two equations directly imply other true statements, which are A : It is true that {(r s)/t} = {(x y)/z}; B : Values of (r s)/t determine uniquely values of (r, s, t) ; C : Values of (x y)/z determine uniquely values of (x, y, z) ; Hence, D : It is true that {r, s, t} = {x, y, z}. We show E : For n > 2, no positive co-prime values of (r, s, t) exist; therefore, E : For n > 2, no positive integral values of (x, y, z) exist.

**Category:** Number Theory

[9140] **viXra:1802.0268 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-20 16:56:49*

**Authors:** Phil A. Bloom

**Comments:** Pages.

With x ^ n + y ^ n = z ^ n, we take Fermat's last theorem as true for some positive integral values of n (n = 1, 2, at least) and for positive co-prime values of x, y, z . With identical {n}, there exist positive co-prime values of r, s, t for which r ^ n + s ^ n = t ^ n, our algebraic identity, holds. These two equations directly imply true statements, which are A : It is true that {(r s)/t} = {(x y)/z}; B : Values of (r s)/t determine uniquely values of (r, s, t) ; C : Values of (x y)/z determine uniquely values of (x, y, z) ; Hence, D : It is true that {r, s, t} = {x, y, z}. We show E : For n > 2, no positive co-prime values of (r, s, t) exist; therefore, F : For n > 2, no positive integral values of (x, y, z) exist.

**Category:** Number Theory

[9139] **viXra:1802.0263 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-21 13:51:46*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

An isolated physical system of elastic collision between two identical charged
particles is chosen to manifest the physics law,
conservation of momentum, in a random inertial reference frame under Lorentz Transformation.
In this random reference frame, the center of mass
moves at a constant velocity. By applying
Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both particles, total momentum
during the collision in this random inertial reference frame can be calculated and
is expected to remain constant.
The calculation
shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold under Lorentz Transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9138] **viXra:1802.0263 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-21 00:10:12*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

An isolated physical system of elastic collision between two identical charged
particles is chosen to manifest the physics law,
conservation of momentum, in a random inertial reference frame under Lorentz Transformation.
In this random reference frame, the center of mass
moves at a constant velocity. By applying
Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both particles, total momentum
during the collision in this random inertial reference frame can be calculated and
is expected to remain constant.
The calculation
shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold under Lorentz Transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9137] **viXra:1802.0244 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-20 04:44:41*

**Authors:** Karan R.Takkhi

**Comments:** 4 pages, 1 figure

The value of the cosmological constant obtained according to the quantum field theory is 10^120 times larger than the observed small value of the cosmological constant. Such huge discrepancy with the cosmological constant, known as the cosmological constant problem would cause a vacuum catastrophe. Since the discrepancy involved with the cosmological constant is unimaginably very high, therefore, molecular diffusion model has been introduced in this paper as an alternative to dark energy in order to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe. The molecular diffusion model considers the distribution of large-scale structures as molecules inside a vacuum chamber. Since large-scale structures are ensemble of atoms, therefore, they can be treated as distribution of molecules possessing finite amount of energy. Instead of considering that space is expanding, the manuscript emphasizes upon the recession of large-scale structures upon a stationary space-time continuum. Since the discrepancy with the cosmological constant is very large, therefore, instead of considering that empty space possesses energy, it would be much more prudent to consider that large-scale structures possess energy by the virtue of which they recede, quite similar to a molecule that recedes by the virtue of energy that it possesses, after all, “the diffusion or free expansion of gas molecules inside a vacuum chamber by the virtue of vacuum energy or dark energy” has never been heard of; such claim, if true, would only suggest that gas molecules do not possess any energy. The study shows that the large-scale structures are receding at a constant rate, instead at an accelerated rate. The actual or the finite recessional velocity that a massive galaxy cluster attains by the virtue of its finite energy has also been unravelled in this paper along with the corresponding value of its “true” redshift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9136] **viXra:1802.0238 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-19 20:25:56*

**Authors:** Kenneth D. Oglesby

**Comments:** 10 Pages. This paper is related to MC Physics theories and prior papers.

Four simple examples of the most basic mass particles known in the Universe are shown interacting with both external charges and neutral matter and causing attraction gravity forces. Each example shows that the cause of the net attraction force of gravity, even at this most basic level of the Universe, is due to: required separation distance between postulated mono-charges/ monocharges; charge induction caused differential distances for repel and attraction forces (Rr>Ra causing Fr<Fa); and dispersion of weaker charges of the subject neutral mass particle.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[9135] **viXra:1802.0232 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-19 10:37:51*

**Authors:** Mell Lenz, Baz Taylor

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Using findings from the Lenz/Taylor Prediction Map, it is shown how the plot points of human development can be applied to star evolution. While durations may differ wildly, the basic principles and characteristics of evolution of both organisms share similar characteristics.
From this, we can emphasize a quote from Mr. Jeffrey Wolynski (founder of The General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis);
“We are connected to a stars evolution.”
Further to that and on an individual level, we find that we as humans also mirror a stars evolution...

**Category:** Biochemistry

[9134] **viXra:1802.0224 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-19 04:36:12*

**Authors:** Gulfam Shahzadi, Muhammad Akram, Arsham Borumand Saeid

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, we present the use of single-valued neutrosophic sets in medical diagnosis by using distance measures and similarity measures. Using interconnection between single-valued neutrosophic sets and symptoms of patient, we determine the type of disease. We define new distance formulas for single valued neutrosophic sets. We develop two new medical diagnosis algorithms under neutrosophic environment. We also solve a numerical example to illustrate the proposed algorithms and finally, we compare the obtained results.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[9133] **viXra:1802.0198 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-18 05:08:06*

**Authors:** John Yuk Ching Ting

**Comments:** 65 Pages. Targeting the General Public - Rigorous proofs for Riemann hypothesis, Polignac's and Twin prime conjectures

L-functions form an integral part of the 'L-functions and Modular Forms Database' with far-reaching implications. In perspective, Riemann zeta function is the simplest example of an L-function. Riemann hypothesis refers to the 1859 proposal by Bernhard Riemann whereby all nontrivial zeros are [mathematically] conjectured to lie on the critical line of this function. This proposal is equivalently stated in this research paper as all nontrivial zeros are [geometrically] conjectured to exactly match the 'Origin' intercepts of this function. Deeply entrenched in number theory, prime number theorem entails analysis of prime counting function for prime numbers. Solving Riemann hypothesis would enable complete delineation of this important theorem. Involving proposals on the magnitude of prime gaps and their associated sets of prime numbers, Twin prime conjecture deals with prime gap = 2 (representing twin primes) and is thus a subset of Polignac's conjecture which deals with all even number prime gaps = 2, 4, 6,... (representing prime numbers in totality except for the first prime number '2'). Both nontrivial zeros and prime numbers are Incompletely Predictable entities allowing us to employ our novel Virtual Container Research Method to solve the associated hypothesis and conjectures.

**Category:** Number Theory

[9132] **viXra:1802.0198 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-17 12:33:19*

**Authors:** John Yuk Ching Ting

**Comments:** 65 Pages. Targeting the General Public - Rigorous proofs for Riemann hypothesis, Polignac's and Twin prime conjectures

L-functions form an integral part of the 'L-functions and Modular Forms Database' with far-reaching implications. In perspective, Riemann zeta function is the simplest example of an L-function. Riemann hypothesis refers to the 1859 proposal by Bernhard Riemann whereby all nontrivial zeros are [mathematically] conjectured to lie on the critical line of this function. This proposal is equivalently stated in this research paper as all nontrivial zeros are [geometrically] conjectured to exactly match the 'Origin' intercepts of this function. Deeply entrenched in number theory, prime number theorem entails analysis of prime counting function for prime numbers. Solving Riemann hypothesis would enable complete delineation of this important theorem. Involving proposals on the magnitude of prime gaps and their associated sets of prime numbers, Twin prime conjecture deals with prime gap = 2 (representing twin primes) and is thus a subset of Polignac's conjecture which deals with all even number prime gaps = 2, 4, 6,... (representing prime numbers in totality except for the first prime number '2'). Both nontrivial zeros and prime numbers are Incompletely Predictable entities allowing us to employ our novel Virtual Container Research Method to solve the associated hypothesis and conjectures.

**Category:** Number Theory

[9131] **viXra:1802.0198 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-16 19:15:04*

**Authors:** John Yuk Ching Ting

**Comments:** 66 Pages. This research paper contains rigorous proofs for Riemann hypothesis, Polignac's and Twin prime conjectures

**Category:** Number Theory

[9130] **viXra:1802.0196 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-16 15:58:29*

**Authors:** Hiroshi Okumura

**Comments:** 3 Pages. The paper is considering a problem in Wasan geometry.

A problem involving a square in the curvilinear triangle made by two touching congruent circles and their common tangent is generalized.

**Category:** Geometry

[9129] **viXra:1802.0195 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-22 17:48:45*

**Authors:** Wei Xu

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

By discovering *Asymmetric World Equation*, we formulate the astonishing results: the *Third Universal Motion Equations, *which produce a consequence of laws of conservations and commutations, and characterize universal evolutions of *Ontology* and *Cosmology*:

- Flux Commutations and classical General Relativity,
- Animation and Reproduction of Physical Ontology,
- Creation and Annihilation of Virtual Ontology
- Motion Dynamics of Cosmology, and
- Field Equations of Cosmology.

Finally, the philosophical terminology is outlined as the inspirational highlights of “*Universal and Unified Field Theory”*.

[9128] **viXra:1802.0192 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-16 14:52:45*

**Authors:** Stephen P. Smith

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Yu (2000) described the use of the Gibbs sampler to estimate regression parameters where the information available in the form of depended variables is limited to rank information, and where the linear model applies to the underlying variation beneath the ranks. The approach uses an imputation step, which constitute nested draws from truncated normal distributions where the underlying variation is simulated as part of a broader Bayesian simulation. The method is general enough to treat rank information that represents ties or partial orderings.

**Category:** Statistics

[9127] **viXra:1802.0186 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-15 16:01:47*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Dit behoort bij het Hilbert Book Model project

De fysieke werkelijkheid bezit duidelijk structuur, en deze structuur heeft een of meer fundamenten. Deze fundamenten zijn vrij eenvoudig en derhalve gemakkelijk te begrijpen. Het belangrijkste fundament evolueert zoals een zaadje in meer gecompliceerde niveaus van de structuur, zodat na een reeks van stappen een structuur resulteert die fungeert als de structuur van de fysieke werkelijkheid die mensen tenminste gedeeltelijk kunnen waarnemen. Om de kracht van deze aanpak te tonen, verklaart dit document de oorsprong van de zwaartekracht en de fijnstructuur van fotonen.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9126] **viXra:1802.0178 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-24 07:51:43*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that in the bottle experiments, measured mean lifetime of the neutron should be 879.9 s whereas the beam experiments should lead to 888.4 s. The difference is due to the fact that in a bottle, neutrons move in a disorderly way, while in a beam they move in an orderly manner. The ordered motions in the beam force creation of two virtual quadrupoles per decaying neutron (the total spin and charge of quadrupole is equal to zero) instead one quadrupole per neutron in the bottle. Obtained here results are consistent with experimental data.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[9125] **viXra:1802.0169 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-15 17:42:17*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper we propose a new and simple theory of quantum gravity, inspired by Newton, that gives the same prediction of light bending as Einstein's theory of general relativity. This new quantum gravity theory also predicts that non-light beams, that is to say beams of particles with rest-mass such as electron beams, will only have half the bending of light as GR. In other words, this theory is testable. Based on this theory, we will suggest that it is a property of light that makes it bend twice as much as the amount that is predicted by Newton's theory. This quantum gravity theory may also predict that the gravity force will be equal to the strong force when we are working at distances within the nucleus.
We are also suggesting a minor adjustment to the Newtonian gravitational acceleration field, which renders that field equal to the Planck acceleration at the Schwarzschild radius, and gives the same results as predicted by Newton when we are dealing with weak gravitational fields. This stands in contrast to GR, which predicts an infinitely strong gravitational field at the Schwarzschild radius. It also stands in contrast to standard Newtonian theory, which predicts a very weak gravitational acceleration field at the Schwarzschild radius for super-massive objects.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory