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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[31446] viXra:1909.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 06:49:42

Face Alignment Using a Three Layer Predictor

Authors: Eugene Fox
Comments: 5 Pages.

Face alignment is an important feature for most facial images related algorithms such as expression analysis, face recognition or detection etc. Also, some images lose information due to factors such as occlusion and lighting and it is important to obtain those lost features. This paper proposes an innovative method for automatic face alignment by utilizing deep learning. First, we use second order gaussian derivatives along with RBF-SVM and Adaboost to classify a first layer of landmark points. Next, we use branching based cascaded regression to obtain a second layer of points which is further used as input to a parallel and multi-scale CNN that gives us the complete output. Results showed the algorithm gave excellent results in comparison to state-of-the-art algorithms.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[31445] viXra:1909.0447 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 06:52:43

Path of the Particle

Authors: Arnaud Andrieu
Comments: 1 Page.

Here is an attachment to a very simple example of a diagram of the path taken by the particle to explain the structure of our planets. The vector that follows the path of the particle is parallel to the vectors of the gravitational force, and represents the peak of the collapse of the wave function. This model uses the principle of the unique particle vixra.org/abs/1909.0300, where its oscillation lies between singularity (planet center), and quantum decoherence.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31444] viXra:1909.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 07:26:54

Classical Elegance of Time Crystals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Structures known as time crystals, which repeat in time the way conventional crystals repeat in space, have recently captured the interest and imagination of researchers across disciplines. [26] Dreamt up by the physics Nobel laureate Frank Wilczek in 2012, the notion of “time crystals” is now moving from theory to experiment – and could also lead to applications such as a new kind of atomic clock. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal—a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse—in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31443] viXra:1909.0445 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 08:14:33

Particle Detector on a Plane

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

You may have observed airplane passengers accompanied by pets or even musical instruments on flights. But have you ever been seated next to a particle detector? [27] Structures known as time crystals, which repeat in time the way conventional crystals repeat in space, have recently captured the interest and imagination of researchers across disciplines. [26] Dreamt up by the physics Nobel laureate Frank Wilczek in 2012, the notion of “time crystals” is now moving from theory to experiment – and could also lead to applications such as a new kind of atomic clock. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal—a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse—in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31442] viXra:1909.0444 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 09:08:57

Quantum Dot Energy Harvester

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Quantum dots, semiconductor crystals with distinctive conductive properties, could be good candidates for thermoelectric generation, as their discrete resonant levels provide excellent energy filters. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31441] viXra:1909.0443 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 09:36:46

Laser Under Your Skin

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 75 Pages.

A highly specialist laser capable of analyzing potentially deadly diseases as never before is under development at Heriot-Watt University. [47] Laser-induced graphene (LIG), a flaky foam of the atom-thick carbon, has many interesting properties on its own but gains new powers as part of a composite. [46] A team of researchers based at The University of Manchester have found a low cost method for producing graphene printed electronics, which significantly speeds up and reduces the cost of conductive graphene inks. [45] Graphene-based computer components that can deal in terahertz “could be used, not in a normal Macintosh or PC, but perhaps in very advanced computers with high processing rates,” Ozaki says. This 2-D material could also be used to make extremely high-speed nanodevices, he adds. [44]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31440] viXra:1909.0442 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 10:15:22

Milliseconds HD Microscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

They can make tiny cell structures visible: cutting-edge light microscopes offer resolutions of a few tenths of a nanometer—in other words, a millionth of a millimeter. [37] "We put the optical microscope under a microscope to achieve accuracy near the atomic scale," said NIST's Samuel Stavis, who served as the project leader for these efforts. [36] Researchers have designed an interferometer that works with magnetic quasiparticles called magnons, rather than photons as in conventional interferometers. [35] A technique to manipulate electrons with light could bring quantum computing up to room temperature. [34] The USTC Microcavity Research Group in the Key Laboratory of Quantum Information has perfected a 4-port, all-optically controlled non-reciprocal multifunctional photonic device based on a magnetic-field-free optomechanical resonator. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31439] viXra:1909.0441 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 10:51:04

ANN-based Shear Capacity of Steel Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Beams Without Stirrups

Authors: M. Abambres, E. Lantsoght
Comments: 24 Pages.

Comparing experimental results on the shear capacity of steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC) beams without mild steel stirrups, to the ones predicted by current design equations and other available formulations, still shows significant differences. In this paper we propose the use of artificial intelligence to estimate the shear capacity of these members. A database of 430 test results reported in the literature is used to develop an artificial neural network-based formula that predicts the shear capacity of SFRC beams without shear reinforcement. The proposed model yields maximum and mean relative errors of 0.0% for the 430 data points, which represents a better prediction (mean Vtest / VANN = 1.00 with a coefficient of variation of 1× 10-15) than the existing expressions, where the best model yields a mean value of Vtest / Vpred = 1.01 and a coefficient of variation of 27%.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31438] viXra:1909.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 12:21:49

Definition of the DIRECTION

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 2 Pages. -

One of the initial or primary concepts considered as the "simplest" (not expressed through other concepts) is considered. The structure of this concept is revealed. Algebraic and geometric consequences are found.
Category: Classical Physics

[31437] viXra:1909.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 12:25:01

Number and Arithmetic Operation

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 4 Pages. -

The meaning (logical content) of the concept of numbers is revealed. Arithmetic operations are defined.
Category: General Mathematics

[31436] viXra:1909.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 13:18:03

Non-Euclidean Metric Using Geometric Algebra

Authors: Jesus Sanchez
Comments: 32 Pages.

The Geometric Algebra is a tool that can be used in different disciplines in Mathematics and Physics. In this paper, it will be used to show how the information of the Non-Euclidean metric in a curved space, can be included in the basis vectors of that space. Not needing any external (out of the metric) coordinate system and not needing to normalize or to make orthogonal the basis, to be able to operate in a simple manner. The different types of derivatives of these basis vectors will be shown. In a future revision, the Schwarzschild metric will be calculated just taking the derivatives of the basis vectors to obtain the geodesics in that space. As Annex, future developments regarding GA are commented: rigid body dynamics, Electromagnetic field, hidden variables in quantum mechanics, specificities of time basis vector, 4π geometry (spin 1/2) and generalization of the Fourier Transform.
Category: Geometry

[31435] viXra:1909.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 13:45:29

I am Very Interested in Whether or not You Are Related to the Physical Chemist Josiah Willard Gibbs of Yale University

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page. JW Gibbs was a very important man to my father especially.

Abstract: If you were, the answer to this question determines why I was able to publish my 105 short notes in ViXra without being ridiculed. Thank you very much.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[31434] viXra:1909.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 14:13:13

Black-Box Superconducting Circuit Quantization (In Russian)

Authors: Simon E. Nigg, Hanhee Paik, Brian Vlastakis...
Comments: 11 Pages. in Russian

We present a semi-classical method for determining the effective low-energy quantum Hamiltonian of weakly anharmonic superconducting circuits containing mesoscopic Josephson junctions coupled to electromagnetic environments made of an arbitrary combination of distributed and lumped elements. A convenient basis, capturing the multi-mode physics, is given by the quantized eigenmodes of the linearized circuit and is fully determined by a classical linear response function. The method is used to calculate numerically the low-energy spectrum of a 3D-transmon system, and quantitative agreement with measurements is found.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31433] viXra:1909.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 17:50:17

Magnetic Moment of an Electron, it's Spin and de Broglie Oscillations.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.
Comments: 6 Pages.

Using the idea of de Broglie oscillations in elementary particles, for example, in an electron, it is easy to obtain quantitative values of the magnetic moment of an electron and the electron spin. Based on the oscillations the gyromagnetic ratio is logically explained. The calculations presented in the work once again confirm the reality of the existence of a periodic process in elementary particles, that is, de Broglie oscillations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31432] viXra:1909.0434 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 17:57:36

CMB, a. Einstein's STR, “Nothing” and Big Ben.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.
Comments: 8 Pages.

It is shown that the CMB actually refutes the Big Bang theory, since it is an absolute coordinate system, and this is impossible according to A. Einstein's STR. Moreover, a prediction is made about the change in the CMB map over time, since the CMB depends on the gravitational potential at a given point, and taking into account the movement of our galaxy in the Universe, it (potential) will change. Similarly, the concept of “nothing” is analyzed, which is used to explain the expansion of the Universe. The existence of “nothing” is also in insurmountable contradiction with Einstein's STR.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[31431] viXra:1909.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 18:05:55

Neutrino Oscillations, Compton Effect and Dynamic Model of a Stationary Universe.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.
Comments: 14 Pages.

The mechanism of neutrino oscillations, which are the result of the Compton effect, that is, the scattering of CMB photons by neutrinos, is investigated. The scattering of highenergy photons by neutrinos leads to the formation of neutrons, which opens the way to the synthesis of baryonic matter in the Universe and restores the dynamic model of the stationary Universe. Confirmation of the stationary model of the Universe is the fact of the scattering of galaxies, which in fact is a consequence of the chaotic motion of galaxies in a limited volume. On an unlimited Universe scale, galaxies move randomly and therefore there are no Universe extensions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31430] viXra:1909.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 18:16:11

Transition Theory of An Electron Traveling from Uncertain to Causal Basis

Authors: Satoshi Hanamura
Comments: 5 Pages.

One of Einstein’s most famous quotes is; ‘I am at all events convinced that God does not play dice’. This study attempted to be a conversion of “uncertainty principle” to a “certainty principle.” With the previous electron model, bare electrons moved discretely, and the photons surrounding them moved continuously. In this study, we shall notice the traveling of free electrons with thermal conductance, and how to determine the unique discrete traveling point by using thermal potential energy gradient.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31429] viXra:1909.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 19:11:30

Refutation of Interpretability Logic, and Vaught and Adjunctive Set Theory

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate axioms and inference rules of interpretability logics ILM and TOL with none tautologous, making doubtful the claimed completeness. We then turn to Vaught and adjunctive set theory with neither tautologous. These conjectures form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[31428] viXra:1909.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 19:29:46

Refutation of Frauchiger-Renner Paradox

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate unique conjunctive combinations of four statements, and as doubles and triples, which are not tautologous. This means the experiment is framed on conjectures for a flawed model and form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31427] viXra:1909.0429 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 20:45:35

The Normalizer of a P-Group

Authors: Henry Wong
Comments: 1 Page.

Group theory
Category: Algebra

[31426] viXra:1909.0428 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 21:33:11

Braid Logic for Mass Condensation

Authors: M. D. Sheppeard
Comments: 13 Pages. FIRST DRAFT

In quantum logic, the emergence of spacetime and related symmetries goes hand in hand with the emergence of the real and complex numbers themselves. In this paper, we show how finite fields are surprisingly sufficient for most physical questions, once we throw away classical geometrical models in favour of categorical axioms. In particular, generalised Pauli matrix algebras are closely related to braid and ribbon diagrams, and holographic information for mass localisation gains its intuition from algebras for anyon condensation. We discuss definitions of homology and cohomology associated to braids, recalling the twistor construction of massive solutions in H^2.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[31425] viXra:1909.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 21:50:06

On Magnetic Entanglement

Authors: Royan Rosche
Comments: 1 Page.

An illustration of Magnetic Entanglement
Category: Quantum Physics

[31424] viXra:1909.0426 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-21 03:22:37

Heart and Brain Activity Sensors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

"Sensors with an integrated power supply in such small sizes are also exciting for applications in the area of the Internet of Things, which connects decentralised, autonomous electronic systems," added Adelung. [23] Scientists at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) have developed a technique to observe how radiation damages molecules over time frames of just one quadrillionth of a second-or a femtosecond. [22] DNA forensics is a powerful tool, yet it presents a computational scaling problem when it is improved and expanded for complex samples (those containing DNA from more than one individual) and kinship analysis. [21] In a surprising marriage of science and art, researchers at MIT have developed a system for converting the molecular structures of proteins, the basic building blocks of all living beings, into audible sound that resembles musical passages. [20] Inspired by ideas from the physics of phase transitions and polymer physics, researchers in the Divisions of Physical and Biological Sciences at UC San Diego set out specifically to determine the organization of DNA inside the nucleus of a living cell. [19] Scientists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland are using neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to capture new information about DNA and RNA molecules and enable more accurate computer simulations of how they interact with everything from proteins to viruses. [18] The DNA molecules are chiral, which means they can exist in two forms which are mirror images, like a left and right hand. The phenomenon was dubbed "chiral induced spin selectivity" (CISS), and over the last few years, several experiments were published allegedly showing this CISS effect, even in electronic devices. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15]
Category: Physics of Biology

[31423] viXra:1909.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-21 03:48:47

MR-Guidance in Cancer Radiotherapy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

"We encourage our prostate cancer patients to elect this treatment, but if they are not suitable candidates for MRgRT, or do not wish to travel to Amsterdam to VUmc, they receive more fractionated radiotherapy, 20 fractions of 3 Gy, after gold fiducials have been implanted." [23] Scientists at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) have developed a technique to observe how radiation damages molecules over time frames of just one quadrillionth of a second-or a femtosecond. [22] DNA forensics is a powerful tool, yet it presents a computational scaling problem when it is improved and expanded for complex samples (those containing DNA from more than one individual) and kinship analysis. [21] In a surprising marriage of science and art, researchers at MIT have developed a system for converting the molecular structures of proteins, the basic building blocks of all living beings, into audible sound that resembles musical passages. [20] Inspired by ideas from the physics of phase transitions and polymer physics, researchers in the Divisions of Physical and Biological Sciences at UC San Diego set out specifically to determine the organization of DNA inside the nucleus of a living cell. [19] Scientists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland are using neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to capture new information about DNA and RNA molecules and enable more accurate computer simulations of how they interact with everything from proteins to viruses. [18] The DNA molecules are chiral, which means they can exist in two forms which are mirror images, like a left and right hand. The phenomenon was dubbed "chiral induced spin selectivity" (CISS), and over the last few years, several experiments were published allegedly showing this CISS effect, even in electronic devices. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15]
Category: Physics of Biology

[31422] viXra:1909.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-21 04:04:15

Data Storage in DNA

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Scientists from Israel recently demonstrated how this process may become more cost-effective and efficient by introducing more “letters” to the DNA “alphabet”. [18] Globally, biodiversity is concentrated around the equator, but the scientific institutions generating DNA sequence data to study that biodiversity tend to be clustered in developed countries toward the poles. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15]
Category: Physics of Biology

[31421] viXra:1909.0423 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-21 04:24:17

Nanoparticles Made by Bacteria

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Webster and his colleagues are using bacteria to produce nanoparticles, metallic particles that are between one and 100 nanometers wide. [23] Scientists at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) have developed a technique to observe how radiation damages molecules over time frames of just one quadrillionth of a second-or a femtosecond. [22] DNA forensics is a powerful tool, yet it presents a computational scaling problem when it is improved and expanded for complex samples (those containing DNA from more than one individual) and kinship analysis. [21] In a surprising marriage of science and art, researchers at MIT have developed a system for converting the molecular structures of proteins, the basic building blocks of all living beings, into audible sound that resembles musical passages. [20] Inspired by ideas from the physics of phase transitions and polymer physics, researchers in the Divisions of Physical and Biological Sciences at UC San Diego set out specifically to determine the organization of DNA inside the nucleus of a living cell. [19] Scientists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland are using neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to capture new information about DNA and RNA molecules and enable more accurate computer simulations of how they interact with everything from proteins to viruses. [18] The DNA molecules are chiral, which means they can exist in two forms which are mirror images, like a left and right hand. The phenomenon was dubbed "chiral induced spin selectivity" (CISS), and over the last few years, several experiments were published allegedly showing this CISS effect, even in electronic devices. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase-a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14]
Category: Physics of Biology

[31420] viXra:1909.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-21 04:40:27

Nanochains Increase Battery Capacity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

How long the battery of your phone or computer lasts depends on how many lithium ions can be stored in the battery's negative electrode material. [43] As if they were bubbles expanding in a just-opened bottle of champagne, tiny circular regions of magnetism can be rapidly enlarged to provide a precise method of measuring the magnetic properties of nanoparticles. [42] Antennas made of carbon nanotube films are just as efficient as copper for wireless applications, according to researchers at Rice University's Brown School of Engineering. [41]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31419] viXra:1909.0421 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 07:58:13

Successions and Series

Authors: Viola Maria Grazia
Comments: Pages. Successions are successions with positive terms

In this pdf there is my point of view about successions and series. I talk about when a succession (and so a serie) is said convergent making attention to the succession's definition.
Category: General Mathematics

[31418] viXra:1909.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 09:18:32

On the Emergence of Spacetime Dimensions from Kolmogorov Entropy

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 5 Pages.

This short pedagogical report is based on a couple of premises. First, it was recently shown that the long run of non-equilibrium Renormalization Group flows is prone to end up on strange attractors. As a result, multifractals are likely to provide the proper framework for the characterization of effective field theories. Secondly, it is known that multifractal analysis uses the Kolmogorov entropy (K-entropy) to quantify the degree of disorder in chaotic systems and turbulent flows. Building on these premises, the report details the remarkable connection between K-entropy, multifractal sets and spacetime dimensions. It also supports the proposal that near and above the Fermi scale, spacetime is defined by continuous and arbitrarily small deviations from four-dimensions.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[31417] viXra:1909.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 09:29:08

Quantum Photonic Computing Chips

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Now, researchers at Stevens Institute of Technology have coaxed photons into interacting with one another with unprecedented efficiency-a key advance toward realizing long-awaited quantum optics technologies for computing, communication and remote sensing. [28] An international team of researchers, affiliated with UNIST has presented a core technology for quantum photonic devices used in quantum information processing. They have proposed combining of quantum dots for generating light and silicon photonic technologies for manipulating light on a single device. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31416] viXra:1909.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 09:59:08

The Fermion Repelling String Black Hole the Origin of a Cyclic Raspberry Multiverse?

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 55 Pages.

This consciousness theory of everything, also called Quantum FFF Theory, (FFF = Function Follows Form) is a semi classical theory based on a symmetrical Big Bang into 8 or 12 Charge Parity (CP) symmetric copy universes. However such a cyclic multiverse seems to be only possible with special ingredients, 1: a propeller shaped fermion able transform by collision and spin in two pitch directions. 2: A fermion knot based dark matter black hole of enough rigid string content, to become stable against the fierce oscillations of the oscillating vacuum lattice and repelling all spinning Fermions. but not other black hole nuclei or photons. As a result, The Quantum FFF Theory is a semi classical theory because it describes reality by the real collision and shape transformation processes of real sub quantum rigid stringy multiverse entangled particles.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[31415] viXra:1909.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 09:59:47

Soundwaves Search Big Data

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

"Light lasers and single photons are part of the field photonics, but soundwaves fall under the umbrella of phononics, or the study of phonons," Deymier said. [29] Now, researchers at Stevens Institute of Technology have coaxed photons into interacting with one another with unprecedented efficiency-a key advance toward realizing long-awaited quantum optics technologies for computing, communication and remote sensing. [28] An international team of researchers, affiliated with UNIST has presented a core technology for quantum photonic devices used in quantum information processing. They have proposed combining of quantum dots for generating light and silicon photonic technologies for manipulating light on a single device. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31414] viXra:1909.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 10:47:55

Plasma Flow Explain Sunspots

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 79 Pages.

For 400 years people have tracked sunspots, the dark patches that appear for weeks at a time on the sun's surface. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: Astrophysics

[31413] viXra:1909.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 11:06:09

Brain-Computer Interfaces

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

It sounds like science fiction: controlling electronic devices with brain waves. But researchers have developed a new type of electroencephalogram (EEG) electrode that can do just that, without the sticky gel required for conventional electrodes. [19] U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization. [18] Now researchers at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31412] viXra:1909.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 11:22:04

DNA Microcapsules with Ion Channels

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

A Research group led by Tokyo Tech reports a way of constructing DNA-based microcapsules that hold great promise for the development of new functional materials and devices. [20] Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory are now able to see greater details of DNA origami nanostructures, which will lead to a greater understanding and control of their assembly for future applications. [19] Nanocages are highly interesting molecular constructs, from the point of view of both fundamental science and possible applications. [18] DNA flows inside a cell's nucleus in a choreographed line dance, new simulations reveal. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase-a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[31411] viXra:1909.0412 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 13:02:12

From Ramanujan’s Mock Theta Functions to Black Hole Entropies and Particle Physics: Symmetry, Supersymmetry and Golden Ratio

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 151 Pages.

In the present research thesis, we have obtained various interesting new mathematical connections concerning the Ramanujan’s mock theta functions, some like-particle solutions, Supersymmetry, some formulas of Haramein’s Theory and Black Holes entropies. We obtain excellent approximations to the values of the golden ratio, its conjugate and ζ(2)
Category: Mathematical Physics

[31410] viXra:1909.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 13:22:46

Refutation of a Modal Logic for Supervised Learning

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate ten conjectures which are not tautologous, and with four as contradictory. This refutes the approach and models of modal logic for supervised learning as a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[31409] viXra:1909.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 15:34:57

Naturalness Revisited: not Spacetime, But Rather Spacephase

Authors: Peter Cameron
Comments: Pages.

What defines the boundary of a quantum system is phase coherence, not time coherence. Time is the same for all three spatial degrees of freedom in flat 4D Minkowski spacetime. However, in the quantum mechanics of wavefunctions in 3D space, phases of wavefunction components are not necessarily the same in all three orientations. Consequently, the S-matrix generated by the geometric Clifford product of two 3D wavefunctions exists not in 4D spacetime, but rather in 6D `spacephase'.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31408] viXra:1909.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 22:37:10

Liquid Universe and Gravitational Wave

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 32 Pages. 4 Figure; 1 Table; Including Russian abstract and Chinese Version

According to the universe model based on virtual space-time physics, the universe has two states, liquid and gaseous. The current universe is in a state of liquid universe. This can be supported by some important observational evidence. The liquid universe theory predicts that microwave background radiation and cosmic rays are gases that the liquid universe naturally evaporates, the temperatures of the two should be equal. At present, there are many research results of hydroacoustic theories in related disciplines, so we can use some hydroacoustic theories to deal with the propagation of gravitational waves in the liquid universe, and we can get some inspiring conclusions. This provides a broader theoretical support for us to study and discuss some important laws of gravitational waves in more detail. This paper gives a rough estimate of the gravitational wave data generated by the huge mass of the center of the Milky Way. It is found that the radiation of the gravitational wave in the center of the Milky Way can be used to explain the periodic variation of sunspots.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[31407] viXra:1909.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 01:02:49

Implementation of Python Based Ehr/emr Software Prototyping Informatics Framework – a Novel & Simple Algorithm Using Spacy+theorem Prover+data Bases+qrng Concepts+deep Learning Methods.

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 2 Pages. Short Communication & Technical Notes

Implementation of Python based EHR/EMR Software Prototyping Informatics Framework – A Novel & Simple Algorithm Using spaCy+Theorem Prover+Data Bases+QRNG Concepts+Deep Learning Methods.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31406] viXra:1909.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 01:17:28

My Research Hypotheses

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 21 Pages.

During 2013-2019 I have studied the solar system geometry. Based on this study I have formed the following 5 basic hypotheses: Hypothesis No.1 Solar System is One building (or one machine) and each planet is a part of this same building. Hypothesis No.2 Solar System moves as a train. i.e. A train moves with all its carriages together, similar to that – Solar Planets move together as one train in one unified motion (i.e. No Planet moves individually or independently from other planets motions) Hypothesis No.3 Planet motion for 1 solar day depends on energy of light motion for 1 second period – that means – Planet moves following light motion – i.e. – Planet motion shows double motions – (1st) Light Motion (2nd) Its Follower Planet Motion Hypothesis No.4 Solar System Unified Motion depends On Solar Day Period Hypothesis No.5 Matter Creation process depends on solar day period of time – that means – Matter creation process depends on the time as one of its main components In this paper I try to explain these 5 hypotheses and provide short proves for them
Category: Astrophysics

[31405] viXra:1909.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 03:08:41

Relativistic Quantum Bridge

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 74 Pages.

Quantum mechanics and the general theory of relativity form the bedrock of the current understanding of physics-yet the two theories don't seem to work together. [48] Physicists from Professor Johannes Fink's research group at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) have found a way to use a mechanical oscillator to produce entangled radiation. [47] The key to ghost imaging is to use two or more correlated beams of particles. [46] Physicists at the University of Alberta in Canada have developed a new way to build quantum memories, a method for storing delicate quantum information encoded into pulses of light. [45] Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39]
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[31404] viXra:1909.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 03:59:53

Electrons in Magnetic Material

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

An international team of researchers led by scientists at Princeton University has found that a magnetic material at room temperature enables electrons to behave counterintuitively, acting collectively rather than as individuals. [29] Physicists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have proven that incoming light causes the electrons in warm perovskites to rotate, thus influencing the direction of the flow of electrical current. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31403] viXra:1909.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 04:33:09

Radiation Damage Observation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Scientists at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) have developed a technique to observe how radiation damages molecules over time frames of just one quadrillionth of a second-or a femtosecond. [22] DNA forensics is a powerful tool, yet it presents a computational scaling problem when it is improved and expanded for complex samples (those containing DNA from more than one individual) and kinship analysis. [21] In a surprising marriage of science and art, researchers at MIT have developed a system for converting the molecular structures of proteins, the basic building blocks of all living beings, into audible sound that resembles musical passages. [20] Inspired by ideas from the physics of phase transitions and polymer physics, researchers in the Divisions of Physical and Biological Sciences at UC San Diego set out specifically to determine the organization of DNA inside the nucleus of a living cell. [19] Scientists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland are using neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to capture new information about DNA and RNA molecules and enable more accurate computer simulations of how they interact with everything from proteins to viruses. [18] The DNA molecules are chiral, which means they can exist in two forms which are mirror images, like a left and right hand. The phenomenon was dubbed "chiral induced spin selectivity" (CISS), and over the last few years, several experiments were published allegedly showing this CISS effect, even in electronic devices. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase-a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14]
Category: Physics of Biology

[31402] viXra:1909.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 04:58:28

Kinetic Plasma Instabilities

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 82 Pages.

Plasmas are susceptible to kinetic instabilities when the velocity distribution of its constituent plasma electrons, ions or both becomes nonthermal. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[31401] viXra:1909.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 05:07:10

A Classification of Relativity

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 16 Pages.

In this work we discuss the possibility to classify relativity in accordance with the classification of second order partial differential equations that have been applied into the formulation of physical laws in physics. In mathematics, second order partial differential equations can be classified into hyperbolic, elliptic or parabolic type, therefore we show that it is also possible to classify relativity accordingly into hyperbolic, elliptic or parabolic type by establishing coordinate transformations that preserve the forms of these second order partial differential equations. The coordinate transformation that preserves the form of the hyperbolic equation is the Lorentz transformation and the associated space is the hyperbolic, or pseudo-Euclidean, relativistic spacetime. Typical equations in physics that comply with hyperbolic relativity are Maxwell and Dirac equations. The coordinate transformation that preserves the form of the elliptic equation is the modified Lorentz transformation that we have formulated in our work on Euclidean relativity and the associated space is the elliptic, or Euclidean, relativistic spacetime. Typical equations in physics that comply with elliptic relativity are the equations that describe the subfields of Maxwell and Dirac equations. And the coordinate transformation that preserves the form of the parabolic equation is the Euclidean transformation consisting of the translation and rotation in the spatial space and the associated space is the parabolic relativistic spacetime, which is a Euclidean space with a universal time. Typical equations in physics that comply with parabolic relativity are the diffusion equation, the Schrödinger equation and in particular the diffusion equations that are derived from the four-current defined in terms of the differentiable structures of the spacetime manifold and the Ricci flow.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[31400] viXra:1909.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 05:14:20

Topological Phases of Optical Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

A new study published in Nature Communications describes how optical reciprocity can be broken using insights from topological physics. [26] Topology is a global aspect of materials, leading to fundamental new properties for compounds with large relativistic effects. [25] Weyl fermions are novel particles that were predicted to be seen in high-energy physics experiments but have not been observed. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31399] viXra:1909.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 05:49:34

Remarks on Newtonian Dynamics, Aether, Cosmic Core and Quantized Redshift Phenomen

Authors: Victor Christianto, Robert Neil Boyd, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 13 Pages. This paper has been submitted to a physics journal. Your comments are welcome

This paper shortly reviews the links among Aether, Newtonian dynamics, galactic core and plasma double layers. It is hoped that we can sketch an argument for the origin of Tifft’s quantized redshift phenomena, a known puzzle for astronomers.
Category: Astrophysics

[31398] viXra:1909.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 06:00:27

Unboxing ai Radiological Insights Into a Deep Neural Network for Lung Nodule Characterization

Authors: Vasantha Kumar Venugopal
Comments: 18 Pages.

Rationale and Objectives: To explain predictions of a deep residual convolutional network for characterization of lung nodule by analyzing heat maps Materials and Methods A 20-layer deep residual CNN was trained on 1245 Chest CTs from NLST trial to predict the malignancy risk of a nodule. We used occlusion to systematically block regions of a nodule and map drops in the malignancy-risk score to generate clinical attribution heatmaps on 103 nodules from LIDC-IDRI dataset, which were analyzed by a thoracic radiologist. The features were described as heat inside nodule (IH)-bright areas inside nodule, peripheral heat (PH)-continuous/interrupted bright areas along nodule contours, heat in adjacent plane (AH)-brightness in scan planes juxtaposed with the nodule, satellite heat (SH)- a smaller bright spot in proximity to nodule in the same scan plane, heat map larger than nodule (LH)-bright areas corresponding to the shape of the nodule seen outside the nodule margins and heat in calcification (CH) Results These six features were assigned binary values. This feature vector was fed into a standard J48 decision tree with 10-fold cross-validation, which gave an 85 % weighted classification accuracy with a 77.8 %TP rate, 8% FP rate for benign cases and 91.8% TP and 22.2 %FP rates for malignant cases. IH was more frequently observed in nodules classified as malignant whereas PH, AH, and SH were more commonly seen in nodules classified as benign. Conclusion We discuss the potential ability of a radiologist to visually parse the deep learning algorithm-generated 'heat map' to identify features aiding classification
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31397] viXra:1909.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 06:07:49

Resolving Schrodinger's Cat, Wigner's Friend and Frauchiger-Renner's Paradoxes at a Single-Quantum Level

Authors: N Gurappa
Comments: 12 pages, 1 figure

Schrodinger's cat and Wigner's friend paradoxes are analyzed using the `wave-particle non-dualistic interpretation of quantum mechanics at a single-quantum level' and are shown to be non-paradoxes within the quantum formalism. Then, the extended version of Wigner's friend thought experiment, proposed in a recent article titled, ``Quantum theory cannot consistently describe the use of itself '', Nature Communications {\bf 9}, 3711 (2018), by Frauchiger and Renner (FR) is considered. In quantum mechanics, it's well-known that, statistically observing a large number of identical quantum systems at some particular quantum state, which results in Born's probability, and merely inferring its presence in the same quantum state with the same probability yield distinct physical phenomena. If this fact is not taken care while interpreting any experimental outcomes, then FR type paradoxes pop up. ``What an astonishingly self-consistent the Quantum Theory is!' - is explicitly worked out in the case of FR gedankenexperiment. The present work shows the importance of single-quantum phenomenon for the non-paradoxical interpretation of statistically observed experimental outcomes.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31396] viXra:1909.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 07:14:06

Real-Time Imaging in Medicine

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

A new paper in Nature Photonics from researchers at CU Boulder details impressive improvements in the ability to control the propagation and interaction of light in complex media such as tissue-an area with many potential applications in the medical field. [36] The new microscopes, known as mesoSPIMs, can image the minute detail of brain tissue down to individual neurons, and can uncover the 3-D anatomy of entire small organs faster than ever before.
Category: Physics of Biology

[31395] viXra:1909.0395 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 07:31:10

Blood Vessels in the Brain

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

A team of researchers from Massachusetts Institute of Technology has designed a new surgical tool that is maneuverable through some of the narrowest twisting networks of blood vessels to help treat stroke and aneurysm. [37] A new paper in Nature Photonics from researchers at CU Boulder details impressive improvements in the ability to control the propagation and interaction of light in complex media such as tissue-an area with many potential applications in the medical field. [36] The new microscopes, known as mesoSPIMs, can image the minute detail of brain tissue down to individual neurons, and can uncover the 3-D anatomy of entire small organs faster than ever before. [35] A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [34] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have replicated one of the most well-known electromagnetic effects in physics, the Hall Effect, using radio waves (photons) instead of electric current (electrons). [33] A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [32] "With optical tweezers, you can capture a single particle in its native state in solution and watch its structural evolution," said Linda Young, Argonne distinguished fellow. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28]
Category: Physics of Biology

[31394] viXra:1909.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 07:50:05

Law of Inertia

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 3 Pages. -

Misconception of the First Law of Motion, so called the Newton's First Law or the Galileo's Law of Inertia, is revealed.
Category: Classical Physics

[31393] viXra:1909.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 07:52:16

Irrational Number Problem

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 3 Pages. -

A solution to the irrational numbers problem is proposed
Category: Classical Physics

[31392] viXra:1909.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 08:02:33

Artificial Intelligence Probes Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

A team of physicists and computer scientists at ETH Zurich has developed a new approach to the problem of dark matter and dark energy in the universe. Using machine learning tools, they programmed computers to teach themselves how to extract the relevant information from maps of the universe. [31] These results, important for the construction of new theoretical models and for the development of new hypotheses about the nature of dark matter, offer much more precise indications for tracing the intricate path to understanding one of the largest mysteries of the cosmos. [30] New research lends further support to the idea that a detection of surprisingly strong absorption by primordial hydrogen gas, reported earlier this year, could be evidence of dark matter. [29] Physicists in Italy are about to start up a new experiment designed to hunt for hypothetical particles such as the "dark photon" and carriers of a possible fifth force of nature. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31391] viXra:1909.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 08:22:30

Explore Dark Matter with Lasers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

"If we can detect axions and say for sure they are dark matter, it would be a truly exciting event indeed. It's what physicists like us dream for." [32] A team of physicists and computer scientists at ETH Zurich has developed a new approach to the problem of dark matter and dark energy in the universe. Using machine learning tools, they programmed computers to teach themselves how to extract the relevant information from maps of the universe. [31] These results, important for the construction of new theoretical models and for the development of new hypotheses about the nature of dark matter, offer much more precise indications for tracing the intricate path to understanding one of the largest mysteries of the cosmos. [30] New research lends further support to the idea that a detection of surprisingly strong absorption by primordial hydrogen gas, reported earlier this year, could be evidence of dark matter. [29] Physicists in Italy are about to start up a new experiment designed to hunt for hypothetical particles such as the "dark photon" and carriers of a possible fifth force of nature. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[31390] viXra:1909.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 09:09:21

Effect on Black Holes of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

A RUDN University physicist has developed a formula for evaluation of the effect of dark matter on the size of the shadow of a black hole. [31] These results, important for the construction of new theoretical models and for the development of new hypotheses about the nature of dark matter, offer much more precise indications for tracing the intricate path to understanding one of the largest mysteries of the cosmos. [30] New research lends further support to the idea that a detection of surprisingly strong absorption by primordial hydrogen gas, reported earlier this year, could be evidence of dark matter. [29] Physicists in Italy are about to start up a new experiment designed to hunt for hypothetical particles such as the "dark photon" and carriers of a possible fifth force of nature. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24]
Category: Astrophysics

[31389] viXra:1909.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 13:02:49

Solar Planet Velocity Analysis (Part 2)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 12 Pages.

Paper Hypotheses Hypothesis No. (1) Solar System pushes all planets to move together one unified motion– this motion is similar to train motion, so I call it "Train Motion Concept" – and as the train moves with all carriages one general motion- the solar system pushes all planets to move in one general unified motion.. (Planets Different Velocities can't disprove "Train Motion Concept") Hypothesis No. (2) Solar System Motion depends on Solar Day Period as its main unit of time Hypothesis No. (3) Matter depends on Solar Day Period To Be Created
Category: Astrophysics

[31388] viXra:1909.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 13:02:57

Poor Man's Qubit

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

Engineers at Purdue University and Tohoku University in Japan have built the first hardware to demonstrate how the fundamental units of what would be a probabilistic computer—called p-bits—are capable of performing a calculation that quantum computers would usually be called upon to perform. [42] The advancement could be key to harnessing the potential of the atomic world, eventually leading to breakthroughs in computing, medicine, cryptography, materials science and other applications. [41] Researchers in the Quantum Dynamics Unit at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) devised a new method—called image charge detection—to detect electrons' transitions to quantum states. [40]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[31387] viXra:1909.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 13:32:47

Laser Gravitational Wave Detector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Researchers have announced a prototype for a laser at the heart of the first space-based gravitational wave observatory, known as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. [20] The gravitational waves created by black holes or neutron stars in the depths of space have been found to reach Earth. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[31386] viXra:1909.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 16:46:07

Cloud Formation and the Internal Quantum Principle of Nature

Authors: Royan Rosche
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper I dismantle 2,400 years of cloud formation science and introduce you to the Internal Quantum Principle of Nature, or the means by which nature acts, that is, from the inside out. I introduce you to the knowledge of an internal power that causes the main motions and alterations of atoms rather then those said alterations stemming from external accidental causes. It is hereto stated that Nature acts and moves by a force from inside Matter that is invisible to the senses and measurements, this force is only perceived by the actions it accomplishes and approached though extensive contemplation fit only for the sharpest of Minds.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31385] viXra:1909.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 20:47:21

Formula of ζ Odd-Numbers

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 5 Pages.

I tried to find a new expression for zeta odd-numbers. It may be a new expression and will be published here. The correctness of this formula was confirmed by WolframAlpha to be numerically com- pletely correct.
Category: Number Theory

[31384] viXra:1909.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 21:28:20

ζ(4), ζ(6).......ζ(108), ζ(110) Are Irrational Number

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 12 Pages.

ζ(4), ζ(6).......ζ(108), ζ(110) considered. From these equations, it can be said that ζ(4),ζ(6).......ζ(108),ζ(110) are irrational numbers. ζ(112),ζ(114) etc. can also be expressed by these equations. Because I use π2, these are to be irrational numbers. The fact that the even value of ζ(2n) is irrational can also be explained by the fact that each even value of ζ(2n) is multiplied by π2.
Category: Number Theory

[31383] viXra:1909.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 01:01:48

[ Spacy+imageai+spin Glass Theory+z3 Api ] All in Python Language – an Insight Into the World of Natural Language Processing(nlp) Towards Understanding Informatics of Finite Automata Involving DNA Sequencing & Some Interesting Applications Like Gene Chips

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 3 Pages. Short Communication & Technical Notes

[ spaCy+ImageAI+Spin Glass Theory+Z3 API ] all in Python Language – An Insight into the World of Natural Language Processing(NLP) towards Understanding Informatics of Finite Automata involving DNA Sequencing & Some Interesting Applications like Gene Chips. [ Exploring – NLP+Spin Glass Theory+AI+Theorem Proving in the Context of Developing Next Generation Bio-informatics ]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31382] viXra:1909.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 01:29:39

An Analysis of Genesis Using Evolutionary Theory

Authors: MinchanChoi
Comments: 18 Pages. Including both English and Korean

The programmer(Creator) made the world. 300million years ago, a warm-blooded reptile(Adam and Eve) began living in trees to avoid snakes. As the Gymnosperm(tree of life) evolve into the Angiosperm(tree of knowledge of good and evil), the Fine cone became a Fruit. and the warm-blooded reptiles that used to be herbivores on tree(subspecies) evolve into mammals(Eve). They were divided into herbivores and carnivores, but carnivores were unable to adapt and became extinct. sixty-five million years ago, when the K-pg extincion event occurred, a great flood occurred at the location of the african continent. However, the ancestors of Eurachontoglires(Noah), which used to live in wooden houses like beavers to avoid predators has not been extinct. They drift on the ocean. they drifted down to a new volcanic island(Ararat island). The Eurachontogrlires(Noah) were classified as Primates(Shem), Rodents(Ham) and Rabbits(Japheth). Primates(Sem) lived in the forests, but as the forest became desert, they lived on the pasture(13:18). thet became the first human beings(Abram). The human beings used fire(15:17) and began to settle in the spring(16:7). A hairless human beings(Abraham) has emerged. The hairless human race was genetically divided from the previous human being(Abimelech)(20:18) They used tools(21:20), and they became aware of death and the supreme Being(22:1~22:19). They held a funeral(23:1~23:20) Humanity has changed from a hunter-gatherer society (Esau) yo an agrarian society(Jacob).(25:27~25:34) As the agricultural society developed, private property was created. with the creation of private property, it became a class society(Laban).(29:17) From a tribal-centered confederacy(Jacob) to a centralized state where the king rules several tribes(Israel).(35:10~35:12) Egypt concentrated power on pharaoh, sending priest to each city to rule over them. The priest shall receive the land and be paid by pharaoh. The priest served as an official(47:22~47:26).Then Religion and Politics were linked(41:45) Israel divided into twelve administrative districts for various tribe to live together. The Levites of Israel were priests and officals in charge of the cities. Joseph entered Egypt and overcame a cirisis when Israel was a famine. Joseph did much for Israel and was assigned two of the twelve administrative districts.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[31381] viXra:1909.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 01:39:59

Heart Contractions and Deformations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

Research from the University of Göttingen in Germany suggests existing data from ultrasound imaging can be used to work backwards to reconstruct the underlying electrical causes of arrhythmias. [37] A new paper in Nature Photonics from researchers at CU Boulder details impressive improvements in the ability to control the propagation and interaction of light in complex media such as tissue-an area with many potential applications in the medical field. [36] The new microscopes, known as mesoSPIMs, can image the minute detail of brain tissue down to individual neurons, and can uncover the 3-D anatomy of entire small organs faster than ever before. [35] A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [34] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have replicated one of the most well-known electromagnetic effects in physics, the Hall Effect, using radio waves (photons) instead of electric current (electrons). [33] A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [32] "With optical tweezers, you can capture a single particle in its native state in solution and watch its structural evolution," said Linda Young, Argonne distinguished fellow. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28]
Category: Physics of Biology

[31380] viXra:1909.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 02:49:29

Miniaturizing Medical Imaging

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

Scientists in Christine Hendon's and Michal Lipson's research groups at Columbia University, New York, have used a microchip to map the back of the eye for disease diagnosis. [38] Research from the University of Göttingen in Germany suggests existing data from ultrasound imaging can be used to work backwards to reconstruct the underlying electrical causes of arrhythmias. [37] A new paper in Nature Photonics from researchers at CU Boulder details impressive improvements in the ability to control the propagation and interaction of light in complex media such as tissue-an area with many potential applications in the medical field. [36] The new microscopes, known as mesoSPIMs, can image the minute detail of brain tissue down to individual neurons, and can uncover the 3-D anatomy of entire small organs faster than ever before. [35] A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [34] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have replicated one of the most well-known electromagnetic effects in physics, the Hall Effect, using radio waves (photons) instead of electric current (electrons). [33] A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [32] "With optical tweezers, you can capture a single particle in its native state in solution and watch its structural evolution," said Linda Young, Argonne distinguished fellow. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29]
Category: Physics of Biology

[31379] viXra:1909.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 03:00:23

Ultrasound Medical Applications

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

A new ultrasound technique provides a non-invasive way of assessing bone structure on the microscale. Researchers hope to fine-tune the technique for use in assessing osteoporosis risk and treatment. [39] Scientists in Christine Hendon's and Michal Lipson's research groups at Columbia University, New York, have used a microchip to map the back of the eye for disease diagnosis. [38] Research from the University of Göttingen in Germany suggests existing data from ultrasound imaging can be used to work backwards to reconstruct the underlying electrical causes of arrhythmias. [37] A new paper in Nature Photonics from researchers at CU Boulder details impressive improvements in the ability to control the propagation and interaction of light in complex media such as tissue-an area with many potential applications in the medical field. [36] The new microscopes, known as mesoSPIMs, can image the minute detail of brain tissue down to individual neurons, and can uncover the 3-D anatomy of entire small organs faster than ever before. [35] A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [34] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have replicated one of the most well-known electromagnetic effects in physics, the Hall Effect, using radio waves (photons) instead of electric current (electrons). [33] A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [32] "With optical tweezers, you can capture a single particle in its native state in solution and watch its structural evolution," said Linda Young, Argonne distinguished fellow. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30]
Category: Physics of Biology

[31378] viXra:1909.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 04:18:29

La Conjetura DE Collatz. Orden Y Armonía en Los Números de Las Secuencias.

Authors: Miguel Cerdá Bennassar
Comments: 34 Pages.

Propongo una tabla numérica en la que se demuestra visualmente que las secuencias formadas con el algoritmo de Collatz acaban siempre en el número 1.
Category: Number Theory

[31377] viXra:1909.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 04:30:35

On the Physical Nature of the Superposition of States in Quantum Physics.

Authors: V.A. Kuz`menko
Comments: 2 Pages.

The note is devoted to the necessity of experimental study of differential cross sections of forward and reversed quantum processes.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31376] viXra:1909.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 06:56:34

A Fully Bayesian Solution to K-Sample Tests for Comparison and the Behrens-Fisher Problem Based on the Henstock-Kurzweil Integral

Authors: Fabrice J. P. R. Pautot
Comments: 17 Pages.

We present a simple, fully probabilistic, Bayesian solution to k-sample omnibus tests for comparison, with the Behrens-Fisher problem as a special case, which is free from the many defects found in the standard, classical frequentist, likelihoodist and Bayesian approaches to those problems. We solve the main measure-theoretic difficulty for degenerate problems with continuous parameters of interest and Lebesgue-negligible point null hypothesis by approximating the corresponding continuous random variables by sequences of discrete ones defined on partitions of the parameter spaces and by taking the limit of the prior-to-posterior ratios of the probability of the null hypothesis for the corresponding discrete problems. Those limits are well defined under proper technicalities thanks to the Henstock-Kurzweil integral that is as powerful as the Lebesgue integral but still relies on Riemann sums, which are essential in the present approach. The solutions to the relative continuous problems take the form of Bayes-Poincaré factors that are new objects in Bayesian probability theory and should play a key role in the general theory of point null hypothesis testing, including other important problems such as the Jeffreys-Lindley paradox.
Category: Statistics

[31375] viXra:1909.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 07:14:08

Fundamental Matter Probe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Identifying elementary constituents of matter including quarks, bosons and electrons, and the manner by which these particles interact with each other, constitutes one of the greatest challenges in modern physical sciences. [26] Researchers at the University of Florence and Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, in Italy, have recently proved that the invasiveness of quantum measurements might not always be detrimental. [25] Now, researchers in the UK and Israel have created miniscule engines within a block of synthetic diamond, and have shown that electronic superposition can boost their power beyond that of classical devices. [24] In the latest wrinkle to be discovered in cubic boron arsenide, the unusual material contradicts the traditional rules that govern heat conduction, according to a new report by Boston College researchers in today's edition of the journal Nature Communications. [23] Beyond the beauty of this phenomenon, which connects heating processes to topology through an elegant quantization law, the results reported in this work designate heating measurements as a powerful and universal probe for exotic states of matter. [22] "We studied two systems: a Bose-Einstein condensate with 100,000 atoms confined in a cavity and an optomechanical cavity that confines light between two mirrors," Gabriel Teixeira Landi, a professor at the University of São Paulo's Physics Institute (IF-USP), told. [21] Search engine entropy is thus important not only for the efficiency of search engines and those using them to find relevant information as well as to the success of the companies and other bodies running such systems, but also to those who run websites hoping to be found and visited following a search. [20] "We've experimentally confirmed the connection between information in the classical case and the quantum case," Murch said, "and we're seeing this new effect of information loss." [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31374] viXra:1909.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 09:49:41

Puzzle of Antineutrino's Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

By understanding neutron production in concert with MINERvA's characterization of antineutrino interactions on many nuclei, future oscillation studies can quantify how undetected neutrons could affect their conclusions about the differences between neutrinos and antineutrinos. [28] An international team of scientists has announced a breakthrough in its quest to measure the mass of the neutrino, one of the most abundant, yet elusive, elementary particles in our universe. [27] In the quest to prove that matter can be produced without antimatter, the GERDA experiment at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory in Italy is looking for signs of neutrinoless double beta decay. [26] The announcement was made during the CHARM 2018 international workshop in Novosibirsk in Russia: a charming moment for this doubly charmed particle. [25] The group, in work published in Physical Review Letters, has now used powerful theoretical and computational tools to predict the existence of a "most strange" dibaryon, made up of two "Omega baryons" that contain three strange quarks each. [24] The nuclear physicists found that the proton's building blocks, the quarks, are subjected to a pressure of 100 decillion Pascal (10 35) near the center of a proton, which is about 10 times greater than the pressure in the heart of a neutron star. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[31373] viXra:1909.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 10:21:51

Was Atlantis Situated Opposite of Gadeira (Critias 114 Versus Luke 8:26)?

Authors: Leon Elshout
Comments: 1 Page.

What had Gades in Critias 114 to do with Gadara in Luke 8:26? - leon elshout, 17 september 2019, almelo, aurichalcum (at) protonmail.com - roodgoudvanparvaim.nl
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[31372] viXra:1909.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 11:07:43

Dark Energy and the Time Dependence of Fundamental Particle Constants

Authors: Bodo Lampe
Comments: 17 Pages.

The cosmic time dependencies of $G$, $\alpha$, $h$ and of SM parameters like the Higgs vev and elementary particle masses are studied in the framework of a new dark energy interpretation. Due to the associated time variation of rulers, many effects turn out to be invisible. However, a rather large time dependence is claimed to arise in association with dark energy measurements, and smaller ones in connection with the SM.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[31371] viXra:1909.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 11:26:07

The Einstein Equations for Exterior Forms

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 2 pages, written in french

We propose to replace the smooth functions by the even exterior forms, so making the tensor calculus of forms.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[31370] viXra:1909.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 13:19:02

On the Integer Solutions to the Equation X!+x=x^n

Authors: Miika Rankaviita
Comments: 20 Pages. Licencing: CC BY-SA

This thesis explains the solution to the problem of finding all of the integer pair solutions to the equation x!+x=x^n. A detailed explanation is given so that anyone with high school mathematics background can follow the solution. This paper is a translation of my diplom work in Vaasa Lyseo Upper Secondary School.
Category: Number Theory

[31369] viXra:1909.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 14:33:15

Resolution in Classical Modal Logic of a Security Barrier Model

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 3 Pages. Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate three states of a security barrier example. For the security barrier as equivalent to the road width, the two cases are staying on the road, or staying on the road or going off of the road. Staying on the road is not a theorem. However staying on the road or going off road is a theorem. For the security barrier as larger than the road width, then staying on the road is effectively enforced as a theorem. This evaluation concludes that casting a problem to substructural epistemic resource logic is an unneeded effort for model resolution. The resolution in classical model logic of a security barrier model relegates the authors’ conjectures to non tautologous fragments of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[31368] viXra:1909.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 15:11:10

Fresnel Drag Formula Derived from Hertz em

Authors: Robert Bennett
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Fresnel drag formula was verified by Fizeau’s water-channel test. SoL = c/n + v(1-1/n2) The theoretical derivation* offered herein supports: •Full aether dragging by fluids – speed of the fluid medium equals the speed of the entrained aether in the lab - Vm = Va •The Hertz EM laws, which replace Maxwell’s partial derivatives with total time derivatives, introducing thereby laws that are Galilean covariant(not Lorentzian)...and an additional parameter, a convective velocity ...of aether, Va. • The kinematic invariants of proper time, using distance and velocity to first order in v/c. •The Fresnel drag equation, as confirmed by Fizeau. The following uses Robert’s Rules of reasoning, based on the scientific method and philo-realism.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[31367] viXra:1909.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 15:15:52

Recent Advances in the Modal Model Checker Meth8 with the VŁ4 Universal Logic

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 34 Pages. Copyright 2016-2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

We use the Meth8/VŁ4 modal logic model checker to evaluate 629 artifacts in 3274 assertions to refute 2726 as non tautologous (83.3%). This is the abstract, table of results, and table of contents. The current document in 1045-pages includes the availability of Meth8/VŁ4 and is requestable from info@ersatz-systems.com.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[31366] viXra:1909.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 19:20:58

Free Quantum Groups and Related Topics

Authors: Teo Banica
Comments: 200 Pages.

The unitary group U_N has a free analogue U_N^+, and the study of the closed subgroups G\subset U_N^+ is a problem of general interest. We review here the general theory of U_N^+ and its subgroups, with all the needed preliminaries included. We discuss as well a number of more advanced topics, selected for their beauty, and potential importance.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[31365] viXra:1909.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 21:57:03

Refutation of Axiomatizing Logics of Fuzzy Preferences Using Graded Modalities

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate the fuzzy preference relation of the assumed ∧-transitivity theorem as not tautologous, relegating it, along with the subsequent minimal modal logics of a finite residuated lattice and the Bulldozed method, as non tautologous fragments of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[31364] viXra:1909.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 23:30:47

Exploring Ruby Based Bio-informatics R&D Framework Using NLP/BioNLP/SVM/QRNG/HPC/IoT/Mongo DB/BaseX DB Systems & Related Environments – A Novel Multidisciplinary Approach.

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 5 Pages. Short Communication & Technical Notes

Exploring Ruby Based Bio-informatics R&D Framework Using NLP/BioNLP/SVM/QRNG/HPC/IoT/Mongo DB/BaseX DB Systems & Related Environments – A Novel Multidisciplinary Approach. [ Probing Advanced Computational Aspects of Cancer Research With Mathematics ]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31363] viXra:1909.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 01:58:16

Quantum States of Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

Researchers in the Quantum Dynamics Unit at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) devised a new method—called image charge detection—to detect electrons' transitions to quantum states. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31362] viXra:1909.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 02:50:52

Black Holes Clues to Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

These results, important for the construction of new theoretical models and for the development of new hypotheses about the nature of dark matter, offer much more precise indications for tracing the intricate path to understanding one of the largest mysteries of the cosmos. [30] New research lends further support to the idea that a detection of surprisingly strong absorption by primordial hydrogen gas, reported earlier this year, could be evidence of dark matter. [29] Physicists in Italy are about to start up a new experiment designed to hunt for hypothetical particles such as the "dark photon" and carriers of a possible fifth force of nature. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark
Category: Astrophysics

[31361] viXra:1909.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 03:12:30

Solar Planet Velocity Analysis (Revised)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 11 Pages.

Paper Hypotheses (1) Planet Velocity shows, Planet Motion is a part of A Greater Motion- (2) Planet Velocity shows, Planets motions are similar to a train motion- it's one unified motion – and as a train moves with its carriages – the solar system moves one general motion with all planets. ("Train Motion Concept") (3) Planets different velocities can't disprove "Train Motion Concept". (4) Space is NOT nothingness but a geometrical player in the solar system geometry (5) Space & Matter are created relative (and complementary) to each other
Category: Astrophysics

[31360] viXra:1909.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 03:13:45

Improvements in Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

The advancement could be key to harnessing the potential of the atomic world, eventually leading to breakthroughs in computing, medicine, cryptography, materials science and other applications. [41] Researchers in the Quantum Dynamics Unit at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) devised a new method—called image charge detection—to detect electrons' transitions to quantum states. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31359] viXra:1909.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 06:27:24

Mathematics as Information Compression Via the Matching and Unication of Patterns

Authors: J Gerard Wolff
Comments: 61 Pages. Accepted for publication in the journal "Complexity", 2019-09-17.

This paper describes a novel perspective on the foundations of mathematics: how mathematics may be seen to be largely about 'information compression (IC) via the matching and unification of patterns' (ICMUP. That is itself a novel approach to IC, couched in terms of non-mathematical primitives, as is necessary in any investigation of the foundations of mathematics. This new perspective on the foundations of mathematics reects the idea that, as an aid to human thinking, mathematics is likely to be consonant with much evidence for the importance of IC in human learning, perception, and cognition. This perspective on the foundations of mathematics has grown out of a long-term programme of research developing the SP Theory of Intelligence and its realisation in the SP Computer Model, a system in which a generalised version of ICMUP -- the powerful concept of SP-multiple-alignment -- plays a central role. The paper shows with an example how mathematics, without any special provision, may achieve compression of information. Then it describes examples showing how variants of ICMUP may be seen in widely-used structures and operations in mathematics. Examples are also given to show how several aspects of the mathematics-related disciplines of logic and computing may be understood as ICMUP. Also discussed is the intimate relation between IC and concepts of probability, witharguments that there are advantages in approaching AI, cognitive science, and concepts of probability via ICMUP. Also discussed is how the close relation between IC and concepts of probability relates to the established view that some parts of mathematics are intrinsically probabilistic, and how that latter view may be reconciled with the all-or-nothing, 'exact', forms of calculation or inference that are familiar in mathematics and logic. There are many potential benefits and applications of the mathematics-as-IC perspective.
Category: General Mathematics

[31358] viXra:1909.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 07:17:55

Synthesis of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

A team of scientists from Ural Federal University (Yekaterinburg), Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology and other collaborator have published an article about a new method for the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles. [53] A Northwestern University research team has developed a new method for making highly desirable catalysts from metal nanoparticles that could lead to better fuel cells, among other applications. [52] Valencia University (UV) researchers have modified the photoconductance of nanoparticles of tungsten oxide (WO3) in a controlled manner. [51] Scientists who study the nanoscale-with molecules and materials 10,000 smaller than a pinhead-need to be able to test the way that some molecules twist, known as their chirality, because mirror image molecules with the same structure can have very different properties. [50] In a recent study, researchers at the NASA Ames Research Center have demonstrated that nanoscale vacuum channel transistors can be fabricated on silicon carbide wafers. [49] Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanofibers can have various applications, such as in catalyzers and filters. [48] Today, scientists report progress in making versions of these nanoparticles that could someday give built-in night vision to humans. [47] A new piece of a difficult puzzle-the nature of memory-fell into place this week with a hint at how brain cells change structure when they learn something. [46] Researchers at the University of Alberta have found an important protein in the cells of a deadly infectious parasite, opening the door to less harmful treatment for millions of people suffering from diseases like sleeping sickness in Africa and Chagas disease in South America. [45] The remarkable ability of a small Australian sea snail to produce a colourful purple compound to protect its eggs is proving even more remarkable for its potential in a new anti-cancer pharmaceutical. [44]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31357] viXra:1909.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 07:46:01

Sound and Light Waves in Silicon Chips

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

One potential application of such devices is in future cellular networks, widely known as 5G. Digital electronics alone might not be enough to support the signal processing requirements in such networks. Light and sound devices might do the trick. [34] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have replicated one of the most well-known electromagnetic effects in physics, the Hall Effect, using radio waves (photons) instead of electric current (electrons). [33] A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [32] "With optical tweezers, you can capture a single particle in its native state in solution and watch its structural evolution," said Linda Young, Argonne distinguished fellow. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31356] viXra:1909.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 08:08:41

Nanoswing Overcomes Thermal Fluctuations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Physicists at AMOLF have managed to cool a swinging, nanosized string to near-zero temperature without using external refrigeration. [35] One potential application of such devices is in future cellular networks, widely known as 5G. Digital electronics alone might not be enough to support the signal processing requirements in such networks. Light and sound devices might do the trick. [34] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have replicated one of the most well-known electromagnetic effects in physics, the Hall Effect, using radio waves (photons) instead of electric current (electrons). [33] A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [32] "With optical tweezers, you can capture a single particle in its native state in solution and watch its structural evolution," said Linda Young, Argonne distinguished fellow. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31355] viXra:1909.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 08:22:44

Stability of Highly Energetic Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Understanding the physical and chemical characteristics of energetic materials under extreme conditions is crucial for their safe and efficient use. [36] Physicists at AMOLF have managed to cool a swinging, nanosized string to near-zero temperature without using external refrigeration. [35] One potential application of such devices is in future cellular networks, widely known as 5G. Digital electronics alone might not be enough to support the signal processing requirements in such networks. Light and sound devices might do the trick. [34] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have replicated one of the most well-known electromagnetic effects in physics, the Hall Effect, using radio waves (photons) instead of electric current (electrons). [33]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31354] viXra:1909.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 10:52:30

Observe Ground State Collisions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [32] "With optical tweezers, you can capture a single particle in its native state in solution and watch its structural evolution," said Linda Young, Argonne distinguished fellow. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31353] viXra:1909.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 11:31:17

Gravity Using Mobile Atom Interferometer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Mobile gravimetry is an important technique in metrology, navigation, geodesy and geophysics. [12] The relationship may even unlock the quantum nature of gravity. "It is among our best clues to understand gravity from a quantum perspective," said Witten. [11] Scientists at the University of British Columbia have proposed a radical new theory to explain the exponentially increasing size of the universe. [10] Researchers playing with a cloud of ultracold atoms uncovered behavior that bears a striking resemblance to the universe in microcosm. [9]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31352] viXra:1909.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 12:25:42

Mysteries of Brain Organization

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

The new microscopes, known as mesoSPIMs, can image the minute detail of brain tissue down to individual neurons, and can uncover the 3-D anatomy of entire small organs faster than ever before. [35] A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [34] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have replicated one of the most well-known electromagnetic effects in physics, the Hall Effect, using radio waves (photons) instead of electric current (electrons). [33] A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [32] "With optical tweezers, you can capture a single particle in its native state in solution and watch its structural evolution," said Linda Young, Argonne distinguished fellow. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25]
Category: Physics of Biology

[31351] viXra:1909.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 12:42:24

Closer to Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 93 Pages.

Physicists at Uppsala University in Sweden have identified how to distinguish between true and 'fake' Majorana states in one of the most commonly used experimental setups, by means of supercurrent measurements. [57] A team from Dartmouth College and MIT has designed and conducted the first lab test to successfully detect and characterize a class of complex, "non-Gaussian" noise processes that are routinely encountered in superconducting quantum computing systems. [56] Scientists from the University of Bath, working with a colleague at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, have devised an ingenious method of controlling the vapour by coating the interior of containers with nanoscopic gold particles 300,000 times smaller than a pinhead. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31350] viXra:1909.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 12:58:00

Mass Estimate for Elusive Neutrino

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

An international team of scientists has announced a breakthrough in its quest to measure the mass of the neutrino, one of the most abundant, yet elusive, elementary particles in our universe. [27] In the quest to prove that matter can be produced without antimatter, the GERDA experiment at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory in Italy is looking for signs of neutrinoless double beta decay. [26] The announcement was made during the CHARM 2018 international workshop in Novosibirsk in Russia: a charming moment for this doubly charmed particle. [25] The group, in work published in Physical Review Letters, has now used powerful theoretical and computational tools to predict the existence of a "most strange" dibaryon, made up of two "Omega baryons" that contain three strange quarks each. [24] The nuclear physicists found that the proton's building blocks, the quarks, are subjected to a pressure of 100 decillion Pascal (10 35) near the center of a proton, which is about 10 times greater than the pressure in the heart of a neutron star. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been "squeezed" to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by "twisted light" can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[31349] viXra:1909.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 14:38:53

Application of ANN in Pavement Engineering: State-of-Art

Authors: M. Abambres, A. Ferreira
Comments: 61 Pages.

There has been much discussion about the impact and future of artificial intelligence (AI) in our lives and future generations. Many experts even believe that AI will “rule” the world. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have provided a convenient and often extremely accurate solution to problems within all fields, and can be seen as advanced general-purpose regression models that try to mimic the behavior of the human brain. The adoption and use of ANN-based methods in the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide is a clear sign of the successful use of neural nets in geomechanical and pavement systems. This work aims to provide an extensive and detailed state-of-the-art of the application of ANN models to pavement management, materials and design problems. Unlike former review articles published before 2014, this work is more descriptive and makes the review much more appealing to the reader by highlighting numerically and/or graphically the effectiveness and possible drawbacks of each ANN application.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31348] viXra:1909.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 14:41:13

Neural Network-Based Formula for the Buckling Load Prediction of I-Section Cellular Steel Beams

Authors: M. Abambres, K. Rajana, K. Tsavdaridis, T. Ribeiro
Comments: 50 Pages.

Cellular beams are an attractive option for the steel construction industry due to their versatility in terms of strength, size, and weight. Further benefits are the integration of services thereby reducing ceiling-to-floor depth (thus, building’s height), which has a great economic impact. Moreover, the complex localised and global failures characterizing those members have led several scientists to focus their research on the development of more efficient design guidelines. This paper aims to propose an artificial neural network (ANN)-based formula to estimate the critical elastic buckling load of simply supported cellular beams under uniformly distributed vertical loads. The 3645-point dataset used in ANN design was obtained from an extensive parametric finite element analysis performed in ABAQUS. The independent variables adopted as ANN inputs are the following: beam’s length, opening diameter, web-post width, cross-section height, web thickness, flange width, flange thickness, and the distance between the last opening edge and the end support. The proposed model shows a strong potential as an effective design tool. The maximum and average relative errors among the 3645 data points were found to be 3.7% and 0.4%, respectively, whereas the average computing time per data point is smaller than a millisecond for any current personal computer.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31347] viXra:1909.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 14:50:21

Neural Network-Based Analytical Model to Predict the Shear Strength of Steel Girders with a Trapezoidal Corrugated Web

Authors: M. Abambres, J. He
Comments: 31 Pages.

Corrugated webs are used to increase the shear stability of steel webs of beam-like members and to eliminate the need of transverse stiffeners. Previously developed formulas for predicting the shear strength of trapezoidal corrugated steel webs, along with the corresponding theory, are summarized. An artificial neural network (ANN)-based model is proposed to estimate the shear strength of steel girders with a trapezoidal corrugated web, and under a concentrated load. 210 test results from previous published research were collected into a database according to relevant test specimen parameters in order to feed the simulated ANNs. Seven (geometrical and material) parameters were identified as input variables and the ultimate shear stress at failure was considered the output variable. The proposed ANN-based analytical model yielded maximum and mean relative errors of 0.0% for the 210 points from the database. Moreover, still based on those points, it was illustrated that the ANN-based model clearly outperforms the other existing analytical models, which yield mean errors larger than 13%.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31346] viXra:1909.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 14:52:25

Shear Capacity of Headed Studs in Steel-Concrete Structures: Analytical Prediction via Soft Computing

Authors: M. Abambres, J. He
Comments: 29 Pages.

Headed studs are commonly used as shear connectors to transfer longitudinal shear force at the interface between steel and concrete in composite structures (e.g., bridge decks). Code-based equations for predicting the shear capacity of headed studs are summarized. An artificial neural network (ANN)-based analytical model is proposed to estimate the shear capacity of headed steel studs. 234 push-out test results from previous published research were collected into a database in order to feed the simulated ANNs. Three parameters were identified as input variables for the prediction of the headed stud shear force at failure, namely the steel stud tensile strength and diameter, and the concrete (cylinder) compressive strength. The proposed ANN-based analytical model yielded, for all collected data, maximum and mean relative errors of 3.3 % and 0.6 %, respectively. Moreover, it was illustrated that, for that data, the neural network approach clearly outperforms the existing code-based equations, which yield mean errors greater than 13 %.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31345] viXra:1909.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 14:55:41

Ineffective Obsessions in Brazilian Academia and Proposals Towards Meritocracy

Authors: M. Abambres, T. Ribeiro, A. Sousa, E. Lantsoght
Comments: 18 Pages.

Albeit its constitutional claim for quality, Brazilian academia has largely been referred to as unmeritocratic and academic hiring is still inward-oriented. Lattes platform, a public curricular information system, reflects elements of this protectionism. This article assesses two ‘obsessions’ in Brazilian academia: (i) the ‘mandatory’ Lattes CV, and (ii) the candidates’ assessment criteria in public tenders for faculty positions. Several pros and cons (mostly) of the Lattes platform are identified. The following improvements are proposed: (i) evaluations in public tenders based only on candidate’s CV, interview, and a sample lecture, (ii) the dismissal of Lattes CV as a mandatory format, and (iii) the use of platforms as Microsoft Academic, Google Scholar, ORCID or ResearcherID for curricular information. With these recommendations, Brazil can move towards a more meritocratic academic hiring system.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[31344] viXra:1909.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 14:57:55

Research Counts, Not the Journal

Authors: M. Abambres, T. Ribeiro, A. Sousa, E. Lantsoght
Comments: 13 Pages.

‘If there is one thing every bibliometrician agrees, is that you should never use the journal impact factor (JIF) to evaluate research performance for an article or an individual – that is a mortal sin’. Few sentences could define so precisely the uses and misuses of the Journal Impact Factor (JIF) better than Anthony van Raan’s. This manuscript presents a critical overview on the international use, by governments and institutions, of the JIF and/or journal indexing information for individual research quality assessment. Interviews given by Nobel Laureates speaking on this matter are partially illustrated in this work. Furthermore, the authors propose complementary and alternative versions of the journal impact factor, respectively named Complementary (CIF) and Timeless (TIF) Impact Factors, aiming to better assess the average quality of a journal – never of a paper or an author. The idea behind impact factors is not useless, it has just been misused.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[31343] viXra:1909.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 15:57:28

Neural Network-Based Formula for Shear Capacity Prediction of One-Way Slabs Under Concentrated Loads

Authors: M. Abambres, E. Lantsoght
Comments: 33 Pages.

According to the current codes and guidelines, shear assessment of existing reinforced concrete slab bridges sometimes leads to the conclusion that the bridge under consideration has insufficient shear capacity. The calculated shear capacity, however, does not consider the transverse redistribution capacity of slabs, thus leading to overconservative values. This paper proposes an artificial neural network (ANN)-based formula to come up with estimates of the shear capacity of one-way reinforced concrete slabs under a concentrated load, based on 287 test results gathered from the literature. The proposed model yields maximum and mean relative errors of 0.0% for the 287 data points. Moreover, it was illustrated to clearly outperform (mean Vtest / VANN =1.00) the Eurocode 2 provisions (mean VE,EC / VR,c =1.59) for that dataset. A step-by-step assessment scheme for reinforced concrete slab bridges by means of the ANN-based model is also proposed, which results in an improvement of the current assessment procedures.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31342] viXra:1909.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 16:20:40

Potential of Neural Networks for Maximum Displacement Predictions in Railway Beams on Frictionally Damped Foundations

Authors: M. Abambres, R. Corrêa, A. Pinto da Costa, F. Simões
Comments: 63 Pages.

Since the use of finite element (FE) simulations for the dynamic analysis of railway beams on frictionally damped foundations are (i) very time consuming, and (ii) require advanced know-how and software that go beyond the available resources of typical civil engineering firms, this paper aims to demonstrate the potential of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to effectively predict the maximum displacements and the critical velocity in railway beams under moving loads. Four ANN-based models are proposed, one per load velocity range ([50, 175] ∪ [250, 300] m/s; ]175, 250[ m/s) and per displacement type (upward or downward). Each model is function of two independent variables, a frictional parameter and the load velocity. Among all models and the 663 data points used, a maximum error of 5.4 % was obtained when comparing the ANN- and FE-based solutions. Whereas the latter involves an average computing time per data point of thousands of seconds, the former does not even need a millisecond. This study was an important step towards the development of more versatile (i.e., including other types of input variables) ANN-based models for the same type of problem.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31341] viXra:1909.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 17:51:25

Religious Persecution Against Coptic – In Egypt – Please Help

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

(1) Egyptian Government practices a Religious Persecution against me (Coptic) (2013-2019)– Because of my Specific Work in Astrophysics (2) Egyptian Government prevents the Coptic to be distinguished or famous – And she prevented me to travel from Egypt during (2013-2019) (3) Egyptian Government forces my relatives and Church people to perform this persecution works (4) Egyptian Government People tortures my mother to prevent me to publish my research papers (5) Egyptian Government People Try To Kill My Mother Now And To Get Rid Of Me. My research & CV proves my claim. Please Help
Category: Astrophysics

[31340] viXra:1909.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 00:08:23

The Cosmic Origin of Climate Cycles

Authors: F.M. Sanchez
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Wolf and Milankovich cycles, as well as a 725 years one, are shown to be tightly connected to the invariant Hubble-Sanchez horizon, via the Bohr radius, the background temperature and the Kotov length, implying a liaison between the Mattieu group, the superstring dimension 496 and the Higgs boson mass. The Mattieu group order factorisation 66 × 5! is implied, and leads to a relation implying the Monster Couple, characterising the Tau, Mu Leptons and Proton masses and confirming the Eddington's Proton-Tau symmetry.
Category: Climate Research

[31339] viXra:1909.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 00:13:09

A Definiive Proof of the ABC Conjecture

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 10 Pages. We give another proof of the conjecture c

In this paper, we consider the $abc$ conjecture. Firstly, we give anelementaryproof the conjecture $c<rad^2(abc)$. Secondly, the proof of the $abc$ conjecture is given for $\epsilon \geq 1$, then for $\epsilon \in ]0,1[$. We choose the constant $K(\epsilon)$ as $K(\epsilon)=e^{\left(\frac{1}{\epsilon^2} \right)}$. Some numerical examples are presented.
Category: Number Theory

[31338] viXra:1909.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 00:18:57

Huangzi Theory Outline

Authors: Huang Weixiong
Comments: 5 Pages.

Photons are particles moving at the speed of light. They are the source of energy. Atoms are the elements that make up matter. They are the basis of matter. photons collision transforms into photons dust, photons dust combination transforms into atoms, atoms split into photons dust, photons dust collision transforms into photons. Energy and matter achieve cyclic transformation. The theory of energy and material cycle transformation is called Huangzi theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[31337] viXra:1909.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 01:14:44

Refutation of Modal Operators on Rings of Continuous Functions

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate five expressions for a definition (2), two remarks (2), and a lemma proof (1). None is tautologous. This refutes the titled conjecture which drags in the Hausdorff and Stone topologies, Kripke frames, and dualities of Gelfand-Naimark-Stone and Esakia-Goldblatt. These conjectures form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[31336] viXra:1909.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 02:04:19

The Characteristic of Primes

Authors: Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper, we propose the axiomatic regularity of prime numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[31335] viXra:1909.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 04:53:33

The Effects of Copper Doping on Photocatalytic Activity at (101) Planes of Anatase Tio2: a Theoretical Study

Authors: Dorian Hanaor
Comments: 12 Pages. English, authors post-peer-review version

Copper dopants are varyingly reported to enhance photocatalytic activity at titanium dioxide surfaces through uncertain mechanisms. In order to interpret how copper doping might alter the performance of titanium dioxide photocatalysts in aqueous media we applied density functional theory methods to simulate surface units of doped anatase (101) planes. By including van der Waals interactions, we consider the energetics of adsorbed water at anatase surfaces in pristine and copper doped systems. Simulation results indicate that copper dopant at anatase (101) surfaces is most stable in a 2+ oxidation state and a disperse configuration, suggesting the formation of secondary CuO phases is energetically unfavourable. In agreement with previous reports, water at the studied surface is predicted to exhibit molecular adsorption with this tendency slightly enhanced by copper. Results imply that the enhancement of photoactivity at anatase surfaces through Cu doping is more likely to arise from electronic interactions mediated by charge transfer and inter-bandgap states increasing photoexcitation and extending surface-hole lifetimes rather than through the increased density of adsorbed hydroxyl groups.
Category: Condensed Matter

[31334] viXra:1909.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 07:36:48

Conductivity Edges of Graphene

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

The conductivity of dual layers of graphene greatly depends on the states of carbon atoms at their edges; a property which could have important implications for information transmissions on quantum scales. [42] A research team comprised of scientists at the University of California, Riverside, and the University of Washington has for the first time directly imaged "edge conduction" in monolayer tungsten ditelluride, or WTe2, a newly discovered 2-D topological insulator and quantum material. [41]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31333] viXra:1909.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 07:56:32

Simulation of Peeling Graphene Sheets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Here, Ryoji Okamoto, Koki Yamasaki, and Naruo Sasaki at The University of Electro-Communications have developed a time-saving potential model to simulate the adhesive characteristics during the peeling process of armchair-type graphene sheets from frictionless graphite substrate surfaces. [43] The conductivity of dual layers of graphene greatly depends on the states of carbon atoms at their edges; a property which could have important implications for information transmissions on quantum scales. [42] A research team comprised of scientists at the University of California, Riverside, and the University of Washington has for the first time directly imaged "edge conduction" in monolayer tungsten ditelluride, or WTe2, a newly discovered 2-D topological insulator and quantum material. [41]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31332] viXra:1909.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 08:15:06

My Contribustion in Claymath Millenium Problems:

Authors: Louiz Akram
Comments: 1 Page.

I present my contribustion in three Claymath Millenium problems.
Category: General Mathematics

[31331] viXra:1909.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 08:24:20

Hall Effect One-Way Radio Transmission

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [32] "With optical tweezers, you can capture a single particle in its native state in solution and watch its structural evolution," said Linda Young, Argonne distinguished fellow. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31330] viXra:1909.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 08:38:22

Solar Fuel Generation in Action

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Hoping to break this barrier, scientists at the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, a Department of Energy Innovation Hub based partly at Berkeley Lab, have invented a cell that is specially designed to allow for unobtrusive observation of an isolated, operating catalyst. [30] The researchers extracted a 2-D material they call hematene from ordinary iron ore. The material is only three atoms thick and is thought to have enhanced photocatalytic properties. [29] A new hybrid energy-harvesting device may one day replace the need for batteries in certain low-power electronics devices. [28]
Category: Astrophysics

[31329] viXra:1909.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 09:13:05

A Generic Disease Cure Using T-Cells

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

I hypothesize a cure of a generic diseases using the sequencing of a single T-cell of an group of elite disease controllers
Category: Physics of Biology

[31328] viXra:1909.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 12:00:10

A Strange Connection Exists Between Middlebush NJ and the Sunken Locomotives Off Long Branch NJ

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: The 44.6 mile distance between Middlebush NJ and the 2 sunken early type locomotives found 5 miles off the coast of NJ near Long Branch NJ indicate an important connection between Middlebush and the MHCE8S theory of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[31327] viXra:1909.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 11:40:17

Stellar Metamorphosis: Does Gas Accretion Occur in the Vacuum to Form Gas Giants, K2-18b

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages. 2 diagrams, one of lift, one of stellar metamorphosis

It is pointed out that astronomers do not understand the principles of pressure and gas in the vacuum of outer space, nor do they understand planetary evolution. Some clarifying statements are made to fix the issue, and fully replace the outdated dogma. In short, astronomers claim that gas accretes onto a solid body "like a vacuum cleaner" to form a gas giant. An archive link and screen shot are provided to show how wrong this is, and a replacement theory is offered. The link is here: http://archive.is/2xg6L
Category: Astrophysics

[31326] viXra:1909.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 14:56:24

Do You Know The Winner Of Realism (Be-ables) Vs Operational-ism (Observabls) ?

Authors: Bhasanpal S.
Comments: 3 Pages.

Always think simple to answer a question which is being seem tough.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31325] viXra:1909.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 15:35:05

The Complexity of NonSwapClique

Authors: Anisse Ismaili
Comments: 1 Page.

Problem NonSwapClique: Given an undirected graph $G=(V,E)$, does it contain a clique $S\subseteq V$ of size $k$, such that you cannot obtain another clique of the same size by swapping a pair of vertices? In this note, I settle the complexity of this problem as NP-complete, by a reduction from problem \textsc{1-in-3-SAT}.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31324] viXra:1909.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 20:44:04

Bye Bye Peer-Reviewed Publishing

Authors: M. Abambres, T. Salloom, N. Beganovic, R. Dojka
Comments: 55 Pages.

This work is the continuation of a ‘revolution’ started with Research Counts, Not the Journal. Own and published opinions from worldwide scientists on critical issues of peer-reviewed publishing are presented. In my opinion, peer-reviewed publishing is a quite flawed process (in many ways) that has greatly harmed Science for a long time – it has been imposed by most academic and science funding institutions as the only way to assess scientific performance. Unfortunately, most academics still follow that path, even though I believe most do it for the fear of losing their job or not being promoted. This paper aims to encourage (i) a full disruption of peer-reviewed publishing and (ii) the use of free eprint repositories for a sustainable academic/scientific publishing, i.e. healthier (no stress/distress associated to the peer review stage and the long waiting for publication) and more economic, effective and efficient (research is made immediately available and trackable/citable to anyone). On the other hand, it should be pointed out that nothing exists against scientific publishers/journals – actually it´s perfectly normal that any company wants to implement its own quality criteria. This paper is just the way chosen to promote the quick implementation of suitable policies for research evaluation.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[31323] viXra:1909.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 20:46:25

How (Not) to Lead Academia

Authors: M. Abambres
Comments: Pages.

This work reports several issues found by the author throughout his professional career, concerning academic leadership. Topics like (i) out-of-field teaching/researching, and (ii) time management in faculty hiring or new role assignment, are addressed. Besides, the author describes which fundamental decisions he´d take if he could manage a higher education institution or academic department. The topics covered are crucial for the success of any higher education institution, such as (a) hiring, (b) social engagement, (c) student assessment, (d) open mindedness, (e) prompt communication, and (f) passion in work.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[31322] viXra:1909.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 20:50:16

The Eht Picture is Wrong; This Shows How Low is the Level of Knowledge of the Black Holes in Universities, in Research Centers

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 428 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

The EHT picture is wrong; this shows how Low is the level of knowledge of the Black Holes in universities, in research centers “There is no Gravitational redshift around the Black Hole, around the Event horizon of the Black Hole in Ferent Quantum Gravity, like the red color in the EHT picture of the Black Hole” Adrian Ferent “All the photons interacting with Gravitons will fall inside the Black Hole. We will see only the photons which do not interact with Gravitons that is why we see the White light around the Black Hole, not the read light like in the EHT picture of the Black Hole” Adrian Ferent “We do not see the black Event horizon, like in the EHT picture” Adrian Ferent “Einstein supermassive Black Hole picture from EHT is Black and Red; Ferent supermassive Black Hole picture is White” Adrian Ferent “Ferent supermassive Black Hole picture is White; the EHT picture of the Black Hole is wrong, we do not see the black Event horizon because of the large luminosity as the result of gas and matter being accreted and we do not see the read light in the EHT picture around the Event horizon because at 3rs the Gravitational redshift does not exist” Adrian Ferent “You do not need a telescope to see a Black Hole, you need only an amazing brain to see it and a new Gravitation theory, Ferent Quantum Gravity” Adrian Ferent “At this distance, 26,000 light-years from Sgr A* the Gravitational flux on Earth is very small, but the Gravitons from Sgr A* destroy cells on Earth” Adrian Ferent “There are no Extraterrestrial civilizations in the center of our galaxy, because of Sgr A*” Adrian Ferent “Einstein gravitation theory is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity is right” Adrian Ferent The UCLA picture of a Black Hole is right and the EHT picture is wrong! https://ucla.in/2NVbhCh The scientists from UCLA are right! ‘The new findings are based on observations of the black hole — which is called Sagittarius A*, or Sgr A* — during four nights in April and May at the Keck Observatory. The brightness surrounding the black hole always varies somewhat, but the scientists were stunned by the extreme variations in brightness during that timeframe, including their observations on May 13.’ The energy of the Gravitons emitted by the Black Hole is much higher than the energy of the photons. “All the photons interacting with Gravitons will fall inside the Black Hole. We will see only the photons which do not interact with Gravitons that is why we see the White light around the Black Hole, not the read light like in the EHT picture of the Black Hole” Adrian Ferent This means: “There is no Gravitational redshift around the Black Hole, around the Event horizon of the Black Hole in Ferent Quantum Gravity, like the red color in the EHT picture of the Black Hole” Adrian Ferent That is why the EHT picture of the Black Hole is wrong. This is another proof that: “Einstein gravitation theory is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity is right” Adrian Ferent The read light in the EHT picture of the Black Hole is the Gravitational redshift around the Black Hole, at 3rs around the Event horizon of the Black Hole. The EHT picture of the Black Hole is wrong: The Schwarzschild radius rs of an object is proportional to the mass. The Schwarzschild radius rs of the Sgr A* is 12×10^6 km rs = 2GM / c^2 Between rs and 3rs around the Event horizon in EHT picture is red light, it is the Gravitational redshift. How I explained: “All the photons interacting with Gravitons will fall inside the Black Hole. We will see only the photons which do not interact with Gravitons that is why we see the White light around the Black Hole, not the read light like in the EHT picture of the Black Hole” Adrian Ferent This means: The read light in the EHT picture of the Black Hole, around the Event horizon is wrong. That is why: “The EHT picture of the Black Hole is wrong and Einstein gravitation theory is wrong” Adrian Ferent “The picture of the Black Hole is white not red like the EHT picture of the Black Hole” Adrian Ferent “I am the first who explained the Gravitational redshift” Adrian Ferent “We do not see the black Event horizon like in the EHT picture” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity the supermassive Black Hole picture is white because around it there are a lot of collisions between stars and planets. The large luminosity is the result of gas and matter being accreted by the supermassive Black Hole.” Adrian Ferent How easy was accepted the wrong EHT picture of the Black Hole by universities, research centers, peer-reviewed journals… “The EHT picture of the Black Hole is wrong; this shows how Low is the level of knowledge of the Black Holes and Dark Matter in universities, research centers” Adrian Ferent “Einstein supermassive Black Hole is a Singularity; Ferent supermassive Black Hole has very small volume” Adrian Ferent The scientists from UCLA are wrong! No danger to Earth ‘The black hole is some 26,000 light-years away and poses no danger to our planet. Do said the radiation would have to be 10 billion times as bright as what the astronomers detected to affect life on Earth.’ “Gravitons emitted by Black Holes kill Aliens” Adrian Ferent “The energy of the Gravitons inside a Black Hole, is much higher than the energy of gluons” Adrian Ferent “At this distance, 26,000 light-years from Sgr A* the Gravitational flux on Earth is very small, but the Gravitons from Sgr A* destroy cells on Earth” Adrian Ferent “Gravitational Radiation is the most dangerous because it travels the farthest and is the most penetrating” Adrian Ferent “I am the first who explained the lack of extraterrestrial civilizations” Adrian Ferent “Extraterrestrial civilizations are on planets moving around stars far away from Black Holes” Adrian Ferent “There are no Extraterrestrial civilizations in the center of our galaxy, because of Sgr A*” Adrian Ferent Conclusions “Einstein supermassive Black Hole picture from EHT is Black and Red; Ferent supermassive Black Hole picture is White” Adrian Ferent “Ferent supermassive Black Hole picture is White; the EHT picture of the Black Hole is wrong, we do not see the black Event horizon because of the large luminosity as the result of gas and matter being accreted and we do not see the read light in the EHT picture around the Event horizon because at 3rs the Gravitational redshift does not exist” Adrian Ferent “The EHT picture of the Black Hole is wrong; this shows how Low is the level of knowledge of the Black Holes and Dark Matter in universities, research centers” Adrian Ferent “At this distance, 26,000 light-years from Sgr A* the Gravitational flux on Earth is very small, but the Gravitons from Sgr A* destroy cells on Earth” Adrian Ferent “There are no Extraterrestrial civilizations in the center of our galaxy, because of Sgr A*” Adrian Ferent This is another proof that: “Einstein gravitation theory is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity is right” Adrian Ferent 248. I am the first who discovered that there is no Gravitational redshift around the Black Hole, around the Event horizon of the Black Hole in Ferent Quantum Gravity, like the red color in the EHT picture of the Black Hole 249. I am the first who discovered that all the photons interacting with Gravitons will fall inside the Black Hole. We will see only the photons which do not interact with Gravitons that is why we see the White light around the Black Hole, not the read light like in the EHT picture of the Black Hole 250. I am the first who discovered that we do not see the black Event horizon, like in the EHT picture 251. I am the first who discovered that Einstein supermassive Black Hole picture from EHT is Black and Red; Ferent supermassive Black Hole picture is White 252. I am the first who discovered that Ferent supermassive Black Hole picture is White; the EHT picture of the Black Hole is wrong, we do not see the black Event horizon because of the large luminosity as the result of gas and matter being accreted and we do not see the read light in the EHT picture around the Event horizon because at 3rs the Gravitational redshift does not exist 253. I am the first who discovered that the EHT picture of the Black Hole is wrong; this shows how Low is the level of knowledge of the Black Holes and Dark Matter in universities, research centers 254. I am the first who discovered that at this distance, 26,000 light-years from Sgr A* the Gravitational flux on Earth is very small, but the Gravitons from Sgr A* destroy cells on Earth 255. I am the first who discovered that there are no Extraterrestrial civilizations in the center of our galaxy, because of Sgr A* 256. I am the first who discovered that Einstein gravitation theory is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity is right
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[31321] viXra:1909.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 20:50:43

Potential of Neural Networks for Structural Damage Localization

Authors: M. Abambres, M. Marcy, G. Doz
Comments: Pages.

Fabrication technology and structural engineering states-of-art have led to a growing use of slender structures, making them more susceptible to static and dynamic actions that may lead to some sort of damage. In this context, regular inspections and evaluations are necessary to detect and predict structural damage and establish maintenance actions able to guarantee structural safety and durability with minimal cost. However, these procedures are traditionally quite time-consuming and costly, and techniques allowing a more effective damage detection are necessary. This paper assesses the potential of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models in the prediction of damage localization in structural members, as function of their dynamic properties – the three first natural frequencies are used. Based on 64 numerical examples from damaged (mostly) and undamaged steel channel beams, an ANN-based analytical model is proposed as a highly accurate and efficient damage localization estimator. The proposed model yielded maximum errors of 0.2 and 0.7 % concerning 64 numerical and 3 experimental data points, respectively. Due to the high-quality of results, authors’ next step is the application of similar approaches to entire structures, based on much larger datasets.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31320] viXra:1909.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 21:46:04

An Interesting Novel Insight into the [ Ocaml+Theorem Prover+AI/ML+Java+Prolog+BaseX-XML DB/ Mongo DB Systems+Imaging Mathematics-Linear Algebra ] to Probe Radiation Oncology Informatics +BIG DATA.

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 5 Pages. Short Communication & Technical Notes

An Interesting Novel Insight into the [Ocaml+Theorem Prover+AI/ML+Java+Prolog+BaseX-XML DB/Mongo DB Systems+Imaging Mathematics-Linear Algebra ] to Probe Radiation Oncology Informatics+BIG DATA.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31319] viXra:1909.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 23:09:11

ζ(5), ζ(7)..........ζ(331), ζ(333) Are Irrational Number

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 24 Pages.

Using the fact that ζ(3) is an irrational number, I prove that ζ(5), ζ(7)...........ζ(331) and ζ(333) are irrational numbers. ζ(5), ζ(7)...........ζ(331) and ζ(333) are confirmed that they were in perfect numerical agreement. This is because I created an odd-number formula for ζ, and the formula was created by dividing the odd- number for ζ itself into odd and even numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[31318] viXra:1909.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 01:25:25

Solar Planet Velocity Analysis

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

Paper Hypotheses (1) Planet Velocity shows that Planet Motion is a part of A Greater Motion- (2) Planet Velocity shows that, Planets motions are similar to a train motion- it's one unified motion – and as a train moves with its carriages – the solar system moves one general motion with all planets. ("Train Motion Concept") (3) Planets different velocities can't disprove "the rain motion concept" because Planets motions are complementary to each other to enable the general unified motion to be performed which necessities the difference of velocities.
Category: Astrophysics

[31317] viXra:1909.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 04:46:45

Noise Cancelling Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 92 Pages.

A team from Dartmouth College and MIT has designed and conducted the first lab test to successfully detect and characterize a class of complex, "non-Gaussian" noise processes that are routinely encountered in superconducting quantum computing systems. [56] Scientists from the University of Bath, working with a colleague at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, have devised an ingenious method of controlling the vapour by coating the interior of containers with nanoscopic gold particles 300,000 times smaller than a pinhead. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31316] viXra:1909.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 06:51:50

A Generalization of the Functional Equation of the Riemann zeta Function

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 2 pages, written in french

With help of theta functions, a generalization of the functional equation of the zeta Riemann function can be defined.
Category: Number Theory

[31315] viXra:1909.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 06:52:45

Paramagnetic Spins for Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

An international team of researchers has observed that local thermal perturbations of spins in a solid can convert heat to energy even in a paramagnetic material-where spins weren't thought to correlate long enough to do so. [31] Recent discoveries in high Tc superconductors have resulted in an intense interest in a "pair-density wave" (PDW) formed in Cooper pairs (an electron pair bound together at low temperatures), although there is little theoretical understanding on the driving mechanisms of this exotic state. [30] Researchers at Northeast Normal University, in China, and University of the Basque Country, in Spain, have recently carried out a study investigating the superconducting transition of electrides. [29] Superconducting quantum microwave circuits can function as qubits, the building blocks of a future quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31314] viXra:1909.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 07:44:39

Twisted and Untwisted Nanomaterial

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 75 Pages.

Scientists who study the nanoscale—with molecules and materials 10,000 smaller than a pinhead—need to be able to test the way that some molecules twist, known as their chirality, because mirror image molecules with the same structure can have very different properties. [50] In a recent study, researchers at the NASA Ames Research Center have demonstrated that nanoscale vacuum channel transistors can be fabricated on silicon carbide wafers. [49] Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanofibers can have various applications, such as in catalyzers and filters. [48]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31313] viXra:1909.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 07:59:34

Progress in Inverse Photoconductance

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 76 Pages.

University (UV) researchers have modified the photoconductance of nanoparticles of tungsten oxide (WO3) in a controlled manner. [51] Scientists who study the nanoscale-with molecules and materials 10,000 smaller than a pinhead-need to be able to test the way that some molecules twist, known as their chirality, because mirror image molecules with the same structure can have very different properties. [50] In a recent study, researchers at the NASA Ames Research Center have demonstrated that nanoscale vacuum channel transistors can be fabricated on silicon carbide wafers. [49] Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanofibers can have various applications, such as in catalyzers and filters. [48] Today, scientists report progress in making versions of these nanoparticles that could someday give built-in night vision to humans. [47] A new piece of a difficult puzzle-the nature of memory-fell into place this week with a hint at how brain cells change structure when they learn something. [46] Researchers at the University of Alberta have found an important protein in the cells of a deadly infectious parasite, opening the door to less harmful treatment for millions of people suffering from diseases like sleeping sickness in Africa and Chagas disease in South America. [45] The remarkable ability of a small Australian sea snail to produce a colourful purple compound to protect its eggs is proving even more remarkable for its potential in a new anti-cancer pharmaceutical. [44] Gene editing technology is a technology that eliminates the underlying causes of and treats diseases by removing specific genesor editing genes to restore their normal function. In particular, CRISPR gene editing technology is now commonly used for immunotherapy by correcting the genes of immune cells to induce them to attack cancer cells selectively. [43]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31312] viXra:1909.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 08:17:11

Gem-Like Nanoparticles as Catalysts

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 79 Pages.

A Northwestern University research team has developed a new method for making highly desirable catalysts from metal nanoparticles that could lead to better fuel cells, among other applications. [52] Valencia University (UV) researchers have modified the photoconductance of nanoparticles of tungsten oxide (WO3) in a controlled manner. [51] Scientists who study the nanoscale-with molecules and materials 10,000 smaller than a pinhead-need to be able to test the way that some molecules twist, known as their chirality, because mirror image molecules with the same structure can have very different properties. [50] In a recent study, researchers at the NASA Ames Research Center have demonstrated that nanoscale vacuum channel transistors can be fabricated on silicon carbide wafers. [49] Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanofibers can have various applications, such as in catalyzers and filters. [48] Today, scientists report progress in making versions of these nanoparticles that could someday give built-in night vision to humans. [47] A new piece of a difficult puzzle-the nature of memory-fell into place this week with a hint at how brain cells change structure when they learn something. [46] Researchers at the University of Alberta have found an important protein in the cells of a deadly infectious parasite, opening the door to less harmful treatment for millions of people suffering from diseases like sleeping sickness in Africa and Chagas disease in South America. [45] The remarkable ability of a small Australian sea snail to produce a colourful purple compound to protect its eggs is proving even more remarkable for its potential in a new anti-cancer pharmaceutical. [44] Gene editing technology is a technology that eliminates the underlying causes of and treats diseases by removing specific genesor editing genes to restore their normal function. In particular, CRISPR gene editing technology is now commonly used for immunotherapy by correcting the genes of immune cells to induce them to attack cancer cells selectively. [43]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31311] viXra:1909.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 08:38:25

Blackest Black Material Development

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

MIT engineers report today that they have cooked up a material that is 10 times blacker than anything that has previously been reported. [53] A Northwestern University research team has developed a new method for making highly desirable catalysts from metal nanoparticles that could lead to better fuel cells, among other applications. [52] Valencia University (UV) researchers have modified the photoconductance of nanoparticles of tungsten oxide (WO3) in a controlled manner. [51] Scientists who study the nanoscale—with molecules and materials 10,000 smaller than a pinhead—need to be able to test the way that some molecules twist, known as their chirality, because mirror image molecules with the same structure can have very different properties. [50]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31310] viXra:1909.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 11:00:47

The Valuation of Financial Derivatives Subject to Counterparty Risk and Credit Value Adjustment

Authors: Xiao, Tim
Comments: 40 Pages.

This article presents a generic model for pricing financial derivatives subject to counterparty credit risk. Both unilateral and bilateral types of credit risks are considered. Our study shows that credit risk should be modeled as American style options in most cases, which require a backward induction valuation. To correct a common mistake in the literature, we emphasize that the market value of a defaultable derivative is actually a risky value rather than a risk-free value. Credit value adjustment (CVA) is also elaborated. A practical framework is developed for pricing defaultable derivatives and calculating their CVAs at a portfolio level.
Category: Economics and Finance

[31309] viXra:1909.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 13:53:36

On the Ramanujan Modular Equations, Class Invariants and Mock Theta Functions: New Mathematical Connections with Some Particle-Like Solutions, Black Holes Entropies, ζ(2) and Golden Ratio

Authors: Michele Nardelli, Antonio Nardelli
Comments: 196 Pages.

In the present research thesis, we have obtained various interesting new possible mathematical connections between the Ramanujan Modular Equations, Class Invariants, the Mock Theta Functions, some particle-like solutions, Black Holes entropies, ζ(2) and Golden Ratio
Category: Number Theory

[31308] viXra:1909.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 17:26:10

Stellar Metamorphosis: Accretion Friction Braking, Part Two, 25143 Itokawa

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper calculations are done to determine the kinetic energy in joules of an impact at 3 different velocities of the asteroid 25143 Itokawa. More calculations are done in a graph, and some explanation is given as to what will happen to Itokawa in accordance with the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis. Essentially any impact velocity of Itokawa due to its large mass will cause enormous destruction, leading to the realization that it must have formed from an even larger destructive event.
Category: Astrophysics

[31307] viXra:1909.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 22:29:05

Other Plausible Mechanisms of Anesthetic Action Within the Framework of Spin-Mediated Consciousness Theory

Authors: Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu
Comments: 22 Pages. To be submitted for publication

We have recently discussed the mechanism of xenon anesthetic action in spin-mediated consciousness theory in light of the recent experimental findings. In this paper, we discuss some other plausible mechanisms of anesthetic action within the framework of spin-mediated consciousness theory. In one scenario, general anesthetics such as xenon may produce anesthesia by direct perturbations and/or distortions of neural spin networks alone or in addition to perturbing and/or distorting O2 and/or NO pathways in neural membranes and proteins. In another scenario, the mind-pixels are comprised of unpaired electrons carried by transition metal ions, O2 and/or NO caged-in/bound/absorbed to large molecules in neural membranes and proteins. In the latter, general anesthetics such as xenon may produce anesthesia by perturbing free/unbound O2 and/or NO pathways in neural membranes and proteins and/or unpaired electron spin networks thus blocking and/or distorting their functions in consciousness. In either of the above scenarios, the nuclear spins of xenon 131 and xenon 129 may partially play the roles of displaced nuclear spins or unpaired electron spins, thus attenuate the anesthetic potency of nuclear-spin-carrying xenon isotopes observed by Li, et. al.
Category: Mind Science

[31306] viXra:1909.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 22:57:06

1 期間2項モデルを活用した失業保険の価格決定

Authors: Hiroki Tahara
Comments: 3 Pages. Japanese Only

I determined general fee of employment insurance. I used one-term binomial models in order to determine general fee of employment insurance.
Category: Economics and Finance

[31305] viXra:1909.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 00:19:19

Definition Of Motion (III)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 18 Pages.

Paper Hypothesis Solar System Motion 1-Light travels before any other motion – because by this light motion energy the solar system moves. 2-Solar planets motions are followers the leading light motion 3-Light Motion is One and Planets Motions is One i.e. 4-Solar Planets cooperate together to produce one unified motion 5-Planets Data proves that solar system moves one unified motion by all planets – as a train moves with all carriages together- (Planet = A Train Carriage) Also Solar System has relativistic effects which prove the one motion claim Because (1) All distances are contracted by the same rate which means there's One Unified Motion Behind (2) the contraction rate is transported from point to another which proves the energy transportation through the solar system, makes it as one Trajectory of Energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[31304] viXra:1909.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 00:27:58

Explain Quantum Physics With a Single-Particle

Authors: Arnaud ANDRIEU
Comments: 20 Pages.

The principle of the single-particle behaves exactly like a harmonic oscillator; but at very high frequency. The fixed static density is given at each end point of the particle, where between two, its acceleration would be extremely high. This anharmonic oscillation of the particle, work tirelessly between singularity and quantum decoherence.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31303] viXra:1909.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 01:39:20

Collatz Conjecture Explained Through Recursive Functions

Authors: Natalino Sapere
Comments: 9 Pages. None

This paper explains the Collatz Conjecture through the use of recursive functions.
Category: Number Theory

[31302] viXra:1909.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 01:53:43

Fluid's Resonance Frequencies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 73 Pages.

Lyon has recently collected the first measurements of the resonance frequencies of a stable torus of fluid. [43] Cell culture plates that are in everyday use in biology can be effectively transformed into microfluidic devices, opening paths for biologists to miniaturize cell-based workflows. [42] The properties of gold in nanoscale are significantly different to those of bulk gold. Of special interest are gold nanoclusters, that are composed of between tens to some hundreds of gold atoms. [41] A team at Osaka University has created single-molecule nanowires, complete with an insulation layer, up to 10 nanometers in length. [40] Using optical and electrical measurements, a two-dimensional anisotropic crystal of rhenium disulfide was found to show opposite piezoresistant effects along two principle axes, i.e. positive along one axis and negative along another. [39] A team of researchers from the University of Konstanz has demonstrated a new aqueous polymerization procedure for generating polymer nanoparticles with a single chain and uniform shape, which, by contrast to previous methods, involves high particle concentrations. [38] A team of researchers from China, the U.S. and Japan has developed a way to strengthen graphene-based membranes intended for use in desalination projects-by fortifying them with nanotubes. [37] The team arrived at their results by imaging gold nanoparticles, with diameters ranging from 2 to 5 nanometres, via aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. [36] Nanoparticles of less than 100 nanometres in size are used to engineer new materials and nanotechnologies across a variety of sectors. [35] For years, researchers have been trying to find ways to grow an optimal nanowire, using crystals with perfectly aligned layers all along the wire. [34]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31301] viXra:1909.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 02:21:15

The Nature of the Φ(m) Function

Authors: Wei Zhang
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper gives the definition and nature of Φ(m) function, as well as the relationship between Φ(m) and Euler’s totient function φ(m). In number theory, Euler function φ(m) is widely used, Φ(m) function if there are other applications, also not clear.
Category: Number Theory

[31300] viXra:1909.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 05:01:27

On the Estimation of the Economic Value of a Dash Proposal

Authors: Pablo Menéndez-Ponte Alonso
Comments: 16 Pages.

This paper is concerned with the derivation of a consistent formal method to allow for estimating the economic value of a Dash proposal. Standing on the Currency Fair Value[1] theory as rational financial pricing model of a currency, the paper will arrive at a straightforward and objective calculation tool, in the form of several simple equations. These will allow Masternode owners and individuals who submit proposals to the Dash treasury to estimate the expected value return of the economic proposals and thus, enable them to make more rational decisions. Development of this new model will require differential analysis of the fair value equation, as a basis for the analytical expressions expected by the main target audience. This analysis goes beyond the scope of Dash and many other currency research efforts may also drawn upon it. Keywords: Dash·Proposal·Quantitative Finance·Asset Pricing·Currency Fair Value·Investing
Category: Economics and Finance

[31299] viXra:1909.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 05:25:01

On Prime NumberⅣ

Authors: Yuji Masuda
Comments: 1 Page.

This is primes④
Category: Number Theory

[31298] viXra:1909.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 05:41:14

A General Form of the Beppo Levi`s Lemma

Authors: Johan Aspegren
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this article we will prove a version of the Beppo Levi`s lemma for the complex valued functions. This achieved by making a more stronger asumption that is assumed in Beppo Levi`s lemma. We will assume that the sum of measurable functions that is absolutely convergent almost everywhere is integrable. We will prove that it implies the asumptions of the Beppo Levi lemma, if we consider functions that are non-negative. It can be argued that our version is more suitable to applications, and we will prove a new probability law. We will show that with our asumptions in probability theory it follows that the expected value is countable additive. Moreover, it follows that in strong law of large numbers we don`t need to make any asumptions on distributions and the mean of the sample will convergence almost surely to the mean of the expected values.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[31297] viXra:1909.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-13 08:42:33

Showing the Real Numbers are Denumerable Using Binary Digit Ratios

Authors: James Edwin Rock
Comments: 1 Page.

Cantor’s diagonal argument starts with an invalid premise. Using binary decimals, we calculate the ratio of ones to the total number of digits for decimals in the closed interval [0, 1]. We use these ratios to show that the real numbers are denumerable. The reals numbers have the same cardinality as the power set of the natural numbers. There is no hierarchy of infinities in Level Set Theory.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[31296] viXra:1909.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-13 10:33:39

Refutation of Computability, Orders, and Solvable Groups

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate the first definition for a pre-orderable group which is not tautologous. This refutes subsequent conjectures, and forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Algebra

[31295] viXra:1909.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-13 11:01:04

Quantum Rotating Interferometer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

A team of researchers from the University of Glasgow and the University of Southampton has devised a novel way to test quantum mechanics in a non-inertial reference frame by using a rotating interferometer. [39] Researchers at QuTech in Delft have succeeded in generating quantum entanglement between two quantum chips faster than the entanglement is lost. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31294] viXra:1909.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-13 11:26:04

Photonic Traffic on the Fly

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Now, researchers from the University of Pennsylvania, where topological insulators were first discovered in 2005, have shown a way to fulfill that promise in a field where physical space is at an even bigger premium: photonics. [40] A team of researchers from the University of Glasgow and the University of Southampton has devised a novel way to test quantum mechanics in a non-inertial reference frame by using a rotating interferometer. [39] Researchers at QuTech in Delft have succeeded in generating quantum entanglement between two quantum chips faster than the entanglement is lost. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31293] viXra:1909.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-13 11:50:06

Quantum Computers Silicon Technology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 68 Pages.

But with a team of researchers from the UK and France, we have demonstrated that it may well be possible to build a quantum computer from conventional silicon-based electronic components. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41] Physical experiments were performed by Schiffer's team at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[31292] viXra:1909.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-13 12:22:55

The Prime as a Consequence of Skip Number

Authors: Suraj Deshmukh
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I have defined primes on the basis of "skip function" which basically is nothing but tells you how many numbers are skipped between two numbers. And we define a collection of set which I call skip set. The occurrence of a number decides weather it is prime or not.
Category: General Mathematics

[31291] viXra:1909.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-13 12:57:23

The Thrust of Rockets in Space.

Authors: Louiz Akram
Comments: 2 Pages.

Rockets in the vacuum keep there velocity by inertia,but there acceleration stays null which means that they can't be thrusted at all.
Category: Astrophysics

[31290] viXra:1909.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-13 18:09:39

Refutation of a Class of Lipschitz Horizontal Vector Fields in Homogeneous Groups

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate a Lipschitz horizontal vector field on Heisenberg group. It is not tautologous and further exemplifies that vector spaces are not bivalent. This forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Algebra

[31289] viXra:1909.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-13 19:27:39

Polygonal Numbers in Terms of the Beta Function

Authors: Alfredo Olmos, R. Romyna Olmos
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this article we study some characteristics of polygonal numbers, which are the positive integers that can be ordered, to form a regular polygon. The article is closed, showing the relation of the polygonal numbers, with the Beta function when expressing any polygonal number, as a sum of terms of the Beta function.
Category: Number Theory

[31288] viXra:1909.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-13 19:42:35

Refutation of Predicate Transformer Semantics for Hybrid Systems

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate the steps of the approach to verify hybrid systems in the style of dynamic logic. Top tier input assumes modal Kleene algebras which are not bivalent. Middle tier processing invokes binary relations (which we do not test). Bottom tier output produces Lipschitz continuous vector fields as verification of hybrid store dynamics, which are not bivalent. This refutes the Isabelle framework for hybrid systems verification, and forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[31287] viXra:1909.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 00:46:51

Number and Arithmetic Action

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 4 Pages. -

Definition is given to concepts of number and arithmetic action.
Category: General Mathematics

[31286] viXra:1909.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 03:09:43

Definition Of Motion (II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 12 Pages.

Paper Hypotheses -Solar system motion consists of light & planets motions. Both are geometrical players in the solar system geometrical structure -In all solar system motions – light motion leads planets motions -Solar system motion main features are (I) 2 Motions (Light And Planet) (II) both motions pass the same distance (III) the same distance passing by different rates Of Time. -Inner planets orbital circumferences are motions done by inner planets and light beams -Inner planets orbital circumferences are produced depending on Jupiter energy -Inner planets orbital circumferences work as bridge to transport the energy from Jupiter to the moon orbit
Category: Astrophysics

[31285] viXra:1909.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 03:40:00

How Fast Universe Expanding

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Scientists have known for decades that the universe is expanding, but research in the past few years has shaken up calculations on the speed of growth-raising tricky questions about theories of the cosmos. [20] If we haven't detected it 20 years from now I may be concerned, but for now I'm betting that dark matter is the real deal. [19] According to a new study, they could also potentially detect dark matter, if dark matter is composed of a particular kind of particle called a "dark photon." [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[31284] viXra:1909.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 03:48:54

Differential Equations for Conic Section

Authors: Viktor Strohm
Comments: 5 Pages.

Theoretical mechanics shows that the motion along a curve is possible only when a body has an acceleration. It follows from the second Neeton’s law that a force has to be applied to a body so as to make it accelirate. All forces applied to the body can be summed up and replaced by one summarized force. “To solve the mass point motion problem we need differential equations for the motion. The way we derive these equations doesn’t matter”: [1,§11,п.3]. In this paper the equation for conic section is derived by the investigation of movement of a body along an elipse under the influance of a summarized force.
Category: Astrophysics

[31283] viXra:1909.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 03:55:08

Laser-Cooled Optical Tweezer Array

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

A team of researchers from Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology has found that they could use an optical tweezer array of laser-cooled molecules to observe ground state collisions between individual molecules. [32] "With optical tweezers, you can capture a single particle in its native state in solution and watch its structural evolution," said Linda Young, Argonne distinguished fellow. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31282] viXra:1909.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 04:45:48

Mathematizing the Universe

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 27 Pages.

I think the best way to describe this article is by listing the CONTENTS - INTRODUCTION - Speculations about life, the universe and everything which have a basis in science SECTION 1 - STEFAN-BOLTZMANN LAW, RADIATION PRESSURE FROM THERMODYNAMICS, "VECTOR-TENSOR-SCALAR GEOMETRY" ANALOGOUS TO STRESS TENSOR / EIGENVECTORS / EIGENVALUES SECTION 2 - VECTOR-TENSOR-SCALAR GEOMETRY AND THE NUCLEAR FORCES SECTION 3 - THE STRESS TENSOR ON THE COSMIC LEVEL SECTION 4 - BITS AND TOPOLOGY – CONTINUING THE THEME OF THE MOBIUS STRIP AND MATHEMATICAL MATTER SECTION 5 - ANALOGY OF QUANTUM SPIN AND MATRIX ARRAY, WITH ELECTROMAGNETIC AND GRAVITATIONAL WAVES PRODUCED FROM PURE MATHEMATICS SECTION 6 - DARK MATTER, DARK ENERGY AND A HIGHER DIMENSION OF SPACE-TIME SECTION 7A - EXPLAINING OCEAN TIDES WHEN GENERAL RELATIVITY SAYS GRAVITY IS A PUSH CAUSED BY THE CURVATURE OF SPACE-TIME 7B - M-SIGMA 7C - GEYSERS ON SATURN'S MOON ENCELADUS 7D - A BRIEF HISTORY OF GRAVITY
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[31281] viXra:1909.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-12 07:16:00

Nuclear Clock Transition

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Now, a research team led by physicist Peter Thirolf at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich with institutional collaborators has taken an important step toward such a clock. [29] Physicists at the TU Darmstadt and their collaboration partners have performed laser spectroscopy on cadmium isotopes to confirm an improved model of the atomic nucleus. [28] Protons in neutron-rich nuclei have a higher average energy than previously thought, according to a new analysis of electron scattering data that was first collected in 2004. [27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been "squeezed" to a record low. [18]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[31280] viXra:1909.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-12 07:26:20

Subjective Evolution

Authors: A.V. Kaminsky
Comments: 25 Pages. In Russian

In this essay, I question the sufficiency of the modern physical picture to explain not only the origin of life, but even to explain the evolution of the non-alive matter. My plan in this paper is to fill this gap, by providing a new look at the quantum mechanics.
Category: Physics of Biology

[31279] viXra:1909.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-12 07:32:04

Astronomers Believe in Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

If we haven't detected it 20 years from now I may be concerned, but for now I'm betting that dark matter is the real deal. [19] According to a new study, they could also potentially detect dark matter, if dark matter is composed of a particular kind of particle called a "dark photon." [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[31278] viXra:1909.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-12 09:25:47

The Demise of Gravity Mystery

Authors: Ahmet Yalcin
Comments: 10 Pages. This is the first article of the "Field relative model of the Universe". This article will be followed by other articles including the mathematics and applications of theory.

Gravity is everywhere in our life but still the oldest unsolved phenomena scientists faced so far. This article gives an extremely simple explanation about it with an example from our daily life. The solution also defines what the tiniest element of entity in the universe should be. The work investigates, if this tiniest element contributes to the solutions of many of the other mysteries in Nature both in micro and macrocosms or creates additional new problems. The article almost uses no mathematics and the mathematics of the theory and many of the fundamental applications are subjects of other articles.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[31277] viXra:1909.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-12 09:28:11

Study of the Continuum Power Problem

Authors: Vatolin Dm.
Comments: 14 Pages. Russian

An unconditional argument for the truth of the continuum hypothesis found
Category: Topology

[31276] viXra:1909.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-12 11:03:25

Nanoscale Vacuum Channel Transistors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 74 Pages.

In a recent study, researchers at the NASA Ames Research Center have demonstrated that nanoscale vacuum channel transistors can be fabricated on silicon carbide wafers. [49] Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanofibers can have various applications, such as in catalyzers and filters. [48] Today, scientists report progress in making versions of these nanoparticles that could someday give built-in night vision to humans. [47] A new piece of a difficult puzzle-the nature of memory-fell into place this week with a hint at how brain cells change structure when they learn something. [46] Researchers at the University of Alberta have found an important protein in the cells of a deadly infectious parasite, opening the door to less harmful treatment for millions of people suffering from diseases like sleeping sickness in Africa and Chagas disease in South America. [45] The remarkable ability of a small Australian sea snail to produce a colourful purple compound to protect its eggs is proving even more remarkable for its potential in a new anti-cancer pharmaceutical. [44] Gene editing technology is a technology that eliminates the underlying causes of and treats diseases by removing specific genesor editing genes to restore their normal function. In particular, CRISPR gene editing technology is now commonly used for immunotherapy by correcting the genes of immune cells to induce them to attack cancer cells selectively. [43] Bioengineers and biophysicists from the have discovered that the toxicity of nanoparticles depends more on their size and the extent to which their surface area is charged than on their chemical composition. [42] That's now possible thanks to research by Rice University scientists who used the light-emitting properties of particular molecules to create a fluorescent nano-thermometer. [41]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31275] viXra:1909.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-12 11:21:00

Cooper Spintronic Component

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 76 Pages.

This area of research aims to greatly accelerate the study of spintronics with organic molecules. [50] In a recent study, researchers at the NASA Ames Research Center have demonstrated that nanoscale vacuum channel transistors can be fabricated on silicon carbide wafers. [49] Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanofibers can have various applications, such as in catalyzers and filters. [48] Today, scientists report progress in making versions of these nanoparticles that could someday give built-in night vision to humans. [47]
Category: Condensed Matter

[31274] viXra:1909.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-12 11:49:08

Machine Learning Rewilding

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

There may not be an obvious connection between rewilding and machine learning, but as highlighted today at ESA's ɸ-week, a project in the Netherlands uses satellite data and new digital technology to understand how a nature reserve responds to the pressure of being grazed by herbivores. [22] At the University of South Florida, researchers are integrating machine learning techniques into their work studying proteins. [21] Bioinformatics professors Anthony Gitter and Casey Greene set out in summer 2016 to write a paper about biomedical applications for deep learning, a hot new artificial intelligence field striving to mimic the neural networks of the human brain. [20] A team of researchers from the University of Muenster in Germany has now demonstrated that this combination is extremely well suited to planning chemical syntheses-so-called retrosyntheses-with unprecedented efficiency. [19] Two physicists at ETH Zurich and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have developed a novel machine-learning algorithm that analyses large data sets describing a physical system and extract from them the essential information needed to understand the underlying physics. [18]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[31273] viXra:1909.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-12 13:11:10

Sunqm-3s10: Using {N,n} QM’s Eigen N to Constitute Asteroid/kuiper Belts, and Solar {N=1..4,n} Region’s Mass Density R-Distribution and Evolution

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 22 Pages.

Asteroid belt is explained as the leftover “ring stain” of the once out-flying ice-rock mixture fragments (driven by the expansion of the ice-evap-line). The cold-KBO of Kuiper belt is explained as the “ring stain” of the current out-flying methane-ice mixture fragments (driven by the expansion of methane-evap-line, or the solar wind stop line). Using the normalized radial probability function r^2 * |R(n,l=n-1)|^2 = [r/rn * exp(1 - r/rn)]^(2*n), we calculated out that (at the normalized probability ≥ 0.1), Asteroid belt at {1,8//6} = {0,48//6} has a probability peak at n = 48, with the peak range = 2.7 ±0.6 AU, and Kuiper belt at {3,1//6} = {0,192//6} has a probability peak at n = 192, with the peak range = 43 ±5 AU. Using θ-dimension probability formula [sin(θ)]^[2(n-1)] ≥ 0.01, we calculated out that the n=48 belt has the collective orbits’ inclination range < 17.8 degree, and b=192 belt has the collective orbits’ inclination range < 8.9 degree. These calculated results fit to the Asteroid belt’s and the cold-KBO’s experimental data perfectly. Then we proposed a new concept: “Eigen quantum number n’ ” is the maximum n’ that can describe one orbit space’s > 90% mass in a single |nLL> = |n’,n’-1,n’-1> QM state. So n=48 and n=192 are the Eigen description for Asteroid belt and the cold-KBO. Using the Eigen n, the four undiscovered {3,n=2..5//6} belts (if they did not form planets) ’s r ± Δr and Δθ’ ranges are also predicted. Using the Eigen n, the Solar {N=1..4,n//6} region’s r-dimensional mass distribution was described by r^2*|R(n,l)|^2 either at each n shell level, or at each N super-shell level, or at the level of treating all N super-shells as a single entity. The evolution of r-dimensional mass distribution in Solar system (driven by the expansion of rock-evap-line and ice-evap-line) is discussed. The result suggested that any sub-Eigen n’ description for an Eigen QM state will be a low resolution and more broad description, and any above Eigen n’ description for an Eigen QM state will be a high resolution but needs many linearly combined QM states.
Category: Astrophysics

[31272] viXra:1909.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-12 13:09:29

Hydrogel Repair Heart in Humans

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

The team is planning a larger, randomized trial that will evaluate how effectively VentriGel can improve cardiac function and quality-of-life for patients experiencing heart failure. [22] Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine and their collaborators have developed a technique that allows them to speed up or slow down human heart cells growing in a dish on command-simply by shining a light on them and varying its intensity. [21] Researchers at Houston Methodist and Rice University have made a discovery that will impact the design of not only drug delivery systems, but also the development of newer applications in water filtration and energy production. [20] A new method has been developed to make drugs 'smarter' using nanotechnology so they will be more effective at reaching their target. [19] It's called gene editing, and University of Alberta researchers have just published a game-changing study that promises to bring the technology much closer to therapeutic reality. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase-a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12]
Category: Physics of Biology

[31271] viXra:1909.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-12 13:30:58

Atomic Clock Design

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

JILA physicists have demonstrated a novel atomic clock design that combines near-continuous operation with strong signals and high stability, features not previously found together in a single type of next-generation atomic clock. [30] Now, a research team led by physicist Peter Thirolf at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich with institutional collaborators has taken an important step toward such a clock. [29] Physicists at the TU Darmstadt and their collaboration partners have performed laser spectroscopy on cadmium isotopes to confirm an improved model of the atomic nucleus. [28] Protons in neutron-rich nuclei have a higher average energy than previously thought, according to a new analysis of electron scattering data that was first collected in 2004. [27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31270] viXra:1909.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-12 14:06:07

Dark Matter Cosmology and Astrophysics

Authors: Vladimir S. Netchitailo
Comments: 50 Pages.

Hypersphere World-Universe Model (WUM) envisions Matter carried from Universe into World from fourth spatial dimension by Dark Matter Particles (DMPs). Luminous Matter is byproduct of Dark Matter (DM) annihilation. WUM introduces Dark Epoch (spanning from Beginning of World for 0.4 billion years) when only DMPs existed, and Luminous Epoch (ever since for 13.8 billion years). Big Bang discussed in standard cosmological model is, in our view, transition from Dark Epoch to Luminous Epoch due to Rotational Fission of Overspinning DM Supercluster’s Cores and annihilation of DMPs. WUM solves a number of physical problems in contemporary Cosmology and Astrophysics through DMPs and their interactions: Angular Momentum problem in birth and subsequent evolution of Galaxies and Extrasolar systems – how do they obtain it; Fermi Bubbles – two large structures in gamma-rays and X-rays above and below Galactic center; Mysterious Star KIC 8462852 with irregular dimmings; Coronal Heating problem in solar physics – temperature of Sun's corona exceeding that of photosphere by millions of degrees; Cores of Sun and Earth rotating faster than their surfaces; Diversity of Gravitationally-Rounded Objects in Solar system and their Internal Heat; Lightning Initiation problem – electric fields observed inside thunderstorms are not sufficient to initiate sparks; Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes – bursts of high energy X-rays and gamma rays emanating from Earth. Model makes predictions pertaining to Masses of DMPs, proposes New Types of their Interactions. WUM reveals Inter-Connectivity of Primary Cosmological Parameters and calculates their values, which are in good agreement with the latest results of their measurements.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

Replacements of recent Submissions

[12090] viXra:1909.0420 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-20 19:23:55

On the Emergence of Spacetime Dimensions from the Kolmogorov Entropy

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 5 Pages.

This short pedagogical report is based on a couple of premises. First, it was recently shown that the long run of non-equilibrium Renormalization Group flows is prone to end up on strange attractors. As a result, multifractals are likely to provide the proper framework for the characterization of effective field theories. Secondly, it is known that multifractal analysis uses the Kolmogorov entropy (K-entropy) to quantify the degree of disorder in chaotic systems and turbulent flows. Building on these premises, the report details the remarkable connection between K-entropy, multifractal sets and spacetime dimensions. It also supports the proposal that near and above the Fermi scale, spacetime is defined by continuous and arbitrarily small deviations from four-dimensions.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[12089] viXra:1909.0338 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-18 00:24:55

The Cosmic Origin of Climate Cycles

Authors: F.M. Sanchez
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Wolf and Milankovich cycles, as well as a 725 years one, are shown to be tightly connected to the invariant Hubble-Sanchez horizon, via the Bohr radius, the background temperature and the Kotov length, implying a liaison between the Mattieu group, the superstring dimension 496 and the Higgs boson mass. The Mattieu group order factorisation 66 × 5! is implied, and leads to a relation implying the Monster Couple, characterising the Tau, Mu Leptons and Proton masses and confirming the Eddington's Proton-Tau symmetry.
Category: Climate Research

[12088] viXra:1909.0315 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-20 03:32:04

ζ(5), ζ(7)..........ζ(331), ζ(333) Are Irrational Number

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 37 Pages.

Using the fact that ζ(3) is an irrational number, I prove that ζ(5), ζ(7)...........ζ(331) and ζ(333) are irrational numbers. ζ(5), ζ(7)...........ζ(331) and ζ(333) are confirmed that they were in perfect numerical agreement. This is because I created an odd-number formula for ζ, and the formula was created by dividing the odd- number for ζ itself into odd and even numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[12087] viXra:1909.0315 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-19 03:16:57

ζ(5), ζ(7)..........ζ(331), ζ(333) Are Irrational Number

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 35 Pages.

Using the fact that ζ(3) is an irrational number, I prove that ζ(5), ζ(7)...........ζ(331) and ζ(333) are irrational numbers. ζ(5), ζ(7)...........ζ(331) and ζ(333) are confirmed that they were in perfect numerical agreement. This is because I created an odd-number formula for ζ, and the formula was created by dividing the odd- number for ζ itself into odd and even numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[12086] viXra:1909.0315 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-17 08:58:39

ζ(5), ζ(7)..........ζ(331), ζ(333) Are Irrational Number

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 38 Pages.

Using the fact that ζ(3) is an irrational number, I prove that ζ(5), ζ(7)...........ζ(331) and ζ(333) are irrational numbers. ζ(5), ζ(7)...........ζ(331) and ζ(333) are confirmed that they were in perfect numerical agreement. This is because I created an odd-number formula for ζ, and the formula was created by dividing the odd- number for ζ itself into odd and even numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[12085] viXra:1909.0294 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-16 03:56:42

A General Form of the Beppo Levi`s Lemma

Authors: Johan Aspegren
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this article we will prove a version of the Beppo Levi`s lemma for the complex valued functions. This achieved by making a more stronger asumption that is assumed in Beppo Levi`s lemma. We will assume that the sum of measurable functions that is absolutely convergent almost everywhere is integrable. We will prove that it implies the asumptions of the Beppo Levi lemma, if we consider functions that are non-negative. It can be argued that our version is more suitable to applications, and we will prove a new probability law. We will show that with our asumptions in probability theory it follows that the expected value is countable additive. Moreover, it follows that in strong law of large numbers we don`t need to make any asumptions on distributions and the mean of the sample will convergence almost surely to the mean of the expected values.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[12084] viXra:1909.0293 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-17 07:00:17

Showing the Real Numbers are Denumerable Using Binary Digit Ratios

Authors: James Edwin Rock
Comments: 2 Pages.

Cantor’s diagonal argument starts with an invalid premise. Using binary decimals, we calculate the ratio of ones to the total number of digits for decimals in the closed interval [0, 1]. We use these ratios to show that the real numbers are denumerable. The reals numbers have the same cardinality as the power set of the natural numbers. There is no hierarchy of infinities in Level Set Theory.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[12083] viXra:1909.0271 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-20 14:46:29

Study of the Continuum Power Problem

Authors: Vatolin Dm.
Comments: 14 Pages. Russian

An unconditional argument for the truth of the continuum hypothesis found
Category: Topology

[12082] viXra:1909.0271 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-19 12:53:10

Study of the Continuum Power Problem

Authors: Vatolin Dm.
Comments: 14 Pages. Russian

An unconditional argument for the truth of the continuum hypothesis found
Category: Topology

[12081] viXra:1909.0271 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-18 17:20:28

Study of the Continuum Power Problem

Authors: Vatolin Dm.
Comments: 15 Pages. Russian

An unconditional argument for the truth of the continuum hypothesis found
Category: Topology

[12080] viXra:1909.0271 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-17 11:55:47

Study of the Continuum Power Problem

Authors: Vatolin Dm.
Comments: 15 Pages. Russian

An unconditional argument for the truth of the continuum hypothesis found
Category: Topology

[12079] viXra:1909.0271 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-16 22:03:11

Study of the Continuum Power Problem

Authors: Vatolin Dm.
Comments: 15 Pages. Russian

An unconditional argument for the truth of the continuum hypothesis found
Category: Topology

[12078] viXra:1909.0271 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-14 02:45:51

Study of the Continuum Power Problem

Authors: Vatolin Dm.
Comments: 14 Pages. Russian

An unconditional argument for the truth of the continuum hypothesis found
Category: Topology