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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[29271] viXra:1905.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 05:38:46

Live and Lifeless Physics Eyes

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 6 Pages. -

Physical distinction of live and lifeless objects is considered
Category: Classical Physics

[29270] viXra:1905.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 07:00:19

From Pythagorean Theorem to Cosine Theorem.

Authors: Jesús Álvarez Lobo
Comments: 2 Pages.

Easy and natural demonstration of the cosine theorem, based on the extension of the Pythagorean theorem.
Category: Geometry

[29269] viXra:1905.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 07:47:20

Biological Nanometer Scale

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Synthetic proteins have been created that move in response to their environment in predictable and tunable ways. [32] Bioinspired materials mimic their natural counterparts for characteristic functionality in multidisciplinary applications forming a popular theme in biomaterials development. [31] MIT engineers have designed tiny robots that can help drug-delivery nanoparticles push their way out of the bloodstream and into a tumor or another disease site. [30]
Category: Physics of Biology

[29268] viXra:1905.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 08:31:16

The Results of the Study Planck Point

Authors: Sergey Belykh
Comments: 7 Pages. Подход к исследованию дан в книге "Планковская физика", ISBN 5-85106-028-5

The approach to the laws of Nature in the language of geometry gave access to a point with Planck parameters, which is the intersection of two lines - the line of quanta of the electromagnetic field and the line of black holes. At the same time, the parameters of the Planck point are the limiting constants of the properties of the center of the core of the Universe. The numerical agreement of the constants allowed us to further make their symbolic agreement using two dimensional units - the Planck radius and the Planck time.
Category: Astrophysics

[29267] viXra:1905.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 08:13:18

Laser of Sound Promises

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

Most people are familiar with optical lasers through their experience with laser pointers. But what about a laser made from sound waves? [40] A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg/Germany presents evidence of the amplification of optical phonons in a solid by intense terahertz laser pulses. [39]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29266] viXra:1905.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 09:11:46

Cholesterol Destruction Code

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

A team of UNSW scientists at the School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences led by Professor Andrew Brown have shown how a key enzyme that contributes to cholesterol production can be regulated-and destroyed-using a particular molecule. [33] Synthetic proteins have been created that move in response to their environment in predictable and tunable ways. [32] Bioinspired materials mimic their natural counterparts for characteristic functionality in multidisciplinary applications forming a popular theme in biomaterials development. [31] MIT engineers have designed tiny robots that can help drug-delivery nanoparticles push their way out of the bloodstream and into a tumor or another disease site. [30] Researchers have shown that existing optical fibre technology could be used to produce microscopic 3-D images of tissue inside the body, paving the way towards 3-D optical biopsies. [29] Researchers at MIT, working with surgeons and oncologists at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), have now developed a way to improve the accuracy of this surgery, called debulking. [28] Scientists at the University of Bristol have invented a new technology that could lead to the development of a new generation of smart surgical glues and dressings for chronic wounds. [27] Elaborate molecular networks inside living cells enable them to sense and process many signals from the environment to perform desired cellular functions. [26] RNA sequencing is a technique used to analyze entire genomes by looking at the expression of their genes. [25] Researchers from the University of Chicago have developed a high-throughput RNA sequencing strategy to study the activity of the gut microbiome. [24] Today a large international consortium of researchers published a complex but important study looking at how DNA works in animals. [23]
Category: Physics of Biology

[29265] viXra:1905.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 09:29:31

Imaging a Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

US computer scientist Katie Bouman, who became a global sensation over her role in generating the world's first image of a black hole, has described the painstaking process as akin to listening to a piano with broken keys. [26] Astronomers on Wednesday unveiled the first photo of a black hole, one of the star-devouring monsters scattered throughout the Universe and obscured by impenetrable shields of gravity. [25] Paul McNamara, an astrophysicist at the European Space Agency and project scientist for the LISA mission that will track massive black hole mergers from space, helped AFP put what he called an "outstanding technical achievement" into context. [24] We're about to see the first close-up of a black hole. [23] In short, the concept of a black hole gravity machine presents humanity with a plausible path to becoming an interstellar species. In the meantime, the study of the concept will provide SETI researchers with another possible technosignature to look for. [22] Physicists have used a seven-qubit quantum computer to simulate the scrambling of information inside a black hole, heralding a future in which entangled quantum bits might be used to probe the mysterious interiors of these bizarre objects. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[29264] viXra:1905.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 10:04:52

Stellar Metamorphosis: Dead Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

In stellar metamorphosis dead stars are made of rocks, minerals and metal. Though, just because a star is dead does not mean it is the same age as other dead stars. A good analogy would be a fossilized brontosaurus skull is vastly older than a fossilized mammoth skull, which in turn is magnitudes older than the people that were buried due to dying of the black plague from 1346-1353. There are different levels of being dead for a star, recently dead, mature, ancient and archaic. A simple graph is used to explain the levels of "dead".
Category: Astrophysics

[29263] viXra:1905.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 10:10:51

The Complete Theory of Everything: a Proposal

Authors: Rahula T.R. Latchman, Gemma F. Lopez
Comments: 44 Pages.

This paper presents a model that bridges the gap between general relativity and quantum mechanics by providing a new understanding of space and time. The core principle of this formulation is impermanence, the fact that energy is never static, which has non-obvious consequences at the quantum level and leads to a formulation of quantum gravity. The results allow for a new interpretation of black holes and a resolution of the black hole information paradox. The model also presents the causes leading to the Big Bang as well as the Universe evolution, offering a new perspective on galaxy formation and a natural explanation to the origin of dark matter, dark energy and the matter-antimatter asymmetry.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[29262] viXra:1905.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 15:08:29

Conjecture Sur Les Familles Exponentielles

Authors: Idriss olivier BADO
Comments: 5 Pages.

in this article we will establish some properties of random variables and then we will propose a conjecture related to the exponential family. This conjecture seems interesting to me. Our results are based on the consideration of continuous random variables $X_{i}$ defined on the same space $\Omega$ and the same super-extra density law of parameter $\theta_{i} $ and canonique function $T$ Let $n\in \mathbb{N}^{*}$ Considering the random variable $J$ and $I$ a subsect of $\{1,2,..n\}$ such that : $ X_{J}=\inf_{i\in I}(X_{i})$ we show that : $$\forall i\in I:\mathbb{P}( J=i)=\frac{\theta_{i}\prod_{j\in I}c(\theta_{j})}{\sum_{j\in I}\theta_{j}}\int_{T(\Omega)}e^{-x}dx$$. We conjecture that if the density of $ X_{i}$ is $ c(\theta_{i})e^{-\theta_{i}T(x)}\mathbf{1}_{\Omega}(x)$ Hence $\exists h,r$ two functions h such that $$ \forall i\in I:\mathbb{P}( J=i)=\frac{r(\theta_{i})\prod_{j\in I}h(\theta_{j})}{\sum_{j\in I}r(\theta_{j})}\int_{T(\Omega)}e^{-x}dx$$
Category: Statistics

[29261] viXra:1905.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 18:07:48

The Accelerating Universe, Dark Energy and the Alpha Variation

Authors: Tony Bermanseder
Comments: 40 Pages.

The experimental data collected by the various supernova observers, and under utility of the Hubble Space Telescope to track the brightness variations of discovered supernovae type Ia, now converged in 1998 to the conclusion, that distant supernovae are between 20% and 30% dimmer than expected and as a consequence of their measured redshift they appear to be further away than theory permits. An interpretation of this discovery implies, that the universe's expansion is accelerating; the measured redshift depicting a distance further away for a dimmer brightness than anticipated by theory. Closer analysis of the redshift data shows an expected distribution of luminosity, calibrated to their distances in the Chilean Cala-Tololo data, up to a redshift of about 0.11 and with a redshift-gap until a redshift of 0.3; after which the 'High-Z's' begin to show the 'curving away' from a predicted decelerating expansion rate in concordance with an Euclidean flat universe of Einsteinian General Relativity. The highest redshift recorded in 1998 was that of 'supernova Iae' at (z=1.1) by the 'High-Z-Team'. Why is there a redshift gap between z=0.11 and z=0.30 approximately? Does this imply a scarcity of supernovas in this redshift interval or is there a cosmological reason for this gap? Is this cosmological reason at the core of the Dark Energy implication and the 'factuality' of an accelerating universe? This treatise shall elucidate the cosmological nature of Dark Energy and the inferred accelerating cosmology of an accelerating universe, stipulated to begin some 5-6 Billion years ago and as a change from a measured deceleration from light speed in the early universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29260] viXra:1905.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 00:38:30

The Secret of the Neutron-Revealed//Тайна нейтрона раскрыта

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 3 Pages.

The article presents a physical mechanism that provides a stable arrangement of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.// В статье представлен физический механизм, который обеспечивает стабильное расположение протонов и нейтронов в ядре атома.
Category: Classical Physics

[29259] viXra:1905.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 01:28:38

More On Reality

Authors: Bertrand Wong
Comments: 3 Pages.

Reality is existence, fact, truth. As intelligent beings, we are always concerned with reality or the truth and abhor lies, fakeness, falsity. But we are also not averse to using falsity and lies to deceive others in order to achieve our objectives. Who has never lied before? As the interpretation of reality has a tendency to be subjective it is often difficult to differentiate between the real, the truth, and the unreal, the false. This paper is a continuation of the author’s earlier paper “Reality”; it probes further into reality.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[29258] viXra:1905.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 01:47:28

Design, Synthesis and Anti-Tumour Activity of New Pyrimidine-Pyrrole Appended Triazoles

Authors: Arunkumar Thiriveedhi, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Navuluri Srinivasu, Yamini Bobde ⁠c, Balaram Ghosh ⁠c, Kondapalli Venkata Gowri Chandra Sekhar
Comments: 10 Pages. OK

The new pyrimidine-pyrrole scaffolds (7a–7m) with substituted 1,2,3-traizole moiety were synthesized in good to mild yields and subjected for anti-cancer activity against melanoma and breast cancer cell lines using MTT assay. The compounds 7f and 7m exhibited highest anti-cancer activity against both the tested cell lines in in vitro assay. The molecular docking analysis provided the insights of binding orientation of pyrimidine-pyrrole nucleus of current ligands and their crucial interactions with Cys797 and other residues of the EGFR tyrosine kinase active site. The interactions of triazole and its various substituted groups with EGFR tyrosine kinase have been discussed
Category: Chemistry

[29257] viXra:1905.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 01:53:49

Visible Spectrophotometric Determination of Gemigliptin Using Charge Transfer Complex

Authors: Giri Prasad Gorumutchu, Venkata Nadh RATNAkaram, Kishore VNV
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

A visible spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the determination of gemigliptin present in bulk drug and tablet formulation. It involves an indirect method of charge transfer complex formation in presence of NBS, metol and suphanilic acid. Gemigliptin was subjected to oxidation with excess amount of oxidant (NBS) and the unconsumed NBS oxidizes metol to give p-N-methylbenzoquinone monoamine (PNMM) which in turn forms a charge transfer complex with sulphanilic acid. Then validated the above developed method as per the current ICH guidelines. An excellent correlation coefficient (> 0.999) was found for the obtained regression equation (y = –0.0302x + 0.928) in the range of 2.0–30.0 μg mL-1. The method was found to be simple and rapid because it does not involve any solvent extraction. The recovery levels of the drug were in the range 99.92 – 100.08.
Category: Chemistry

[29256] viXra:1905.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 01:55:32

Oxidative Coupling Reaction for the Determination of Lurasidone

Authors: M. S. Sudhira, R. Venkata Nadh, H. Manjunatha
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

A simple, sensitive, precise, accurate, highly reproducible and economical, visible spectrophotometric method for the determination lurasidone in bulk form was developed and validated. The method is based on the formation of an oxidative coupling product by the reaction of lurasidone with 3-methylbenzothiazolin- 2-one hydrazone as a chromogenic reagent in presence of ferric chloride. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed good linear relationship within the concentration range of 0–100 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient (r) value of 0.9997. The limits of detection and quantitation are 0.6 and 1.7 μg/mL, respectively. The method was tested and validated according to ICH guidelines. The results demonstrated that the procedure is accurate, precise and reproducible (RSD < 2%).
Category: Chemistry

[29255] viXra:1905.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 01:58:01

Novel Pyrazolyl Benzoxazole Conjugates: Design, Synthesis, Molecular Docking Studies and in vitro Anticancer Activities

Authors: Arunkumar Thiriveedhi, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Navuluri Srinivasu1, Narayana Murthy Ganta3
Comments: 8 Pages. OK

Abstract: Background: Nowadays, hybrid drugs have gained a significant role in the treatment of different health problems. Most of the hybrid molecules with different heterocyclic moieties were proved to be potent anti-tumor agents in cancer chemotherapy. Hence, the present study is aimed at the evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of novel hybrid molecules (pyrazolyl benzoxazole conjugates) and to investigate their anticancer activity by molecular docking studies. Methods: Designed, synthesized and characterized the novel pyrazolyl benzoxazole conjugates. Anticancer activity of these compounds was determined by SRB assay. Then molecular docking studies were carried out against proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase (ATP-Src, PDB: 2BDF), a putative target for cancer. Results: All the synthesized compound derivatives were evaluated against MCF-7, KB, Hop62 and A549 cancer cell lines. Compounds 9b and 9c exhibited excellent anticancer activities with GI50 values of <0.1 μM against MCF-7 and A549 cell lines. Compound 9e exhibited good antitumor activity on MCF-7 and A-549 with GI50 values of 0.12 μM and 0.19 μM respectively. Compound 9g showed better anticancer activity on A-549 cancer cell line with GI50 value of 0.34 μM. Conclusion: The two-hybrid molecules 9b and 9c are found to be comparably potent with the standard drug doxorubicin and may act as drug lead compounds in medicinal chemistry aspect. The present docking investigation proved that having benzoxazole of compound 9c at benzofuran of reference compound N-acetyl pyrazoline derivative might be valid for contributing to anti-cancer activity.
Category: Chemistry

[29254] viXra:1905.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:00:27

Determination of Riociguat by Oxidative Coupling Using Visible Spectrophotometry

Authors: Giri Prasad Gorumutchu, Venkata Nadh RATNAkaram, Sireesha Malladi 3
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

A simple spectrophotometric method was developed to determine riociguat in bulk and tablet formulation. The present method lies on the oxidation of MBTH by Fe+3 ions in acidic medium to form active coupling species and followed by its coupling with riociguat to form the chromophore having lmax 660 nm. Validated the proposed method as per the existing guidelines of ICH. Good linearity (r~ 0.999) was observed for calibration curve in the studied concentration range (6.25 – 37.50 μg mL-1). Reproducibility, accuracy and precision of the method were confirmed from low values of % RSD.
Category: Chemistry

[29253] viXra:1905.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:02:00

Determination of Satranidazole Through Ion-Associative Complex Reaction

Authors: K. Kiran Kumar, R.Venkata Nadh, M. Siva Kishore1, G. Giri Prasad3
Comments: 5 Pages. OK

A simple, selective, accurate and low-cost spectrophotometric method has been described for determination of satranidazole in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. The developed method involves the formation of chloroform extractable colored ion-association complex of satranidazole with Tropaeolin OOO (TPooo). The extracted colored complex showed absorbance maximum at wavelength 484 nm and obeying Beer′s law in the concentration 4-20 μg mL-1 with the correlation coeffiecent of 0.9998. The results of statistical analysis of the proposed method reveals high accuracy and good precession. Thus, the proposed method can be used commercially for the determination of satranidazole in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations.
Category: Chemistry

[29252] viXra:1905.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:03:35

Ninhydrin Based Visible Spectrophotometric Determination of Gemigliptin

Authors: Giri Prasad Gorumutchu, Ven kata Nadh RATNAkaram, Sireesha Malladi 3
Comments: 7 Pages. OK

A simple method is described to determine the amount of gemigliptin in bulk and tablet formulation by visible spectrophotometry. Basis of the proposed method is the reaction of the primary amine present on gemigliptin with ninhydrin in alkaline pH (alkaline borate buffer) medium to produce a purple color (Ruhemann’s purple) which has maximum absorption at 558 nm. The method was validated as per the current ICH guidelines. The obtained regression equation (y = 0.0148x+0.0011) in the range of 5-30 μg mL-1 has a good correlation coefficient (> 0.999). As the method does not require any separation, it is rapid and simple. The recovery levels of the drug were in the range of 99.73 – 99.96. This method is a green method as it no organic solvents were employed.
Category: Chemistry

[29251] viXra:1905.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:05:22

Extractive Spectrophotometric Determination of Ulipristal Acetate using Naphthol Blue Black

Authors: Giri Prasad Gorumutchu, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

Ulipristal acetate is used to treat uterine fibroids and for emergency birth control. The present study is a first report on development of a visible spectrophotometric method for determination of Ulipristal acetate present in bulk and tablet formulation. The method involves the sequential addition of HCl (0.1 N) and Napthol Blue Black solution to Ulipristal acetate. Cation formed on tertiary amine group of Ulipristal acetate attracts anion of naphthol blue black (an acid dye) to develop a coloured ion-association complex. From the aqueous phase, the chromophore is extractable into chloroform, which exhibits λmax at 640 nm. As per the existing guidelines of ICH, various parameters of the method were tested for validation. Regression analysis (r > 0.999) shows that the plotted calibration curve exhibits good linearity in the studied range of concentration (2.50 – 15.00 μg mL-1). The % recovery values falls in 99.80 – 100.72 range. %RSD results of both precision studies were observed in the range 0.007 – 0.560, indicating the satisfactory precision of the method. Low values of R.S.D. (< 1 %) were observed indicating that the proposed method is reproducible, accurate and precise. The proposed method can be used in quality control laboratories for routine analysis of Ulipristal acetate (bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage forms) without requirement of expensive instruments.
Category: Chemistry

[29250] viXra:1905.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:07:35

Piperacillin Estimation by Ion-Associative Complex Formation

Authors: Giri Prasad Gorumutchu, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, Kiran Kumar Katari3
Comments: 5 Pages. OK

Objective: The objective of the study was to develop a simple, validated, and affordable visible spectrophotometric method for determination of piperacillin (PIP) present in bulk and powder for injection formulation. Methods: In the present method, cobalt thiocyanate (CTC) was used as a chromogenic reagent where it forms 2:1 ion pair complex at pH 2 with PIP which is having secondary and tertiary amine groups. Results: The formed bluish-green colored ion pair between PIP and CTC is quantitatively extractable into nitrobenzene with an absorption maximum of 665 nm. Regression analysis (r=0.9996) shows that the plotted calibration curve exhibits good linearity in the studied range of concentration (3–18 μg/mL). Low values of relative standard deviation (<2%) were observed indicating that the proposed method is reproducible, accurate, and precise. Conclusions: As per the existing guidelines of ICH (international council for harmonization of technical requirements for pharmaceuticals for human use), various parameters of the proposed method were tested for validation and can be used method of choice for routine analysis in industrial quality control laboratories, especially in developing countries.
Category: Chemistry

[29249] viXra:1905.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:11:37

Ion Associative Complex Formation for the Stimation of Piperacillin

Authors: Giri Prasad G, Venkata Nadh R, Kiran Kumar K
Comments: 8 Pages. OK

Ion associative complex formation for the stimation of piperacillin
Category: Chemistry

[29248] viXra:1905.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:13:33

Determination of Mianserine Using Fe3+-Phenanthroline by Visible Spectrophotometry

Authors: Giri Prasad Gorumutchu, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram
Comments: 4 Pages. OK

Mianserin is used as an antidepressant medication. A visible spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of Mianserine present in bulk and tablet formulation. The basis of the proposed method is formation of a chromophore (of λ max 484 nm) in presence of Fe3+-Phenanthroline. Optimization of reaction conditions was carried out to get highly sensitive and stable colored complex. The proposed method does not require a pre-treatment process. The method has the advantage of simple, reproducible, selective and sensitive. Regression analysis (r > 0.999) shows that the plotted calibration curve exhibits good linearity in the studied range of concentration (1 – 6 μg mL-1). The % recovery values falls in 98.00 – 99.66 range. As per the existing guidelines of ICH, various parameters of the method were tested for validation. %RSD results of both precision studies were observed in the range 0.181 – 0.530 and -0.135 – 0.408 respectively, indicating the satisfactory precision of the method. Low values of R.S.D. (< 2 %) were observed indicating that the proposed method is reproducible, accurate and precise. The proposed method can be used in routine analysis of Mianserine (bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage forms) in quality control laboratories, as an alternative to the methods which require expensive instruments.
Category: Chemistry

[29247] viXra:1905.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:16:43

Determination of Mianserin Using Tropaeolin-Ooo by Ion Pair Formation

Authors: Giri Prasad Gorumutchu1, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

Objective: The present study was aimed at the development of a simple visible spectrophotometric method for the assay of mianserin, a drug used for the treatment of depression. Methods: The method was developed using tropaeolin-ooo (TPooo) as an ion associative complex forming a chromophore. Developed the chromophore by sequential mixing of aqueous solutions of mianserin, hydrochloric acid, and TPooo. Chromophore was extracted into an organic solvent (chloroform) and absorbance values of organic layers were measured. As per the existing guidelines of an international conference on harmonization (ICH), various parameters of the method were tested for validation. Results: At the optimized reaction conditions, the formed chromophore (λ max Conclusion: Due to lack of pre-treatment process for this method, it was simple. All the tested parameters of the method were validated as per ICH guidelines.
Category: Chemistry

[29246] viXra:1905.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:19:27

Pharmacological Review of Caralluma r.br: A Potential Herbal Genus

Authors: Sireesha Malladi, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, K. Suresh Babu, M. Sreenivasulu
Comments: 13 Pages. OK

In history, medicinal plants were proven as a source of active compounds with therapeutic applications, and at present, they are an important collection for the discovery of novel drug leads. Caralluma is a genus used as traditional medicine. The present article thoroughly reviewed about the classification of Caralluma into subgenera, number of its species, its distribution in different parts of the world, and pharmacological activities exhibited by different species of Caralluma.
Category: Chemistry

[29245] viXra:1905.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:21:12

Diazo Coupling for the Determination of Selexipag by Visible Spectrophotometry

Authors: Giri Prasad Gorumutchu, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram
Comments: 7 Pages. OK

Aim and Objective: The aim and objective of this study were to develop a spectrophotometric method for the assay of selexipag (selective IP prostacyclin receptor agonist indicated for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension) in pure and pharmaceutical formulations so that it will be an alternative quantitative method to chromatographic methods which require large quantities of organic solvents, where some are with hazardous and toxic properties. Materials and Methods: The method is based on the diazo coupling of selexipag with diazotized p-nitroaniline in alkaline medium to form a stable green-colored and water-soluble azo dye with a maximum absorption at 510 nm. Optimization of reaction conditions was carried out to get highly sensitive and stable colored complex. Results and Discussion: Beer’s law is obeyed over the concentration range of 2–12 μg/mL with a molar absorptivity of 3.33 × 104 L/mol/cm. The limit of detection was 0.35 μg/mL and limit of quantification was 1.0 μg/mL. The results demonstrated that the procedure is accurate, precise, and reproducible (relative standard deviation <2%). Conclusions: This method was tested and validated for various parameters according to the current ICH guidelines.
Category: Chemistry

[29244] viXra:1905.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:22:38

Ion-pair Formation for the Determination of Mianserin Using Fast Sulphon Black F

Authors: Giri Prasad Gorumutchu, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, Sireesha Malladi
Comments: 7 Pages. OK

Aim: The objective of the current study is to develop a colorimetric method for the determination of mianserin, an antidepressant drug. Materials and Methods: Fast Sulphon Black F, an acidic dye was used to develop a soluble colored ion-pair complex. The complex was extracted into an organic solvent and absorbance was measured. Results: Reaction conditions were optimized to obtain a sensitive and stable chromophore (λmax 554 nm) in dichloromethane. Good linearity was observed for the calibration curve plotted in the studied concentration range (4–14 μg/mL) with regression analysis (r > 0.9997). High percentage recovery values (98.25–101.40) show that the method is accurate. Reproducibility of the method is evident from lower relative standard deviation (<2%) for both intra- and inter-day precision studies. Conclusions: The proposed method is validated as per the existing ICH guidelines. This method is simple as it does not require any pre-treatment process.
Category: Chemistry

[29243] viXra:1905.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:34:18

Oxidative Coupling: A Tranquil Approach for Determination of Selexipag by Visible Spectrophotometry

Authors: Giri Prasad Gorumutchu, Venkata Nadh RATNAkaram
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

The present study is a first report on development of a spectrophotometric method for determination of selexipag (used to cure pulmonary arterial hypertension) in bulk and tablet formulation and its validation. The basis of the proposed method is formation of a chromophore (of λ max 600 nm) in presence of acidic ferric chloride by oxidative coupling reaction between selexipag and MBTH (3-methylbenzo-thiazolin-2-one hydrazone) solution. Regression analysis (r > 0.999) shows that the plotted calibration curve exhibits good linearity in the studied range of concentration (5 – 30 μg mL-1). As per the existing guidelines of ICH, various parameters of the method were tested for validation. Low values of R.S.D. (< 2%) were observed indicating that the proposed method is reproducible, accurate and precise.
Category: Chemistry

[29242] viXra:1905.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:35:59

Phtytochemical Library of Caralluma Genus

Authors: Sireesha Malladi, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, K. Suresh Babu, T. Pullaiah
Comments: 13 Pages. OK

Phtytochemical Library of Caralluma Genus
Category: Chemistry

[29241] viXra:1905.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:37:23

Synthesis and Antitumor Activity Evaluation of 2-Aminothiazoles Appended 5-Methylisoxazoline and Pyridine-Piperazine Hybrid Molecules

Authors: Garbapu Suresh, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Navuluri Srinivasu, Durgaprasad Yennity
Comments: 8 Pages. OK

A highly efficient and milder protocol for the syntheses of novel series of 2-aminothiazoles bearing 5-methylisoxazoline and pyridine-piperazine hybrid molecules has been developed. The target compounds 13a-e were screened for their in vitro cytotoxicity activity against various tumor cell lines including MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), HCT-116 (colorectal carcinoma), Jurkat (human Tcell leukemia) and THP-1 (human acute monocytic leukemia). The bioactive assay showed most of the new compounds exhibited promising results in comparison with the parental Sunitinib. The synthesized compounds could well be used in the future as lead anticancer drugs in drug development studies. The synthesized compounds were fully characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, elemental analysis and mass spectral data.
Category: Chemistry

[29240] viXra:1905.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:39:52

LC-MS Compatible Stability Indicating RP-Uplc Method for the Estimation of Ester Prodrug of Mycophenolic Acid in Injection Formulation

Authors: 58.G. Venkata Narasimha Rao, Muralee Krishna, Ravi Kumar Bellam, R. Venkata Nadh
Comments: 10 Pages. OK

LC-MS compatible stability indicating RP-UPLC method for the estimation of ester prodrug of mycophenolic acid in injection formulation
Category: Chemistry

[29239] viXra:1905.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:41:23

A Study on Extraction of Plant Based Bio Colours

Authors: P.Vijetha, R. Venkata Nadh, K. Ramesh Naidu, T.Swapna Sundari
Comments: 3 Pages. OK

Most of the synthetic colours are carcinogenic. Many natural colours are thought to play- a significant role in preventing or delaying the onset of many diseases. Optimized conditions were arrived for the extraction of plant based biocolours based on the literature survey. In the present study, extraction of bixin from annatto seeds was carried out using ethyl acetate and ethanol. A pure bixin is obtained by precipitating from petroleum ether. A simple method for preparing butter colour from annatto seeds is tested using castor oil and groundnut seed oil. Lycopene was extracted from tomatoes using ethyl acetate as a solvent and further purified by successive recrystallisation from ethyl acetate and ethanol. A stable oleoresin of lycopene was prepared in soybean oil. Purity of extracted colours is established from spectral studies.
Category: Chemistry

[29238] viXra:1905.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:42:54

In-Vivo Evaluation of Rifampicin Loaded Nanospheres: Biodistribution and Mycobacterium Screening Studies

Authors: Vishnu Vardhan Reddy Beeram, Krupanidhi S, Venkata Nadh R
Comments: 8 Pages. OK

Rifampicin PLGA nanospheres are formulated with a specific goal in order to decrease the dose, adverse effects and to enhance targeted drug delivery. Rifampicin nanospheres were prepared and evaluated by emulsion solvent evaporation method. In vivo bio distribution studies reveal that there was a long term accumulation of rifampicin nanospheres in the lungs over other organs. The increase in Cmax values confirmed that inhalable PLGA nanospheres are suitable for targeting and providing sustained release of antitubercular drugs to lungs. So inhalation is a selected administration route of Rifampicin PLGA nanospheres. The in vivo screening of M. tuberculosis showed good activity as well as its activity against multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis and against M. tuberculosis isolates in a potentially latent state, makes Rifampicin PLGA nanospheres as an attractive drug dosage form for the therapy of tuberculosis. It can be concluded that there is a significant potential for effective oral delivery as well as nasal delivery of the Nanospheres for the treatment of tuberculosis.
Category: Chemistry

[29237] viXra:1905.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:44:25

Development and Validation of Uplc Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Carvedilol and Ivabradine in the Presence of Degradation Products Using Doe Concept

Authors: Nukendra Prasad Nadella, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, N. Srinivasu
Comments: 11 Pages. OK

A methodical design-of-experiments were performed by applying quality-by-design concepts to establish a design-space for simultaneous and rapid quantification of Carvedilol and Ivabradine by UPLC in the presence of degradation products. Response-surface, central-composite design, and quadratic model were employed for statistical assessment of experimental data using the Design-Expert software. Response variables such as resolution and retention time were analyzed statistically for chromatographic screening. During DoE study, various plots such as perturbation, contour, 3D and design-space plots were considered for method optimization. The method was developed using C8 [100 � 2.1 mm, 1.8 μ] UPLC column, mobile phase comprising 0.5% triethylamine buffer [pH 6.4] and acetonitrile in the ratio of 50:50 v/v, the flow rate of 0.4 mL minute−1 and UV detection at 285 nm for both Carvedilol and Ivabradine. The method was developed with a short run time of two minutes. The method was found to be linear in the range of 25.0–199.9 μg mL−1 and 8.9–21.3 μg mL−1 for Carvedilol and Ivabradine, respectively with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998 in each case. The recovery values were found in the range of 99.7–100.8% and 98.9–100.9% for Carvedilol and Ivabradine, respectively. The method was validated according to ICH Q2 (R1) guidelines.
Category: Chemistry

[29236] viXra:1905.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:46:27

Novel Hybrid Molecules of Quinazoline Chalcone Derivatives: Synthesis and Study of In Vitro Cytotoxic Activities

Authors: Arunkumar Thiriveedhi, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Navuluri Srinivasu, Kishore Kaushal3
Comments: 9 Pages. OK

Background: A new series of quinazoline linked chalcone conjugates were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity. Methods: The quinazoline-chalcone derivatives (13a-r) have been prepared by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation of various substituted benzaldehydes (12a-r) with substituted l-(4-(3,4- dihydroquinazolin-4-ylamino)phenyl)ethanone (11a-b) in the presence of aqueous NaOH. Three potential compounds 13f, 13g and 13h exhibited cytotoxicity against leukemia (GI50 value of 1.07, 0.26 and 0.24 μM), Non-small lung (GI50 values of 2.05,1.32 and 0.23 μM), colon (GI50 values of 0.54, 0.34 and 0.34 μM) and breast (GI50 values of 2.17, 1.84 and 0.22 μM) cell line, respectively. Results and Conclusion: Based on these biological results, it is evident that compound 13h has the potential to be considered for further detailed studies either alone or in combination with existing therapies as potential anticancer agents.
Category: Chemistry

[29235] viXra:1905.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:48:05

Novel Hybrid Molecules of Isoxazole Chalcone Derivatives: Synthesis and Study of In Vitro Cytotoxic Activities

Authors: Arunkumar Thiriveedhi, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Navuluri Srinivasu1, Kishore Kaushal3
Comments: 7 Pages. OK

Background: Now-a-days, the model of “hybrid drugs” has acquired recognition in medicine due to their significant role in the treatment of different health problems. Methods: We have synthesized new series of isoxazole-chalcone conjugates (14a-m) by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation of suitable substituted acetophenones with isoxazole aldehydes (12a-d). In vitro cytotoxic activity of the synthesized compounds was studied against four different selected human cancer cell lines by using sulforhodamine B (SRB) method. Results: The adopted scheme resulted in good yields of new series of isoxazole-chalcone conjugates (14a-m). Potent cytotoxic activity was observed for compounds -14a, 14b, 14e, 14i, 14j and 14k against prostate DU-145 cancer cell line. Conclusion: The observed potent cytotoxic activities were due to the presence of 3,4,5- trimethoxyphenyl group.
Category: Chemistry

[29234] viXra:1905.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:49:37

Evaluation of in Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Caralluma Lasiantha for Scientific Validation of Indian Traditional Medicine

Authors: Sireesha Malladi, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, K. Suresh Babu4, T. Pullaiah5
Comments: 15 Pages. OK

Caralluma lasiantha is used as a traditional medicine in India to heal body heat and inflammations. In order to find out a scientific validation for the Indian traditional knowledge, antibacterial activity of C. lasiantha extracts was studied against inflammation causing bacteria (viz., Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus Sp., Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae) along with other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Solvents with different polarity were used for extraction from dry roots and stems. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were also studied. Differential antibacterial activity was exhibited by extracts and higher inhibition potential against Gram-positive bacteria was explained. The observed antibacterial activities were correlated with the chemical structures of phytochemicals present in C. lasiantha. Anti-inflammation activities are related to C. lasiantha extracts through their antibacterial activities.
Category: Chemistry

[29233] viXra:1905.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:52:32

Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity Studies of 2, 4 di Substituted Furan Derivatives

Authors: S. Malladi, R.Venkata Nadh, K.Suresh Babu, P.Suri Babu
Comments: 9 Pages. OK

Synthesis and antibacterial activity studies of 2, 4- di substituted furan derivatives
Category: Chemistry

[29232] viXra:1905.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:56:11

Utilization of Agro-Waste for Removal of Toxic Hexavalent Chromium: Surface Interaction and Mass Transfer Studies

Authors: R. P. Mokkapati, V. N. Ratnakaram, J. S. Mokkapati
Comments: 12 Pages. OK

Abundantly available agricultural waste materials (banana bunch, sorghum stem and casuarinas fruit) are processed with negligible cost and are found to be highly suitable as biosorbents for chromium(VI) removal from aqueous environment due to high surface area and functional groups of adsorbents. The equilibrium data have been analyzed for the adsorbate–adsorbate/adsorbent interactions and found to be fitted to the data in the order, Hill–de Boer C Fowler–Guggenheim % Frumkin[Kiselev. To determine the characteristic parameters for process design, mass transfer studies have been carried out using two-parameter isotherm models (Harkins–Jura, Halsey, Smith, El-Awady and Flory–Huggins) and three-parameter isotherm models (Redlich–Peterson and Sips) which are applied to the experimental data. The fitness of the isotherms describes that both mono- and multilayer adsorptions occur in the present studied three biosorbents in preference to the latter. The mechanism of adsorption has been studied using diffusion kinetic models (viz. liquid film diffusion, Dunwald–Wagner intra-particle diffusion model and moving boundary model) and described the possibility of diffusion in the order of banana bunch–stem powder[ sorghum stem powder[casuarinas fruit powder in terms of diffusion coefficients. In essence of all the results, the selected adsorbents can be used as a potential adsorbent for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions.
Category: Chemistry

[29231] viXra:1905.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 02:59:03

A Convenient New and Efficient Commercial Synthetic Route for Dasatinib (Sprycel®)

Authors: Garbapu Suresh, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Navuluri Srinivasu, Durgaprasad Yennity
Comments: 12 Pages. OK

A new and efficient synthetic route for dual-Src/Abl kinase inhibitor dasatinib (Sprycel®), an anticancer drug, is described. This commercially viable process yields dasatinib monohydrate free of potential impurities with consistent yield of 68% in route A and 61% in route B with HPLC purity >99.80% over four stages.
Category: Chemistry

[29230] viXra:1905.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 03:01:17

Quality-by-Design-Based Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating Uplc Method for Quantification of Teriflunomide in the Presence of Degradation Products and Its Application to Invitro Dissolution

Authors: Nukendra Prasad Nadella, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, N. Srinivasu
Comments: 11 Pages. OK

A systematic design-of-experiments was performed by applying quality-by-design concepts to determine design space for rapid quantification of teriflunomide by the ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method in the presence of degradation products. Response surface and central composite quadratic were used for statistical evaluation of experimental data using a Design-Expert software. The response variables such as resolution, retention time, and peak tailing were analyzed statistically for the screening of suitable chromatographic conditions. During this process, various plots such as perturbation, contour, 3D, and design space were studied. The method was developed through UPLC BEH C18 2.1 � 100 mm, 1.7-μ column, mobile phase comprised of buffer (5 mM K2HPO4 containing 0.1% triethylamine, pH 6.8), and acetonitrile (40:60 v/v), the flow rate of 0.5 mL min 1 and UV detection at 250 nm. The method was developed with a short run time of 1 min. Forced degradation studies revealed that the method was stability-indicating, suitable for both assay and in-vitro dissolution of a drug product. The method was found to be linear in the range of 28–84 μg mL 1, 2.8–22.7 μg mL 1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999 and 1.000 for assay and dissolution, respectively. The recovery values were found in the range of 100.1–101.7%. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines.
Category: Chemistry

[29229] viXra:1905.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 03:03:10

Supercritical Fluid (Co2) Chromatography for Quantitative Determination of Selected Cancer Therapeutic Drugs in the Prescence of Potential Impurities in Injection Formulations

Authors: Venkata Narasimha Rao G., Ravi B., Jalandhar D., Manoj P., R. Venkata Nadh
Comments: 16 Pages. OK

In the present study, two cancer therapeutic drugs (docetaxel and bortezomib) were separated from their potential impurities on a chromatographic platform by utilizing CO2 gas (supercritical state) and quantified. The chromatographic separations were achieved on two short columns BEH-2EP (100mm 3mm, 1.7 mm) and CHIRALPAK AD-3 (100 mm 4.6 mm, 3 mm) for docetaxel and bortezomib, respectively. The present work describes the role of organic modifiers in the separation of polar compounds by supercritical fluid chromatography. The two new methods were fully validated in accordance with the current ICH (International Council for Harmonization of technical requirements for pharmaceuticals for human use) guidelines. The stability indicating power of the methods was demonstrated from the stress studies conducted on the injection formulations of the two compounds. The methods are precise with % RSD of 0.4, linear with the correlation coefficient of r2 $ 0.999 and accurate in the range of 50–150% of the target assay concentration. The two methods can be equally employed for the assay determination of docetaxel and bortezomib APIs as well.
Category: Chemistry

[29228] viXra:1905.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 03:04:38

Phytochemical Screening of Caralluma Lasiantha Isolation of C21 Pregnane Steroid

Authors: Sireesha Malladi1, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, Suresh Babu K, Pullaiah T
Comments: 5 Pages. OK

Phytochemical screening of Caralluma lasiantha was carried out and one C21 pregnane steroid was isolated from chloroform extract. Based on spectroscopic studies (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and ESI-MS) the isolated compound is 3b,14b-dihydroxy-14b-pregn-5-en-20-one which was earlier isolated from other species.
Category: Chemistry

[29227] viXra:1905.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 03:48:48

Refutation of Tarski’s Geometric Axioms and Betweenness

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 3 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

Of 13 equations evaluated, five are tautologous and eight are non tautologous. This refutes Tarski’s geometric axioms and betweenness which form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29226] viXra:1905.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 04:52:21

Phytochemical Investigation of Caralluma Lasiantha: Isolation of Stigmasterol, an Active Immunomodulatory Agent

Authors: Malladi S1, Ratnakaram VN, Suresh Babu K, Pullaiah T
Comments: 9 Pages. OK

Stigmasterol, a phytosteroid was isolated for the first time from C. lasiantha using n-hexane as a solvent. Stigmasterol was characterized on the basis of physical, chemical and spectral data (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 1HNMR, DEPT-45, 90 & 135, and MS) analysis as well as by comparing them to their literature data. A sequence of steps was adopted like saponification, fractional crystallization and gradient elution column chromatography to isolate stigmasterol because some phytosterols possess identical physical properties which makes it difficult to isolate the constituents.
Category: Chemistry

[29225] viXra:1905.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 04:53:53

Caralluma Lasiantha: a Review on It’s Vital Role in Indian Traditional Medicine

Authors: Sireesha Malladi1, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram, Suresh Babu K3, Pullaiah T4
Comments: 7 Pages. OK

Caralluma is a genus used as traditional medicine. Caralluma lasiantha is medicinally important due to existence of pregnane glycosides, which may possess various biological activities. This article thoroughly reviewed about the usage of C. lasiantha in traditional medicinal system, phytochemicals present in it, profile identification studies, anti-hyperglycemic effect, antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities.
Category: Chemistry

[29224] viXra:1905.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 04:55:23

Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Plerixafor and Related Substances in an Injection Formulation

Authors: G. Venkata Narasimha Rao, B. Ravi1, M. Sunil Kumar1, P. Manoj1, R. Venkata Nadh
Comments: 14 Pages. OK

Plerixafor (PLX) injections are administered to patients with cancers of lymphocytes (non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma) and plasma cells (multiple myeloma). The main objective of the current study was to develop a short reverse phase chromatographic method for the simultaneous quantification of PLX and its impurities, in an injection formulation, to reduce the time required for these quality tests. Furthermore, the present work describes the role of nonalkyl branched nonquaternary ion pair reagent in improving the peak shape and reducing column equilibration time. The separation of PLX and its related substances is pH dependent (optimum pH = 2.50) and was achieved on an octadecylsilyl (C18) column. The method was validated for its intended purpose in accordance with the current regulatory guidelines for validation. The proposed method can be applied for quality control, release, and stability analyses of active pharmaceutical ingredient, PLX, as well as finished products, PLX injections.
Category: Chemistry

[29223] viXra:1905.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 04:57:15

Novel Coumarin Isoxazoline Derivatives: Synthesis and Study of Antibacterial Activities

Authors: Garbapu Suresh, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Navuluri Srinivasu, Kishore Kaushal
Comments: 9 Pages. OK

A highly efficient and mild protocol for the syntheses of ethyl-3- [7-benzyloxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-8-chromenyl]-5-aryl-4,5-dihydro-4- isoxazole carboxylates and ethyl-3-[7-benzyloxy-3-chloro-4-methyl-2- oxo-2H-8-chromenyl]-5-aryl-4,5-dihydro-4-isoxazole carboxylates in good yields via [3 þ 2] cycloaddition of in situ–generated nitrile oxides from 7-benzyloxy-4-methyl-coumarin hydroxymoylchlorides and 7-benzyloxy-3-chloro-4-methyl-coumarin hydroxymoylchlorides respectively with ethyl-3-aryl prop-2-enoate has been developed. The new compounds are screened for antibacterial activity.
Category: Chemistry

[29222] viXra:1905.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 04:59:11

Kinetic, Thermodynamic and Equilibrium Studies on Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Solutions Using Agro-Waste Biomaterials, Casuarina Equisetifolia L. and Sorghum Bicolor

Authors: Mokkapati Ramya Prasanthi, Mokkapati Jayasravanthi, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh,
Comments: 10 Pages. OK

Removal of Cr(VI) by biosorption on two agro waste materials, casuarinas fruit powder (CFP) and sorghum stem powder (SSP), has been investigated. The prepared adsorbent materials were characterized by SEM, EDX, FTIR and BET. These biomaterials effectively removed Cr(VI) with a maximum removal of 93.35% and 63.75% using 15 gL−1 and 5 gL−1 of CFP and SSP, respectively, at 60 oC with 20mgL−1 initial Cr(VI) concentration in solution. In both cases of adsorbents, kinetic data of adsorption fitted well in pseudo-second-order in terms of correlation coefficient (R2). This helps in proposing the process of adsorption as chemical coordination, which is correlated with the thermodynamic study results conducted at different values of temperature. Langmuir, Freundlich and D-R models were evaluated for description of metal sorption isotherms. Values of coefficients of intra-particle diffusion and mass transfer have also been determined at different values of temperature.
Category: Chemistry

[29221] viXra:1905.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:01:07

Kinetic, Isotherm and Thermodynamics Investigation on Adsorption of Divalent Copper Using Agro-Waste Biomaterials, Musa Acuminata, Casuarina Equisetifolia L. and Sorghum Bicolor

Authors: Ramya Prasanthi Mokkapati1, Jayasravanthi Mokkapati, Venkata Nadh Ratnakaram
Comments: 10 Pages. OK

Three novel and distinct agricultural waste materials, viz., Casuarinas fruit powder (CFP), sorghum stem powder (SSP) and banana stem powder (BSP) were used as low cost adsorbents for the removal of toxic copper(II) from aqueous solutions. Acid treated adsorbents were characterized by SEM, EDX and FTIR. Different factors effecting adsorption capacity were analyzed and the effi ciency order was BSP>SSP>CFP. Based on the extent of compatibility to Freundlich/Langmuir/D-R/Temkin adsorption isotherm and different models (pseudo-fi rst and second order, Boyd, Weber’s and Elovich), chemisorption primarily involved in the case of CFP and SSP, whereas, simultaneous occurrence of chemisorption and physisorption was proposed in the case of BSP. Based on the observations, it was proposed that three kinetic stages involve in adsorption process viz., diffusion of sorbate to sorbent, intra particle diffusion and then establishment of equilibrium. These adsorbents have promising role towards removal of Cu(II) from industrial wastewater to contribute environmental protection.
Category: Chemistry

[29220] viXra:1905.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:02:43

Mucoadhesive Targeted Pulmonary Delivery of Nanoparticulated Dry Powder Insufflators a Revolt in TB Therapy

Authors: Vishnu Vardhan Reddy Beeram1, Venkata Nadh R, Krupanidhi S1, Gnana Prakash K3
Comments: 8 Pages. OK

The emergence of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) against first-line drugs and extensively drug resistant TB (XDRTB) due to misuse of second-line anti tubercular drugs (ATDs) is a further concern. Recommended treatment involves long term and multiple drug therapy with severe side effects. Due to this concern nanoparticle-based systems have significant potential for treatment and prevention of tuberculosis (TB) to overcome the need to administer ATDs at high and frequent doses, would assist in improving patient compliance and circumvent hepatotoxic ity and/or nephrotoxicity/ocular toxicity/ototoxicity associated with the prevalent first-line chemotherapy. Nanostructured delivery systems constitute a wide range of systems varying from liposomes, micelles, micro- and nanoemulsions, to polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs ) and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). Pulmonary administration of inhaled nanoparticles in the form of dry powder inhalers offer particular advantages for pulmonary administration of anti tubercular drugs (ATDs). Present review comprehensively about different approaches of nanobased drug delivery, devises and techniques for pulmonary delivery of nanoparticle encapsulated ATD.
Category: Chemistry

[29219] viXra:1905.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:09:31

A Novel Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Potential Impurities of Bisoprolol Fumarate and Hydrochlorothiazide in a Fixed Dosage Form

Authors: Venkata Narasimha Rao Ganipisetty, D Jalandhar, G. Gnanadev, P. Manoj, R. Venkata Nadh
Comments: 9 Pages. OK

In the present study 12 impurities of bisoprolol fumarate (BISO) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) were separated simultaneously in a single HPLC method. Out of these 12 impurities, five are potential degradants, which are validated as per The International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) guidelines. As the two active drug substances BISO and HCTZ have different solubilities and polarities, the most critical parameters in resolving the components from each other are pH, temperature, and solvents. The method is precise (RSD < 1.0%), accurate, linear (r2 > 0.999), robust, and stability indicating in the range of limit of quantification (LOQ) to 150%. The HPLC method is then migrated to ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) to further reduce the run time and solvent consumption, and increase the sample throughput.
Category: Chemistry

[29218] viXra:1905.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:10:49

Kinetics of Ruthenium(III) Catalyzed and Uncatalyzed Oxidation of Monoethanolamine by N-Bromosuccinimide

Authors: R. Venkata Nadh, B. Syama Sundarb, P. S. Radhakrishnamurtic
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

Abstract—Kinetics of uncatalyzed and ruthenium(III) catalyzed oxidation of monoethanolamine by N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) has been studied in an aqueous acetic acid medium in the presence of sodium acetate and perchloric acid, respectively. In the uncatalyzed oxidation the kinetic orders are: the first order in NBS, a fractional order in the substrate. The rate of the reaction increased with an increase in the sodium acetate concentration and decreased with an increase in the perchloric acid concentration. This indicates that free amine molecules are the reactive species. Addition of halide ions results in a decrease in the kinetic rate, which is noteworthy. Both in absence and presence of a catalyst, a decrease in the dielectric constant of the medium decreases the kinetic rate pointing out that these are dipole—dipole reactions. A relatively higher oxidation state of ruthenium i.e., Ru(V) was found to be the active species in Ru(III) catalyzed reactions. A suitable mechanism consistent with the observations has been proposed and a rate law has been derived to explain the kinetic orders.
Category: Chemistry

[29217] viXra:1905.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:12:31

Shift of Reaction Pathway by Added Chloride Ions in the Oxidation of Aromatic Ketones by Dichloroisocyanuric Acid—A Kinetic Study

Authors: Y. Lakshman Kumara, R. Venkata Nadh, P. S. Radhakrishnamurti
Comments: 8 Pages. OK

Role of added chloride ions on the shift of reaction pathway of oxidation of aromatic ketones (acetophenone, desoxybenzoin) by dichloroisocyanuric acid (DCICA) was studied in aqueous acetic acid—perchloric acid medium. Participation of enolic and protonated forms of ketones in the rate determining steps is manifested from zero and first orders with respect to the oxidant in absence and presence of added chloride ions, respectively. Positive and negative effects of acid and dielectric constant on the reaction rate were observed. The observations deduce plausible mechanisms involving (i) rate-determining formation of enol from the conjugate acid of the ketone (SH+) in the absence of added chloride ions and (ii) rapid formation of molecular chlorine species from HOCl (hydrolytic species of DCICA) in the presence of added chloride ions, which then interacts with SH+ in a rate-determining step prior to the rapid steps of product formation. The order of Arrhenius parameters substantiate the proposed plausible mechanisms based on order of reactants both in presence and absence of added chloride ions.
Category: Chemistry

[29216] viXra:1905.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:14:22

Ruthenium(III) Catalyzed Oxidation of Sugar Alcohols by Dichloroisocyanuric Acid—A Kinetic Study

Authors: Y. Lakshman Kumara, R. Venkata Nadh, P. S. Radhakrishnamurtia
Comments: 9 Pages. OK

Kinetics of ruthenium(III) catalyzed oxidation of biologically important sugar alcohols (myo-inositol, D-sorbitol, and D-mannitol) by dichloroisocyanuric acid was carried out in aqueous acetic acid—perchloric medium. The reactions were found to be first order in case of oxidant and ruthenium(III). Zero order was observed with the concentrations of sorbitol and mannitol whereas, a positive fractional order was found in the case of inositol concentration. An inverse fractional order was observed with perchloric acid in oxidation of three substrates. Arrhenius parameters were calculated and a plausible mechanism was proposed.
Category: Chemistry

[29215] viXra:1905.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:16:03

Chemical Oxygen Demand Reduction from Coffee Processing Waste Water a Comparative Study on Usage of Biosorbents Prepared from Agricultural Wastes

Authors: Ramya P.M., Jayasravanthi M., Dulla B.J., Venkata N.R.
Comments: 10 Pages. OK

The utilization of t hree novel and distinct agricultural waste materials, namely c asuarina fruit powder CFP s orghum stem powder SSP ) and b anan a stem powder ( as low cost adsorbents for reducing chemical oxygen demand ( COD levels of coffee industry waste water has been examined. Prepared adsorbents were characteriz ed by scanning electron microscopy ( SEM), Energy dispersive x ray spectros copic ( and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy The effects of parameters like adsorbent dose, pH, temperature agitation rate and time of adsorption on the reduction of COD levels were analyzed for each adsorbent individually and the efficiency order is CFP>SSP>BSP. Based on the extent of compatibility to Freundlich/ Langmuir adsorption isotherm and different models ( pseudo first order and second order , Boyd, Weber’s and Elovich), simultaneous occurrence of chemis orption and physi sorption was proposed. Based on the observations, it is proposed that three kinetic stages involve in adsorption process viz., diffusion of sorbate to sor bent, intra particle d iffusion and then establishment of equilibrium. As these three adsorbents exhibit adsorption capacity more than 80%, the adsorbents prepared from agricultural wastes have promising role towards reduction of COD from industrial waste water to contribute envi ronmental protection .
Category: Chemistry

[29214] viXra:1905.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:18:13

Kinetics and Mechanism of ru (Iii) Catalysed and Uncatalysed Oxidation of DL-Alanine by N-Bromosuccinimide

Authors: R.Venkata Nadh, M.Sireesha
Comments: 9 Pages. OK

The kinetics of Ru(III) catalysed and uncatalysed oxidation of DL-alanine by N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) was studied in aqueous acetic acid and in the presence of perchloric acid and Hg (II). In both Ru(III) catalysed and uncatalysed oxidations, the kinetic orders were: first order in NBS, fractional order in substrate. The rate of the reaction decreased with the increase in perchloric acid concentration and addition of halide ions. The reactions were of fractional order with respect to Ru (III). Addition of Os(VIII) had no effect on the rate of oxidation of DL-alanine by NBS. The presence of catalysis with Ru (III) and the absence of catalysis with Os(VIII) in NBS oxidations was traced to different factors. A factor other than complexation could be a more powerful oxidant species like Ru (V) which accelerates the NBS oxidations. The effect of temperature was also investigated. By varying the solvent composition it was found that the reaction rate decreased with the decrease in dielectric constant of the solvent. All kinetic features were explained by postulating suitable mechanisms and rate laws.
Category: Chemistry

[29213] viXra:1905.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:20:14

Role of Added Chloride Ions in Alteration of Reaction Pathway in the Oxidation of Cyclic Ketones by Dichloroisocyanuric Acid— A Kinetic Study

Authors: Y. Lakshman Kumara, R. Venkata Nadh, P. S. Radhakrishnamurtia
Comments: 8 Pages. OK

Effect of added chloride ions on kinetics and pathway of reaction between cyclic ketones (five to eight membered rings) and dichloroisocyanuric acid (DCICA) was studied in aqueous acetic acid—perchlo ric acid medium. Formation of aliphatic dicarboxylic acids as the end products demonstrates the ring cleav age oxidation. Positive effect of acid and negative effect of dielectric constant on the reaction rate reveals a interaction between positive ion (oxidant in the form of H2OCl+) and dipolar substrate molecule. Zero and first orders by oxidant in absence and presence of added chloride ions illustrates the participation of substrate as enolic form of ketone and protonated ketone, respectively, in the rate determining steps. The observed order of reactivity of cyclic ketones (cyclohexanone > cyclooctanone > cyclopentanone > cycloheptanone) was explained on the bases of ring strain, change of hybridization and conformational considerations. The envisaged plausible mechanism based on order of reactants in presence and absence of added chloride ions was substantiated by the order of Arrhenius parameters.
Category: Chemistry

[29212] viXra:1905.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:22:25

Reactions of Enolisable Ketones with Dichloroisocyanuric Acid in Absence and Presence of Added Chloride Ions – a Kinetic Study

Authors: Y. Lakshman Kumar, R. Venkata Nadh, P.S. Radhakrishnamurti
Comments: 8 Pages. OK

Kinetics of reactions of enolisable ketones (S = acetone/2-butanone) with dichloroisocyanuric acid (DCICA) were studied in aqueous acetic acid and perchloric acid media in absence and presence of added chloride ions. The reactions were found to be pseudo zero order and pseudo first order on [DCICA] in absence and presence of chloride ions respectively. Both in presence and absence of chloride ions, first order and fractional order in substrate and perchloric acid were observed respectively. An increase in the rate of reaction was observed with an increase in chloride ion concentration as well as acetic acid composition. The results were interpreted in terms of probable mechanisms involving (i) rate-determining enol formation from the conjugate acid of the ketone (SH+) in the absence of added chloride ions and (ii) rate-determining interaction of SH+ with the most effective molecular chlorine species produced by the hydrolysis of DCICA (rather than a rate-determining interaction of enol with chlorine) in the presence of added chloride ions, prior to the rapid steps of product formation.
Category: Chemistry

[29211] viXra:1905.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:24:35

Supercritical Fluid (Co2) Chromatography for Quantitative Determination of Selected Cancer Therapeutic Drugs in the Presence of Potential Impurities

Authors: Venkata Narasimha Rao Ganipisetty, a B. Ravi, a Ch. Rajsekhara Reddy, a RajKumar Gurjar, a P. Manoj, a R. Venkata Nadh, Gnana dev Gudipatia
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

In the present study, supercritical fluid (carbon dioxide) chromatographicmethods were developed and validated for the quantitative assay determination of two cancer therapeutic substances, fulvestrant and azacitidine, using a UPC2 system. Fulvestrant was separated from six potential impurities, while impurities of azacitidine were separated using a 150 mm 4.6 mm, I.D., a chiral column and 5 mm, particle size. Both drugs were analysed simultaneously in a single sequence using multiple channels in the system and respective methods. These new methods were validated for their intended purpose in accordance with the current ICH guidelines. The method exhibited excellent intra- and inter-day precision. A precision with RSD 1% and 1.6% was achieved for fulvestrant and azacitidine, respectively. A linear relationship r2 > 0.999 was achieved between the concentration and detector response over a range of 25–150% of the target concentrations for both compounds. The two compounds were well quantified from their unspecified impurities obtained from stress studies. The method can be employed for routine quality control testing and stability analysis.
Category: Chemistry

[29210] viXra:1905.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:26:34

A Validated RP-HPLC Method for the Determination of Bendamustine Hydrochloride in Tablet Dosage Form Using Gemcitabine Hydrochloride as Internal Standard

Authors: Kiran Kumar KATARE, Venkata Nadh RATNAKARAM, Nagoji K.E.V.
Comments: 8 Pages. OK

Using gemcitabine hydrochloride as an internal standard, an accurate, sensitive, precise and robust reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method has been developed for the estimation of bendamustine in bulk and dosage forms. The proposed method was validated as per the ICH guidelines (2005) and can be applied for the quantitative analysis of bendamustine in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The chromatographic separation was performed on ODS C-18 RP column (4.6 mm i.d x 250 mm) at ambient temperature using a mixture of methanol : water (50:50 v/v) as a mobile phase and at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/ min, while UV detection was performed at 232 nm. The retention times of gemcitabine and bendamustine were in the ranges of 6.647–6.797 and 11.66–12.49 minutes, respectively. The method was found to be linear in the range of 1 – 10 μg/ml. The LOD and LOQ for bendamustine were found to be 0.0422 and 0.1279 µg/ml respectively. Analytical recovery varied from 98.9% to 99.13%. The percentage RSD for precision and accuracy of the method was found to be less than 2%.
Category: Chemistry

[29209] viXra:1905.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:29:59

Green Approach Toward the Synthesis of N-Substituted Anilines via Smile Rearrangement Using Amberlite IR-400 Resin

Authors: H. Sudhakar1, G. Pavana Kumari2, R. Venkata Nadh, Naveen Mulakayala
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

A new method for the synthesis of N-alkyl anilines from phenols using silica sulfuric acid as a catalyst is described via smiles rearrangement. The synthesized anilines are handy intermediates in the organic synthesis.
Category: Chemistry

[29208] viXra:1905.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:31:34

Determination of Bendamustine Hydrochloride in Pure and Dosage Forms by Ion-Associative Complex Formation

Authors: Katare Kiran Kumar1, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, K.e.v. Nagoji3
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

The present study is aimed to develop visible spectrophotometric methods for the determination of Bendamustine hydrochloride. The developed methods involve the formation of chloroform extractable colored ion-association complexes of Bendamustine hydrochloride with tropaeolineo-oo (Method A) and Alizarin Red S (Method B). The chloroform extracted coloured complexes showed absorbance maxima at wavelengths 480 and 460nm in methods A and B respectively. Beer’s law obeyed in the concentration range of 2.5–12.5 μg/mL in both the cases. Correlation coefficients were found to be 0.9991 and 0.9998 for methods A and B respectively. In addition molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity and the optimum conditions for quantitative analysis of the Bendamustine hydrogenchloride were determined. The developed ion-association complex methods were rapid, simple and economically viable compared to other reported analytical methods which require expensive instruments and are not available in common laboratories. Thus the proposed methods for Bendamustine determination in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations can be used in commercial laboratories.
Category: Chemistry

[29207] viXra:1905.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:33:49

Antibacterial Activity of Some Newer 1,2,3 – Benzotriazole Derivatives Synthesized by Ultrasonication in Solvent – Free Conditions

Authors: S.S. Muvvala1, V.N. Ratnakaram
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

Many of the classical synthetic methodologies have broad scope but generate copious amounts of waste. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries have been subjected to increasing pressure to minimize or, preferably, eliminate this waste. In the present study a series of some newer 1,2,3–benzotriazole derivatives were synthesized under ultrasonicated and solvent–free conditions. Newer “1–(1H–benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole–1–carbonyl) derivatives” (5A – 5P) were synthesized from “1H–benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole” (1) by optimizing the reaction conditions. The resulting products were isolated and characterized by spectral studies. The anti bacterial activities of these compounds were screened in vitro against different strains of bacteria i.e. Gram negative organism (Pseudonomous aureginosa, MTCC – 1035) and Gram positive organisms (Bacillus cereus, MTCC – 430, Bacillus subtilis, MTCC – 441, Staphylococcus aureus, MTCC – 737, Staphylococcus epidermidis, MTCC – 3086) by paper disc diffusion method. Some of the synthesized compounds showed significant activity against various bacteria.
Category: Chemistry

[29206] viXra:1905.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:35:10

Substrate Inhibition: Oxidation of DSorbitol and DMannitol by Potassium Periodate in Alkaline Medium

Authors: Y. Lakshman Kumar, R. Venkata Nadh, P. S. Radhakrishnamurti
Comments: 5 Pages. OK

Abstract—In the oxidation of Dsorbitol and Dmannitol by potassium periodate in alkaline mediam, sub strate inhibition was observed with both the substrates, i.e., a decrease in the rate of the reaction was observed with an increase in the concentration of substrate. The substrate inhibition was attributed to the formation of stable complex between the substrate and periodate. The reactions were found to be first order in case of peri odate and a positive fractional order with hydroxide ions. Arrhenius parameters were calculated for the oxi dation of sorbitol and mannitol by potassium periodate in alkali media.
Category: Chemistry

[29205] viXra:1905.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:36:32

Evaluation of in Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Caralluma Umbellata Haw Used in Traditional Medicine by Indian Tribes

Authors: K. Suresh Babu1, Sireesha Malladi2, R. Venkata Nadh, S. Siva Rambabu
Comments: 16 Pages. OK

Aims: To find out a scientific validation for the traditional knowledge of tribals of Chittoor District, India for their usage of Caralluma umbellata Haw to cure stomach disorder and pain. Methodology: Antibacterial activity of Caralluma umbellata Haw was studied on a few Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The dry roots and stems were extracted using hexane, benzene, diethyl ether, chloroform, acetone and methanol and were tested for their antibacterial activity. Results: The root extracts were found to be effective against most of the organisms than the stem extracts. The extracts were highly effective against Bacillus subtillis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Chloroform extracts of both roots and stems exhibited good antibacterial activity againstConclusion: The demonstration of antibacterial activity of C. umbellata against Gram positive (B.subtilis and B.cereus) and Gram negative bacteria (E.coli) provides the scientific basis for its use in the traditional treatment of stomach disorder.
Category: Chemistry

[29204] viXra:1905.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:37:40

Diazo-Coupling: A Facile Mean for the Spectrophotometric Determination of Rasagiline Hemitartrate

Authors: Muvvala Subrahmanya Sudhir1, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh
Comments: 8 Pages. OK

A simple, precise, accurate, high reproducible and economical visible spectrophotometric method of analysis for the synthesized rasagiline hemitartrate was developed and validated. The proposed method involves diazotization of sulphanilic acid under acidic conditions in presence of sodium nitrite, followed by its coupling with rasagiline in alkaline medium. The absorption spectra of the yellow colored chromophore formed between rasagiline and positive diazonium ion has absorption maximum at 440 nm. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed good linear relationship (r = 0.99937) with in the concentration range of 0 – 10 μg mL-1. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 0.033 μg mL-1and 0.1 μg mL-1 respectively. This method was tested and validated for various parameters according to ICH guidelines. The results demonstrated that the procedure is accurate, precise and reproducible (R.S.D. < 2 %).
Category: Chemistry

[29203] viXra:1905.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:40:04

Development of Supercritical Fluid (Carbon Dioxide) Based Ultra Performance Convergence Chromatographic Stability Indicating Assay Method for the Determination of Clofarabine in Injection

Authors: Venkata Narasimha Rao Ganipisetty, a Jalandhar D, a Gnana dev G, a Rajendar Bandari, a Manoj P, a Dhananjay Da, Venkata Nadh R
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

The present study reports the development and validation of a stability indicating assay method for clofarabine in injection on a UPC2 (ultra performance convergence chromatography) instrument, which utilizes the unrealized potential of supercritical fluid chromatography. The use of UPC2 provides a single viable technique that is a sustainable, reduced cost, and green technology that lowers the use of organic solvents. Based on this advantage, we explored a simple and robust method in order to increase sample throughput and productivity to quantify clofarabine in the presence of its potential impurities and other degradants. The separation was achieved on a BEH-2-ethyl pyridine (BEH 2EP) column (100 mm 3.0 mm I.D. with an average pore diameter of 1.7 mm) by using methanol as a cosolvent and carbon dioxide as a mobile phase in the ratio of 30 : 70. The detection is carried out at a wavelength of 254 nm. We are able to achieve the separation of clofarabine from its potential impurities and other degradants in less than 6 minutes with a low amount of solvent consumption. The new method is validated in accordance with the ICH-guidelines and exhibited good intra- and inter-day precision, accuracy and linearity (r2 $ 0.999) over a range of 50% to 150% of target concentration.
Category: Chemistry

[29202] viXra:1905.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:42:03

Supercritical Fluid (Carbon Dioxide) Based Ultra Performance Convergence Chromatography for the Separation and Determination of Fulvestrant Diastereomers

Authors: Ganipisetty Venkata Narasimha Rao, a G. Gnanadev, a Bellam Ravi, a D. Dhananjaya, a P. Manoj, a B. Indua, R. Venkata Nadh
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

UltraPerformance convergence chromatography (UPC2) is a new category of separation science which utilizes the unrealized potential of the supercritical chromatography phenomenon. UPC2 is a standalone, viable technique that is cost effective, sustainable, and uses green technology that lowers the use of organic solvents. Based on this advantage, we explored a simple and robust supercritical liquid-based UPC2 method in order to increase sample throughput and productivity to quantify the diastereomers of fulvestrant. The two isomers of fulvestrant were well separated on a chiral column (150 mm 4.6 mm, I.D.) by applying a mixture of methanol and acetonitrile (9.5 : 0.5) as the co-solvent of the mobile phase of carbon dioxide (75%). The detection was carried out at 280 nm. We were able to achieve a threefold reduction in retention with an isocratic mode as compared to the United States Pharmacopoeias (USP) normal phase method. This new method was validated in accordance with the ICH guidelines; it exhibited good intra- and inter-day accuracy, precision, and the results were linear over a range of 25% to 150% of the target concentration. The method could be successfully applied for the determination of the diastereomeric ratio of fulvestrant as an API and in fulvestrant injectable finished products.
Category: Chemistry

[29201] viXra:1905.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:44:34

Antifungal Activities of Novel 1,2,3-Benzotriazole Derivatives Synthesized by Ultrasonic and Solvent-Free Conditions

Authors: Muvvala S. Sudhir a, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh, Sugreevu Radhik
Comments: 7 Pages. OK

Objectives: To evaluate the antifungal activities of novel 1,2,3-benzotriazole derivatives synthesized by ultrasonic and solvent-free conditions. Methods: Newer “1-(1H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole-1-carbonyl) derivatives” (5Ae5P) were synthesized by using“1Hebenzo[d][1,2,3]triazole” (1) as the startingmaterial underultrasonicated and solvent-free conditions. The resulting products were isolated and characterized by melting points and spectral studies. All the products were assayed for antifungal activity for various pathogenic fungi. Results: Excellent antifungal activity was shown by derivative-5L against Candida albicans (MTCCe 3018)whereas other compounds have shown comparable activity. Except derivative- 5P, all synthesized compounds have shown mild activity against Candida glabrata (MTCC e 3019). Towards Aspergillus niger (MTCCe 2638) and Aspergillus flavus (MTCC e 2737) most of the compounds were inactive and some were feebly active. All the synthesized derivatives were inactive against Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MTCC e 170). The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of the most of the synthesized 1,2,3-benzotriazole derivatives for these fungi were found to be 62.5 mg/ml. Conclusions: Some of the newer 1,2,3-benzotriazole derivatives synthesized under solventfree and ultrasound irradiation with noteworthy advantages viz., shorter reaction times, operational simplicity, simple work-up, and eco-friendly nature, have shown antifungal activities against selected pathogenic strains. Attachment of phenyl or phenyl with electron withdrawing substituents to either nitrile or azo functional group can be attributed to the substantial antifungal activity of these benzotriazoles.
Category: Chemistry

[29200] viXra:1905.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:46:36

Rasagiline Hemitartrate: Synthesis, Characterization and RP-HPLC Validation for Its Estimation in Bulk Form

Authors: Muvvala S. Sudhir, Ratnakaram Venkata Nadh
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

Objectives: To develop a reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for validation and quantitative estimation of the synthesized drug rasagiline hemitartrate in bulk form. Methods: Rasagiline hemitartrate was synthesized and characterized by spectral (Infrared, Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Mass) as well as elemental analysis. Chromatographic separation was conducted on Agilent TC-C18 (2504.6mm,5 mm) columnat ambient temperature using mixture of 20mM potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer (pH 7.0): methanol and acetonitrile in the ratio (30:30:40 v/v) as a mobile phase and at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, while UV detection was performed at 285 nm. In addition to LOD and LOQ, other analytical parameters viz., linearity, precision, accuracy, ruggedness and robustness were detected by following the ICH (International Conference on Harmonization) guidelines. Results: The retention time for rasagiline hemitartrate was found to be 4.30 0.05 min. The method was found to be linear in the range of 10e50 mg/mL. The limit of detection and quantization for rasagiline hemitartrate are found to be 0.651 and 1.972 mg/mL respectively. Analytical recovery was 100.47%. The percentage RSD for precision and accuracy of the method was found to be less than 2%. Correlation coefficient was found to be 0.9952. Conclusion: In this study, simple, sensitive, accurate and reliable RP-HPLC method was developed and validated as per the ICH guidelines for the determination of the synthesized drug rasagiline hemitartrate in bulk form.
Category: Chemistry

[29199] viXra:1905.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:48:13

Evaluation of in Vitro Anthelmintic Activities of Novel 1,2,3 e Benzotriazole Derivatives Synthesized in Ultrasonic and Solvent Free Conditions

Authors: M.S. Sudhir, R. Venkata Nadh
Comments: 6 Pages. OK

Objectives: To determine anthelmintic activity of the synthesized novel 1,2,3 e benzotriazole derivatives under ultrasonication in solvent free conditions. Methods: Newer “1e(1Hebenzo[d][1,2,3]triazole-1-carbonyl) derivatives” (5Ae5P) were synthesizedby using“1Hebenzo[d][1,2,3]triazole” (1)as the startingmaterialunder ultrasonicated and solvent-free conditions. The resulting products were isolated and characterized by melting points and spectral studies. All the products were assayed for anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma using albendazole and mebendazole as reference compounds. Results: All the newer 1,2,3 e benzotriazole derivatives synthesized by ultrasound activation in solventefree condition were obtained in moderate to good yields in the range of 71e82%. The data interpretation of the spectral values with reference to standard values confirmed the structures of the synthesized compounds. Out of the sixteen synthesized derivatives, four compounds (5B, 5F, 5J and 5N) showed anthelmintic activity in dose-dependent manner giving shortest time of paralysis and death with different concentrations of the derivatives. Among these four derivatives, 5J showed superior activity. Conclusion: Out of the sixteen synthesized derivatives, four compounds (5B, 5F, 5J and 5N) containing p-nitrophenyl substituent attached to azo group of benzotriazole moieties exhibited equal or comparable anthelmintic activity with reference to albendazole. The superior activity of compound 5J might be due to attachment of additional p-nitrophenyl substituent to the cyano group.
Category: Chemistry

[29198] viXra:1905.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 05:50:15

Simple and Validated Ultraviolet Spectrophotometric Method for the Estimation of Lurasidone in Bulk Form

Authors: Muvvala S Sudhir, Ratnakaram V Nadh
Comments: 9 Pages. OK

A simple, sensitive, precise, accurate and economical spectrophotometric method of analysis for lurasidone in bulk form was developed and validated. The method employed acetonitrile as solvent and the drug shows maximum absorbance at 263 nm. The absorbance was found to increase linearly with increasing concentration of lurasidone, which is corroborated by the calculated correlation coefficient value (r2 = 0.999). The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed good linear relationship with in the concentration range of 10 – 60 μg/ml. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 1.25316 μg/ ml and 3.797468 μg /ml respectively. This method was tested and validated for various parameters according to ICH guidelines. The results demonstrated that the procedure is accurate, precise and reproducible (R.S.D. < 2 %).
Category: Chemistry

[29197] viXra:1905.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 07:17:27

Prove that Electromagnetic Waves Are Masses

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

if you jump from a planet you hit the floor while you jump and hit the floor again as you fall now you could deduce that the masses need to hit each other to move if you make this deduction you could say that the first thing that caused all the masses to move in the universe is a mass or electromagnetic waves are masses
Category: Condensed Matter

[29196] viXra:1905.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 07:31:10

Macroscopic Electron Quantum Coherence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

A team of researchers at the Centre de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies (C2N, CNRS/Univ. Paris-Saclay) has experimentally achieved the coherent propagation of electrons in circuits over macroscopic distances through a novel nano-engineering strategy. [20] Researchers in Madrid, Spain, have now observed the quantization of electron energy levels in copper similar to the effects of confinement within a nanostructure, but in a copper sample with no nanoscale dimensions in the plane of the observed effects. [19] This method, called atomic spin squeezing, works by redistributing the uncertainty unevenly between two components of spin in these measurements systems, which operate at the quantum scale. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity-spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29195] viXra:1905.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 08:01:37

Single Molecule Magnetometer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

A team of researchers from the University of California and Fudan University has developed a way to use a single molecule magnet as a scanning magnetometer. [40] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology designed a new type of molecular wire doped with organometallic ruthenium to achieve unprecedentedly higher conductance than earlier molecular wires. [39] Quantum wells of the highest quality are typically fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (sequential growth of crystalline layers), which is a well-established technique. [38] Scientists found that relatively slow electrons are produced when intense lasers interact with small clusters of atoms, upturning current theories. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29194] viXra:1905.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 08:50:29

On the Nature of Electromagnetic Waves

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

electromagnetic waves are masses that oscillate both ways(up and down and to the sides at the same time perpendicular to its direction of motion
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[29193] viXra:1905.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 09:44:55

Refutation of Counterpart Theory Via Modal Logic

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 3 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

Of seven examples for counterpart theory, none is tautologous. In fact, a translation is not tautologous in the counterpart model or in QMT, but rather shares the same truth table result. Two definitions of intensionality are also not tautologous and hence refuted. Therefore counterpart theory forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29192] viXra:1905.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 10:56:36

Programming Primitive Recursive Functions and Beyond

Authors: Hannes Hutzelmeyer
Comments: 17 Pages. The details given here relate to document viXra: 1905.0221

In addition to the publication 'The Snark, a counterexample for Church's thesis?' examples and details are offered in the form of two appendices C6 and C7 that allow for better understanding of the general method and the particular problem related to Church's thesis. The author has developed an approach to logics that comprises, but also goes beyond predicate logic. The FUME method contains two tiers of precise languages: object-language Funcish and metalanguage Mencish. It allows for a very wide application in mathematics from recursion theory and axiomatic set theory with first-order logic, to higher-order logic theory of real numbers etc. The most usual approach to calculative (effectively calculable) functions is done by register machines or similar storage-based computers like the Abacus or Turing machines. Another usual approach to computable functions is to start with primitive recursive functions. However, one has to find a way to put this into a form that does not rely on a pre-knowledge about functions and higher logic. The concrete calcule LAMBDA of decimal pinitive arithmetic allows for such an access. It is based on a machine that is completely different from the storage-based machines: the PINITOR does not use storages but rather many microprocessors, one for each appearance of a command in the code of primitive recursive functior. the codes are decimal numbers, called pinons , where only the characters 0 1 2 8 9 appear. There are four kind of commands only: 0 nullification, 1 succession, 2 straight recursion and 8 composition. The PINITOR is a calculator which means that there is no halting problem. Computers have halting problems, per defintion calculators do not. Appendix C6 gives the programming of the codes of most of the usual primitive function and goes even farther, e.g. it introduces generator technique that allows for the straight-forward calculation of so-called processive function, that are not primitive recursive. The most famous examples of Ackermann and other hyperexponential functions are programmed. Appendix C7 turns to the Boojum-function and the Snark-function that have been introduced as calculative functions in the above publication in connection with Church's thesis. A list is provided that gives the lowest values for these functions and gives some more insight into these functions.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29191] viXra:1905.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 12:01:57

Supplementary Notes Pertaining to a Specific Quaternion Analogue of the Cauchy-Goursat Theorem.

Authors: Stephen C. Pearson.
Comments: 20 Pages.

This particular submission contains (inter alia) a copy of the author's original paper, which was completed on 6th March 2019 and thus comprises a total of 16 handwritten A4 pages. Subsequently, in view of its contents, it is being presented as an addendum to the author's previous set of submissions, namely - "A Supplementary Discourse on the Classification and Calculus of Quaternion Hypercomplex Functions - PARTS 1/10 to 10/10", which have been published under the 'VIXRA' Mathematics subheading:- 'Functions and Analysis'.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[29190] viXra:1905.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 11:25:44

Spaceships

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

you get magnets spinning in a magnets chamber through electricity and the kinetic energy produced is transformed into heat and the magnets are dipped inside water that evaporates and makes more electricity and some magnets tied to the spaceship and others let to fly through propelling them with air maybe even propelling all the magnets through other heat chambers you get chambers that are huge enough to let the water cooldown and then the water streams back to the magnet heat water bank and before that electricity is maintained through dripping water but you need large spaceships to carry the heat you could build colonies on the heat tanks you could put ice too inside the spaceship and make the tank parts of the spaceship out of thermos
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[29189] viXra:1905.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 11:28:39

Neural Network Study Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

As cosmologists and astrophysicists delve deeper into the darkest recesses of the universe, their need for increasingly powerful observational and computational tools has expanded exponentially.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[29188] viXra:1905.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 11:54:52

Three Fundamental Mistakes of "Scientists" //Три фундаментальные ошибки "ученых"

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 11 Pages.

The article is devoted to the correction of three fundamental errors in theoretical physics. e three errors relate to gravity, the law of conservation of energy and mass. The author exposes errors and indicates how to fix them.// Статья посвящена исправлению трёх фундаментальных ошибок в теоретической физике. Эти три ошибки касаются гравитации, закона сохранения энергии и массы. Автор разоблачает ошибки и указывает, как можно их устранить.
Category: Classical Physics

[29187] viXra:1905.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 15:12:11

Zeros of Gamma

Authors: Wilson Torres Ovejero
Comments: 16 Pages.

160 years ago that in the complex analysis a hypothesis was raised, which was used in principle to demonstrate a theory about prime numbers, but, without any proof; with the passing Over the years, this hypothesis has become very important, since it has multiple applications to physics, to number theory, statistics, among others In this article I present a demonstration that I consider is the one that has been dodging all this time.
Category: Number Theory

[29186] viXra:1905.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 17:43:20

Ecriture Détaillée Des Equations de la Relativité Générale :Cas D’Une Métrique Diagonale

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 22 Pages. In French.

In this note, we study Einstein equations (EE) of general relativity considering a manifold M with a diagonal metric g_{ij}. We calculate the expression of the components of Ricci and Riemann tensors and the value of the scalar curvature R. Then we give the expression of the (EE) : -a- for the case where g_{ii}=g_i=g_i(x_i); -b- for the case where g_1=g_1(x_1=t) and g_i=g_i(t,x_i) for i=2,3,4$; -c- for the case (b) with x_4=z_0=constant.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[29185] viXra:1905.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 18:35:35

Cross-Double-Slit Apparatus

Authors: HuiPeng
Comments: 3 Pages.

We propose the Cross-Double-Slit apparatus for studying wave-particle duality and postulate that the particle nature of photons is intrinsic, while wave-like is an appearing behavior due to observation apparatus.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29184] viXra:1905.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 02:10:45

Machine Learning of Fusion Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are using ML to create a model for rapid control of plasma-the state of matter composed of free electrons and atomic nuclei, or ions-that fuels fusion reactions. [22] Machine learning can be used to predict the properties of a group of materials which, according to some, could be as important to the 21st century as plastics were to the 20th. [21] Marculescu, along with ECE Ph.D. student Chieh Lo, has developed a machine learning algorithm-called MPLasso-that uses data to infer associations and interactions between microbes in the GI microbiome. [20] A team of researchers from the University of Muenster in Germany has now demonstrated that this combination is extremely well suited to planning chemical syntheses-so-called retrosyntheses-with unprecedented efficiency. [19] Two physicists at ETH Zurich and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have developed a novel machine-learning algorithm that analyses large data sets describing a physical system and extract from them the essential information needed to understand the underlying physics. [18]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[29183] viXra:1905.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 02:34:33

Manipulating Atoms One at a Time

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

The ultimate degree of control for engineering would be the ability to create and manipulate materials at the most basic level, fabricating devices atom by atom with precise control. [41] A team of researchers from the University of California and Fudan University has developed a way to use a single molecule magnet as a scanning magnetometer. [40] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology designed a new type of molecular wire doped with organometallic ruthenium to achieve unprecedentedly higher conductance than earlier molecular wires. [39] Quantum wells of the highest quality are typically fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (sequential growth of crystalline layers), which is a well-established technique. [38] Scientists found that relatively slow electrons are produced when intense lasers interact with small clusters of atoms, upturning current theories. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29182] viXra:1905.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 04:59:02

Disruptive Gravity

Authors: Ramses BOUNKEU SAFO
Comments: 35 Pages. language: English and French

Gravity is currently understood as a space-time curvature. If gravity was a force, it quantization would be much easier. Then what if gravity was a force able to bend space-time? We will see that gravity can be seen as such and what it would imply. We’ll then derive a new space-time bending equation thanks to a new principle equivalent to Einstein’s Equivalence Principle in low intensity fields. Thanks to quantum mechanics studies in curved space-time we can then blend gravity in quantum mechanics in a coherent way. Eventually, we'll see that applying these principles to cosmology, we can explain what we current call Dark Energy.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[29181] viXra:1905.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 05:05:17

Chip-Scale Atomic Clock

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and partners have demonstrated an experimental, next-generation atomic clock-ticking at high "optical" frequencies-that is much smaller than usual, made of just three small chips plus supporting electronics and optics. [38] This has the double benefit of potentially allowing a new method of chip-to-chip communication with silicon, currently only possible with much more expensive materials, but also pushing mobile communications to much higher frequency and allowing the transmission of more data. [37] Based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (COMS) technology-a standard low-cost, high-volume chip manufacturing technique used for most processors and chips today-a group of researchers from IBM Research in Zurich, Switzerland, together with a consortium working under the EU-funded project "ADDAPT," have demonstrated a novel optical receiver (RX) that can achieve an aggregate bandwidth of 160 Gb/s through four optical fibers. [36] An international team of researchers has taken an important step towards solving a difficult variation of this problem, using a statistical approach developed at the University of Freiburg. [35] Storing information in a quantum memory system is a difficult challenge, as the data is usually quickly lost. At TU Wien, ultra-long storage times have now been achieved using tiny diamonds. [34] Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29180] viXra:1905.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 05:45:37

A Theory with Consolidation: Linking Everything to Explain Everything

Authors: Gaurav Biraris
Comments: 64 Pages.

The paper reports a theory which gives explicit (ontic) understanding of the abstract (epistemic) mechanisms spanning many branches of physics. It results to most modern physics starting from Newtonian physics by abandoning progress in twentieth century. The theory assumes consolidation of points in 4-balls of specific radius in the universe. Thus the 4-balls are fundamental elements of the universe. Analogue of momentum defined as soul vector is assumed to be induced on the 4-balls at the beginning of the universe. Then with progression of local time, collisions happen leading to different rotations of CNs. For such rotations, the consolidation provides centripetal binding. By using general terminologies of force and work, the mass energy mechanism gets revealed. The theory provides explicit interpretation of intrinsic properties of mass, electric charge, color charge, weak charge, spin etc. It also provides explicit understanding of the wave-particle duality & quantum mechanics. Epistemic study of the universe with the consolidation results to conventional quantum theories. Elementary mechanism of the field interactions is evident due to conservation of the soul vectors, and its epistemic expectation results to the gauge theories. The theory predicts that four types of interaction would exist in the universe along with the acceptable relative strengths; it provides fundamental interpretation of the physical forces. Further, it explains the basic mechanisms which can be identified with dark energy & dark matter. It also results to (or explains) entanglement, chirality, excess of matter, 4-component spinor, real-abstract (ontic-epistemic) correspondence etc. The theory is beyond standard model and results to the standard model, relativity, dark energy & dark matter, starting by simple assumptions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29179] viXra:1905.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 06:42:05

AI Teach us about Proteins

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Researchers in Berlin and Heidelberg have now developed an intelligent neural network that can predict the functions of proteins in the human body. [25] AI combined with stem cells promises a faster approach to disease prevention. Andrew Masterson reports. [24] According to product chief Trystan Upstill, the news app "uses the best of artificial intelligence to find the best of human intelligence—the great reporting done by journalists around the globe." [23]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[29178] viXra:1905.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 06:45:34

Lucidity Yellowpaper

Authors: Miguel Morales
Comments: 34 Pages.

In this paper we present an implementation of a trustless system of measurement and enforcement of advertising metrics. Specifically, our implementation uses a sidechain composed of a decentralized consortium of verifiers. This implementation provides a decentralized and democratically governed mechanism for the codification of measurement standards. This implementation enforces the standards for computing advertising metrics based on signals received from disconnected programmatic supply chain participants. A simple standard could be codified that enforces the computation of an attribution. It also enables a mechanism in which supply-chain participants may be paid using cryptocurrency safely and at scale. Thus, the system we describe implements the trifecta of blockchain-based tracking and billing of programmatic advertising: campaign insertion orders, supply-chain transparency, and payments. In this paper, we will describe the management of participant identities, a Plasma based sidechain architecture, and support for payments. We also describe a Proof-of-Stake consensus along with a rewards and penalties system used to perpetually incentivize and enforce the correct function of the network.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[29177] viXra:1905.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 07:00:04

The Flight Anomaly-This is no Longer a Mystery//Пролётная аномалия-это уже не загадка

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 3 Pages.

The flight anomaly can be explained on the basis of the effects of accelerations in the region of potential shells.// Пролётную аномалию можно объяснить на основе воздействия ускорений в области потенциаловых оболочек.
Category: Classical Physics

[29176] viXra:1905.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 07:01:34

Machine Learning of Porous Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Machine learning can be used to predict the properties of a group of materials which, according to some, could be as important to the 21st century as plastics were to the 20th. [21] Marculescu, along with ECE Ph.D. student Chieh Lo, has developed a machine learning algorithm-called MPLasso-that uses data to infer associations and interactions between microbes in the GI microbiome. [20] A team of researchers from the University of Muenster in Germany has now demonstrated that this combination is extremely well suited to planning chemical syntheses-so-called retrosyntheses-with unprecedented efficiency. [19] Two physicists at ETH Zurich and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have developed a novel machine-learning algorithm that analyses large data sets describing a physical system and extract from them the essential information needed to understand the underlying physics. [18]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[29175] viXra:1905.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 07:23:12

Facial Recognition Fears

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

A ban on facial recognition for law enforcement in San Francisco highlights growing public concerns about technology which is seeing stunning growth for an array of applications while provoking worries over privacy. [26] Researchers in Berlin and Heidelberg have now developed an intelligent neural network that can predict the functions of proteins in the human body. [25] AI combined with stem cells promises a faster approach to disease prevention. Andrew Masterson reports. [24]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[29174] viXra:1905.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 07:42:51

Superfast Computing by Light Pulses

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Superfast data processing using light pulses instead of electricity has been created by scientists. [27] Yao-Lung (Leo) Fang, an assistant computational scientist with the Quantum Computing Group in Brookhaven's Computational Science Initiative and a co-author of the paper, explained that a particle occupying a stable bound state is confined in space, such as an electron orbiting a hydrogen atom. [26] MIT researchers have designed a way to generate, at room temperature, more single photons for carrying quantum information. The design, they say, holds promise for the development of practical quantum computers. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices-small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[29173] viXra:1905.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 08:00:31

Laser in Biopsy Technique

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

To a patient, the analysis of a tissue biopsy sample to check for something like cancer may seem like a relatively simple process, even if it does mean giving up a small piece of flesh to be tested. [20] A remote command could one day send immune cells on a rampage against a malignant tumor. The ability to mobilize, from outside the body, targeted cancer immunotherapy inside the body has taken a step closer to becoming reality. [19]
Category: Physics of Biology

[29172] viXra:1905.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 08:59:09

Refutation of Forcing to Change Large Cardinal Strength

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

The seminal theorem of the dissertation states a cardinal is greatly inaccessible if and only if it is Mahlo. Three non trivial equations of the proof are not tautologous, thereby refuting theorems derived therefrom. These conjectures form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29171] viXra:1905.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 09:45:07

Theory of Tracer Diffusion in Concentrated Hard-Sphere Suspensions

Authors: S. S. L. Peppin
Comments: 20 Pages.

A phenomenological theory of diffusion and cross-diffusion of tracer particles in con- centrated hard-sphere suspensions is developed within the context of Batchelor's theory of multicomponent diffusion. Expressions for the diffusion coeffcients as functions of the host particle volume fraction are obtained up to the close-packing limit. In concen- trated systems the tracer diffusivity decreases because of the reduced pore space available for diffusion. Tracer diffusion, and segregation during sedimentation, ceases at a critical trapping volume fraction. The tracer diffusivity can be modelled by a Stokes-Einstein equation with an effective viscosity that depends on the pore size. The tracer cross- diffusion coeffcient increases near the glass transition and diverges in the close-packed limit.
Category: Condensed Matter

[29170] viXra:1905.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 16:00:49

Stellar Metamorphosis: Venus's Age with D/H Ratios Factored as Opposed to Earth and Other Bodies

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. Dedicated to James Hutton, the Geologist.

It has been recently researched that Venus's D/H ratio is on the order of 100-150 times higher than the Earth. As a general rule of thumb, as the D/H ratio increases, the object increases in age. The youngest stars have D/H ratios of lower than 1* 10-5 (1D/100,000H), the ocean world/Earth aged stars 1* 10-4 to 1.6 *10-4 (1D/10,000H to 1H/6,250H respectively), and the old/dead stars and stellar remains 1* 10-3, (1D/1000H). Venus's is 1.6 * 10-2 to 2.5 * 10-2, (1D/62.5H) to 1D/40H). What this tells us is that Venus, according to the general theory is at least 100 to 156 times older than the Earth, because its deuterium ratios are 100 to 156 times higher. This is subject to change as more information is gathered, but places Venus in the class of extraordinarily old objects, which has never been done before.
Category: Astrophysics

[29169] viXra:1905.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 16:10:59

Second Edition: The Twin Power Conjecture

Authors: Yuly Shipilevsky
Comments: 5 Pages.

We consider a new conjecture regarding powers of integer numbers and more specifically, we are interesting in existence and finding pairs of integers: n ≥ 2 and m ≥ 2, such that nm = mn. We conjecture that n = 2, m = 4 and n = 4, m = 2 are the only integral solutions. Next, we consider the corresponding generalizations for Hypercomplex Integers: Gaussian and Lipschitz Integers.
Category: Number Theory

[29168] viXra:1905.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 19:31:34

Le Découpage Cartographique International

Authors: Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 7 Pages. In French.

This note concerns the international cartographic division. It gives how is organized the numbering of sheets at different scales ranging from 1/500 to 1/50000 and their sizes and surfaces.
Category: Geophysics

[29167] viXra:1905.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 19:31:52

Solution of a Vector-Triangle Problem Via Geometric (Clifford) Algebra

Authors: James A. Smith
Comments: 3 Pages.

As a high-school-level application of Geometric Algebra (GA), we show how to solve a simple vector-triangle problem. Our method highlights the use of outer products and inverses of bivectors.
Category: Geometry

[29166] viXra:1905.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 22:14:29

A Theory of Likelihood: Parsimony & Synchronicity in Natural Law

Authors: Paris Matthew Samuel Miles-Brenden
Comments: 10 Pages. To an iso-inclinic departure of yet what so 'is; the opening of a declarative and worded structural relation is a freely ordered contactless domain congruence of any two stated worlds.

When approaching the co-existence of a knowable and contrasted limitation; there are to be found only two known given's. One is that pre-determination of light like freedom to it's asymptotic return is predicated upon a past co-existence within a future yet of invisible qualifiable capacity of color to which is the non-deterministic limit of reality of non-motile indivisibility. For then in the given of inertially free departure; any ordered and freed relation of relative provision is an a-conditional certain determinant of motion upon gravitationally provided congruence of free fall and inertial freedom; to which is associablely free spatial union of connective or disconnective in one in two.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[29165] viXra:1905.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 00:22:53

Physical Foolishness//Физический пустяк

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 3 Pages.

The article presents electrostatic phenomena and the physical mechanism of their development.// В статье представлены электростатические явления и физический механизм их развития.
Category: Classical Physics

[29164] viXra:1905.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 01:29:32

Entangled Photon Gyroscope

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Fiber optic gyroscopes, which measure the rotation and orientation of airplanes and other moving objects, are inherently limited in their precision when using ordinary classical light. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29163] viXra:1905.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 01:50:47

Em Drive Thruster by Anti Maxwell Dead Zone Around a Wire.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 18 Pages.

Abstract. A so called EmDrive defy classical physics expectations because it shows repellent less or reaction less thruster qualities. According to Quantum FFF Theory (Function Follows Form at the quantum level) however, the magnetic field is build on two monopole rigid string particles in the form of curved radiation trajectories, ( North and South) mostly cooperating opposing each other. Thus, the magnetic quantum field has always TWO different shaped curved monopole vector components: a North- and a South vector field component. This is comparable with the electric Quantum field, equipped with Plus and Minus vector components but it is in contrast with all other quantum fields like the neutrino- gravity-or x-gamma ray field. However, based on observation of iron filing-powder pattern loss close to direct currents in a wire, it is postulated, that these monopole ( N+S) particle/ wave dualities travel locally parallel to each other inside the vacuum Axion/Higgs field, with a strong field reduction or even fading away as a result. These field reductions (or dipping) are observed to be concentrated in a tubular for around the current in the wire. As a consequence, the Lorentz force will become a non symmetric form, with a one sided reduced reaction force between the magnetic reduced field and a local magnet. The magnet will create a normal Lorentz force on the electrons in the wire, but the magnets do not “feel” locally the opposing magnetic Standard Maxwell field around the current in the wire. The EM Drive as the result. .
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[29162] viXra:1905.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 02:37:22

Spin Orbit Interactions in Copper Oxide

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 89 Pages.

The scientists of Ural Federal University conducted a study in which they found that one of the copper oxides with a structure of a rare mineral spinel-CuAl2O4-is a material with unusual magnetic properties and structure due to significant spin-orbit interactions. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45] Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a highly efficient converter that enlarges the diameter of a HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light beam by 400 times. [44]
Category: Condensed Matter

[29161] viXra:1905.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 03:16:09

Effects of Radiation on DNA

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Scientists from TSU's Laboratory of Experimental High Energy Physics and their colleagues from the University of Bordeaux are studying new ways of modeling the effects of low doses of radiation at the cellular level. [19] Nanocages are highly interesting molecular constructs, from the point of view of both fundamental science and possible applications. [18] DNA flows inside a cell's nucleus in a choreographed line dance, new simulations reveal. [17]
Category: Physics of Biology

[29160] viXra:1905.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 03:59:04

Iron-Based Superconductor Stabilized

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Iron-based superconductors (IBSCs) have attracted sustained research attention over the past decade, partly because new IBSCs were discovered one after another in the earlier years. [29] Important challenges in creating practical quantum computers have been addressed by two independent teams of physicists in the US. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29159] viXra:1905.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 04:19:21

Correction Concours Bceas 2019

Authors: Idriss Olivier Bado
Comments: 16 Pages.

Dans cet article il s'agira pour nous de corriger le sujet BCEAS 2019
Category: General Mathematics

[29158] viXra:1905.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 04:27:48

Shuffling Public Keys (A Peer-to-peer Voting Algorithm)

Authors: Santi J. Vives
Comments: 27 Pages.

A peer-to-peer, permisionless cryptographic voting system that relies only on the existence of generic digital signatures and encryption.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[29157] viXra:1905.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 05:06:34

Atomic Wave Function Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

Physicists have demonstrated a new way to obtain the essential details that describe an isolated quantum system, such as a gas of atoms, through direct observation. [35] Scientists at the University of Alberta have applied a machine learning technique using artificial intelligence to perfect and automate atomic-scale manufacturing, something which has never been done before. [34] Chemist Dr. Lars Borchardt and his team at TU Dresden recently achieved a huge breakthrough in the synthesis of nanographenes. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29156] viXra:1905.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 05:56:05

Gravitoethertons.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 10 Pages. FOR FURTHER RESEARCH AND LHC EXPERIMENTATION.

EXOTIC DARK FLUID SWIRLING AND WHIRLING GIVING THE TOPOLOGY OF CURVED SPACE TIME OF EINSTEIN.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[29155] viXra:1905.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 06:00:03

Some Thoughts on Romans 13:1-7: Submission to Authorities

Authors: Leon Elshout
Comments: 1 Page.

Many Bible scholars confused the words "submitting" and "obeying" regarding Romans 13:1-7 - leon elshout, 15 may 2019, roodgoudvanparvaim.nl
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[29154] viXra:1905.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 07:53:54

Centralization Cryptocurrency Mining

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 72 Pages.

Design and his collaborators developed a novel approach to untangle the centralization phenomena in blockchain mining. [42] Cryptography is often used in information technology security environments to protect sensitive, high-value data that might be compromised during transmission or while in storage. [41] In a step forward for information security for the Internet of Things, a team of researchers has published a new paper in the online edition of Nano Letters in which they have engineered a new type of physically unclonable function (PUF) based on interfacial magnetic anisotropy energy (IAE). [40] Researchers from Linköping University and the Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden have proposed a new device concept that can efficiently transfer the information carried by electron spin to light at room temperature-a stepping stone toward future information technology. [39] Now writing in Light Science & Applications, Hamidreza Siampour and co-workers have taken a step forward in the field of integrated quantum plasmonics by demonstrating on-chip coupling between a single photon source and plasmonic waveguide. [38] Researchers at University of Utah Health developed a proof-of-concept technology using nanoparticles that could offer a new approach for oral medications. [37] Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), extremely high resolution imaging of the molecule-covered surface structures of silver nanoparticles is possible, even down to the recognition of individual parts of the molecules protecting the surface. [36] A fiber optic sensing system developed by researchers in China and Canada can peer inside supercapacitors and batteries to observe their state of charge. [35] The idea of using a sound wave in optical fibers initially came from the team's partner researchers at Bar-Ilan University in Israel. Joint research projects should follow. [34]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[29153] viXra:1905.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 08:05:38

Stellar Metamorphosis: Flipping the pH Scale to Apply to the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

The pH scale just needs to be spun 180 degrees to apply to the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram. The star when it is in younger gas giant stages will have a much more basic atmosphere. As the gas giant evolves and loses its atmosphere, it will become more acidic. So what this means is that to start life, you start with a more basic atmosphere, to sustain life it needs to be more towards a pH of 7. The oceans on Earth have a pH of about 8.2, so we're still good. They were much more basic though earlier in Earth's evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[29152] viXra:1905.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 08:19:33

Quantum Simulators can be Robust

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Digital quantum simulators might help, but until now they are drastically limited to small systems with few particles and only short simulation times. [32] 'Quantum technologies' utilise the unique phenomena of quantum superposition and entanglement to encode and process information, with potentially profound benefits to a wide range of information technologies from communications to sensing and computing. [31] For the first time, physicists at the University of Basel have succeeded in measuring the magnetic properties of atomically thin van der Waals materials on the nanoscale. [30] Diamonds are prized for their purity, but their flaws might hold the key to a new type of highly secure communications. [29] Researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, and Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia, have demonstrated a 4000 kilometre fibre-optical transmission link using ultra low-noise, phase-sensitive optical amplifiers. [28] Researchers at the University of York have shown that a new quantum-based procedure for distributing secure information along communication lines could be successful in preventing serious security breaches. [27] In the new study, Bomantara and Gong have developed a method for harnessing the unique properties of time crystals for quantum computing that is based on braiding. [26] An Aalto University study has provided new evidence that time crystals can physically exist-a claim currently under hot debate. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal-a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse-in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29151] viXra:1905.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 08:38:44

Quantum Light on Cave Art

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

Leslie Van Gelder, a well-known American-born archeologist has been working with Dr. Harald Schwefel, and other physicists at Otago University to develop a lamp that mimics the flickering torch light that paleolithic cave artists worked by many thousands of years ago. [33] Digital quantum simulators might help, but until now they are drastically limited to small systems with few particles and only short simulation times. [32] 'Quantum technologies' utilise the unique phenomena of quantum superposition and entanglement to encode and process information, with potentially profound benefits to a wide range of information technologies from communications to sensing and computing. [31] For the first time, physicists at the University of Basel have succeeded in measuring the magnetic properties of atomically thin van der Waals materials on the nanoscale. [30] Diamonds are prized for their purity, but their flaws might hold the key to a new type of highly secure communications. [29] Researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, and Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia, have demonstrated a 4000 kilometre fibre-optical transmission link using ultra low-noise, phase-sensitive optical amplifiers. [28] Researchers at the University of York have shown that a new quantum-based procedure for distributing secure information along communication lines could be successful in preventing serious security breaches. [27] In the new study, Bomantara and Gong have developed a method for harnessing the unique properties of time crystals for quantum computing that is based on braiding. [26] An Aalto University study has provided new evidence that time crystals can physically exist-a claim currently under hot debate. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal-a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse-in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29150] viXra:1905.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 08:39:24

A Methodology for Urban Sustainability Indicator Design

Authors: Ricardo Alvira
Comments: 19 Pages.

In recent times we have witnessed proliferation of indicators and models for measuring sustainability. This reveals the lack of common and shared scientific paradigm/common framework from which to confront the issue of quantitatively assessing the sustainability of our society. With the aim of moving forward the definition of such common framework, in this article we explain an easy formal methodology for designing urban sustainability indicators based on Fuzzy Logic / Fuzzy Sets Theory. The interest of this methodology is threefold: Firstly, formal procedures enable easier testing, a most fundamental issue forgotten in many current proposals of sustainability indicators. Secondly, a formal procedure is easily understandable and can become a common language allowing shared use of the indicators and facilitating their continuous improvement. And thirdly, fuzzy logic is widely used in computing and artificial intelligence, thus facilitating the progressive automation of our sustainability monitoring models. To help understand the procedure, the design of two indicators is reviewed.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29149] viXra:1905.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 09:45:43

Holographic Quantum Interference

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

In conventional holography a photographic film can record the interference pattern of monochromatic light scattered from the object to be imaged with a reference beam of un-scattered light. [38] The scientists used the quantum nature of the electron-light interaction to separate the electron-reference and electron-imaging beams in energy instead of space. [37]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29148] viXra:1905.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 10:08:33

Capturing Single Photons for Quantum Information

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Yao-Lung (Leo) Fang, an assistant computational scientist with the Quantum Computing Group in Brookhaven's Computational Science Initiative and a co-author of the paper, explained that a particle occupying a stable bound state is confined in space, such as an electron orbiting a hydrogen atom. [26] MIT researchers have designed a way to generate, at room temperature, more single photons for carrying quantum information. The design, they say, holds promise for the development of practical quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29147] viXra:1905.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 10:35:29

New Concept of Gravity

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 8 pages, 6 figures

For more than a hundred years, discussion has been going on in physics: is gravity a force or a curvature of space? This article shows that gravity is both a force and a curvature of space simultaneously. The forcefield of gravity and space are synonyms. Gravity, like other potential forcefields, has allowed different energy levels.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29146] viXra:1905.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 12:56:08

The Heavy Majorana Neutrino Has Been Overlooked Leading to a Falsely Low Value of Hubble's Constant

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: Because of misidentity, the heavy Majorana neutrino has been mistaken for the tetraquark, resulting in a falsely low value of Hubble's constant.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29145] viXra:1905.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 16:56:40

On the Origin of 1/f Noise due to Generated Entropy - Version 3

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 6 Pages.

Noise measurements analysis has been associated with degradation. In particular one such noise type called 1/f noise is likely the leading indicator. It is important to identify the noise frequency region of the spectrum associated with degradation occurring in materials to aid in noise analysis future reliability testing. The literature on 1/f noise appears to have a broad commonality in explanations and models related to degradation between materials and the measurement environment. It is reasonable in this regard to look at 1/f noise aspects in a broad sense in terms of disorder and the associated spectral content. This lends itself to a thermodynamic entropy framework for analysis. We review some of the key aspects of 1/f noise in the literature and discuss how observations relate to entropy. Once describe, we then suggest two thermodynamics models that one might use to model 1/f noise. Results help provide a broader understanding of 1/f noise, identify the spectral region, and separate out the associated entropy contribution in the noise in the 1/f noise spectrum. Such interpretation suggests that 1/f noise is a good tool for measuring certain aspects of disorder in materials and likely the associated spectral signatures. Experiments are suggested to demonstrate the importance of 1/f noise as a prognostic tool to identify and predict degradation in materials over time. We also suggest using standardized spectral identification methods.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[29144] viXra:1905.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 18:33:17

Refutation of Jaccard Index

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

The definition of the Jaccard index is not tautologous, hence refuting it with derivations and forming a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29143] viXra:1905.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 02:08:57

Exploring Extra Dimensions by the Help of Dnas of the Egg Cell and the Earth

Authors: Alireza Sepehri
Comments: 9 pages, 6 figures

In this research, we introduce two natural telescope for detecting events of extra dimensions. First, we will show that missing genes which are needed for keepping the animals alive, could be existed in extra dimensions. These genes could act like the receiver or sender of radio waves and transmit information from extra dimensions into our universe. These genes could lead to some changes in radiated waves of egg cells and missing some electrons. Thus, by considering evolutions of egg cells, we can obtain some information about biological events interior of extra dimensions. For example, if we put a fertilized egg and a non-fertilized egg interior of an inductor and produce a magnetic field, we can observe that non-fertilized egg obtains some properties of fertilized egg. It seems that sperms are teleported via extra dimensions into non-fertilized eggs. However, this system can only send us a report of biological events and for considering cosmological events, we need to a bigger object. We show that earth has a system similar to the DNAs in egg cell however with the cosmological size and can communicate with objects in extra dimensions. This DNA-like shell is located interior of the earth's core and leads to the emergence of high temperature. Exchanging information between the earth's DNA like shell and objects in extra dimensions leads to the production of some extra matters around the core, unstability interior of the earth's layers and the emergence of some earthquakes. Also, DNA-like object interior of the core has a direct effect on the water, ions and charged particles around the earth. In fact, this object induced some properties into water in clouds via extra dimensions and for this reason, water of rain is very different from normal water. For example, water of rain can communicate with DNA of plants very better of other waters.
Category: Astrophysics

[29142] viXra:1905.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 03:15:48

The Snark, a Counterexample for Church's Thesis ?

Authors: Hannes Hutzelmeyer
Comments: 7 Pages.

In 1936 Alonzo Church put forward his thesis that recursive functions comprise all effectively calculative functions. Whereas recursive functions are precisely defined, effectively calculative functions cannot be defined with a rigor that is requested by mathematicians. There has been a considerable amount of talking about the plausibility of Church's thesis, however, this is not relevant for a strict mathematical analysis. The only way to end the discussion is obtained by a counterexample. The author has developed an approach to logics that comprises, but goes beyond predicate logic. The FUME method contains two tiers of precise languages: object-language Funcish and metalanguage Mencish. It allows for a very wide application in mathematics from recursion theory and axiomatic set theory with first-order logic, to higher-order logic theory of real numbers and so on. The concrete calcule LAMBDA of natural number arithmetic with first-order logic has been defined by the author. It includes straight recursion and composition of functions, it contains a wide range of so-called compinitive functions, with processive functions far beyond primitive recursive functions. All recursive functions can be represented in LAMBDA too. The unary Snark-function is defined by a diagonalization procedure such that it can be calculated in a finite number of steps. However, this calculative function transcends the compinitive functions and presumably the recursive functions. The defenders of Church's thesis are challenged to show that the Snark-function is recursive. Another challenge asks for an example of a recursive function that cannot be expressed as a compinitive function, i.e. without minimization.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29141] viXra:1905.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 03:28:34

Summary of my Research Work

Authors: Savyasanchi Ghose
Comments: 10 Pages.

This document is for the readers who would like to look at my research work, the summary has been written in a brief format.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29140] viXra:1905.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 04:19:51

The Flow of Chern

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 1 page, written in english

We propose a flow over a Kaehler manifold, called the Chern flow.
Category: Geometry

[29139] viXra:1905.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-14 07:05:42

The Shame of Relativists-Stupidity in the Palm//Стыд релятивистов-глупость на ладони

Authors: Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"
Comments: 3 Pages.

The article presents an experiment that shows that the renowned formula E=m*c^2 is not worth the "pound of wool".// В статье представлен эксперимент, который показывает, что известная формула E=m*c^2 не стоит "фунта шерсти".
Category: Classical Physics

[29138] viXra:1905.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-14 07:31:01

Three, Four and N-Dimensional Swastikas & their Projections

Authors: Sascha Vongehr
Comments: 10 pages, Six Figures, Keywords: Higher Dimensional Geometry; Hyper Swastika; Reclaiming of Symbols; Didactic Arts

Difficulties with generalizing the swastika shape for N dimensional spaces are discussed. While distilling the crucial general characteristics such as whether the number of arms is 2^N or 2N, a three dimensional (3D) swastika is introduced and then a construction algorithm for any natural number N so that it reproduces the 1D, 2D, and 3D shapes. The 4D hyper swastika and surfaces in its hypercube envelope are then presented for the first time.
Category: Geometry

[29137] viXra:1905.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-14 07:34:37

The Electric Field of Uniformly Accelerating Point Charge

Authors: Yongqiang Zhao
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper, we find the electric field of a uniformly accelerating point charge in vacuum when v<<c. We show that the electric field is curved toward the opposite direction of acceleration, and it is not a conservative field. //在本文中我们求出了当 v<<c 时真空中匀加速直线运动点电荷的电场。我们证明此电场是向加速度的反方向弯曲的,并且它不是保守场。
Category: Classical Physics

[29136] viXra:1905.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-14 07:54:57

Refutation of Intutionistic Zermelo-Fraenkel Set Theory (Izf), de Jongh’s Theorem, and CZF

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate the nine axioms for intutionistic Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory (IZF). None is tautologous. This refutes IZF and its use in blended models and denies De Jongh’s classical theorem and similar results for constructive ZF (CZF). These segments form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29135] viXra:1905.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-14 08:46:23

Single Photons for Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

MIT researchers have designed a way to generate, at room temperature, more single photons for carrying quantum information. The design, they say, holds promise for the development of practical quantum computers. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29134] viXra:1905.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-14 09:13:05

ATLAS Constraints Supersymmetric Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Both results place strong constraints on important supersymmetric scenarios, which will guide future ATLAS searches. Further, they provide an example how novel reconstruction techniques can help improve the sensitivity of new physics searches at the LHC. [29] The ATLAS collaboration has released its very first result utilising its entire Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Run 2 dataset, collected between 2015 and 2018. [28]
Category: Astrophysics

[29133] viXra:1905.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-14 10:04:53

Accelerating Quantum Technologies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

'Quantum technologies' utilise the unique phenomena of quantum superposition and entanglement to encode and process information, with potentially profound benefits to a wide range of information technologies from communications to sensing and computing. [31] For the first time, physicists at the University of Basel have succeeded in measuring the magnetic properties of atomically thin van der Waals materials on the nanoscale. [30] Diamonds are prized for their purity, but their flaws might hold the key to a new type of highly secure communications. [29] Researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, and Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia, have demonstrated a 4000 kilometre fibre-optical transmission link using ultra low-noise, phase-sensitive optical amplifiers. [28] Researchers at the University of York have shown that a new quantum-based procedure for distributing secure information along communication lines could be successful in preventing serious security breaches. [27] In the new study, Bomantara and Gong have developed a method for harnessing the unique properties of time crystals for quantum computing that is based on braiding. [26] An Aalto University study has provided new evidence that time crystals can physically exist-a claim currently under hot debate. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal-a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse-in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29132] viXra:1905.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-14 14:10:00

Modelling Passive Forever Churn via Bayesian Survival Analysis

Authors: Gavin Steininger
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper presents an approach to modelling passive forever churn (i.e., the probability that a user never returns to a game that does not require them to cancel it). The approach is based on parametric mixture models (Weibull, Gamma, and Log-normal) for return times. The model and data are inverted using Bayesian methods (MCMC and DIC) to get parameter estimates, uncertainties, as well as determine the return time distribution for retained users. The inversion scheme is tested on three groups of simulated data sets and one observed data set. The simulated data are generated with each of the parametric models. Each data set is censored to six time horizons, creating 18 data sets. All data sets are inverted with all three parametric models and the DIC is used to select the return time distribution. For all data sets the true return time distribution (i.e., the one that is used to simulate the data) has the best DIC value; for 16 inversions the true return time distribution is found to be significantly better than the other options. For the observed data set inversion, the scheme is able to accurately estimate the \% of users that did return (before the game transitioned into open beta) to given 14 days of observations.
Category: Statistics

[29131] viXra:1905.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-14 15:29:38

Riemann Hypothesis Yielding to Minor Effort--Part II: A [Generalizing] One-Line Demonstration

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 6 Pages. trilinear

A set of minimalist demonstrations suggest how the key premises of RH may have been inspired and could be qualified, by proposing a linkage between the critical strip (0..n) and Re(s)=x-1/2 interior of candidate solutions. The solution density may be concentrated around the focal areas amid the lower and upper bound revealing rarefied or latent representations. The RH might overlook some of the ontological structure while confining search to phenomena while failing to distinguish between apparently concentrated versus seemingly non-distinct candidates.
Category: Number Theory

[29130] viXra:1905.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-14 15:26:39

Athanasius Kirchner's "Harp" Like Atlantis Map

Authors: Leon Elshout
Comments: 1 Page.

Athanasias Kirchner's famous Atlantis map looks like David's harp. And it is an inversion of the Sea of Galilee. - by leon elshout, 14 may 2019, (roodgoudvanparvaim.nl) (aurichalcum2018 (at) protonmail.com
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[29129] viXra:1905.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-14 16:18:25

Do We Really Need de Broglie’s Waves?

Authors: Raffaele santoro
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this article we refer to what was already stated in [1, pp. 153-156] and, moreover, we propose a particle model that excludes the de Broglie model that associates a wave with each particle. Instead, it we claim that each particle, and in particular the electron, is a corpuscle not perfectly spherical (but which could potentially have a wavy surface), to justify the same results obtained with the classic experiments that are brought to confirm the model of de Broglie. No need, therefore, to refer to the indeterminacy principle and to that of complementarity. What would now be required is the translation this proposal into a solid mathematical model that can make quantitative predictions according to the experimental data, provided that young physicists capable of doing it do not encounter the same ostracism encountered by others for 90 years. Finally, we propose to repeat the experiment of Merli, Missiroli and Pozzi [3] in a fog chamber or similar, to confirm the hypothesis that the single electron follows a very precise trajectory, against the widespread interpretation of Copenhagen.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[29128] viXra:1905.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-14 19:40:27

Machine Systematics in Dayton Miller’s “Ether Drift” Interferometer Revealed by Analysis of Variance

Authors: Simon WW Manley
Comments: 16 Pages.

The copious data records from Dayton Miller’s heroic experiments have been analyzed and re-analyzed for nearly a century by authors wishing to reinstate some version of an ether theory with a preferred frame of reference. These authors claim that a small but significant signal at the period of half a rotation in the Miller data represents anisotropy in the propagation of light, the “ether drift” effect sought in Michelson and Morley’s 19th century experiment. The analysis of variance presented in this paper, however, shows a component at the period of a full rotation, which can only be a systematic in the machine or the observer. The magnitude of the systematic matches that of the component at the half-rotation period. The remarkable aspect of the story is that the implications of the full rotation systematic, which comprehensively invalidates the claim that the data reveals an “ether drift,” or any other meaningful physics, has gone virtually unnoticed for nearly 100 years.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29127] viXra:1905.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 01:03:03

New Type of Spin Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

In this latest study, the German-Chinese research team describes a type of twisted magnon for which the twist or the winding number is protected against damping. [35] In a recently published paper in Science, researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS), were able to both excite and detect spin waves in a quantum Hall ferromagnet, demonstrating a new platform to investigate some of the possibilities of this promising material. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29126] viXra:1905.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 01:22:52

Laser-Based Image Full Eye in 3-D

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Researchers supported by the EU-funded photonics innovation incubator ACTPHAST 4.0 have introduced "a swept light source technology that makes it possible to take full 3-D OCT [optical coherence tomography] images of the eye," says a news release posted on the project website. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29125] viXra:1905.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 06:03:25

The Monopolar Quantum Relativistic Electron an Extension of the Standard Model and Quantum Field Theory

Authors: A Bermanseder
Comments: 121 Pages. ISSN: 2153-8301

Abstract: Despite the experimental success of the quantum theory and the extension of classical physics in quantum field theory and relativity in special and general application; a synthesis between the classical approach based on Euclidean and Riemann geometries with that of 'modern' theoretical physics based on statistical energy and frequency distributions remains to be a field of active research for the global theoretical and experimental physics community. In this paper a particular attempt for unification shall be indicated in the proposal of a third kind of relativity in a geometric form of quantum relativity, which utilizes the string modular duality of a higher dimensional energy spectrum based on a physics of wormholes directly related to a cosmogony preceding the cosmologies of the thermodynamic universe from inflaton to instanton. In this way, the quantum theory of the microcosm of the outer and inner atom becomes subject to conformal transformations to and from the instanton of a quantum big bang or qbb and therefore enabling a description of the macrocosm of general relativity in terms of the modular T-duality of 11-dimensional supermembrane theory and so incorporating quantum gravity as a geometrical effect of energy transformations at the wormhole scale. Using the linked Feynman lecture at Caltech as a background for the quantum relative approach; this paper shall focus on the way the classical electron with a stipulated electromagnetic mass as a function of its spacial extent exposes the difficulty encountered by quantum field theories to model nature as mathematical point-particles without spacial extent. In particular, a classical size for the proton can be found in an approximation ½Re.X = Rp for a classical electron radius Re and where the factor X represents the symmetry equilibrium for a ß = (v/c} = f(A) velocity ratio distribution for the effective electron rest mass me proportional to the spacial extent of the electron and evolving real solutions for the electron parameters from a quasi-complex space solution for its rest mass meo. Using the ß2 distribution in a unitary interval, then bounded in a function of the electromagnetic fine structure constant alpha; the SI-CODATA value for the rest mass of the electron is derived from first inflaton-based principles in the minimum energy Planck-Oscillator Eo=½hfo in a conformal mapping of the M-Sigma relation applied to the Black Hole Mass to Galactic Bulge ratio for the alpha bound. The M-Sigma ratio so can be considered as a scaling proportion between the interior of a Black Hole mapped holographically and radius-conformally as the internal monopolar volume of the electron as a basic premise of the quantum gravitational approach in quantum relativity and in scaling the Schwarzschild solution onto the electron. A unification condition in a conformal mapping of the alpha fine-structure α onto X described by X ⇔ α in ℵ(Transformation) = {ℵ}3 : X → α{#}3 → # → #3 → (#2)3 → {(#2)3}3 is applied in this context to indicate the relative interaction strengths of the elementary gauge interactions in proportionality: SNI:EMI:WNI:GI = SEWG = #:#3:#18:#54. For the symmetry equilibrium, the electric potential energy and the magnetic action energy are related for an electron velocity of veX = 0.78615138.c and an effective mass energy of mef = γme = mecf = 1.503238892x10-30 kg*. This mass-velocity relationship is supplemented by the Compton constant as: meRe = Compton constant = αh/2πc = lplanck.α.mplanck = mecrec , which proportionalises the quantum relativistic size of the electron with its mass. The Compton constant ensures Lorentz invariance across all reference frames in cancelling the length contraction with the relativistic mass increase in the product of the proper length lo and the proper rest mass mo as lo.mo=loγ.mo/γ in special relativity (SR) in the self-relative reference frame of the monopolar electron. Subsequently then for an electron speed veX and for rec = αh/2πcmecf = 1.71676104x10-15 m* as a decreased self-relative classical electron radius given by the Compton constant, we calculate a relatively negligible monopolar velocity component in (vps/c)2 = 1/{1+rec4/([2πα]2rps4)} = 1.55261006x10-35 and characteristic for any substantial velocity for the electron. The analysis then defines a maximum velocity for the electron with a corresponding quantum relative minimum mass in the form of the electron (anti)neutrino in ve|max = (1 - 3.282806345x10-17) c and m(νe)=m(ντ)2 = 0.00297104794 eV* (0.002963740541 eV) respectively. At this energy then, no coupling between the electron and its anti-neutrino would be possible and the W- weakon could not exist. Subsequently, we shall indicate the effect of the Compton constant and of the quantum relativistic monopolar electron to calculate all of the neutrino masses from first principles in setting mν = mneutrino = me.(rneutrino)/Re and where rv naturally applies at the limit of the electron's dynamical self-interaction as indicated, that is the electron's quantum relativistic mass approaches that of the instanton of the qbb. This leads to: mνElectronc2 = mv(νTauon2)c2 = mν(νMuon2+νHiggs2)c2 = μo{Monopole GUT masses ec}2rps/4πRe2 and where vHiggs is a scalar (anti)neutrino for the mass induction of the (anti)neutrinos in tandem with the mass induction of the scalar Higgs boson in the weak Goldstone interaction. For the electrostatic electron the ß distribution at A=½, the Compton constant gives mecrec = meRe for ß2 = 0 and at A=1, the Compton constant gives mecrec = ½me.2Re for ß2 = X and as the mean for a unitary interval is ½, the electron radius transforms into the protonic radius containing monopolar charge as internal charge distribution in Rp = ½XRe and proportional to the effective electron rest mass me proportional to the spacial extent of the electron. For the proton then, its 'charge distribution' radius becomes averaged as Rproton = 0.85838052x10-15 m* as a reduced classical electron radius and for a speed of the self-interactive or quantum relativistic electron of vps = 1.576125021x10-17 c. This monopolar quantum relativistic speed reaches its quantum relativistic {v/c = 1-} limit and its maximum QR monopolar speed of 0.0458 c at the instanton boundary and defines a minimum quantum monopolar relativistic speed for the electron at vpse = 1.50506548x10-18 c for its electrostatic potential, where Ue=∫{q²/8πεor²}dr = q²/8πεoRe = ½mec2 for a classical velocity of ve=0 in a non-interacting magnetic field B=0. 2Ue = mec2 so implies a halving of the classical electron radius to obtain the electron mass me = 2Ue/c2 and infers an oscillating nature for the electron size to allow a synergy between classical physics and that of quantum mechanics. A reduced classical electron size is equivalent to a decrease of the Compton wavelength of the electron, rendering the electron more ‘muon like’ and indicates the various discrepancies in the measurements of the proton’s charge radius using Rydberg quantum transitions using electron and muon energies. The calibration for the classical electron radius from the electron mass from SI units to star units is (2.81794032x10-15).[1.00167136 m*] = 2.82265011x10-15 m* and differing from Re = 2.777777778x10-15 m* in a factor of (2.82265011/2.777777…) = 1.01615404. A reduction of the classical electron radius from Re = 2.777777778x10-15 m* to (2.777777778x10-15).[0.998331431 m] = 2.77314286x10-15 m, then gives the same factor of (2.81794032/2.77314286) = 1.01615404, when calibrating from star units. The units for the Rydberg constant are 1/m for a Star Unit* – SI calibration [m*/m] = 0.998331431… for a ratio [Re/SI ]/[Re/*] = (2.77314286/2.777777) = (2.81794032/2.82265011) Reducing the classical electron radius Re from 2.81794032 fermi to 2.77314286 fermi in a factor of 1.01615404 then calibrates the effective electron mass me to Re in the Compton constant Re.me = ke2/c2 = (2.77777778x10-15).(9.29052716x10-31) = 2.58070198x10-45 [mkg]* with Re.me = ke2/c2 = (2.81794033x10-15).(9.1093826x10-31) = 2.56696966x10-45 [mkg] with [mkg]* = (1.00167136)(1.00375313)[mkg] = 1.00543076 [mkg]. Using this reduced size of the electron then increases the Rydberg constant by a factor of 1.01615404 Using the Rydberg Constant as a function of Alpha {and including the Alpha variation Alpha|mod = 60πe2/h = 60π(1.6021119x10-19)2/(6.62607004x10-34) = 1/137.047072} as Ry∞ = Alpha3/4πRe = Alpha2.mec/2h = mee4/8εo2h3c = 11.1296973x106 [1/m]* or 11.14829901x106 [1/m] defines variation in the measured CODATA Rydberg constant in a factor 10,973,731.6x(1.01615404).(137.036/137.047072)3 = 11,148,299.0 Subsequently, using the Rydberg energy levels for the electron-muon quantum energy transitions, will result in a discrepancy for the proton's charge radius in a factor of 10,973,731.6/11,148,299.0 = 0.98434134… and reducing a protonic charge radius from 0.8768 fermi to 0.8631 fermi as a mean value between 0.8768 fermi and 0.8494 fermi to mirror the unitary interval from A=½ to A=1 for the electron’s relativistic ß distribution. The local geometry related to the Compton radius h/2πm is shown to manifest in a linearization of the Weyl wormhole wavelength λps = λweyl of the qbb in the photon-mass interaction as a quantum gravitational limit proportional to the mass of the electron in rweyl = λweyl/2π = 2GoMc/c2 = h/2πcmps for a curvature mass Mc = hc/4πGomps conformally transforming Mc = 6445.79 kg* into 2.22..x10-20 kg* quantum gravitationally and in a corresponding increase of a sub Planck length linearization of rcplanck = 2Gomps/c2 = 5.4860785x10-47 m* (star units calibrated to the SI mensuration system) to the wormhole scale of the quantum big bang as a quantum geometric curvature effect. The qbb results from a Planck scale conformal transformation of fundamental parameters in the inflaton, descriptive of energy transformations between five classes of superstrings culminating in the Weyl-Eps wormhole as the final superstring class of heterotic symmetry 8x8 to manifest the supermembrane EpsEss as the wormhole of the 'singularity creation', which is a derivative from a monopolar Planck-Stoney cosmogenesis. Recircularizing the Compton radius into a Compton wavelength in a {photon - gauge photon} interaction labeled as electromagnetic monopolar radiation or {emr - emmr}, then is shown to define the quantum energy of the vacuum per unit volume as a horn toroidal space-time volumar in Vortex-PE = VPEps = ZPEweyl = 4πEps/λps3 and completing the encompassing energy spectrum in integrating the electric-, magnetic- and monopolar field properties in {½melectric + ½mmagnetic(v/c)2 + δmmonopolic}c2 = mc2. The self-interaction of the electron in energy, so crystallizes its monopolar super brane origin in the addition of a quantum self-relative magnetic energy acting as a 'hidden' electromagnetic monopolar field in the volume of spacetime occupied by the electron as a conformal transformation from the inflaton epoch. A Planck-Stoney 'bounce' of the electronic charge quantum established the interaction potential between charge and mass energy to break an inherent supersymmetry to transform string class I into string class IIB in modular conformal self-duality of the monopole supermembrane. Following this initial transformation relating displacement to electric charge in the magneto charge of the monopole; a heterosis between string classes HO(32) and HE(64) enabled the bosonic superstring to bifurcate into fermionic parts in a quark-lepton hierarchy from the HO(32) superstring to the HE(64) superstring of the instanton of the qbb and who is called the Weyl or wormhole boson Eps in this paper. We shall also indicate the reason for the measured variation of the fine structure constant by Webb, Carswell and associates; who have measured a variation in alpha dependent on direction. This variation in alpha is found in the birth of the universe as a 'bounce' or oscillation of the Planck length as a minimum physical displacement and becomes related to the presence of the factor γ3 in the manifestation of relativistic force as the time rate of change of relativistic momentum prel. Furthermore, the mass-charge ratio {e/meo} relation of the electron implies that a precision measurement in either the rest mass moe or the charge quantum e, would affect this ratio and this paper shall show how the electromagnetic mass distribution of the electron crystallizes an effective mass me from its rest mass resulting in meoγ = me'γ2 related to the coupling ratio between the electromagnetic (EMI) and the strong nuclear interaction (SNI), both as a function of alpha and for an asymptotic (not running) SNI constant defined from first principles in an interaction transformation between all of the four fundamental interactions. Since {1-ß2} describes the ß2 distribution of relativistic velocity in the unitary interval from A=0 to A=1, setting the quantum relativistic mass ratio [moe/me]2 = {1-ß2} equal to a cosmological MSigma ratio conformally transformed from the Planck scale, naturally defines a potential oscillatory upper boundary for any displacement in the unit interval of A. An increase or decrease in the 'bare' electron mass, here denoted as moe can then result in a directional measurement variation due to the fluctuating uncertainty in the position of the electron in the unitary interval mirroring the natural absence or presence of an external magnetic field to either decrease or increase the monopolar part of the electron mass in its partitioning: melectric + mmagnetic + δmmonopolar = mec{½+½[v/c]²} + δpsmec = mec with mec2√{1 + v2γ2/c2} = mec2γ = mecc2 for m = mec from the energy-momentum relation E2 = Eo2 + p2c2 of classical and quantum theory. The cosmic or universal value of alpha so remains constant in all cosmological time frames; with the fluctuation found to depend on a constant #= α in a strong interaction constant as a function of alpha. At the core of physical consciousness lies quantum consciousness; but there it is called selfinteraction of a particle or dynamical system in motion relative to its charge distribution. We shall indicate, that it is indeed the charge distribution within such a system and quantized in the fundamental nature of the electron and the proton as the base constituent of atomic hydrogen and so matter; that defines an internal monopolar charge distribution as a quantum geometric formation minimized in the classical size of the electron and the energy scale explored at that displacement scale. Finally we describe the particles of the Standard Model and including a quantum geometric explanation for the CP violation of the weak interaction, from their genesis in the inflaton and a grand unification symmetry in a transformation of supermembranes and cosmic strings appearing today in a spectrum of cosmic rays: SEWG------------------------SEWg--------SEW.G---------SeW.G--------S.EW.G------------S.E.W.G Planck Unification I----------IIB----------HO32------------IIA-----------HE64---------Bosonic Unification
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[29124] viXra:1905.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 06:51:24

Supermassive Black Holes Hunt

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

It is believed that the formation and growth of most galaxies across the history of the universe has been fueled by supermassive black holes growing together with their host galaxy as they collect matter to attain millions of solar masses. [27] Astronomers at Radboud University in the Netherlands have recently shared their plans to work with the European Space Agency (ESA) and others to get a better look at black holes by placing two to three satellites in a circular orbit around Earth. [26] Astronomers on Wednesday unveiled the first photo of a black hole, one of the star-devouring monsters scattered throughout the Universe and obscured by impenetrable shields of gravity. [25] Paul McNamara, an astrophysicist at the European Space Agency and project scientist for the LISA mission that will track massive black hole mergers from space, helped AFP put what he called an "outstanding technical achievement" into context. [24] We're about to see the first close-up of a black hole. [23] In short, the concept of a black hole gravity machine presents humanity with a plausible path to becoming an interstellar species. In the meantime, the study of the concept will provide SETI researchers with another possible technosignature to look for. [22] Physicists have used a seven-qubit quantum computer to simulate the scrambling of information inside a black hole, heralding a future in which entangled quantum bits might be used to probe the mysterious interiors of these bizarre objects. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters-it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18]
Category: Astrophysics

[29123] viXra:1905.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 07:18:48

Blockchain for Science: Bloxberg

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Securing scientific information online and worldwide with no risk of manipulation is now possible, thanks to the decentralized blockchain infrastructure Bloxberg. [26] A new type of money that allows users to make decisions based on information arriving at different locations and times, and that could also protect against attacks from quantum computers, has been proposed by a researcher at the University of Cambridge. [25] Shortcomings of security breach notifications, best practices for phishing warnings and lessons learned from the use of analytics to improve student performance are among several studies University of Michigan researchers will present beginning this weekend in the United Kingdom. [24] But moral questions about what data should be collected and how it should be used are only the beginning. [23] A self-driving vehicle has to detect objects, track them over time, and predict where they will be in the future in order to plan a safe manoeuvre. [22] In order to improve world food conditions, a team around computer science professor Kristian Kersting was inspired by the technology behind Google News. [21] Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is one of a number of biophysical techniques used for determining the structural characteristics of biomolecules. [20] A deep neural network running on an ordinary desktop computer is interpreting highly technical data related to national security as well as-and sometimes better than-today's best automated methods or even human experts. [19] Scientists at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), located at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, have pioneered the use of GPU-accelerated deep learning for rapid detection and characterization of gravitational waves. [18] Researchers from Queen Mary University of London have developed a mathematical model for the emergence of innovations. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[29122] viXra:1905.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 09:06:47

Dark Matter Direct Detection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

In a recent study, a team of researchers has presented new direct-detection constraints on eV-to-GeV dark matter interacting with electrons, using a new prototype detector developed as part of the Sub-Electron-Noise Skipper-CCD Experimental Instrument (SENSEI) project. [29] As fascinating as it is mysterious, dark matter is one of the greatest enigmas of astrophysics and cosmology. [28] An exotic and extremely rare nuclear decay that involves the simultaneous capture of two atomic electrons by a xenon-124 nucleus has been observed in a dark-matter detector. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22]
Category: Astrophysics

[29121] viXra:1905.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 11:00:44

Systèmes de Référence Systèmes Projectifs

Authors: Henri Marcel Dufour, Abdemajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 27 Pages. In French. It is an-update version of a paper dated 1979 with comments of the second author.

Many geodetic works currently exist on the surface of the globe, which have developed through regional networks, usually each having a fundamental point, where the astronomical data (\phi= latitude,\lambda= longitude,Az= azimuth) of a reference are confused with the counterparts geodetic data. The comparison of 2 networks, and, step by step, of all the connectable networks, can be done by the analysis of the coordinates of their common points. To this end, we can use 3 types of coordinates: - Geographical coordinates = simple method, but not very convenient for different ellipsoids. - Three-dimensional cartesian coordinates, the most rigorous method in the case where the so-called geoid correction has been made. - Coordinates in conformal projection. An analysis of the main formulas that can be used is studied by the author in this article.
Category: Geophysics

[29120] viXra:1905.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 10:56:14

Two-Qubit Calculation in Silicon

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

For the first time ever, researchers have measured the fidelity-that is, the accuracy-of two-qubit logic operations in silicon, with highly promising results that will enable scaling up to a full-scale quantum processor. [36] These exotic particles can, for example, emerge as quasi-particles in topological superconductors and represent ideal building blocks for topological quantum computers. [35] This event is considered as a striking proof of the existence of Majorana particles, and it represents a crucial step towards their use as building blocks for the development of quantum computers. [34] In the latest experiment of its kind, researchers have captured the most compelling evidence to date that unusual particles lurk inside a special kind of superconductor. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29119] viXra:1905.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 11:20:48

AI in the next Election Decide

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

If trust in our politicians is at an all time low, maybe it's time to reconsider how we elect them in the first place. Can artificial intelligence (AI) help with our voting decisions? [27] In January 2017, IBM made the bold statement that within five years, HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/health/" health professionals could apply AI to better understand how words and speech paint a clear window into our mental health. [26]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[29118] viXra:1905.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 11:31:13

Relationship Between Napier Number e and pi Without I

Authors: Yuji Masuda
Comments: 1 Page.

The length √x, that x is a prime number, can be set in a geometric pattern composed of circles with a diameter 1. And in many lines or curves through the center of circles of prime, some limited conditions, which is on the center of the circles of x=3 and 7(Fig.1), shows some graphs. Especially, graph of Gauss’ prime number theorem. which meets the limited condition, shows relationship between Napier number e and π without imaginary number i.
Category: General Mathematics

[29117] viXra:1905.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 12:04:56

Solution to the Poisson Boltzmann Equation Involving Various Spherical Geometries

Authors: Rajib Chakraborty
Comments: 6 Pages.

The distribution of free charges within fluids or plasma is often modeled using linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE). However, this author has recently shown that the usual boundary conditions (BC), namely the Dirichlet condition and the Neumann condition cannot be used to solve the PBE due to some physical reasons. This author has used the BC of `mixed' type to obtain the physical solution to the 1-D PBE and derived the charged density distribution $\rho_e$ within {\it rectangular} and {\it cylindrical} geometries before. Here the 1-D formulae of $\rho_e$ (i) within, (ii) between and (iii) outside {\it spherical} geometries has been derived. The result shows that the electric field is high at the surface of small objects, immersed in electrolyte solution. These formulae could be very useful in explaining similar physical situations that are found in nature or made in the laboratories.
Category: Condensed Matter

[29116] viXra:1905.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 12:10:48

Refutation of Reverse Mathematics and Nets

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate four definitions for reverse mathematics (3) and nets (1). None is tautologous. This refutes reverse mathematics and nets. Therefore these definitions form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29115] viXra:1905.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 12:12:22

Whitepaper V.1.2

Authors: Lucidity
Comments: 17 Pages.

The digital advertising ecosystem isn’t in a great place. While growth in digital is booming, the most essential members of the ecosystem (namely advertisers and publishers) are frustrated and powerless in the face of an increasingly apparent reality: digital advertising has a transparency problem. In an age where measuring the performance of ad campaigns is paramount, marketers are unable to fully understand the value they deliver. As has become true for most industries, data is the key to measuring performance. But in advertising, data is trapped and siloed in black box technologies, causing data disagreements and opening the door for fraudulent activities. The end result? Waste. Wasted money. Wasted time. Lucidity has built a blockchain-based solution (with five patents filed) that solves these issues. We provide advertisers with a unified set of data, free of discrepancies and fraud, that they can use to gauge their effectiveness. We provide publishers with a way to prove the value of their inventory and avoid identity theft. And we’ve built the only advertising focused blockchain technology to-date that doesn’t require advertisers and agencies to change their work flow or set up integrations. In the following whitepaper, we will outline in detail the problems we’re solving, how we solve it, and the team that’s bringing it all together.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[29114] viXra:1905.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 16:03:16

A New Proposal that Completes and Verifies, Newton’s Gravity and the Law of the Universal Attraction

Authors: Vaggelis Talios
Comments: 7 Pages.

Abstract Gravity: Could there ever be, a physical phenomenon simpler that of watching an apple falling downwards? However, the initial explanation given for this phenomenon, i.e., that the Earth is the center of the Universe and as all bodies are attracted towards this center, they will be attracted towards the Earth, was erroneous. The correct explanation that: all material bodies are attracted to one another, as well as towards the Earth, which is a material body too, has been formulated by Newton and it was a very simple, correct and successful explanation. Since then, many changes have been made in physics disputing some of Newton’s beliefs about gravity and the Law of the Universal Attraction, as defined by Newton. These changes, I describe in the present paper, adding a new proposal, as well, which completes, verifies and confirms, Newton.
Category: Classical Physics

[29113] viXra:1905.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 17:12:38

Stochastic, Granular, Five-Dimensional Space-Time:a Root Model for Both Relativity and Quantum Mechanics,and a New Interpretation of Time

Authors: Carlton Frederick
Comments: 27 Pages.

A stochastic model is presented for the Planck-scale nature of space-time. From it, many features of quantum mechanics and relativity are derived. As mathematical points have no extent, the stochastic manifold cannot be tessellated with points and so a granular model is required. For Lorentz invariance, the grains cannot have constant dimensions but instead, constant volumes. We treat both space and time stochastically and thus require a new interpretation of time to prevent an object being in multiple places at the same time. As the grains do have a definite volume, a mechanism is required to create and annihilate grains (without leaving gaps in space-time) as the universe, or parts thereof, expands or contracts. A 'rolled-up' fifth dimension provides the mechanism. As this is a 'root' model, it attempts to explicate phenomena usually taken for granted, such as gravity and the nature of time.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29112] viXra:1905.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 21:33:19

Temporal Curvature, Murphy’s Law, etc

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 3 Pages.

a brief discussion why temporal curvature is not accepted by convention as an explanation for gravitation
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29111] viXra:1905.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 22:57:18

The New Perspective For The Superconductor

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 28 Pages.

The superconductor theory based on the electron pair is reviewed and several viewpoints are proposed. A demonstrated case reveals the speed of each electron in the electron pair at Fermi level about 1.82x10^6 m/s in Pb. However, the fastest longitudinal and transverse speeds of crystal waves in Pb at 0 K are 2.18x10^3 m/s and 1.29x10^3 m/s in [100] direction, respectively. It seems to be very hard even impossible that the mediated phonon can real-time transfer momentum and energy between two so high-speed and antiparallel-momentum electrons in the superconducting state. In this research, we focus on single electron based on the experiments of Transmission Electron Microscopy. The new fitting temperature-dependent model for the London penetration depth is proposed. This model is much better than the one- and two-gap models and matches three experimental data much well. Then it further gives the temperature-dependent effective electron mass for the Nb superconductor film. Finally, the expression for the resistivity is deduced which can explain why the resistance is almost zero in the superconductor. All these new results are obtained by using the concept of single electron.
Category: Condensed Matter

[29110] viXra:1905.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-14 00:16:05

Collapse of the Riemann empire

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 4 Pages.

As the number grows close to the limit, 0.5 becomes equal to zero. This is why Riemann hypothesis can not be proved. That is Riemann hypothesis is a mistake.
Category: General Mathematics

[29109] viXra:1905.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-14 01:50:58

DNA Sequencing Informatics Framework Using [CoqTP/q*cert/CRSX-HACS/Java/Ocaml/JikesRVM/(RVM-Research Virtual Machine)] in the Context of [IoT/HPC/Cloud Computing/JIProlog/Owl] Hi-End Complex Environments

Authors: Nirmal Tej Kumar
Comments: 6 Pages. Short Communication

DNA Sequencing Informatics Framework Using [CoqTP/q*cert/CRSX-HACS/Java/Ocaml/JikesRVM/(RVM-Research Virtual Machine)] in the Context of [IoT/HPC/Cloud Computing/JIProlog/Owl] Hi-End Complex Environments – An Interesting insight into the Technically Challenging R&D domains involving Nano-Bio Systems. [ Towards AI/ML/DL based Interfacing of Engineering/Physics/Biology/Medicine Domain Platforms ]
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[29108] viXra:1905.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 05:25:31

Optical Microring Sensors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Tweaking the design of microring sensors enhances their sensitivity without adding more implementation complexity. [31] Large-scale plasmonic metasurfaces could find use in flat panel displays and other devices that can change colour thanks to recent work by researchers at the University of Cambridge in the UK. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29107] viXra:1905.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 07:09:28

2-D Ferromagnetic Insulator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Collaborating scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Princeton University have discovered a new layered ferromagnetic semiconductor, a rare type of material that holds great promise for next-generation electronic technologies. [32] Tweaking the design of microring sensors enhances their sensitivity without adding more implementation complexity. [31] Large-scale plasmonic metasurfaces could find use in flat panel displays and other devices that can change colour thanks to recent work by researchers at the University of Cambridge in the UK. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22]
Category: Condensed Matter

[29106] viXra:1905.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 08:24:28

Laser Copper Oxide Photocathodes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Copper oxide has a band gap of two electron volts, which matches up very well with the energy spectrum of sunlight. [33] Collaborating scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Princeton University have discovered a new layered ferromagnetic semiconductor, a rare type of material that holds great promise for next-generation electronic technologies. [32] Tweaking the design of microring sensors enhances their sensitivity without adding more implementation complexity. [31] Large-scale plasmonic metasurfaces could find use in flat panel displays and other devices that can change colour thanks to recent work by researchers at the University of Cambridge in the UK. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Condensed Matter

[29105] viXra:1905.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 08:58:16

On Evaluation of Certain Gaussian-type Integrals

Authors: Henry Wong
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we evaluate certain Gaussian-type integrals via contour integration in the complex plane along with the application of Cauchy-Goursat theorem.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[29104] viXra:1905.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 09:36:43

Single Atom Nanozymes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Nanozymes-catalytic nanomaterials with enzyme-like characteristics-offer the advantage of low cost, high stability, tunable catalytic activity and ease of mass production. [34] Copper oxide has a band gap of two electron volts, which matches up very well with the energy spectrum of sunlight. [33] Collaborating scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Princeton University have discovered a new layered ferromagnetic semiconductor, a rare type of material that holds great promise for next-generation electronic technologies. [32] Tweaking the design of microring sensors enhances their sensitivity without adding more implementation complexity. [31] Large-scale plasmonic metasurfaces could find use in flat panel displays and other devices that can change colour thanks to recent work by researchers at the University of Cambridge in the UK. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24]
Category: Condensed Matter

[29103] viXra:1905.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 10:20:09

Space Telescope Photo of a Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Astronomers at Radboud University in the Netherlands have recently shared their plans to work with the European Space Agency (ESA) and others to get a better look at black holes by placing two to three satellites in a circular orbit around Earth. [26] Astronomers on Wednesday unveiled the first photo of a black hole, one of the star-devouring monsters scattered throughout the Universe and obscured by impenetrable shields of gravity. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[29102] viXra:1905.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 11:34:21

On Einsteins Equivalence Princple

Authors: Nikhil Karth, Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

this paper talks about the mass energy equivalence theorythis is how we derived some aspects of the equivalence its known that work is the force*distance or w=fd and that energy is work multiplied by time or E=wt now E=fdt which is equal to E=madt which is equal to E=m(d^2)/t which looks like E=m (x^2)/t which is equal to the equivalence principle E=mc^2
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29101] viXra:1905.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 12:16:16

Wojciech H. Zurek . Decoherence and the Transition from Quantum to Classical - Revisited (in Russian)

Authors: V. Kasimov
Comments: 26 Pages. in Russian

If the Universe is considered to be a comprehensive and integral closed system (and otherwise it cannot be: for a complete system it is difficult to imagine the existence of any other entities that affect the integrity), then, according to the quantum paradigm, its evolution can be described by the vector of Hilbert space. The dimension of this space is not regulated by anything and it depends only on what fragment of integrity is described. Of course, the final form of this state vector will never be presented explicitly. However, the presented ideology makes it possible to state unambiguously that we live in the quantum world and according to quantum laws. Again revives insight Wheeler's: all from qubit quantum substrate! Article about it This article about that we live in a quantum world and how decoherence "glues" the visible world, and everything else is a facts from the qubits of pramatter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29100] viXra:1905.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 13:35:29

Stellar Metamorphosis: Aluminum

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

All stars contain aluminum and it is a main building block of the crusts of highly evolved stars like the Earth. A conceptual bridge is built using aluminum as an important element in the evolution of a star, into its life hosting stages and beyond. Water, hydroxides, iron, hydrogen are all included in this bridge paper.
Category: Astrophysics

[29099] viXra:1905.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 19:12:17

The Relativity of Lost Energies

Authors: Leonardo Rubino
Comments: 14 Pages.

When a physical system loses energy instead of gaining it, another kind of relativity holds, that of lost energies and, as we will see, the atom will give us a numerical proof of all that.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29098] viXra:1905.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 20:56:58

On the Origin of 1/f Noise due to Generated Entropy - Version 2

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 8 Pages.

Noise measurements analysis has been associated with degradation. In particular one such noise type called 1/f noise is likely the leading indicator. It is important to identify the noise frequency region of the spectrum associated with degradation occurring in materials to aid in noise type of reliability tests. The literature on 1/f noise appears to have a broad commonality in explanations and models related to degradation between materials and the measurement environment. It is reasonable in this regard to look at 1/f noise aspects in a broad sense in terms of disorder and the associated spectral content. This lends itself to a thermodynamic entropy framework for analysis. We review some of the key aspects of 1/f noise in the literature and discuss how observations relate to entropy. Once describe, we then suggest two thermodynamics models that one might use to model 1/f noise. Results help to provide a broader understanding of 1/f noise by using a different framework in terms of thermodynamic degradation processes. Such interpretation suggests that 1/f noise is a good tool for measuring certain aspects of disorder in materials and likely the associated spectral signatures. Experiments are suggested to demonstrate the importance of 1/f noise as a prognostic tool for 1/f noise reliability testing to identify and predict degradation in materials over time. We also suggest using standardized spectral identification methods.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[29097] viXra:1905.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 23:34:42

Refutation of the Barwise Compactness Theorem Via Sublanguage la

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

A definition with variant to establish a sublanguage in support of the Barwise compactness theorem is not tautologous. By extension the theorem is also refuted. These conjectures form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29096] viXra:1905.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 04:26:12

Quanton Based Model of Space Fabric Interactions

Authors: Ayman Kassem
Comments: 178 Pages.

The mechanism of the universe’s inflation is variation of energy in space and in time , the relationship between space and time varying energy fields is governed by energy constraining inside a Planck scale entity : the quanton as energy varies in space or in time, it creates associated fields and through their interactions, inflationary momentum and the fundamental forces are generated this model comes in three parts : energy constraining , the evolution of the quanton and its different transitions are discussed until the stable state is reached the second part , electromagnetic waves in terms of space and time varying energy fields and role of Maxwell equations in the evolution of the quanton the third part , energy fields and their interactions , while using basic physics concepts , it shows that the origin many of the physical phenomena can be traced back to the Planck scale world
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29095] viXra:1905.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 05:51:35

Millikan's Oil Drops, Electron Charge, and Cooked Data// Милликана капли масла, заряд электрона, и приготовление результатов

Authors: Неизвестный
Comments: 2 Pages.

The article tells about the fraud of Millikan.\\ В статье рассказывается о мошенничестве Милликана.
Category: Classical Physics

[29094] viXra:1905.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-11 06:49:56

AI Develops Human-Like Number Sense

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

All the successful computational approaches to detecting objects in images work by building up a kind of statistical picture of an object from many individual examples – a type of learning. [20] And as will be presented today at the 25th annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society (CNS), cognitive neuroscientists increasingly are using those emerging artificial networks to enhance their understanding of one of the most elusive intelligence systems, the human brain. [19]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[29093] viXra:1905.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-11 07:20:36

Mechanic and Electrician Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

In strongly correlated materials such as cuprate high-temperature superconductors, superconductivity can be controlled either by changing the number of electrons or by changing the kinetic energy, or transfer energy, of electrons in the system. [34] Researchers have seen intrinsic superconductivity up to a temperature of 0.72 K in the transition metal dichalcogenide niobium telluride (NbTe2). [33] Researchers in France and Japan have demonstrated a theoretical type of unconventional superconductivity in a uranium-based material, according to a study published in the journal Physical Review Letters. [32] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University have found that crystals of a recently discovered superconducting material, a layered bismuth chalcogenide with a four-fold symmetric structure, shows only twofold symmetry in its superconductivity. [31] Russian physicist Viktor Lakhno from Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, RAS considers symmetrical bipolarons as a basis of high-temperature superconductivity. [30] Scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University have shown that copper-based superconductors, or cuprates-the first class of materials found to carry electricity with no loss at relatively high temperatures-contain fluctuating stripes of electron charge and spin that meander like rivulets over rough ground. [29] Researchers from Google and the University of California Santa Barbara have taken an important step towards the goal of building a large-scale quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29092] viXra:1905.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-11 07:58:09

Optical Network Mimics Brain Neurons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

A prototype artificial neural network (ANN) that uses only light to function has been unveiled by researchers at the University of Münster in Germany and the University of Exeter and University of Oxford in the UK. [26] Researchers at the UPV/EHU-University of the Basque Country have developed a biomedical device for cell immune-isolation (microcapsules) with luminescence for in vivo tracking. [25]
Category: Mind Science

[29091] viXra:1905.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-11 08:37:38

Particle Manipulation Methods

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Researchers at Aalto University have discovered a surprising phenomenon that changes how we think about how sound can move particles. [31] Large-scale plasmonic metasurfaces could find use in flat panel displays and other devices that can change colour thanks to recent work by researchers at the University of Cambridge in the UK. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[29090] viXra:1905.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-11 11:07:00

The sixth Dimension

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid
Comments: 13 Pages.

Assume mass and electric current are Fifth and sixth dimensions in Special Relativity and Redefinition of the point as a circle. According to Einstein's first hypothesis only, it can be reached to transfer formats between reference frames in the special theory of relativity
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29089] viXra:1905.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-11 11:10:03

Stellar Metamorphosis: Carbon

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

All stars contain carbon and it is the main building block for all life in the universe. In the general theory, the carbon of a star combines with hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen (as well as many others) in various combinations during its evolution, forming all biological molecules. This of course takes billions of years (alongside the evolution of life itself, which happens later on) and the carbon molecules increase in complexity as the stars' interiors evolve. For this paper some new ideas that have never been considered before are presented using the general theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[29088] viXra:1905.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-11 13:46:12

Левитация во время катастрофы на Саяно-Шушенской ГЭС.(RU) ==== Levitation During the Disaster at the Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP.

Authors: A.V. Antipin
Comments: 23 Pages. Language: Ru

В статье обосновывается предположение, что происшедший во время катастрофы на Саяно-Шушенской ГЭС 17-08-2009, факт «полёта» гидроагрегата №2, начальным весом, порядка 2690т на высоту не менее 15 м, можно объяснить только в предположении о его спонтанной левитации. Предложены три обсуждаемых, но неподтверждённых эффекта, могущих вызывать левитационные эффекты для инженерных конструкций, типа гидротурбина с электрогенератором. Отдельно обращено внимание на возможность генерации ионизирующего излучения кавитационным жгутом, возникающим в отсасывающей трубе при работе гидроагрегатов. Рекомендовано безотлагательно провести замер гравитационного потенциала в районе подобных гидроагрегатов в рабочем режиме, т.к. подтверждение факта уменьшения их веса, помимо научного значения, имеет критически важное прикладное значение при проектировании и эксплуатации ГЭС. Также рекомендовано провести замеры радиационного фона на крышке турбины и в машинном зале ГЭС, т.к. подтверждения этого возможного явления потребует перевода ГЭС в специальный режим работы персонала. ==== During the disaster at the Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP, 17-08-2009, recorded the fact of "take-off" of the hydraulic unit №2, weighing 2690t, to a height of 15 m. The article substantiates the opinion that this FACT can be explained only by the assumption of spontaneous levitation. Three discussed but unconfirmed effects that can cause levitation effects for engineering structures, such as a hydro turbine with an electric generator, are proposed. Special attention is paid to the possibility of generating ionizing radiation by a cavitation harness that occurs in the suction pipe during the operation of hydraulic units. It is recommended to immediately measure the gravitational potential in the area of such hydraulic units in the operating mode, as confirmation of the fact of reducing their weight, in addition to scientific importance, is of critical importance in the design and operation of hydroelectric power plants. It is also recommended to measure the background radiation on the cover of the turbine and in the engine room of the HPP. Confirmation of this phenomenon will require the transfer of HPP in a special mode of staff.
Category: Classical Physics

[29087] viXra:1905.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-11 19:24:48

Why Charge is Lorentz Invariant But Relativistic Mass and a Charge-Current Density is Not?

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Conclusion of (1)Relativistic transformation of electrical current. (2) Charge is constant from frame to frame (3) Lorentz transformation of a charge-current density
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29086] viXra:1905.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-11 19:27:34

Confirmation of VŁ4 as Complete

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to author by email only: info@cec-services dot com. See updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

Logic VŁ4 is defined as a bivalent classical logic that maps quantifiers to modalities as a tautology making VŁ4 complete. Paraconsistent, non bivalent, vector logics are defined as non tautologous fragments of VŁ4 as a universal logic.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[29085] viXra:1905.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-10 07:49:34

Mistery of Majorana Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

This event is considered as a striking proof of the existence of Majorana particles, and it represents a crucial step towards their use as building blocks for the development of quantum computers. [34] In the latest experiment of its kind, researchers have captured the most compelling evidence to date that unusual particles lurk inside a special kind of superconductor. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29084] viXra:1905.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-10 08:20:10

Quasi-Particles Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

These exotic particles can, for example, emerge as quasi-particles in topological superconductors and represent ideal building blocks for topological quantum computers. [35] This event is considered as a striking proof of the existence of Majorana particles, and it represents a crucial step towards their use as building blocks for the development of quantum computers. [34] In the latest experiment of its kind, researchers have captured the most compelling evidence to date that unusual particles lurk inside a special kind of superconductor. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[29083] viXra:1905.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-10 08:38:27

Calculating Black Hole Properties

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Sean McWilliams, an assistant professor at West Virginia University, has developed a mathematical method for calculating black hole properties from gravitational wave data. [21] Answering the question "How did galaxies form and evolve during the 13.8-billion-year history of the universe?" has been one top issue in modern astronomy. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19]
Category: Astrophysics

[29082] viXra:1905.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-10 10:13:55

Atomic Nuclei and Proton Collisions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 82 Pages.

Collisions of lead nuclei take place under extreme physical conditions. Their course can be described using a model which assumes that the transforming, extremely hot matter—the quark-gluon plasma—flows in the form of hundreds of streaks. [44] Physicists recently investigated the behavior of particles in a dusty plasma at a temperature below 2 degrees K. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[11472] viXra:1905.0247 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-19 01:59:52

A Theory of Likelihood: Parsimony & Synchronicity in Natural Law

Authors: Paris Matthew Samuel Miles-Brenden
Comments: 10 Pages. To an iso-inclinic departure of yet what so 'is; the opening of a declarative and worded structural relation is a freely ordered contactless domain congruence of any two stated worlds.

When approaching the co-existence of a knowable and contrasted limitation; there are to be found only two known given's. One is that pre-determination of light like freedom to it's asymptotic return is predicated upon a past co-existence within a future yet of invisible qualifiable capacity of color to which is the non-deterministic limit of reality of non-motile indivisibility. For then in the given of inertially free departure; any ordered and freed relation of relative provision is an a-conditional certain determinant of motion upon gravitationally provided congruence of free fall and inertial freedom; to which is associablely free spatial union of connective or disconnective in one in two.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[11471] viXra:1905.0247 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-17 23:06:50

A Theory of Likelihood: Parsimony & Synchronicity in Natural Law

Authors: Paris Matthew Samuel Miles-Brenden
Comments: 10 Pages. To an iso-inclinic departure of yet what so 'is; the opening of a declarative and worded structural relation is a freely ordered contactless domain congruence of any two stated worlds.

When approaching the co-existence of a knowable and contrasted limitation; there are to be found only two known given's. One is that pre-determination of light like freedom to it's asymptotic return is predicated upon a past co-existence within a future yet of invisible qualifiable capacity of color to which is the non-deterministic limit of reality of non-motile indivisibility. For then in the given of inertially free departure; any ordered and freed relation of relative provision is an a-conditional certain determinant of motion upon gravitationally provided congruence of free fall and inertial freedom; to which is associablely free spatial union of connective or disconnective in one in two.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[11470] viXra:1905.0225 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-18 12:48:22

On the Origin of 1/f Noise due to Generated Entropy - Version 4

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 6 Pages.

Noise measurements analysis has been associated with degradation. In particular one such type is called 1/f noise and is the most likely measure of subtle degradation occurring in materials. This measurement is done using random vibration methods. It is important to determine if this is the likely region of the spectrum related to degradation occurring in materials to aid in noise type of reliability tests. The literature on 1/f noise appears to have a broad commonality in explanations that can be associated with entropy in materials. It is reasonable in this regard to look at 1/f noise aspects in terms of disorder and the associated spectral content. This lends itself to a thermodynamic entropy frame work for analysis. We review some of the key aspects of 1/f noise in the literature and discuss how observations relate to entropy. Once describe, we suggest two thermodynamics models that might be used to model 1/f noise. Results help to provide a broader understanding of 1/f noise, help to identify the region of the spectrum related to degradation, and use it to do prognostics. Such interpretation suggests that 1/f noise is a good tool for measuring certain aspects of disorder in materials. Experiments are suggested to demonstrate the importance of 1/f noise as a prognostic tool for reliability testing to identify and predict degradation in materials over time.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[11469] viXra:1905.0200 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-14 08:30:24

Systèmes de Référence, Systèmes Projectifs

Authors: Henri Marcel Dufour, Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 27 Pages. In French. It is an-update version of a paper dated 1979 with comments of the second author.

Many geodetic works currently exist on the surface of the globe, which have developed through regional networks, usually each having a fundamental point, where the astronomical data (\phi= latitude,\lambda=longitude,Az=azimuth) of a reference are confused with the counterparts geodetic data. The comparison of 2 networks, and, step by step, of all the connectable networks, can be done by the analysis of the coordinates of their common points. To this end, we can use 3 types of coordinates: - Geographical coordinates = simple method, but not very convenient for different ellipsoids. - Three-dimensional cartesian coordinates, the most rigorous method in the case where the so-called geoid correction has been made. - Coordinates in conformal projection. An analysis of the main formulas that can be used is studied by the first author in this article.
Category: Geophysics

[11468] viXra:1905.0191 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-16 02:00:50

Why Democratic Socialism Has Met Its Permanent Demise

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 8 Pages.

There's no going back for political economics.
Category: Economics and Finance