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1707 Submissions

[404] viXra:1707.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-31 14:29:32

"Quanta of the Universe" Are Closely Related to Universe Matter Density and the Cosmological Constant

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract: (H-Z) x mc^2 "quanta of the universe", universe matter density and the cosmological constant are all closely related to Planck's constant of quantum mechanics save for its time dependence.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[403] viXra:1707.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-31 16:13:46

Quantum Scaling, Neutrino and Life

Authors: Evgeny A. Novikov
Comments: 3 Pages.

From the quantum modification of general relativity (Qmoger), supported by cosmic data (without fitting), a new quantum scaling is derived. This scaling indicates a mechanism of formation new particles from the background matter. Based on this scaling, mass of neutrino is estimated in agreement with experimental bounds. The neutrino oscillations are explained in terms of interaction with the background quantum condensate of gravitons. Subjective experiences (qualia) and functioning of living cell are also connected with the background condensate.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[402] viXra:1707.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-31 13:02:33

Subatomic Particles in Computer Simulations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Predicting the properties of subatomic particles before their experimental discovery has been a big challenge for physicists. [14] There's a new particle in town, and it's a double-charmingly heavy beast. Researchers working on the LHCb experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider have announced the discovery of the esoterically named Xicc++ particle. [13] One of the fundamental challenges in nuclear physics is to predict the properties of subatomic matter from quantum chromodynamics (QCD)—the theory describing the strong force that confines quarks into protons and neutrons, and that binds protons and neutrons together. [12] At very high energies, the collision of massive atomic nuclei in an accelerator generates hundreds or even thousands of particles that undergo numerous interactions. [11] The first experimental result has been published from the newly upgraded Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The result demonstrates the feasibility of detecting a potential new form of matter to study why quarks are never found in isolation. [10] A team of scientists currently working at the Large Hadron Collider at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) announced that it has possibly discovered the existence of a particle integral to nature in a statement on Tuesday, Dec. 15, and again on Dec.16. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[401] viXra:1707.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-31 07:56:45

Novel Electron Microscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Accordingly, techniques such as the one developed in this study will be very valuable in research on new nano-thin films in which the qualitative consistency of the film across a large area needs to be ensured. [10] As our devices get ever smaller, so do the materials we use to make them. And that means you have to get really close to see them. Really close. A new electron microscope unveiled at the UK's national SuperSTEM facility images objects at an unprecedented resolution, right down to the individual atoms. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[400] viXra:1707.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-31 08:18:39

Alternative Method of Spectroscopy of Alkali Metal RGB

Authors: Ricardo Gobato, Manuel Simões Filho
Comments: American Journal of Quantum Chemistry and Molecular Spectroscopy Volume 2, Issue 2, May 2017, Pages: 28-32. doi: 10.11648/j.ajqcms.20170202.12

Spectroscopy is a technique for collecting physicochemical data through the transmission, absorption or reflection of incident radiant energy in a sample. In this work we used a didactic and alternative method for spectroscopy. Our work is used in common low cost and easy access devices that have a CCD reader. The idea is a set of devices, such as a cell phone, which contains an optical CCD reader, where these equipment materials, materials, compounds, simplifying the image obtained by these optical devices, analyzed and characterized. Our technique consists of decoding of the pixels of the .bmp images, decoding and quantifying their RGB color channels. These images were obtained from shooting flames produced by alkali metals, lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium. We conclude that it is possible to do a spectroscopic analysis using our technique.
Category: Condensed Matter

[399] viXra:1707.0412 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-31 22:49:19

The Milky Way Should Be Constantly Expanding

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: showinga viewpoint about the state of the Milky Way.
Category: Astrophysics

[398] viXra:1707.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-31 10:01:18

What is the Spin Proportional To?

Authors: Radi I. Khrapko
Comments: 15 Pages. The face of Journal of Modern Optics is presented

This is a discussion. The discussion involves an exchange of opinions and three papers: the new paper, the first paper and another paper.
Category: Classical Physics

[397] viXra:1707.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-31 10:45:34

The Proof of Fermat's Last Theorem for the Base Case

Authors: Victor Sorokine
Comments: 6 Pages. English version

The essence of the proof: From the known properties of the Fermat’s equality An+Bn=Cn follows: If the second digits of all the prime factors of the numbers A, B, and C are reduced to zero, then the new reduced numbers A°, B°, C° become /stay/ infinitely large.
Category: Number Theory

[396] viXra:1707.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-31 06:14:54

Broadband Light with Liquid Core

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Research scientists from Jena have produced broadband laser light in the mid-infrared range with the help of liquid-filled optical fibers. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]
Category: Condensed Matter

[395] viXra:1707.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-31 06:51:38

Chemical Processes with Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Researchers at ETH Zurich have now come up with a concrete example that demonstrates what quantum computers will actually be able to achieve in the future. [17] While breakthroughs in quantum computing technology seem to be in tech news every day, very little is said about the actual applications of the super fast computers of the future. [16] Deep learning and machine learning both offer ways to train models and classify data. This article compares the two and it offers ways to help you decide which one to use. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10]
Category: Quantum Physics

[394] viXra:1707.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-30 17:46:31

Iron Core Deposition Rate

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 table

It is hypothesized in stellar metamorphosis that the iron/nickel core deposition rate is the same for all stars. An equation showing the variables is given to determine how long an iron core took to form.
Category: Astrophysics

[393] viXra:1707.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-30 22:28:42

An Addendum on Our Previous Demonstration of Wave Function Collapse in Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Elio Conte
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this brief note we introduce only some further technical detail on the demonstration that we have given in previous years on the algebraic and physical manner in which the wave function of quantum mechanics collapses.
Category: Quantum Physics

[392] viXra:1707.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-31 00:35:06

Valley Polaritons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

This is the "valley" property which has potential for realizing a new class of technology termed "valleytronics"-similar to electronics (charge) and spintronics (spin). This property arises from the fact that the electrons in the crystal occupy different positions that are quantum mechanically distinct. [30] That could lead to new devices such as polariton transistors, Fei said. And that could one day lead to breakthroughs in photonic and quantum technologies. [29] The future of nano-electronics is here. A team of researchers from the Air Force Research Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines, and the Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois have developed a novel method for the synthesis of a composite material that has the potential of vastly improving the electronics used by the Air Force. [28] Physicists have theoretically shown that a superconducting current of electrons can be induced to flow by a new kind of transport mechanism: the potential flow of information. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[391] viXra:1707.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-31 01:08:45

Interferometers Are not Able to Detect Differences in the Speed of Light in Different Directions.

Authors: Elkin Igor Vladimirovich
Comments: 3 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

On the example of the Michelson-Morley experiment. It is clear that there is no ether in nature. But if you imagine that there is. Then, for different radii, there will be a different speed of the light signal. This gives a different geometric configuration. This configuration completely compensates for the change in speed. Therefore, it is impossible to detect a change.
Category: Classical Physics

[390] viXra:1707.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-31 01:30:27

Stem Cell Therapy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

A stem cell-based method created by University of California, Irvine scientists can selectively target and kill cancerous tissue while preventing some of the toxic side effects of chemotherapy by treating the disease in a more localized way. [17] A diagnostic technique that can detect tiny molecules signalling the presence of cancer could be on the horizon. [16] For the past 15 years, the big data techniques pioneered by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, have been revolutionizing biomedical research. On Sept. 6, 2016, JPL and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, renewed a research partnership through 2021, extending the development of data science that originated in space exploration and is now supporting new cancer discoveries. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[389] viXra:1707.0402 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-08 05:00:54

A Classical Explanation for the Correlation of Entangled Quantum Particles Via the Detection Loophole

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 19 Pages.

Quantum Mechanics claim that particles can become entangled such that there is a correlation in the detected results from EPR type experiments that cannot be explained by Classical Physics. This paper shows one way, via the detection loophole, that the result can be fully explained by Classical Physics, and that the correlation curve for different angles between the two detectors can by reproduced when modelled this way.
Category: Quantum Physics

[388] viXra:1707.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-30 12:11:03

Applications for Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

While breakthroughs in quantum computing technology seem to be in tech news every day, very little is said about the actual applications of the super fast computers of the future. [16] Deep learning and machine learning both offer ways to train models and classify data. This article compares the two and it offers ways to help you decide which one to use. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[387] viXra:1707.0400 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-23 12:38:11

Gravity-Matter Duality

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 8 Pages. One typo corrected.

Gravity-matter duality is suggested as the first step toward quantum gravity, ensuing from the idea that the phenomenon dubbed 'gravitational field' is a new form of reality, known as Res potentia -- "just in the middle between possibility and reality" (Heisenberg, Slide 7). The essential similarities and differences between gravity-matter duality and wave-particle duality are briefly examined, with emphasis on the proposed joint solution to exact localization of gravity and "quantum waves" at spacetime points. The latter are endowed with brand new structure and topology due to the fundamental flow of events suggested by Heraclitus -- Panta rei conditio sine qua non est.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[386] viXra:1707.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-30 08:22:51

Graphene Split Water into Hydrogen and Oxygen

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Scientists at Rice University and the University of Houston have developed a catalyst that can simplify the splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen to produce clean energy. [16] Silicon anodes are receiving a great deal of attention from the battery community. They can deliver around three to five times higher capacity compared with those using current graphite anodes in lithium ion batteries. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9]
Category: Condensed Matter

[385] viXra:1707.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-30 10:51:44

Robotic 4D Cameras

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Presented at CVPR this week, the camera designed by Gordon Wetzstein, Donald Dansereau and colleagues at the University of California in San Diego, is the very first light field, single-lens, wide field of view camera intended to improve the vision of robots. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[384] viXra:1707.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-30 05:45:31

Information into Conscious Thought

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

A new study investigates when the 'a-ha!' moment takes place in the brain, and how similar it is to other brain processes. [28] Researchers discover both the structure of specific brain areas and memory are linked to genetic activity that also play important roles in immune system function. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25] Advances in microscopy techniques have often triggered important discoveries in the field of neuroscience, enabling vital insights in understanding the brain and promising new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [24] What is the relationship of consciousness to the neurological activity of the brain? Does the brain behave differently when a person is fully conscious, when they are asleep, or when they are undergoing an epileptic seizure? [23] Consciousness appears to arise naturally as a result of a brain maximizing its information content. So says a group of scientists in Canada and France, which has studied how the electrical activity in people's brains varies according to individuals' conscious states. The researchers find that normal waking states are associated with maximum values of what they call a brain's "entropy". [22]
Category: Mind Science

[383] viXra:1707.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-30 06:28:13

The Michelson-Morley Experiment Could not Produce a Result in Any Case.

Authors: Elkin Igor Vladimirovich
Comments: 3 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

It is clear that there is no ether in nature. But there is a Michelson-Morley device and there are references to the experiment with this device. And there is a conclusion of this experiment, which supposedly proves something there. Here it is simply shown that nothing could prove this experiment.
Category: Classical Physics

[382] viXra:1707.0395 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-29 16:17:02

About Goldbach's Conjecture

Authors: Ramón Ruiz
Comments: 36 Pages. This document is written in Spanish

Goldbach's Conjecture: “Every even integer greater than 2 can be expressed as the sum of two primes”. In this document I used the prime numbers theorem enunciated by Carl Friedrich Gauss and the prime numbers theorem in arithmetic progressions. These two theorems applied to a combination of two arithmetic progressions of module 30 and that contain prime numbers, allows us to develop a nonprobability general formula to calculate, approximately, the number of prime pairs that adding up an even number x. This research is based on a approach designed solely to demonstrate the Binary Goldbach Conjecture and the Twin Prime Conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[381] viXra:1707.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-30 02:17:51

The Recursive Future Equation And The Recursive Past Equation Based On The Ananda-Damayanthi Normalized Similarity Measure. {File Closing Version-2}

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this research Technical Note the author have presented a Recursive Future Equation and Recursive Past Equation to find one Step Future Element or a one Step Past Element of a given Time Series data Set.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[380] viXra:1707.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-30 03:18:58

Nanolaser Operation at Room Temperature

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]
Category: Condensed Matter

[379] viXra:1707.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-30 03:32:36

Integer Difference of Powers

Authors: L. Castillo
Comments: 9 Pages.

I explore a method to characterize all the real numbers a,b such that all of $a - b, a^2 - b^2,...,a^n - b^n$ are integers for a given n and paying particular attention to the special case when neither of a and b are integers themselves.
Category: Number Theory

[378] viXra:1707.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-30 04:06:20

Immune System, Memory and Brain

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Researchers discover both the structure of specific brain areas and memory are linked to genetic activity that also play important roles in immune system function. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25] Advances in microscopy techniques have often triggered important discoveries in the field of neuroscience, enabling vital insights in understanding the brain and promising new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [24] What is the relationship of consciousness to the neurological activity of the brain? Does the brain behave differently when a person is fully conscious, when they are asleep, or when they are undergoing an epileptic seizure? [23] Consciousness appears to arise naturally as a result of a brain maximizing its information content. So says a group of scientists in Canada and France, which has studied how the electrical activity in people's brains varies according to individuals' conscious states. The researchers find that normal waking states are associated with maximum values of what they call a brain's "entropy". [22]
Category: Mind Science

[377] viXra:1707.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-29 07:23:01

Machine Learning and Deep Learning

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Deep learning and machine learning both offer ways to train models and classify data. This article compares the two and it offers ways to help you decide which one to use. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[376] viXra:1707.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-29 04:28:25

Quantum Communication Network

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Just two weeks ago, China demonstrated its prowess in the field of quantum technology by becoming the first to teleport information from Earth to a satellite in space using the simple mechanics of quantum entanglement. [13] The researchers showed that the combination of these two properties can be used to transfer an encoded digital signal without information loss, which has potential applications for realizing highly efficient optical communication systems. [12] Physicists from the University of Würzburg have designed a light source that emits photon pairs, which are particularly well suited for tap-proof data encryption. The experiment's key ingredients: a semiconductor crystal and some sticky tape. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[375] viXra:1707.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-29 04:35:22

Elementary Particles Emit and Receive Gravitons

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 72 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

I discovered how Elementary particles emit and receive Gravitons! “I discovered how to understand Gravity in the frame of quantum mechanics!” Adrian Ferent “Elementary particles emit and receive gravitons because Gravity emerged at Ferent wall before the Planck wall; because elementary particles interact via the force of gravity.” Adrian Ferent “When a graviton is generated, it is generated the same energy and momentum, but with opposite sign which is received by the elementary particle” Adrian Ferent “The photon has Electric field, Magnetic field and Gravitational field components. Similarly Elementary particles have Gravitational field component.” Adrian Ferent
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[374] viXra:1707.0385 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-01 15:02:55

The Seven Higgs Bosons and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Extended to D Dimensions

Authors: Angel Garcés Doz
Comments: 2 Pages.

The proof of the existence of seven dimensions compacted in circles: the principle of uncertainty of Heisenberg extended to d dimensions; Allows us to obtain the masses of the seven Higgs bosons, including the known empirically (125.0901 GeV = mh (1)); And theorize the calculation of the mass of the boson stop quark (745 GeV)
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[373] viXra:1707.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-28 13:34:57

Vortical Accelerator of Atomic Particles

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 7 Pages. Search for Graviton

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a linear collider. The LHC consists of a 27-kilometre ring of superconducting magnets with a number of accelerating structures to boost the energy of the particles along the way. Inside the accelerator, two high-energy particle beams travel at close to the speed of light before they are made to collide. The beams travel in opposite directions in separate beam pipes – two tubes kept at ultrahigh vacuum. Note that all experiments in that collider are subject to gravity and to thereby associated defects in superconducting. Moreover, the collision of particles is artificially induced in that collider, while in our accelerator they won’t collide but would naturally propel themselves at high kinetic energy due to inherent repulsion and thereby created gravitational wave to then split in duality. Gravity has indeed a repulsive force with vortical repulsion effect as in illustrations of our accelerator model on p. 2. The first theory of repulsive gravity was a quantum theory published by Kowitt. In this modified Dirac theory, Kowitt postulated that the positron is not a hole in the sea of electrons-with-negative-energy as in usual Dirac hole theory, but instead is a hole in the sea of electrons-with-negative-energy-and-positive-gravitational-mass: this yields a modified C-inversion, by which the positron has positive energy but negative gravitational mass. Repulsive gravity is then described by adding extra terms (mgΦg and mgAg) to the wave equation. The idea is that the wave function of a positron moving in the gravitational field of a matter particle evolves such that in time it becomes more probable to find the positron further away from the matter particle. Kowitt, M. (1996). "Gravitational repulsion and Dirac antimatter". International Journal of Theoretical Physics. 35 (3): 605–631. doi:10.1007/BF02082828. To summarize, our concept device and technology enable to create a vortical flow spiral accelerator as occurs in spiral galaxies like M101. Note that our vortical particles accelerator has nothing to do with common cyclotron or synchrotron.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[372] viXra:1707.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-28 15:09:05

Sterile Spheres: Small Rovers with Planet-Wide Range

Authors: Colin Bruce Jack
Comments: 6 Pages.

Small unmanned vehicles deployed from a single landing point can comprehensively explore Mars in a few months. Each vehicle comprises a hermetically sealed transparent container, an ellipsoidal shell of low-expansion glass whose surface has been totally sterilised by flash heating to temperature sufficient to decompose all organic chemicals. An inner shell contains gas at Earth-standard temperature and pressure. All moving parts are housed within this inner shell, so off-the-shelf motors, bearings and lubricants with robustly verified working lifetimes can be used, minimizing development cost and ensuring circumplanetary range. A vacuum gap between the inner and outer shells provides thermal insulation and contains solar cells and cameras.
A substantial part of the vehicle’s mass is mounted within the inner shell, connected to a central axle about which it can be turned so as to cause the vehicle to roll forward. This mass can also be displaced sideways so that the vehicle turns as it rolls.
Continuous thrust produced in this way is at most about one-third of the vehicle’s weight. However a second propulsion method can extract the vehicle from almost any pit, slippery sand area or other potential trap. A flywheel, normally stationary, is spun up to high speed then braked suddenly. The resulting large torque causes the vehicle to turn end-over-end. Thus it can climb a steep slope, move across soft sand with a scooping effect like a paddle wheel, or leap up a small cliff or across a crevasse with a pole-vault style takeoff.
The vehicle can navigate autonomously for long periods. Several methods by which it can harvest information about its immediate environment, and periodically return large volumes of data, are described.
Category: Astrophysics

[371] viXra:1707.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-28 17:33:53

My Electron and Positron ... Annihilation, Particles and Antiparticles ...

Authors: A. I. Andreus
Comments: 1Pages.InRussian. http://forum.if4.ru/index.php?topic=320.0

My electron and positron ... Annihilation, particles and antiparticles ... So we broke morals with the help of particles and antiparticles the next step and moved from the world to the anti-world, matter and antimatter appeared. Annihilation has become a part of science. There were concepts about the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. Space and time have become a matter. Mathematical underpinnings confidently deduced physics in terms of its concept - from nature ... There are some thoughts about experimental confirmations of electrino and positrino - the experience of observing cosmic objects - the starry sky above the head and the world inside us.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[370] viXra:1707.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-28 20:12:02

Quantum Cosmology, New Scaling, Mass of Oscillating Neutrino and Life

Authors: Evgeny A. Novikov
Comments: 3 Pages.

From the quantum modification of general relativity (Qmoger), supported by cosmic data (without fitting), a new quantum scaling is derived. This scaling indicates a mechanism of formation new particles from the background matter. Based on this scaling, mass of neutrino is estimated in agreement with experimental bounds. The neutrino oscillations are explained in terms of interaction with the background quantum condensate of gravitons. Subjective experiences (qualia) and functioning of living cell are also connected with the background condensate.
Category: Astrophysics

[369] viXra:1707.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-29 03:22:03

Mystery of DNA Organization

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Stretched out, the DNA from all the cells in our body would reach Pluto. So how does each tiny cell pack a two-meter length of DNA into its nucleus, which is just one-thousandth of a millimeter across? [18] Scientists have long been able to make specific changes in the DNA code. Now, they're taking the more radical step of starting over, and building redesigned life forms from scratch. [17] For the first time in the United States, scientists have edited the genes of human embryos, a controversial step toward someday helping babies avoid inherited diseases. [16] The stage is set for a new era of data-driven protein molecular engineering as advances in DNA synthesis technology merge with improvements in computational design of new proteins. [15] Scientists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have succeeded at measuring these forces for the very first time on the level of single base pairs. This new knowledge could help to construct precise molecular machines out of DNA. The researchers published their findings in the journal Science. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[368] viXra:1707.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-29 04:04:04

Information Wave and the Theory of Observational Relativity

Authors: Xiaogang Ruan
Comments: 25 pages with 4 figures and supplementary information of 13 pages.

The invariance of light speed (ILS) is the mainstay of Einstein's special relativity (SR). However, to this day, we do not even know why the speed of light is invariant, why the speed of light cannot be exceeded, and why the photon has no mass. Here, we have theoretically derived the theory of observational relativity (OR) from the most basic facts and prerequisites, which reveals the truth behind the ILS. OR have unified Einstein's SR and de Broglie's theory of matter wave. More importantly, as the result of logical derivation, the light speed in the Lorenz factor has been replaced by the speed of information wave (IW) that carries and transmits the spacetime information of observed objects. OR has gotten a vital logic inference of pure rationality (rather that a hypothesis like the ILS): the invariance of IW speed. Only when light is employed as IW, can the ILS be valid, and can Einstein's SR be a special case of OR. OR suggests that: Einstein's theory of relativity is flawed and limited. Actually, all relativistic effects are observational effects rather than real natural phenomena. The theory of OR will profoundly change our view of spacetime and endow physics with a significant mission to explore superluminal IWs so that we can break though the observational limit of light and observe a more abundant and more objective natural world.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[367] viXra:1707.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-28 08:01:57

Higgs Like Fluctuation at 240 GeV Possible Evidence for Sphere Theory’s Cuboctahedron Structure of Hubble Sphere Universe

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper proposes that the Atlas Higgs-Like fluctuation at 240 GeV, with 3.6 sigma probability, may be possible evidence for Sphere Theory’s Cuboctahedron Structure of Hubble Sphere Universe. Philip Gibbs highlights a prediction of Tony Smith’s prediction for a mass at 240 GeV. Tommaso Dorigo, writes an article about it on Science 2.0 and offers a possible wager. Due to the propagation of light, gravity, charge, magnetism etc., and their quantized values, it has been hypothesized that, the universe should be filled with some type of almost homogeneous structure. It was shown in “Evidence for Granular Spacetime”( 1) that charge and gravity could be modeled by a sphere with a Compton wavelength radius of the neutron. If the neutron Compton wavelength is important to the propagation of charge and gravity then it is proposed that it also must be connected to some structure of the volume in which these forces are transmitted. “Underlying Cuboctahedron Packing of Planck Spinning Spheres Structure of the Hubble Universe” establishes a strong correlation, on multiple levels, between underlying packing of Planck Spinning Spheres structure of the Hubble Universe correlation with higgs mass, W boson, Z boson, bottom Quark and top Quark and a cuboctahedron –Vector Equilibrium structure using the mass of the neutron and the combining of the layers of a cuboctahedron packing of spheres. The layers of a cuboctahedron follow a consistent progression for the quantity of spheres that can be packed in a layer. The masses of the w boson, z boson, bottom quark, top quark and the Higgs can be directly correlated to the first few layers of a cuboctahedron structure, and in a mirror manner described in this paper. This paper now shows that the Higgs-Like fluctuation at 240 GeV also follows the cuboctahedron progression for the quantity of spheres that can be packed in a layer.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[366] viXra:1707.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-28 08:34:55

Build DNA from Scratch

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Scientists have long been able to make specific changes in the DNA code. Now, they're taking the more radical step of starting over, and building redesigned life forms from scratch. [17] For the first time in the United States, scientists have edited the genes of human embryos, a controversial step toward someday helping babies avoid inherited diseases. [16] The stage is set for a new era of data-driven protein molecular engineering as advances in DNA synthesis technology merge with improvements in computational design of new proteins. [15] Scientists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have succeeded at measuring these forces for the very first time on the level of single base pairs. This new knowledge could help to construct precise molecular machines out of DNA. The researchers published their findings in the journal Science. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[365] viXra:1707.0376 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-17 12:54:51

Schwarzschild Cosmology

Authors: C. A. Laforet
Comments: 16 Pages.

In the current paper, the internal Schwarzschild solution is examined in the context of a cosmological model. The expanding Universe is likened to a collapsing star in this context, where the future spacetime of the Universe is empty (justifying the vacuum solution) and the present is a 3-sphere boundary akin to the 2-sphere surface of a collapsing star. Because the present time of the Universe is the boundary, it sees the vacuum solution just as the surface of a collapsing star sees the vacuum solution. It is shown that the model predicts an accelerated expansion that agrees with current observations of the expansion history of our Universe, namely that the initial expansion is infinitely fast, and then the expansion slows for some time followed by an accelerated expansion. It is shown that the singularity at r=0 can be interpreted as a point in time where the geodesics reverse sharply, perhaps causing the expansion and collapse of the Universe to cycle. An examination of the Hubble parameter and redshift is made and it is shown that the model agrees with cosmological data in predicting the transition redshift when the expansion of the Universe changes from deceleration to acceleration. Distance modulus is plotted against redshift and compared to cosmological data. The consequences for an observer in freefall in a local gravitational field are then examined in the context of this model.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[364] viXra:1707.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-28 09:35:41

Digital Information Without Loss

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

The researchers showed that the combination of these two properties can be used to transfer an encoded digital signal without information loss, which has potential applications for realizing highly efficient optical communication systems. [12] Physicists from the University of Würzburg have designed a light source that emits photon pairs, which are particularly well suited for tap-proof data encryption. The experiment's key ingredients: a semiconductor crystal and some sticky tape. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[363] viXra:1707.0374 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-29 09:16:08

圆周率小于常数π(3.14159126...)

Authors: Liu Ran
Comments: 3 Pages.

因为圆周率是一个比值,圆周长和直径都是测量而来,只要去测量圆周长和直径,就不可避免要在空间去度量,而空间,全都是非欧空间。
Category: Geometry

[362] viXra:1707.0373 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-16 11:16:05

The Egyptian Conjecture

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 2 pages, written in french

The egyptian conjecture is proved, the difficult case is solved.
Category: Number Theory

[361] viXra:1707.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-28 06:35:21

The Recursive Future Equation And The Recursive Past Equation Based On The Ananda-Damayanthi Normalized Similarity Measure. {Future}

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research Technical Note the author have presented a Recursive Future Equation and Recursive Past Equation to find one Step Future Element or a one Step Past Element of a given Time Series data Set.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[360] viXra:1707.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-28 06:39:26

Storing Data in DNA

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Over millennia, nature has evolved an incredible information storage medium – DNA. It evolved to store genetic information, blueprints for building proteins, but DNA can be used for many more purposes than just that. [23] Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22] Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17]
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[359] viXra:1707.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-28 06:40:58

Democratizar a Pia DE ÁGUA Benta

Authors: Abner de Lima Bittencourt Ferreira
Comments: 2 Pages. Portuguese

Symbol, sign, unique mark of our Roman Catholic Apostolic Church, the holy water sink is in all portals of the entrance of the Temple. Whether it's on the right side or the left side, or even walking a few steps in, there it is: the holy water sink. To democratize the holy water is to fully exercise our mission of the baptized, which is to EVANGELIZE. Speaking without being inconvenient and mainly giving testimony of life in the midst of men.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[358] viXra:1707.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-27 13:57:44

Edit Genes of Human Embryos

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

For the first time in the United States, scientists have edited the genes of human embryos, a controversial step toward someday helping babies avoid inherited diseases. [16] The stage is set for a new era of data-driven protein molecular engineering as advances in DNA synthesis technology merge with improvements in computational design of new proteins. [15] Scientists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have succeeded at measuring these forces for the very first time on the level of single base pairs. This new knowledge could help to construct precise molecular machines out of DNA. The researchers published their findings in the journal Science. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[357] viXra:1707.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-27 14:29:20

Lab-Created Mini-Brains

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Scientists can now explore in a laboratory dish how the human brain develops by creating organoids—distinct, three-dimensional regions of the brain. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25] Advances in microscopy techniques have often triggered important discoveries in the field of neuroscience, enabling vital insights in understanding the brain and promising new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [24] What is the relationship of consciousness to the neurological activity of the brain? Does the brain behave differently when a person is fully conscious, when they are asleep, or when they are undergoing an epileptic seizure? [23] Consciousness appears to arise naturally as a result of a brain maximizing its information content. So says a group of scientists in Canada and France, which has studied how the electrical activity in people's brains varies according to individuals' conscious states. The researchers find that normal waking states are associated with maximum values of what they call a brain's "entropy". [22]
Category: Mind Science

[356] viXra:1707.0367 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-01 11:57:25

Atlas: LHC 2016: 240 Gev Higgs Mass State at 3.6 Sigma

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 8 Pages.

5 July 2017 ATLAS released ATLAS-CONF-2017-058 saying: “... A search for heavy resonances decaying into a pair of Z bosons leading to l+ l- l+ l- ... is presented. [ that includes the Higgs -> ZZ* -> 4l channel ] The search uses proton–proton collision data at 13 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36.1 fb-1 collected with the ATLAS detector during 2015 and 2016 at the Large Hadron Collider ... excess ...[is]... observed in the data for m4l around 240 ... GeV ... with a local significance of 3.6 sigma ...". E8-Cl(16) Physics Model ( viXra 1602.0319 ) has a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) type structure for the Higgs-Tquark system resulting in 3 Higgs mass states: around 125 GeV (observed) and 200 and 250 GeV. 240 GeV is close enough to 250 GeV that the ATLAS 3.6 sigma peak should not be suppressed by LEE and does constitute significant support for the validity of the NJL sector of the model. Version 2 (v2) adds Tommaso Dorigo blog commentary.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[355] viXra:1707.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-28 02:54:05

Ultracold Molecules for Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

The new work shows that collections of ultracold molecules can retain the information stored in them, for hundreds of times longer than researchers have previously achieved in these materials. [21] Quantum entanglement can improve the sensitivity of a measurement, as has been demonstrated previously for atomic clocks and magnetic-field sensors. [20] Thanks to a new fabrication technique, quantum sensing abilities are now approaching this scale of precision. [19] For decades scientists have known that a quantum computer—a device that stores and manipulates information in quantum objects such as atoms or photons—could theoretically perform certain calculations far faster than today's computing schemes. [18] Magnets and magnetic phenomena underpin the vast majority of modern data storage, and the measurement scales for research focused on magnetic behaviors continue to shrink with the rest of digital technology. [17] Scientists have recently created a new spintronics material called bismuthene, which has similar properties to that of graphene. [16] The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley, fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[354] viXra:1707.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-28 03:03:52

Никитин В.Н., Никитин И.В. ГИПОТЕЗА СУЩЕСТВОВАНИЯ СПУТНИКОВ СОЛНЕЧНОЙ СИСТЕМЫ Космический объект «Баффи» – спутник Солнечной системы

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Космический объект «Баффи» – спутник Солнечной системы
Category: Astrophysics

[353] viXra:1707.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-28 03:21:44

Dark Matter Particle is a Neutral Electron

Authors: Antonio Puccini
Comments: 32 Pages.

Cosmological observations showed that the ordinary matter, or ordinary visible mass, is only  4% of the total mass of the Universe. Non observable mass, or missing mass, is  96% of the total mass, of which 23% is invisible matter, or Dark Matter (DM). Cosmological considerations seem to exclude that the DM is under the shape of a normal baryonic matter. Therefore, the Dark Matter Particle (DMP) very probably is a lepton particle. The DMP was formed in the first fractions of second after the Big Bang. In order not to contradict the value of the critical density of the universe ordinary matter, the primordial nucleosynthesis can have generated only light elements and particles. DMP has existed since the Big Bang, this means it is a very stable particle. Moreover, since it does not emit and does not reflect light, and it never interacts with ordinary matter or with other DMPs, it implies that it is insensitive to Electro-Magnetic and Nuclear Interactions, therefore it is a neutral particle. Thus the DMP is a stable, light, neutral, non-interacting lepton. It was supposed to be a neutrino but, still in relation to nucleosynthesis, the value of its infinitely small mass, i.e. ≤0.01 electronic masses, contradicts the value of critical density. For opposite reasons, even WIMPs cannot identify with DMP (the value attributed to their mass is excessive: ≥ 100 proton masses). Therefore we may think of an electron, but they carry electric charge, and highly react with the surrounding matter. It does not work. Unless we assume the DMP can equally identify with an electron, but without the electric charge: a neutral electron (e°). According to Majorana’s mathematical formalism, the mathematical substrate in support of the e°, leads to consider it as a self-conjugated spinor, where the charge conjugation may give it a certain stability and make it unable to interact. The physical substrate is represented by the lack of a R process on the e°. Consequently, it will never, or almost never, undergo a Wave Function Collapse, so it will not be traceable as a common particle, but, according to Quantum Mechanics, it keeps travelling as a wave, undisturbed, delocalized, and propagating as a superimposition of quantum states.
Category: Astrophysics

[352] viXra:1707.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-27 07:16:44

Is the Black Hole a Mass of Antimatter? 

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 4 Pages.

The hypothesis of the elementary particle pulsation principle advocated in 1980 has been studied to examine all areas of physics. For the first time, I tried to verify the black hole based on the pulsating hypothesis. The image of the black hole resembles the physics of the negative particle stroke in the principle of particle pulsation. The particle of the negative particle process is an empty depletion space in the vacuum space, and it is observed like the hole of the empty and empty darkness as observing four-dimensional space from three-dimensional space. It corresponds to the anti-substance shown in the model of the pulsating hypothesis if it guesses. Electrons and positron, protons and anti-protons, neutrons and anti-neutrons, the existence of the anti-material is always confirmed in the elementary particles.
Category: Astrophysics

[351] viXra:1707.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-27 07:21:43

Crystal Electrical Circuit

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Washington State University physicists have found a way to write an electrical circuit into a crystal, opening up the possibility of transparent, three-dimensional electronics that, like an Etch A Sketch, can be erased and reconfigured. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14]
Category: Condensed Matter

[350] viXra:1707.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-27 07:54:30

Light into the Human Brain

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25] Advances in microscopy techniques have often triggered important discoveries in the field of neuroscience, enabling vital insights in understanding the brain and promising new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [24] What is the relationship of consciousness to the neurological activity of the brain? Does the brain behave differently when a person is fully conscious, when they are asleep, or when they are undergoing an epileptic seizure? [23] Consciousness appears to arise naturally as a result of a brain maximizing its information content. So says a group of scientists in Canada and France, which has studied how the electrical activity in people's brains varies according to individuals' conscious states. The researchers find that normal waking states are associated with maximum values of what they call a brain's "entropy". [22]
Category: Mind Science

[349] viXra:1707.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-27 08:28:28

Nextgen Tokomak

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 5 Pages. NextGen nuclear engineering

Our conceptual tokamak superstructure can self-gravitate and levitate due to its rotating superimposed tori and quantum propulsion per my new quantum fusion theory and model.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[348] viXra:1707.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-27 08:30:27

Neuromorphic Computing Device

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

A team of researchers with members from France, Japan and the U.S. has created a nanoscale magnetic device that mimics the behavior of neurons and can be used to recognize human audio signals. [10] In the field of neuromorphic engineering, researchers study computing techniques that could someday mimic human cognition. Electrical engineers at the Georgia Institute of Technology recently published a "roadmap" that details innovative analog-based techniques that could make it possible to build a practical neuromorphic computer. [9] How does the brain-a lump of 'pinkish gray meat'-produce the richness of conscious experience, or any subjective experience at all? Scientists and philosophers have historically likened the brain to contemporary information technology, from the ancient Greeks comparing memory to a 'seal ring in wax,' to the 19th century brain as a 'telegraph switching circuit,' to Freud's subconscious desires 'boiling over like a steam engine,' to a hologram, and finally, the computer. [8] Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Condensed Matter

[347] viXra:1707.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-27 08:57:13

Ultrafocused Electromagnetic Fields

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Physicists working with researcher Oriol Romero-Isart devised a new simple scheme to theoretically generate arbitrarily short and focused electromagnetic fields. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25] Advances in microscopy techniques have often triggered important discoveries in the field of neuroscience, enabling vital insights in understanding the brain and promising new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [24] What is the relationship of consciousness to the neurological activity of the brain? Does the brain behave differently when a person is fully conscious, when they are asleep, or when they are undergoing an epileptic seizure? [23] Consciousness appears to arise naturally as a result of a brain maximizing its information content. So says a group of scientists in Canada and France, which has studied how the electrical activity in people's brains varies according to individuals' conscious states. The researchers find that normal waking states are associated with maximum values of what they call a brain's "entropy". [22] New research published in the New Journal of Physics tries to decompose the structural layers of the cortical network to different hierarchies enabling to identify the network's nucleus, from which our consciousness could emerge. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[346] viXra:1707.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-27 09:25:18

Robustness of Quantum Coherence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Researchers at the UAB have come up with a method to measure the strength of the superposition coherence in any given quantum state. [22] Experiments tested whether electrons could escape an atom instantaneously. [21] Quantum entanglement can improve the sensitivity of a measurement, as has been demonstrated previously for atomic clocks and magnetic-field sensors. [20] Thanks to a new fabrication technique, quantum sensing abilities are now approaching this scale of precision. [19] For decades scientists have known that a quantum computer—a device that stores and manipulates information in quantum objects such as atoms or photons—could theoretically perform certain calculations far faster than today's computing schemes. [18] Magnets and magnetic phenomena underpin the vast majority of modern data storage, and the measurement scales for research focused on magnetic behaviors continue to shrink with the rest of digital technology. [17] Scientists have recently created a new spintronics material called bismuthene, which has similar properties to that of graphene. [16] The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley, fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[345] viXra:1707.0356 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-14 14:28:25

Do Universal Turing Machines Imply Special Relativity?

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 8 Pages.

My purpose with this paper is to show that the theory of special relativity is derivable from universal Turing machines. Specifically, I construct a partition function of Ω such that the program-runtime and the program-size are observables of a prefix free universal Turing machine. This partition function implies a maximum speed in bits per iterations of the UTM, which has a similar interpretation as the speed of light does in special relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[344] viXra:1707.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-26 14:14:16

Quantum Tunneling Time

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Experiments tested whether electrons could escape an atom instantaneously. [21] Quantum entanglement can improve the sensitivity of a measurement, as has been demonstrated previously for atomic clocks and magnetic-field sensors. [20] Thanks to a new fabrication technique, quantum sensing abilities are now approaching this scale of precision. [19] For decades scientists have known that a quantum computer—a device that stores and manipulates information in quantum objects such as atoms or photons—could theoretically perform certain calculations far faster than today's computing schemes. [18] Magnets and magnetic phenomena underpin the vast majority of modern data storage, and the measurement scales for research focused on magnetic behaviors continue to shrink with the rest of digital technology. [17] Scientists have recently created a new spintronics material called bismuthene, which has similar properties to that of graphene. [16] The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[343] viXra:1707.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-27 00:56:30

Economic Crisis from Another Perspective

Authors: Chuanli Chen
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper, I will mainly discuss about the economic crisis from another view, the view from flow of money.
Category: Economics and Finance

[342] viXra:1707.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-27 03:32:41

Self-Gravitating Nuclear Reactor

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 2 Pages. NextGen nuclear engineering

Our conceptual tokamak superstructure could self-gravitate and levitate due to its rotating superimposed tori and quantum propulsion per my new quantum fusion theory and model.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[341] viXra:1707.0352 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-15 04:37:06

Phi-Quantum Wave-Function Crystal Dynamics

Authors: Stephen H. Jarvis
Comments: 22 Pages.

In this development upon three previous papers [1][2][3], we shall explain how Phi-Quantum Wave-Function crystal constructs emerge from the elementary particle level, in being associated to electron shells, and how they then through a fractal progression develop to a macro-world scale per a golden ratio sequence of atomic association. We will couple this with chemical-bond modelling between atoms while establishing an equation for the Avogadro number. The emphasis of this paper is to highlight the continued utility of the golden ratio modelling for time, the great implication being the need to understand “spatial contraction” (not “time-dilation”) to satisfy ideas of relativity forwarded by Einstein a century ago. We shall highlight how this is possible by examining the phi-quantum wave-function scale as a new wave-function template for electromagnetism, as initially developed in Golden Ratio Axioms for Time and Space [2], now carried and further developed here to explain spatial contraction and associated elementary particle dynamics (including particle spin and anti-matter/particles dynamics). In considering this phi-quantum wave-function scale, we will then finally uncover the problematic process of the Cartesian coordinate system of mathematical execution for space.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[340] viXra:1707.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-27 07:02:46

Effect of Lattice Strain on X-Ray Diffraction, Raman Spectroscopy and Optical Properties of as Synthesis Nanocomposite Zno-Sno2-Tio2 Thin Film by Spray Pyrolysis Method

Authors: Sudhir Kumar, B. Das
Comments: 16 Pages.

Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007
Category: Condensed Matter

[339] viXra:1707.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-26 12:10:33

Quantum Magnetic Sensing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Quantum entanglement can improve the sensitivity of a measurement, as has been demonstrated previously for atomic clocks and magnetic-field sensors. [20] Thanks to a new fabrication technique, quantum sensing abilities are now approaching this scale of precision. [19] For decades scientists have known that a quantum computer—a device that stores and manipulates information in quantum objects such as atoms or photons—could theoretically perform certain calculations far faster than today's computing schemes. [18] Magnets and magnetic phenomena underpin the vast majority of modern data storage, and the measurement scales for research focused on magnetic behaviors continue to shrink with the rest of digital technology. [17] Scientists have recently created a new spintronics material called bismuthene, which has similar properties to that of graphene. [16] The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10]
Category: Quantum Physics

[338] viXra:1707.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-26 13:28:29

Superconductors Break Crystal Symmetry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Strange electrons break the crystal symmetry of high-temperature superconductors. [40] Researchers at North Carolina State University have significantly increased the temperature at which carbon-based materials act as superconductors, using a novel, boron-doped Q-carbon material. [39] Magnetic quantum objects in superconductors, so-called "fluxons," are particularly suitable for the storage and processing of data bits. [38] Researchers have made the first direct visual observation and measurement of ultra-fast vortex dynamics in superconductors. [37] By gently prodding a swirling cloud of supercooled lithium atoms with a pair of lasers, and observing the atoms' response, researchers at Swinburne have developed a new way to probe the properties of quantum materials. [36] The nickel-bismuth (Ni-Bi) sample studied here is the first example of a 2-D material where this type of superconductivity is intrinsic, meaning that it happens without the help of external agents, such as a nearby superconductor. [35] Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and Argonne National Laboratory have collaborated to design, build and test two devices that utilize different superconducting materials and could make X-ray lasers more powerful, versatile, compact and durable. [34] A team of researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory has identified a nickel oxide compound as an unconventional but promising candidate material for high-temperature superconductivity. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[337] viXra:1707.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-26 07:41:01

Developing Quantum Algorithms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

The study presents a new quantum algorithm that could speed up solutions to semidefinite problems, sometimes exponentially. Quantum algorithms are sets of instructions that tell quantum computers what to do to solve problems. [20] The group, led by Dr Steve Chick and Professor of Physics Ben Murdin, has developed a way of making phosphorous atoms 'dance', which could be the next breakthrough in the quest to make quantum computers a viable reality. [19] For decades scientists have known that a quantum computer—a device that stores and manipulates information in quantum objects such as atoms or photons—could theoretically perform certain calculations far faster than today's computing schemes. [18] Magnets and magnetic phenomena underpin the vast majority of modern data storage, and the measurement scales for research focused on magnetic behaviors continue to shrink with the rest of digital technology. [17] Scientists have recently created a new spintronics material called bismuthene, which has similar properties to that of graphene. [16] The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[336] viXra:1707.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-26 09:35:57

Plausibility of Earth Once Having a Thick Atmosphere – Examining the Rate of Impact Cratering

Authors: Raymond H.V. Gallucci, PhD, Pe
Comments: 12 Pages.

Theories abound as to how dinosaurs and other prehistoric creatures could have grown to such immense sizes, inconsistent with the spectrum of sizes for today’s creatures and Earth’s living conditions. Some focus directly on changes in the governing physics of the universe, such as a different gravitational constant. Some postulate that, rather than this difference, the earlier Earth experienced lower gravity due to differences in its size and mass. The majority focus on biological and aerodynamical anomalies that may have prevailed to explain these gargantuan sizes. This paper focuses on the latter group, offering an independent means by which to test the hypothesis that a (much) thicker atmosphere provided the buoyancy needed by these creatures to exist on land. This means is astronomical, an examination of possible differences in the rate of impact cratering on Earth due to atmospheric differences. With the Earth’s atmosphere allegedly experiencing eras of much greater thickness than current, and alternating between these “thick” and “thin” atmospheric eras, it is postulated that, in addition to the biological and aerodynamical anomalies, a difference in the cratering rate from meteor impacts on Earth should be evident. Thicker atmosphere would “burn up” more meteors, reducing the cratering rate when compared to that during thinner atmospheric eras. This paper explores this, using the cratering rate from meteor impacts on the Moon as a “control” since it has no atmosphere to attenuate meteors but also is in Earth’s orbital vicinity and should have experienced a nearly equivalent rate of meteor influx per unit surface area.
Category: Geophysics

[335] viXra:1707.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-26 11:02:39

A Prediction that Bulk Mercury Without 201Hg May be Solid in STP

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 3 pages, 0 figures, DOI:10.13140/RG.2.2.34695.70561

In standard temperature and pressure (STP), mercury is liquid. Natural mercury comprises 7 isotopes with different sibling abundance, and the isotope 201Hg is special one with abundance 13.2%, because its nucleus has a very low energy level of first excited state, i.e. <1.6keV. If 201Hg is totally depleted from a bulk with critical mass at least, then this paper predicts that the depleted bulk will be no longer liquid and less sensitive to temperature change.
Category: Condensed Matter

[334] viXra:1707.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-26 11:36:17

An Approximate Non-Quantum Calculation of the Aharonov-Bohm Effect

Authors: Gary Osborn
Comments: 6 pages, 1 figure

In the Aharonov-Bohm effect for a magnetic solenoid a moving charged particle seems to be influenced by the 4-potential in a region where there are no fields in the laboratory frame of reference. The 4-potential should be transformed to the frame of reference of the particle before computing the fields. There is an E field in its frame of reference. The field accelerates a moving charged particle. One of the components of the acceleration vector is in the same direction as the particle's velocity in the first frame of reference. The resulting longitudinal displacement in the path integral, when scaled in units of the de Broglie wavelength for the particle, is approximately the same as the phase of the Aharonov-Bohm solution for long paths. The scalar solution does not require transformation. It follows from the static Coulomb solution and the Newton equations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[333] viXra:1707.0343 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-26 15:16:31

Modified QED (MQED) Predicts How to Demonstrate FTL Communication

Authors: Paul J. Werbos
Comments: 9 Pages. 9p, 25 references, 4 figures, 2 eqs. Minor typos fixed.

Canonical Copenhagen QED (KQED) predicts that substantive information cannot be communicated faster than light (FTL) or backwards in time. KQED is essentially just the combination of three assumptions used together to make predictions: (1) the assumption that the wave function ψ(t) evolves according to the time-symmetric system ∂tψ=iHψ where is H is the normal product form of the Maxwell-Dirac Hamiltonian; (2) the classical Copenhagen measurement formalism, including metaphysical observers and collapse of the wave function; (3) Fermi’s Golden Rule for spontaneous emission. MQED, published in 2015, replaces the measurement part with a new measurement formalism without observers based on what (1) actually predicts. MQED is not a local realistic theory, but (unlike KQED) it might be derived as a good statistical approximation to one. The 2015 paper proposed a decisive experiment to test which is right, KQED or MQED. This paper proposes a simpler if messier decisive experiment, to demonstrate FTL communication, more details of MQED and the possibility in principle of an underlying local realistic theory of physics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[332] viXra:1707.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-26 06:27:47

Entropy in a Quantum System

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Any understanding of the irreversibility of the arrow of time should account the quantum nature of the world that surrounds us. [12] Entropy, the measure of disorder in a physical system, is something that physicists understand well when systems are at equilibrium, meaning there's no external force throwing things out of kilter. But new research by Brown University physicists takes the idea of entropy out of its equilibrium comfort zone. [11] Could scientists use the Second Law of Thermodynamics on your chewing muscles to work out when you are going to die? According to research published in the International Journal of Exergy, the level of entropy, or thermodynamic disorder, in the chewing muscles in your jaw increases with each mouthful. This entropy begins to accumulate from the moment you're "on solids" until your last meal, but measuring it at any given point in your life could be used to estimate life expectancy. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[331] viXra:1707.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-25 13:29:10

Supercollider

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 3 Pages. NextGen high energy physics

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world’s largest and most powerful particle accelerator. The LHC consists of a 27-kilometre ring of superconducting magnets with a number of accelerating structures to boost the energy of the particles along the way. Inside the accelerator, two high-energy particle beams travel at close to the speed of light before they are made to collide. The beams travel in opposite directions in separate beam pipes – two tubes kept at ultrahigh vacuum. Note that all experiments in that collider are subject to gravity and thereby associated defects in superconducting. Our concept device and technology enable to create a supercollider in NextGen patricides engineering.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[330] viXra:1707.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-25 16:14:38

Einstein’s Destruction of Physics and Scientific Principles

Authors: Peter Sujak
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper is partially an excerpt from a third chapter of author's in July 2017 newly published book titled "Einstein's destruction of physics". Book is distributed directly by author's link www.createspace.com/7339672 or by Amazon.com or .de or co.uk. In this paper Einstein’s destruction of physics and scientific principles is documented.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[329] viXra:1707.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-25 19:18:59

Conductivity Equations of Protons Transporting Through 2D Crystals Obtained with the Rate Process Theory and Free Volume Concept

Authors: Tian Hao, Yuanze Xu, Ting Hao
Comments: Pages.

The Eyring’s rate process theory and free volume concept are employed to treat protons (or other particles) transporting through a 2D (two dimensional) crystal like graphene and hexagonal boron nitride. The protons are assumed to be activated first in order to participate conduction and the conduction rate is dependent on how much free volume available in the system. The obtained proton conductivity equations show that only the number of conduction protons, proton size and packing structure, and the energy barrier associated with 2D crystals are critical; the quantization conductance is unexpectedly predicted with a simple Arrhenius type temperature dependence. The predictions agree well with experimental observations and clear out many puzzles like much smaller energy barrier determined from experiments than from the density function calculations and isotope separation rate independent of the energy barrier of 2D crystals, etc.. Our work may deepen our understandings on how protons transport through a membrane and has direct implications on hydrogen related technology and proton involved bioprocesses.
Category: Condensed Matter

[328] viXra:1707.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-26 03:15:00

Natural Algebra and Differencial Cell: a Boolean Logic Isomorphism a General Model of Processors Based on Physic Transformations. Synthesis of an Optoelectronic Processor

Authors: Carmine D'Errico
Comments: 16 Pages.

In this paper a new isomorphism is demonstred to exists who is demonstred to be a subset of boolean algebra. Then all the properties of this new algebra are sketched out and the most important logic theorems are demonstred a new form. Therefore a fully photonc logic gate is demonstred to be possible with a power consuption very near to zero. Other analysis are offered. The results of a prototype are showed to be compatible with theory
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[327] viXra:1707.0335 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-26 07:25:36

Even Gap and Polignac Conjecture Proof

Authors: Idriss Olivier Bado
Comments: In 4 pages i give the proof

In this paper i give the proof of Polignac conjecture and even gap cobjecture by using Chebotarev Artin theorem
Category: Number Theory

[326] viXra:1707.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-26 03:49:20

Dark Matter Doppler Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A NASA rocket experiment could use the Doppler effect to look for signs of dark matter in mysterious X-ray emissions from space. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[325] viXra:1707.0333 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-07 03:24:48

Mass Interaction Principle as a Common Origin of Special Relativity and Quantum Behaviours of Massive Particles

Authors: Chu-Jun Gu
Comments: 56 Pages.

The author believes there are spacetime particles(STP) which can sense all matter particles ubiquitously. Matter particles will change their states collided by STP . The underlying property of mass is a statistical property emerging from random impact in spacetime. We propose a mass interaction principle (MIP) which states any particle with mass m will involve a random motion without friction, due to random impacts from spacetime. Each impact changes the amount nh (n is any integer) for an action of the particle. Starting from the concept of statistical mass, we propose the fundamental MIP. We conclude that inertial mass has to be a statistical property, which measures the diffusion ability of all matter particles in spacetime. We prove all the essential results of special relativity come from MIP. Speed of light in the vacuum need no longer any special treatment. Instead, speed of STP has more fundamentally physical meaning, which represents the upper limit of information propagational speed in physics. Moreover, we derive the uncertainty relation asserting a fundamental limit to the precision regarding mass and diffusion coefficient. Within this context, wave-particle duality is a novel property emerging from random impact by STP. Further more, an interpretation of Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle is suggested, with a stochastic origin of Feynman’s path integral formalism. It is shown that we can construct a physical picture distinct from Copenhagen interpretation, and reinvestigate the nature of spacetime and reveal the origin of quantum behaviours from a realistic point of view.
Category: Quantum Physics

[324] viXra:1707.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-25 10:42:52

Beyond Einstein and the Big Bang

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 90 Pages. NextGen Physics and Astrophysics

This book provides new insights in the interaction of light and matter, explains the true origin of our universe, resolves the matter-antimatter dilemma, reveals the quantum gravity creation of so-called black holes and dark matter, describes physical processes and technologies that enable the creation of quantum fusion, flexible quantum nano-computers and quantum devices for telecom and medicine, 3D remote space computers and TV displays in augmented reality, quantum propulsion with levitation and teleportation, and a nuclear accelerator in space that enables spacetime travel beyond time and space dimensions. Breakthrough quantum technologies revealed in this book materialize the Quantum Fusion (QF) Hypothesis which is applicable in the fields of molecular, quantum and computational mechanic,, material science, quantum physics and astrophysics, and electronics.
Category: Astrophysics

[323] viXra:1707.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-25 10:50:24

Self-Gravitating Flying Tokomak

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 2 Pages. NextGen aerospace

This is a nuclear fusion device and supercraft for air- and space travel
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[322] viXra:1707.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-25 10:56:14

Quantum Electronics in Quantum Communications

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 19 Pages. NextGen electronics

We discuss the virtual model of a bosonic superconducting cosmic string (fig. 1) compared to our actual model of a quantum electronic system (fig. 2) that enables the creation of quantum generator for flexible (folded) quantum nano-computers, and space computer and TV displays in quantum telecom and cyberspace based on three fundamental laws of physical-chemical kinetics: (1) the law of entire equilibrium, (2) the law of the duality of elementary processes (or the equality of direct and reverse transition probabilities), and (3) the law of equal a priori probabilities. It is shown that said three laws follow from the law of the symmetry of time, and furthermore, that the first and third of these laws are both derivable from the second.
Category: Quantum Physics

[321] viXra:1707.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-25 10:58:55

Quantum Fusion

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 18 Pages. NextGen nuclear engineering

This article provides new insights in the interaction of light and matter and describes physical processes and technologies that enable the creation of quantum fusion in materialization of the Quantum Fusion (QF) Hypothesis which is applicable in the fields of molecular, quantum and computational mechanics,, material science, quantum physics and astrophysics, and electronics.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[320] viXra:1707.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-25 11:16:15

Spatial Coherence Restriction in Quantum Non-Mereological Compounds

Authors: C Dedes
Comments: 10 Pages.

Employing the symmetrization postulate for two quantum particles we prove a non-linear differential relation that imposes certain constraints on the admissible values of wavefunction solutions and rules out spatial superposition states. Combining this with the two-particle Schrodinger equation in the position representation, a non-linear partial differential equation is educed which is time-asymmetric and remains invariant under the permutation of particle indices. Extension of the analysis to several particle composites is also sketched and the mereological implications fol- lowing from this formalism are explored.
Category: Quantum Physics

[319] viXra:1707.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-25 11:37:49

Quantum Sensors in Diamond

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Thanks to a new fabrication technique, quantum sensing abilities are now approaching this scale of precision. [19] For decades scientists have known that a quantum computer—a device that stores and manipulates information in quantum objects such as atoms or photons—could theoretically perform certain calculations far faster than today's computing schemes. [18] Magnets and magnetic phenomena underpin the vast majority of modern data storage, and the measurement scales for research focused on magnetic behaviors continue to shrink with the rest of digital technology. [17] Scientists have recently created a new spintronics material called bismuthene, which has similar properties to that of graphene. [16] The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley, fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[318] viXra:1707.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-25 11:42:59

Tracer Diffusion in Hard-Sphere Colloidal Suspensions

Authors: S. S. L. Peppin
Comments: 23 Pages.

A theory of tracer diffusion in hard-sphere suspensions is developed by using irreversible thermodynamics to obtain a colloidal version of the Kedem-Katchalsky equations. Onsager reciprocity yields relationships between the cross diffusion coefficients of the particles and the reflection coefficient of the colloidal suspension. The theory is illustrated by modelling a self-forming colloidal membrane that filters tracer impurities from the pore fluid.
Category: Condensed Matter

[317] viXra:1707.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-25 12:16:32

Sphere Theory, the New Grand Unified Theory, Prediction of more Precise Gravitational Constant with Gravitational Orbitals

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

Sphere Theory, is a theory that the universe is made of spheres, that, are made of spheres. In fact ,it is a theory of spheres all the way down. Part of the theory is that there is radiation that creates stable resonances that is similar to Bremsstrahlung and Cherenkov radiation. In this paper it is shown that this same structure that is used to predict mass ratios for the proton, electron, muon, and tau to the neutron, and predictions for the Sommerfeld fine structure constant, and the von Klitzing constant, can also be used to predict a more accurate value for the Gravitational constant, with the accuracy of the Planck constant and neutron mass being the limiting factor. The value predicted for the Gravitational constant is as follows. 6.6738480×10^-11 m^3/kgs^2. We see that gravity may also have orbitals, and thus there may be some different wavelengths to gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[316] viXra:1707.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-25 12:41:02

Explanation of the Spacecraft Flyby Anomaly

Authors: J.F. Cuderman
Comments: 6 Pages.

Anomalous changes in velocity were measured during spacecraft-Earth flybys of spacecraft launched on deep space missions between1990 and 2006.The amount of thevelocity change was small and varied with orbital parameters. Not all such flybys exhibited the effect. Numerous attempts have been made to explain the velocity changes without success. The flyby anomaly is considered a major unresolved problem in astrophysics. A semi-empirical description which is in agreement with results for the anomalous velocity changes was developed by Anderson et al. [1]. During the development of a theory of the gravitational co-field [2], it was noted that the semi-empirical formulation of the flyby data was consistent with that model. This paper provides a physical explanation of the semi-empirical result.
Category: Astrophysics

[315] viXra:1707.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-25 07:14:06

Self-Gravitating Flying Tokamak

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 2 Pages. NextGen aerospace

This is a levitating and flying quantum fusion system, acting as a supercraft for air and space travel.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[314] viXra:1707.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-25 07:30:59

True Local Realism: Bell's Dilemma Resolved, QM Demystified, Etc.

Authors: Gordon Watson
Comments: 18 Pages.

To be or not to be; that is the issue. Using (what we term) Bell's definition of true local realism — the union of true locality and true realism — we resolve Bell’s ‘action-at-a-distance’ dilemma in favor of true locality: ie, no influence propagates superluminally (after Einstein). As to Bell's realism, we prefer (what we duly term) true realism: ie, some beables change interactively (after Bell’s handy term for existents and Bohr's ‘disturbance' insight). Put simply: defining beables by properties and values, we allow interactions to yield new beables. (Thus, since observables are clearly beables, existing or not existing prior to an interaction, we reject the quantum/classical divide.) We then predict the probabilities of interaction outcomes by simply distinguishing between classes of beables. In this way, delivering results in full accord with quantum theory and experiment — in 3-space; and contra Bell — we also advance QM's reconstruction in spacetime with a new vector-product for geometric algebra. True local realism thus resolves Bell's dilemma, demystifies QM, etc.
Category: Quantum Physics

[313] viXra:1707.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-25 08:13:14

Surface Code Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

The group, led by Dr Steve Chick and Professor of Physics Ben Murdin, has developed a way of making phosphorous atoms 'dance', which could be the next breakthrough in the quest to make quantum computers a viable reality. [19] For decades scientists have known that a quantum computer—a device that stores and manipulates information in quantum objects such as atoms or photons—could theoretically perform certain calculations far faster than today's computing schemes. [18] Magnets and magnetic phenomena underpin the vast majority of modern data storage, and the measurement scales for research focused on magnetic behaviors continue to shrink with the rest of digital technology. [17] Scientists have recently created a new spintronics material called bismuthene, which has similar properties to that of graphene. [16] The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10]
Category: Quantum Physics

[312] viXra:1707.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-25 05:23:30

Magnetic Quantum Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Magnetic quantum objects in superconductors, so-called "fluxons," are particularly suitable for the storage and processing of data bits. [38] Researchers have made the first direct visual observation and measurement of ultra-fast vortex dynamics in superconductors. [37] By gently prodding a swirling cloud of supercooled lithium atoms with a pair of lasers, and observing the atoms' response, researchers at Swinburne have developed a new way to probe the properties of quantum materials. [36] The nickel-bismuth (Ni-Bi) sample studied here is the first example of a 2-D material where this type of superconductivity is intrinsic, meaning that it happens without the help of external agents, such as a nearby superconductor. [35] collaborated to design, build and test two devices that utilize different superconducting materials and could make X-ray lasers more powerful, versatile, compact and durable. [34] A team of researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory has identified a nickel oxide compound as an unconventional but promising candidate material for high-temperature superconductivity. [33] An international team led by scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University has detected new features in the electronic behavior of a copper oxide material that may help explain why it becomes a perfect electrical conductor – a superconductor – at relatively high temperatures. [32] An artistic representation of the data showing the breaking of spatial inversion and rotational symmetries in the pseudogap region of superconducting materials-evidence that the pseudogap is a distinct phase of matter. [31] Superconductivity is a state in a material in which there is no resistance to electric current and all magnetic fields are expelled. This behavior arises from a so-called "macroscopic quantum state" where all the electrons in a material act in concert to move cooperatively through the material without energy loss. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[311] viXra:1707.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-25 05:58:47

High-Temperature Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Researchers at North Carolina State University have significantly increased the temperature at which carbon-based materials act as superconductors, using a novel, boron-doped Q-carbon material. [39] Magnetic quantum objects in superconductors, so-called "fluxons," are particularly suitable for the storage and processing of data bits. [38] Researchers have made the first direct visual observation and measurement of ultra-fast vortex dynamics in superconductors. [37] By gently prodding a swirling cloud of supercooled lithium atoms with a pair of lasers, and observing the atoms' response, researchers at Swinburne have developed a new way to probe the properties of quantum materials. [36] The nickel-bismuth (Ni-Bi) sample studied here is the first example of a 2-D material where this type of superconductivity is intrinsic, meaning that it happens without the help of external agents, such as a nearby superconductor. [35] Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and Argonne National Laboratory have collaborated to design, build and test two devices that utilize different superconducting materials and could make X-ray lasers more powerful, versatile, compact and durable. [34] A team of researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory has identified a nickel oxide compound as an unconventional but promising candidate material for high-temperature superconductivity. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[310] viXra:1707.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-24 13:47:09

Cold and Fuzzy Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[309] viXra:1707.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-24 14:14:38

Dark Matter Mapping

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[308] viXra:1707.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-24 14:40:12

Gravitational Lensing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Using gravitational lensing, an international team of astronomers has detected a new Type Ia supernova. [29] Veritable shields against high-energy particles, planets' magnetic fields are produced by iron moving in their liquid core. Yet the dominant model for explaining this system does not fit the smallest celestial bodies. [28] Thanks to an innovative ring laser design, geophysicists at LMU can now measure and monitor Earth's rotation with unprecedented accuracy. [27] Spiral galaxies are found to be strongly rotating, with an angular momentum higher by a factor of about five than ellipticals. [26] Throughout the universe, supersonic shock waves propel cosmic rays and supernova particles to velocities near the speed of light. [25] A team of astronomers from the Inter University Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics (IUCAA), and Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), both in Pune, India, and members of two other Indian universities, have identified a previously unknown, extremely large supercluster of galaxies located in the direction of constellation Pisces. [24] Enigmatic 'dark energy', thought to make up 68% of the universe, may not exist at all, according to a Hungarian-American team. [23] Astronomers in the US are setting up an experiment which, if it fails – as others have – could mark the end of a 30-year-old theory. [22] Russian scientists have discovered that the proportion of unstable particles in the composition of dark matter in the days immediately following the Big Bang was no more than 2 percent to 5 percent. Their study has been published in Physical Review D. [21] Researchers from the University of Amsterdam’s (UvA) GRAPPA Center of Excellence have just published the most precise analysis of the fluctuations in the gamma-ray background to date. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[307] viXra:1707.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-24 15:57:44

Imputing Missing Distributions by LQD Transformation and RKHS-Based Functional Regression

Authors: Zhicheng Chen
Comments: 6 Pages.

Data loss is a big problem in many online monitoring systems due to various reasons. Copula-based approaches are effective imputation methods for missing data imputation; however, such methods are highly dependent on a reliable distribution of missing data. This article proposed a functional regression approach for missing probability density function (PDF) imputation. PDFs are first transformed to a Hilbert space by the log quantile density (LQD) transformation. The transformed results of the response PDFs are approximated by the truncated Karhunen–Loève representation. Corresponding representation in the Hilbert space of a missing PDF is estimated by a vector-on-function regression model in reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS), then mapping back to the density space by the inverse LQD transformation to obtain an imputation for the missing PDF. To address errors caused by the numerical integration in the inverse LQD transformation, original PDFs are aided by a PDF of uniform distribution. The effect of the added uniform distribution in the imputed result of a missing PDF can be separated by the warping function-based PDF estimation technique.
Category: Statistics

[306] viXra:1707.0314 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-19 20:15:50

Fine Soccer(2)

Authors: Morio Kikuchi
Comments: 26 Pages.

We modify the present rule of soccer in order to be able to get points of plural kinds referring to the point system of rugby.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[305] viXra:1707.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-24 21:51:51

Decision-Making in the Scientific Age

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

A volatile reality.
Category: Social Science

[304] viXra:1707.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-24 22:27:12

谁创造了神?

Authors: Liu Ran
Comments: 3 Pages.

对于宇宙大爆炸理论,有一个明显的,永远无法证明的问题是宇宙最初的能量从何而来?而对于神创论,同样有这样一个死穴,谁创造了神?由哥德尔不完备性定理,这两个问题都只能靠宇宙之外的东西来证明。
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[303] viXra:1707.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-24 11:54:21

Can Machines Think? Revisited

Authors: Sakshum Gadyal
Comments: 2 Pages.

The question whether a machine can think has a special place in computer science and modern philosophy. It has avoided the clear answer as no one know what it means to 'Think'. We all experience it though. Alan Turing developed one possible approach by not answering the question directly but by comparing the actions taken by machine and a human under same circumstances(The Turing Test). However, like any other approach, Turing test is not an absolute measure of intelligence of a system. The purpose this article is simple, to approach the question directly, by giving some arguments...
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[302] viXra:1707.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-24 13:10:06

Radiation Pressure Inside a Collapsing Shell

Authors: C. A. Laforet
Comments: 2 Pages.

Birkhoff’s theorem says that the spacetime inside a spherically symmetric collapsing shell is Minkowskian. Given this fact, signals exchanged between the shell and a central observer as well as between observers on the shell itself are examined, and it is shown that these signals will become infinitely blueshifted as the shell approaches its Schwarzschild radius. It is also shown that the space inside the shell will contract to zero volume in the frame of a shell observer as the shell approaches its Schwarzschild radius.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[301] viXra:1707.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-24 13:30:56

Huygens’ Principle, Maxwell’s Displacement Current, and Nanogenerators for Energy Harvesting

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 7 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

In recent years, there is a growing number of proposals to use a novel concept of energy harvesting using nanogenerators. This concept can be used for water wave energy harvesting, wind energy harvesting, but also for self-powered microdevices. This novel concept is based on the reality of Maxwell’s displacement current. On the other hand, it is known that Huygens’ Principle (HP) contains both the principle of action-at-proximity and the superposition principle. Although the propagation of sharp, non-spreading wave fronts is included in Huygens’ (1690) original formulation, it can be left out without touching those principles. HP for Maxwell’s equations is discussed in terms of the Helmholtz-decomposed fields and currents.
Category: Classical Physics

[300] viXra:1707.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-24 08:40:49

Turbulence in Planetary Cores

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Veritable shields against high-energy particles, planets' magnetic fields are produced by iron moving in their liquid core. Yet the dominant model for explaining this system does not fit the smallest celestial bodies. [28] Thanks to an innovative ring laser design, geophysicists at LMU can now measure and monitor Earth's rotation with unprecedented accuracy. [27] Spiral galaxies are found to be strongly rotating, with an angular momentum higher by a factor of about five than ellipticals. [26] Throughout the universe, supersonic shock waves propel cosmic rays and supernova particles to velocities near the speed of light. [25] A team of astronomers from the Inter University Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics (IUCAA), and Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), both in Pune, India, and members of two other Indian universities, have identified a previously unknown, extremely large supercluster of galaxies located in the direction of constellation Pisces. [24] Enigmatic 'dark energy', thought to make up 68% of the universe, may not exist at all, according to a Hungarian-American team. [23] Astronomers in the US are setting up an experiment which, if it fails – as others have – could mark the end of a 30-year-old theory. [22] Russian scientists have discovered that the proportion of unstable particles in the composition of dark matter in the days immediately following the Big Bang was no more than 2 percent to 5 percent. Their study has been published in Physical Review D. [21] Researchers from the University of Amsterdam's (UvA) GRAPPA Center of Excellence have just published the most precise analysis of the fluctuations in the gamma-ray background to date. [20] The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, called DESI, has an ambitious goal: to scan more than 35 million galaxies in the night sky to track the expansion of our universe and the growth of its large-scale structure over the last 10 billion years. [19] If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18]
Category: Astrophysics

[299] viXra:1707.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-24 09:20:25

Building Blocks of Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

For decades scientists have known that a quantum computer—a device that stores and manipulates information in quantum objects such as atoms or photons—could theoretically perform certain calculations far faster than today's computing schemes. [18] Magnets and magnetic phenomena underpin the vast majority of modern data storage, and the measurement scales for research focused on magnetic behaviors continue to shrink with the rest of digital technology. [17] Scientists have recently created a new spintronics material called bismuthene, which has similar properties to that of graphene. [16] The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
Category: Quantum Physics

[298] viXra:1707.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-24 04:37:53

Restraining General Covariance

Authors: Lluís Bel
Comments: 12 Pages.

The Postulate of General covariance, a last choice that Einstein introduced in his General relativity theory of gravitation, endows the theory with an excessive generality that needs to be restrained. Otherwise it is easy to check that, beyond the first order of approximation, several space-time models, all of them derived from the original Schwarzschild's initial solution of Einstein's field equations corresponding to a static spherical source, would predict different results to two fundamental experiments: the measure of the force acting on a given passive test mass at a distance $R$ of the center of the source, or equivalently, its initial acceleration when falling from rest, and the comparison of two way transit times of light traveling into an optic fiber along a vertical direction and along a meridian. The last section describes how to find numeric, static and spherically symmetric, interior models with pre-selected mass $m$ and radius $R$ with $m/R<1$ or $m/R>1$ solving the horizon problem. \end{abstract}
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[297] viXra:1707.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-24 07:08:46

The General Mechanics of the Moving Objects

Authors: Peng Gao
Comments: 17 Pages.

In the article, we establish a completely new theory of mechanics based on absolute frame of reference, demonstrating negating the theory developed by Albert Einstein based on relative frame of reference. We derive the results that are different from Einstein’s, explaining the phenomenon that can be explained by Einstein’s theory and beyond. The new generalized the theory discovers the principle of the mechanics, with better accuracy between the theoretical prediction and real experimental results compared with Einstein. The article contains 15 sections as the following, 1. The spatial structure of the universe; 2. The absolute and relative frame of reference of Einstein; 3. Absolute four dimensional space time relationship; 4 The rule for the velocity transformation; 5 Length contraction, time dilation and mass reduction; 6. The modification of Newton's law of universal gravitation; 7. The essence of mechanics; 8. Inertial mass and gravitational mass; 9. Gravitational field and acceleration; 10 Mass and energy; 11. “aether”, expansion of the universe and the properties of the light; 12. The charge and absolute mechanics; 13. The modification of Coulomb law; 14. The modification of Matter wave; 15. The verification of the wave equation.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[296] viXra:1707.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-23 12:42:25

Theoretical Physics

Authors: Jean C.Dutailly
Comments: 405 Pages.

This book proposes a review and, on important points, a new formulation of the main concepts of Theoretical Physics. Rather than offering an interpretation based on exotic physical assumptions (additional dimension, new particle, cosmological phenomenon,...) or a brand new abstract mathematical formalism, it proceeds to a systematic review of the main concepts of Physics, as Physicists have always understood them : space, time, material body, force fields, momentum, energy... and proposes the right mathematical objects to deal with them, chosen among well grounded mathematical theories. Proceeding this way, the reader will have a comprehensive, consistent and rigorous understanding of the main topics of the Physics of the XXI° century, together with many tools to do practical computations. After a short introduction about the meaning of Theories in Physics, a new interpretation of the main axioms of Quantum Mechanics is proposed. It is proven that these axioms come actually from the way mathematical models are expressed, and this leads to theorems which validate most of the usual computations and provide safe and clear conditions for their use, as it is shown in the rest of the book. Relativity is introduced through the construct of the Geometry of General Relativity, from 5 propositions and the use of tetrads and fiber bundles, which provide tools to deal with practical problems, such as deformable solids. A review of the concept of motion leads to associate a frame to all material bodies, whatever their scale, and to the representation of motion in Clifford Algebras. Momenta, translational and rotational, are then represented by spinors, which provide a clear explanation for the spin and the existence of anti-particles. The force fields are introduced through connections, in the framework of gauge theories, which is here extended to the gravitational field. It shows that this field has actually a rotational and a transversal component, which are masked under the usual treatment by the metric and the Levy-Civita connection. A thorough attention is given to the topic of the propagation of fields with new and important results. The general theory of lagrangians in the application of the Principle of Least Action is reviewed, and two general models, incorporating all particles and fields are explored, and used for the introduction of the concepts of currents and energy-momentum tensor. Precise guidelines are given to find solutions for the equations representing a system in the most general case. The topic of the last chapter is discontinuous processes. The phenomenon of collision is studied, and we show that bosons can be understood as discontinuities in the fields.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[295] viXra:1707.0300 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-02 07:00:37

The Special Relativity Theory and Energy

Authors: Tsuneaki Takahashi
Comments: 3 Pages.

Considering Special Relativity Theory, energy has been derived through the case of mass points’ collision applying the equation from the theory. But the difference of space distance and the difference of time distance are based on the different view for each frame of references. So relativistic mass and energy quantity assumed real quantity should be tried to derive directly and deductively from the same assumption for the theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[294] viXra:1707.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-23 10:32:52

Method of Localisation and Controlled Ejection of Swarms of Likely Charged Particles

Authors: I. N. Tukaev
Comments: 11 Pages.

This work considers Coulomb forces acting on a charged point particle located between the two coaxial, likely charged rings laying at some distance between one another. Conditions under which the charged particle, while being affected by Coulomb repulsion forces of charges of the rings, localises in the space between the rings and moves along a closed trajectory around the axis of charged rings, not leaving the space between them, were determined. Also, conditions at which a controlled ejection of the charged particle from its localisation zone (or the capability to control the kinetic energy and direction of ejection of the particle) is possible, were determined. Based on the obtained results, we conclude that the considered method of localisation and controlled ejection of charged particles is applicable both in experiments on the nuclear synthesis in swarms of localised positively charged particles and for the formation of beams of likely charged particles with the given velocity of motion relatively to the charged rings.
Category: Classical Physics

[293] viXra:1707.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-23 11:06:26

The nxnxn Dots Problem Optimal Solution

Authors: Marco Ripà
Comments: This is a revised version of the paper published in 2016 on Notes on Number Theory and Discrete Mathematics (ISSN 1310-5132), Volume 22, Number 2 (Pages 36—43).

We provide an optimal strategy to solve the n X n X n points problem inside the box, considering only 90° turns, and at the same time a pattern able to drastically lower down the known upper bound. We use a very simple spiral frame, especially if compared to the previous plane by plane approach, that significantly reduces the number of straight lines connected at their end-points necessary to join all the n^3 dots. In the end, we combine the square spiral frame with the rectangular spiral pattern in the most profitable way, in order to minimize the difference between the upper and the lower bound, proving that it is ≤ 0.5 ∙ n ∙ (n + 3), for any n > 1.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[292] viXra:1707.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-22 14:18:09

Absolute Time Theory

Authors: Giacomo Roccaforte
Comments: 79 Pages. This version is in Italian, but conclusions are in English.

This theory arises from the analysis of specific situations that the Special Theory of Relativity does not consider, or for which it does not provided information about them. These situations are listed as critical points, scenarios that would lead to ambiguous, contradictory or unexplained conclusions, using the same principles as the theory itself. Using the same experimental data as the basis for the birth of the Special Theory of Relativity, and which are normally used to confirm the theory itself, we comes to a solution where these critical points would be eliminated. We then come to a theory where the results would be unambiguous, independent by how we choose to consider variables, in line with data experiences and established theory principles, such as the constancy of the speed of light and its independence from the motion of the source , means the same elements that are in Special Theory of Relativity, but interpreted in a different way. It would therefore provide a new explanation of the Nature of Light, and a basis for further studies not yet examined.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[291] viXra:1707.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-22 15:52:25

Fractal Arts: a 2D-Mfdfa Approach

Authors: Sayan Nag
Comments: 6 Pages.

“Art attracts us only by what it reveals of our most secret self.”- Alfred North Whitehead The basic building blocks upon which the natural world is built are Fractals. Recognizing these patterns in Nature is essential-because of these patterns Nature is so aesthetically pleasing. We try to find these patterns everywhere instinctively. In our work we look forward to find the fractality in Abstract art-the paintings of the renowned artist Jackson Pollock using a novel approach of 2D-Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis in his paintings.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[290] viXra:1707.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-22 16:13:05

Super-Jupiters are Brown Dwarfs in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. illustrative diagram

It is pointed out using the general theory of stellar metamorphosis that there is no difference between super Jupiters and Brown Dwarf stars. They are the same objects. As well, this is just a smaller reasoning inside of a much larger worldview, stars themselves are the young, hot, big exoplanets. Thus stars were never mutually exclusive of planets/exoplanets. A diagram is presented to show that super Jupiters and Brown dwarfs fit in the exact same spot on the stellar evolution (planet formation) diagram.
Category: Astrophysics

[289] viXra:1707.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-22 16:45:48

The Real Age of Teide-1 in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 illustrative diagram

Using the Wolynski-Taylor diagram we can give a more accurate age of Teide-1. It is about 350 million years old, not 120 million as claimed by the dogma. This means it is almost 3 times as old. It should be obvious to the reader that astronomers do not understand that stars are young, hot and big planets. This means that any age determination they use absent this understanding will be inaccurate, inconsistent and invalid.
Category: Astrophysics

[288] viXra:1707.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-23 04:40:45

The Duality of the Mass as a Basis of the Field-Forces

Authors: Hans-Joerg Hochecker
Comments: 17 Pages. International Journal of Physics. 2017; 5(4):121-134. doi: 10.12691/ijp-5-4-4

The matter-waves, well-known from numerous experiments, can be described as beat waves of two counter-moving waves. Thus mass is oscillating space-time, which results from the superposition of two counter-moving space-time waves. The duality of this counter-motion derives the duality of the electric force. And the inertia of the mass arises from the frequency. The electric force arises from a space- or energy- shift. Gravitation arises from the change of the energy-density of the electric field (by which the gravitational acceleration is independent of the mass) and yields the same results as GR. And the magnetic field appears to be an angle between the direction in which the electric field propagates and the direction in which it exerts its force.
Category: Classical Physics

[287] viXra:1707.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-23 05:57:59

New Explanation for Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[286] viXra:1707.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-21 20:38:29

Quantum Cosmology and Life

Authors: Evgeny A. Novikov
Comments: 2 Pages.

In frame of the quantum modification of general relativity (Qmoger), supported by cosmic data (without fitting), a new physically distinguished scale is obtained. This scale indicate a mechanism of formation new particles from the background matter. At the same time that scale corresponds to the size of a living cell.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[285] viXra:1707.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-22 05:07:01

Computational Psychiatry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Machine learning, data mining, and artificial intelligence are revolutionizing the study and understanding of mental illness. [26] Google recently launched PAIR, an acronym of People + AI Research, in an attempt to increase the utility of AI and improve human to AI interaction. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17] The closer we can get a machine translation to be on par with expert human translation, the happier lots of people struggling with translations will be. [16]
Category: Mind Science

[284] viXra:1707.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-21 12:13:37

Using 2016 Nobel Prize Molecule

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Silicon anodes are receiving a great deal of attention from the battery community. They can deliver around three to five times higher capacity compared with those using current graphite anodes in lithium ion batteries. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators.
Category: Condensed Matter

[283] viXra:1707.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-21 13:19:06

An Experiment Against Relativity Interactive Dependency (a New Story of the Present Physics the Failure of Relativity Leads the Present Physics from Time Dilation to no Time.)

Authors: Bandaru Ramu
Comments: 9 Pages.

Many thinkers and scientists tried to prove that Relativity is wrong. But this article show EXPERIMENTAL PROOFS TO PROVE THAT THE THEORY OF RELATIVTY IS WRONG. In this article, two experiments are explained. EXPERIMENT-1 PROVES:( whatever the relative constant velocities may be 50, 75, or 90 percent of `C` the velocity of light, The information P Simultaneity not follow any time dilations when compared with the information `Q`) Michelson and Morley’s experiment conducted many times. But all their experiments were conducted in only one inertial frame. But if that experiment extended up to two inertial frames, which Results will be taken place? 1.Simultaneity not depend on the concept time interval. 2.‘C` not stand to calculate the time. 3.Time dilation can not keep the speed of light rays constant. It can not keep the relation - inversely proportional between the frequency and wave length. 4.The light rays not travel with equal velocity in all directions in vacuum. According to Max well, “The velocity of electromagnetic waves is specific.” This truth is valid in the observer’s own inertial frame not in vacuum because light rays not run in vacuum independently. The traveling of light rays is dependent on inertial frame. They run interacting along with the surroundings of inertial frames such as massive bodies. EXPERIMENT -2 reveals: 1. According to Relative theory, Physical laws take place in one concerned inertial frame and follow the time of that inertial frame. Physical laws are interactive and dependent. These physical laws or interactions take place among many inertial frames. Thus the interactions cannot follow any relative time among the inertial frames. that interaction should consider the relative velocity of concerned inertial frames.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[282] viXra:1707.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-21 14:03:43

The Optimal Web of Interconnected Human Intellects

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 17 Pages.

Proposed solution to the Clay Institute Millennium Prize Problems.
Category: General Mathematics

[281] viXra:1707.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-21 08:10:26

Gravitational Anomaly on Earth

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Now however, a new type of materials, the so-called Weyl semimetals, similar to 3-D graphene, allow us to put the symmetry destructing quantum anomaly to work in everyday phenomena, such as the creation of electric current. [10] Physicist Professor Chunnong Zhao and his recent PhD students Haixing Miao and Yiqiu Ma are members of an international team that has created a particularly exciting new design for gravitational wave detectors. [9] A proposal for a gravitational-wave detector made of two space-based atomic clocks has been unveiled by physicists in the US. [8] The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[280] viXra:1707.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-21 09:04:54

Brain's GPS

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

University of Munich neurobiologists present a new theory for the origin of the grid cells required for spatial orientation in the mammalian brain, which assigns a vital role to the timing of trains of signals they receive from neurons called place cells. [30] During the last decade, commercial brain-training programs have risen in popularity, offering people the hope of improving their cognitive abilities through the routine performance of various "brain games" that tap cognitive functions such as memory, attention and cognitive flexibility. [29] The human brain is smaller than most people imagine, it can be held in one hand and weighs about 3 pounds. However, the innocuous looking gray matter is infinitely complex and barely understood. But part of the challenge to understanding, despite the number of researchers, scientists, and doctors dedicated to its study, is that there is no central hub of information, mapping, or data gathering for brain research. Soon though, the Human Brain Project (HBP) hopes to change all that. [28] Many universities and institutes suggested that inside microtubules of brain cells, quantum vibrational computations were orchestrated. [27] New research proposes a way to test whether quantum entanglement is affected by consciousness. [26] Using atomic-scale quantum defects in diamonds known as nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers to detect the magnetic field generated by neural signals, scientists working in the lab of Ronald Walsworth, a faculty member in Harvard's Center for Brain Science and Physics Department, demonstrated a noninvasive technique that can image the activity of neurons. [25] Neuroscience and artificial intelligence experts from Rice University and Baylor College of Medicine have taken inspiration from the human brain in creating a new "deep learning" method that enables computers to learn about the visual world largely on their own, much as human babies do. [24]
Category: Mind Science

[279] viXra:1707.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-21 09:18:46

Deepening Questions about Electron Deep Orbits of the Hydrogen Atom

Authors: Jean-Luc Paillet, Andrew Meulenberg
Comments: 12 Pages. Submitted to 12th Intern. Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen Loaded Metal.

In previous works, we analyzed and countered arguments against the deep orbits, as discussed in published solutions. Moreover, we revealed the essential role of Special Relativity as source of electron deep orbits (EDOs). We also showed, from a well-known analytic method of solution of the Dirac equation, that the obtained EDOs have a positive energy. When including the magnetic interactions near the nucleus, we observed a breakthrough in how to satisfy the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation (HUR) for electrons confined near the nucleus, in a radial zone of only a few fm. Here we chose a different method, by directly facing the HUR for such confined electrons, from which we deduce the coefficient γ of these highly relativistic electrons. Then we show the effective Coulomb potential due to a relativistic correction, can maintain the electrons in containment. Next we resume and deepen our study of the effects of EM interactions near the nucleus. We first obtain computation results: though approximate, we can effectively expect high-energy resonances near the nucleus. These results should be confirmed by using QFT-based methods.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[278] viXra:1707.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-21 09:54:40

Atomic Nucleus Grimace

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

To some degree of approximation, atomic nuclei are spherical, though distorted to a greater or lesser extent. When the nucleus is excited, its shape may change, but only for an extremely brief moment, after which it returns to its original state. [13] What is the mass of a proton? Scientists from Germany and Japan have made an important step toward better understanding this fundamental constant. [12] In a paper published today in the journal Science, the ASACUSA experiment at CERN reported new precision measurement of the mass of the antiproton relative to that of the electron. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[277] viXra:1707.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-21 10:45:40

Light on the Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

A web that passes through infinite intergalactic spaces, a dense cosmic forest illuminated by very distant lights and a huge enigma to solve. [32] Physicists from the University of Liverpool have made a huge step forwards towards building a novel experiment to probe the "dark contents" of the vacuum. [31] Researchers at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai have proposed a theory that predicts how dark matter may be annihilating much more rapidly in the Milky Way, than in smaller or larger galaxies and the early Universe. [30] Two teams working independently have conducted studies with similar results suggesting the possibility that some of the cosmic rays striking the Earth arise from dark matter particles colliding with one another. [29] A mysterious gamma-ray glow at the center of the Milky Way is most likely caused by pulsars – the incredibly dense, rapidly spinning cores of collapsed ancient stars that were up to 30 times more massive than the sun. [28] Further evidence of the existence of dark matter – the mysterious substance that is believed to hold the Universe together – has been produced by Cosmologists at Durham University. [27] Researchers at the University of Waterloo have been able to capture the first composite image of a dark matter bridge that connects galaxies together. [26] In an abandoned gold mine one mile beneath Lead, South Dakota, the cosmos quiets down enough to potentially hear the faint whispers of the universe's most elusive material—dark matter. [25] The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22]
Category: Astrophysics

[276] viXra:1707.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-21 04:44:27

Optical Nanoantenna

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

A team of researchers from several institutions in Germany and Australia has developed an optical high-bitrate nanoantenna that they used with an optical waveguide. [18] Magnets and magnetic phenomena underpin the vast majority of modern data storage, and the measurement scales for research focused on magnetic behaviors continue to shrink with the rest of digital technology. [17] Scientists have recently created a new spintronics material called bismuthene, which has similar properties to that of graphene. [16] The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley, fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
Category: Condensed Matter

[275] viXra:1707.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-21 05:43:57

Vortex Photons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Researchers at IMS and their coworkers have shown theoretically and experimentally that a high energy electron in circular/spiral motion radiates vortex photons from the radio wavelength to gamma rays. [30] Brown University researchers have developed a new method of manipulating the polarization of light at terahertz frequencies. [29] In a recent publication, Aalto University researchers show that in a transparent medium each photon is accompanied by an atomic mass density wave. [28] New research has made it possible for the first time to compare the spatial structures and positions of two distant objects, which may be very far away from each other, just by using a simple thermal light source, much like a star in the sky. [27] In an arranged marriage of optics and mechanics, physicists have created microscopic structural beams that have a variety of powerful uses when light strikes them. [26] At EPFL, researchers challenge a fundamental law and discover that more electromagnetic energy can be stored in wave-guiding systems than previously thought. [25] The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[274] viXra:1707.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 13:09:45

The Internal Structure of Natural Numbers and the Sets of Odd Numbers that Are not Primes and Even Numbers that Are not Powers of Two.

Authors: Emmanuil Manousos
Comments: 29 Pages.

Natural numbers have a strictly defined internal structure that is being revealed in the present article. This structure is inherent of the natural numbers and is not derived through the introduction of any axioms for the set of natural numbers. In the present article, we prove the fundamental theorems that determine this structure. As a consequence of this structure, a mathematical expression for the set of odd numbers that are not primes is derived. Given the set of odd numbers, we can identify the set of prime numbers. Additionally, a new method for expressing odd composite numbers as the product of powers of prime numbers is derived.
Category: Number Theory

[273] viXra:1707.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 13:45:12

Evidence for the Majorana Fermion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Now a team including Stanford scientists says it has found the first firm evidence of such a Majorana fermion. [19] Majorana fermions are particles that could potentially be used as information units for a quantum computer. [18] According to current estimates, dozens of zettabytes of information will be stored electronically by 2020, which will rely on physical principles that facilitate the use of single atoms or molecules as basic memory cells. [17] EPFL scientists have developed a new perovskite material with unique properties that can be used to build next-generation hard drives. [16] Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[272] viXra:1707.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-21 01:33:42

Manipulate Nanomagnets and Store Information

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Magnets and magnetic phenomena underpin the vast majority of modern data storage, and the measurement scales for research focused on magnetic behaviors continue to shrink with the rest of digital technology. [17] Scientists have recently created a new spintronics material called bismuthene, which has similar properties to that of graphene. [16] The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley, fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[271] viXra:1707.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 11:46:29

Goal → New Heuristic Model of Ideality: Logos → Coincidentia Oppositorum → Primordial Generating Structure

Authors: Vladimir I.Rogozhin
Comments: 9 Pages. FQXi Essay Contest entry 2017

Fundamental knowledge endures deep conceptual crisis manifested in total crisis of understanding, crisis of interpretation and representation, loss of certainty, troubles with physics, crisis of methodology. Crisis of understanding in fundamental science generates deep crisis of understanding in global society. What way should we choose for overcoming total crisis of understanding in fundamental science? It should be the way of metaphysical construction of new comprehensive model of ideality on the basis of the modified ontology. Result of quarter-century wanderings: sum of ideas, concepts and eidoses, new understanding of space, time, consciousness.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[270] viXra:1707.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 07:18:32

Measurement of Proton Mass

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

In a paper published today in the journal Science, the ASACUSA experiment at CERN reported new precision measurement of the mass of the antiproton relative to that of the electron. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[269] viXra:1707.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 07:30:59

The Location of HIP 65426b on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 illustrative graph

Astronomers have no idea how something so hot, so small could form so far from its host star. It fits in stellar metamorphosis theory on a simple graph. It is a 350 million year old brown dwarf star.
Category: Astrophysics

[268] viXra:1707.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 08:52:50

Quantum World and Local Realism

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Physicists have reported some of the strongest evidence yet that that the quantum world does not obey local realism by demonstrating new evidence for the existence of quantum entanglement. [12] Mathematicians at the Universities of York, Munich and Cardiff have identified a unique property of quantum mechanical particles – they can move in the opposite way to the direction in which they are being pushed. [11] For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated the violation of "bilocal causality"—a concept that is related to the more standard local causality, except that it accounts for the precise way in which physical systems are initially generated. The results show that it's possible to violate local causality in an entirely new and more general way, which could lead to a potential new resource for quantum technologies. [10] The microscopic world is governed by the rules of quantum mechanics, where the properties of a particle can be completely undetermined and yet strongly correlated with those of other particles. Physicists from the University of Basel have observed these so-called Bell correlations for the first time between hundreds of atoms. [9] For the past 100 years, physicists have been studying the weird features of quantum physics, and now they're trying to put these features to good use. One prominent example is that quantum superposition (also known as quantum coherence)—which is the property that allows an object to be in two states at the same time—has been identified as a useful resource for quantum communication technologies. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[267] viXra:1707.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 09:32:10

Sphere Theory, the New Grand Unified Theory, Prediction of more Precise Gravitational Constant

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Sphere Theory, is a theory that the universe is made of spheres, that, are made of spheres. In fact ,it is a theory of spheres all the way down. Part of the theory is that there is radiation that creates stable resonances that is similar to Bremsstrahlung and Cherenkov radiation. In this paper it is shown that this same structure that is used to predict mass ratios for the proton, electron, muon, and tau to the neutron, and predictions for the Sommerfeld fine structure constant, and the von Klitzing constant, can also be used to predict a more accurate value for the Gravitational constant, with the accuracy of the Planck constant and neutron mass being the limiting factor. The value predicted for the Gravitational constant is as follows. 6.6738480×10^-11 m^3/kgs^2.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[266] viXra:1707.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 10:35:11

A Conjecture of Gravitons Driving Cosmic Expansion

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 4 pages, 2 figures. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.21780.19846

It is well known that electronic orbital potential reduction or orbit shrinkage can result photon emission, and photon can excite another atom then expand electrons shell. In similar way, one stellar system shrinkage should also emit graviton, and another stellar system on the path of graviton propagation should be able to absorb the said graviton if energy enough to secure a minimal orbital expansive leap.
Category: Astrophysics

[265] viXra:1707.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 10:40:29

Modified Coulomb Forces and the Point Particles States Theory

Authors: I. N. Tukaev
Comments: 207 Pages.

A system of equations of motion of point particles is considered within the framework of the classical dynamics (the three Newton’s laws). Equations of the system are similar to the equation by Wilhelm Eduard Weber from his theory of electrodynamics. However, while deriving equations of the system, the Coulomb law as the law for point particles which are motionless relatively one another (used by Weber for formulation of his equation) is regarded as a hypothesis unverified experimentally. An alternative hypothesis was proposed, presuming that the Coulomb law describes the interaction of the two electrically charged point particles within a determined range of their relative velocity magnitudes excluding a zero value – if the relative velocity magnitude is equal to zero, particles with like charges attract one another and those with unlike charges repulse. The results of mathematical analysis of the system of equations of motion of point particles with Coulomb forces modified in accordance with the alternative hypothesis and acting between them were used for modelling of the various physical phenomena and processes.
Category: Classical Physics

[264] viXra:1707.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-19 19:24:50

Statistical Methods in Astronomy

Authors: James P. Long, Rafael S. De Souza
Comments: 9 Pages. To apper in Wiley StatsRef: Statistics Reference Online

We present a review of data types and statistical methods often encountered in astronomy. The aim is to provide an introduction to statistical applications in astronomy for statisticians and computer scientists. We highlight the complex, often hierarchical, nature of many astronomy inference problems and advocate for cross-disciplinary collaborations to address these challenges.
Category: Statistics

[263] viXra:1707.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 02:20:32

Finding The Optimal Number ‘K’ In The K-Means Algorithm

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research Technical Note the author has presented a novel method to find the Optimal Number ‘K’ in the K-Means Algorithm.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[262] viXra:1707.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 03:54:52

Polarization of Terahertz Radiation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Brown University researchers have developed a new method of manipulating the polarization of light at terahertz frequencies. [29] In a recent publication, Aalto University researchers show that in a transparent medium each photon is accompanied by an atomic mass density wave. [28] New research has made it possible for the first time to compare the spatial structures and positions of two distant objects, which may be very far away from each other, just by using a simple thermal light source, much like a star in the sky. [27] In an arranged marriage of optics and mechanics, physicists have created microscopic structural beams that have a variety of powerful uses when light strikes them. [26] At EPFL, researchers challenge a fundamental law and discover that more electromagnetic energy can be stored in wave-guiding systems than previously thought. [25] The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[261] viXra:1707.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 05:11:07

Modelling Ideal MHD as a System of Coupled Quaternionic Riccati Equations and Its Application for MHD Power Generator

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

In recent years, there are several proposals of using MHD theory for clean power generators on top of coal plant. But the theory involved appears too complicated, so in this paper we will use a simpler approach using ideal MHD equations which then they can be reduced to a system of coupled quaternionic Riccati equations. Further numerical and experimental investigations are advisable.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[260] viXra:1707.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 05:12:37

Dispelling the Myth Surrounding Maxwell’s Displacement Current, and Its Applications in Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Energy Harvesting

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 6 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

In recent years, there are growing number of proposals to use a novel concept of energy harvesting using nanogenerators. This concept can be used for water wave energy harvesting, wind energy harvesting, but also for self-powered microdevices. This novel concept is based on the reality of Maxwell’s displacement current. On the other hand, such a displacement current has been debated for many years: whether it is real or just a mathematical entity. This paper is intended to dispelling the myth surrounding the reality and correct interpretation of displacement current based on on Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory. We also briefly discuss a plausible extension of Maxwell equations based on vortex sound theory of Prof. Tsutomu Kambe. It is our hope that discerning the myth from reality is very important step toward tapping and harvesting energy from the hidden electromagnetic structure in Nature.
Category: Classical Physics

[259] viXra:1707.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 05:15:37

Discrete Space and Zeno's Paradoxe "The Moving Rows or Stadium"

Authors: Anton Chernikov
Comments: Pages.

In this article, I consider the construction of a model of a physical space with discrete space, matter and time. For such a space, the emergence of a contradiction of the analogous Zeno’s paradoxe "Stadium" is shown. I show the elimination of the contradiction of this paradoxe with the introduction of the concept of the order of time’s motion. The assumption about influence of time’s motion on transfer of the information about location of a matter in space that in turn can influence the future arrangement of a matter in space is advanced.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[258] viXra:1707.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 05:38:08

Chaos in Ultracold Reactions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Researchers have performed the first ever quantum-mechanical simulation of the benchmark ultracold chemical reaction between potassium-rubidium (KRb) and a potassium atom, opening the door to new controlled chemistry experiments and quantum control of chemical reactions that could spark advances in quantum computing and sensing technologies. [26] An international team led by the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering has discovered how to manipulate a weird quantum interface between light and matter in silicon carbide along wavelengths used in telecommunications. [25] The central idea of TQC is to encode qubits into states of topological phases of matter (see Collection on Topological Phases). [24] One promising approach to building them involves harnessing nanometer-scale atomic defects in diamond materials. [23] Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22] Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[257] viXra:1707.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 05:57:22

The Universe or Nothing: the Heat Death of the Universe and It's Ultimate Fate

Authors: Islam Atef Aly
Comments: 5 pages, 2 figures and one table

This paper overviews my hypothesis of the ultimate fate of the universe, showing how it will reach the heat death, and how the dark energy has the main role in the universe movement and even it's end, this paper opens a new path in the searching about the nature of dark energy, by knowing that it's the reason why the universe is expanding, cooling and losing energy. And to note that in this paper we based on that the universe is closed.
Category: Astrophysics

[256] viXra:1707.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 06:49:38

Moving Vortices in Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Researchers have made the first direct visual observation and measurement of ultra-fast vortex dynamics in superconductors. [37] By gently prodding a swirling cloud of supercooled lithium atoms with a pair of lasers, and observing the atoms' response, researchers at Swinburne have developed a new way to probe the properties of quantum materials. [36] The nickel-bismuth (Ni-Bi) sample studied here is the first example of a 2-D material where this type of superconductivity is intrinsic, meaning that it happens without the help of external agents, such as a nearby superconductor. [35] collaborated to design, build and test two devices that utilize different superconducting materials and could make X-ray lasers more powerful, versatile, compact and durable. [34] A team of researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory has identified a nickel oxide compound as an unconventional but promising candidate material for high-temperature superconductivity. [33] An international team led by scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University has detected new features in the electronic behavior of a copper oxide material that may help explain why it becomes a perfect electrical conductor – a superconductor – at relatively high temperatures. [32] An artistic representation of the data showing the breaking of spatial inversion and rotational symmetries in the pseudogap region of superconducting materials-evidence that the pseudogap is a distinct phase of matter. [31] Superconductivity is a state in a material in which there is no resistance to electric current and all magnetic fields are expelled. This behavior arises from a so-called "macroscopic quantum state" where all the electrons in a material act in concert to move cooperatively through the material without energy loss. [30] Harvard researchers found a way to transmit spin information through superconducting materials. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[255] viXra:1707.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-19 09:47:17

Controlling Elasticity with Magnetism

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Liquid electrolytes are essential components in a variety of emerging energy technologies, including batteries, supercapacitors and solar-to-fuel devices. [20] Basic processes in chemistry and biology involve protons in a water environment. [19] Scientists from the QUEST Institute at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) have now presented a model system that allows the investigation of atomic-scale friction effects and friction dynamics that are similar to those taking place in proteins, DNA strands and other deformable nanocontacts. [18] New research could make lasers emitting a wide range of colors more accessible and open new applications from communications and sensing to displays. [17] A novel way to harness lasers and plasmas may give researchers new ways to explore outer space and to examine bugs, tumors and bones back on planet Earth. [16] A team of researchers at Harvard University has successfully cooled a three-atom molecule down to near absolute zero for the first time. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13]
Category: Condensed Matter

[254] viXra:1707.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-19 10:17:16

Cosmological Collider

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

In a recent research, scientists from HKUST and Harvard University revealed the connection between those two aspects, and argued that our universe could be used as a particle physics "collider" to study the high energy particle physics. [8] According to Einstein's theory of relativity, the curvature of spacetime was infinite at the big bang. In fact, at this point all mathematical tools fail, and the theory breaks down. [7] The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[253] viXra:1707.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-18 15:08:59

A New Result About Prime Numbers: Lim N→+∞ N/(p(n) − N(ln N + ln ln N − 1)) = +∞

Authors: Rédoane Daoudi
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this short paper we propose a new result about prime numbers: lim n→+∞ n/(p(n) − n(ln n + ln ln n − 1)) = +∞ .
Category: Number Theory

[252] viXra:1707.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-18 22:49:05

The Principle of Equatorial Planes in Planet Formation (Stellar Evolution) in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 data set

: It is proposed a principle of equatorial planes to accurately predict the orbits of evolving stars around their hosts. The new star systems found will have companion stars orbiting their hosts at all inclination angles. The Sun and its orbiting evolving/dead stars are used as an example.
Category: Astrophysics

[251] viXra:1707.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-19 00:46:58

A Comprehensive Physicochemical, Thermal, and Spectroscopic Characterization of Zinc (Ii) Chloride Using X-Ray Diffraction, Psd, Dsc, Thermogravimetric Analysis/dta, Ultraviolet-Visible, and Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 8 Pages.

Objective: Zinc chloride is an important inorganic compound used as a source of zinc and has other numerous industrial applications. Unfortunately, it lacks reliable and accurate physicochemical, thermal, and spectral characterization information altogether. Hence, the authors tried to explore in-depth characterization of zinc chloride using the modern analytical technique. Materials and Methods: The analysis of zinc chloride was performed using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), particle size distribution, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) analytical techniques. Results: The PXRD patterns showed well-defined, narrow, sharp, and the significant peaks. The crystallite size was found in the range of 14.70–55.40 nm and showed average crystallite size of 41.34 nm. The average particle size was found to be of 1.123 (d10), 3.025 (d50), and 6.712 (d90) μm and average surface area of 2.71 m2/g. The span and relative span values were 5.849 μm and 1.93, respectively. The DSC thermogram showed a small endothermic inflation at 308.10°C with the latent heat (ΔH) of fusion 28.52 J/g. An exothermic reaction was observed at 449.32°C with the ΔH of decomposition 66.10 J/g. The TGA revealed two steps of the thermal degradation and lost 8.207 and 89.72% of weight in the first and second step of degradation, respectively. Similarly, the DTG analysis disclosed Tmaxat 508.21°C. The UV-vis spectrum showed absorbance maxima at 197.60 nm (λmax), and FT-IR spectrum showed a peak at 511/cm might be due to the Zn–Cl stretching. Conclusions: These in-depth, comprehensive data would be very much useful in all stages of nutraceuticals/pharmaceuticals formulation research and development and other industrial applications.
Category: Chemistry

[250] viXra:1707.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-19 05:05:13

Humanize Artificial Intelligent

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Google recently launched PAIR, an acronym of People + AI Research, in an attempt to increase the utility of AI and improve human to AI interaction. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17] The closer we can get a machine translation to be on par with expert human translation, the happier lots of people struggling with translations will be. [16] Researchers have created a large, open source database to support the development of robot activities based on natural language input. [15]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[249] viXra:1707.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-19 06:01:57

Using the Appropriate Norm In The K-Nearest Neighbours Analysis. ISSN 1751-3030

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 1 Page.

In this research Technical Note, the author has detailed a novel technique of finding the distance metric to be used for any given set of points.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[248] viXra:1707.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-19 06:40:54

A Generalized Similarity Measure {File Closing Version 2} ISSN 1751-3030

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research Technical Note the author has presented a novel method of finding a Generalized Similarity Measure between two Vectors or Matrices or Higher Dimensional Data of different sizes.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[247] viXra:1707.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-18 11:42:17

Spintronics Material for Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Scientists have recently created a new spintronics material called bismuthene, which has similar properties to that of graphene. [16] The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[246] viXra:1707.0250 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-31 05:57:56

How to Determine a Jump in Energy Prior to a Causal Barrier, with an Attendant Current, for an Effective Initial Magnetic Field. in the Pre Planckian to Planckian Space-Time

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: Added 6 pages as to a fifth force calculation of E and B fields, as an appendix entry, with a comment as to how it links to the inflaton genreated B field(comparing the two methods)

Formation of a magnetic field due to a current calculation based upon the inflaton, and also the addition of material as to how Pre Plackian to Planckian Gravi Magnetic field construction may relate to Maxwell's equations. The linkage as to Squeezed GW states alluded to, plus deformation mechanics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[245] viXra:1707.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-18 12:52:38

Numerical Calculation of the Rainich Space in the Vicinity of a Singularty

Authors: Ulrich E. Bruchholz, Horst Eckardt
Comments: 19 Pages.

The well known numerical method of approximating differential quotients by quotients of differences is used in a novel context. This method is commonly underestimated, wrongly. The method is explained by an ordinary differential equation first. Then it is demonstrated how this simple method proves successful for non-linear field equations with chaotic behaviour. Using certain discrete values of their integration constants, a behaviour comparable with Mandelbrot sets is obtained. Instead of solving the differential equations directly, their convergence behaviour is analyzed. As an example the Einstein-Maxwell equations are investigated, where discrete particle quantities are obtained from a continuous theory, which is possible only by this method. The special set of integration constants contains values identical with particle characteristics. Known particle values are confirmed, and unknown values can be predicted. In this paper, supposed neutrino masses are presented.
Category: Geometry

[244] viXra:1707.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-18 07:39:53

Early Smoothness and Expansion/Contraction of the Earth

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 illustration

In Earth’s earlier history when it had an extremely thick atmosphere, on par with atmospheres thicker than Jupiter’s, the central core was very, very pressurized and essentially liquid. This means it was extremely comparatively smooth to Earth as it currently is with mountains and ocean trenches. A short explanation for how the transition to its varying surface from being at an initial smooth state is provided.
Category: Geophysics

[243] viXra:1707.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-18 07:46:50

A Neutrosophic Image Retrieval Classifier

Authors: A. A. Salama, Mohamed Eisa, A. E. Fawzy
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper, we propose a two-phase Content-Based Retrieval System for images embedded in the Neutrosophic domain. In this first phase, we extract a set of features to represent the content of each image in the training database. In the second phase, a similarity measurement is used to determine the distance between the image under consideration (query image), and each image in the training database, using their feature vectors constructed in the first phase. Hence, the N most similar images are retrieved.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[242] viXra:1707.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-18 08:02:22

Neutrosophic Crisp Mathematical Morphology

Authors: Eman.M.El-Nakeeb, Hewayda ElGhawalby, A.A.Salama, S.A.El-Hafeez
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this paper, we aim to apply the concepts of the neutrosophic crisp sets and its operations to the classical mathematical morphological operations, introducing what we call "Neutrosophic Crisp Mathematical Morphology". Several operators are to be developed, including the neutrosophic crisp dilation, the neutrosophic crisp erosion, the neutrosophic crisp opening and the neutrosophic crisp closing.Moreover, we extend the definition of some morphological filters using the neutrosophic crisp sets concept. For instance, we introduce the neutrosophic crisp boundary extraction, the neutrosophic crisp Top-hat and the neutrosophic crisp Bottom- hat filters.The idea behind the new introduced operators and filters is to act on the image in the neutrosophic crisp domain instead of the spatial domain.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[241] viXra:1707.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-18 10:45:10

Quantum Particle Travels Backwards

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Mathematicians at the Universities of York, Munich and Cardiff have identified a unique property of quantum mechanical particles – they can move in the opposite way to the direction in which they are being pushed. [11] For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated the violation of "bilocal causality"—a concept that is related to the more standard local causality, except that it accounts for the precise way in which physical systems are initially generated. The results show that it's possible to violate local causality in an entirely new and more general way, which could lead to a potential new resource for quantum technologies. [10] The microscopic world is governed by the rules of quantum mechanics, where the properties of a particle can be completely undetermined and yet strongly correlated with those of other particles. Physicists from the University of Basel have observed these so-called Bell correlations for the first time between hundreds of atoms. [9] For the past 100 years, physicists have been studying the weird features of quantum physics, and now they're trying to put these features to good use. One prominent example is that quantum superposition (also known as quantum coherence)—which is the property that allows an object to be in two states at the same time—has been identified as a useful resource for quantum communication technologies. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[240] viXra:1707.0244 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-01 16:25:56

Negative Temperature & Einstein's Relativity Produce Immortality & Resurrection

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 5 Pages.

This article may appear highly speculative at first glance. But it's evidence-based since Relativity (vital to the concept of resurrection) has successfully met all challenges during the past century. The immortality and negative temperature parts are based on much more recent science papers, but those papers are based on the thermodynamics which originated in the 19th century - modern labs confirm its ideas and are discovering more applications. I hope readers can appreciate that the evidence pointing to immortality and resurrection does not need to be limited to medicine, but can be interdisciplinary and embrace physics. Albert Einstein (1879-1955), one of the greatest physicists of all time, said he regretted not making a bigger contribution to medical science. Perhaps the time has arrived when the world will finally understand and appreciate this man more completely ... by realising that his physics will one day have applications in fields like resurrection of the deceased and normalisation of health through the universal gravitational field. The 2013 physics paper "Negative Absolute Temperature for Motional Degrees of Freedom" (Braun, S. et al.: "Science" journal, Volume 339, Issue 6115, pp. 52–55 [2013]) adds the topic of immortality by speaking of negative temperatures below absolute zero. Traditionally, going below absolute zero has been regarded as impossible since this is the temperature at which all atomic motion ceases. However, the authors of the 2013 paper maintain it's possible because a more rigorous definition of temperature is "a trade-off between energy and entropy (disorder)". The first sentence in the Abstract of the 2016 paper "Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures" by J.P.P. Vieira, Christian T. Byrnes and Antony Lewis - Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Volume 2016, August 2016 (reference 2) says, "Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions)."
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[239] viXra:1707.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-18 05:55:50

Lightest Supersymmetric Particle is a Self-Conjugated Neutral Electron

Authors: Antonio Puccini
Comments: 10 Pages.

Analyzing the neutron decay, or beta-decay (Bd), our calculations and evaluations show that the 3rd particle emitted with the Bd (required by Pauli and Fermi to compensate for a noticeable energy gap) can be identified in an electron free of electric charge, that is a neutral electron: e° (instead of a neutrino). In the various Supersymmetric Models, there is the existence of a particle with a limited mass, which can never collapse in a lighter particle: the so-called Lightest Supersymmetric Particle (LSP). To date, this LSP has never been detected in any experiment. Examining the potential properties attributed to that particle in the various Supersymmetric Models, it seems to see a close analogy with features likely to be related to e°. Indeed, from a more in-depth examination, it appears that the properties of the two considered particles are completely superimposable, as if the two particles could be interchangeable, that is, identifiable in one another. It seems interesting to note that in our model we give particular attention to the fundamental property attributable both to the LSP and to the e°, i.e. the symmetry (represented by C, or charge conjugation), detectable by: ē°=C(e°)=e°
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[238] viXra:1707.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-17 13:20:25

The Folium of Descartes

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this note we briefly examine the curve: x^3+y^3=sqrt(2)*x*y
Category: Geometry

[237] viXra:1707.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-17 13:26:16

Ramanujan Trigonometric Formula

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 16 Pages.

This note presents formulas and fractals related with Ramanujan's trigonometric formula.
Category: Number Theory

[236] viXra:1707.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-17 14:34:07

François Mendzina Essomba pi-3.14 Formulas

Authors: François Mendzina Essomba
Comments: 5 Pages.

I present in this article some of my many formulas discovered on pi
Category: Number Theory

[235] viXra:1707.0239 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-13 18:09:20

The Backward Differentiation of the Bordering Algorithm for an Indefinite Cholesky Factorization

Authors: Stephen P. Smith
Comments: 19 Pages.

The bordering method of the Cholesky decomposition is backward differentiated to derive a method of calculating first derivatives. The result is backward differentiated again and an algorithm for calculating second derivatives results. Applying backward differentiation twice also generates an algorithm for conducting forward differentiation. The differentiation methods utilize three main modules: a generalization of forward substitution for calculating the forward derivatives; a generalization of backward substitution for calculating the backward derivatives; and an additional module involved with the calculation of second derivatives. Separating the methods into three modules lends itself to optimization where software can be developed for special cases that are suitable for sparse matrix manipulation, vector processing and/or blocking strategies that utilize matrix partitions. Surprisingly, the same derivative algorithms fashioned for the Cholesky decomposition of a positive definite matrix can be used again for matrices that are indefinite. The only differences are very minor adjustments involving an initialization step that leads into backward differentiation and a finalization step that follows forward differentiation.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[234] viXra:1707.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-17 22:43:49

Upper Bound of Prime Gaps, Lengendre's Conjecture Was Verified (I)

Authors: Quang Nguyen Van
Comments: 3 Pages.

We have found the possible max- difference between two successive prime numbers, and by them, Lengendre's conjecture is verified.
Category: Number Theory

[233] viXra:1707.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-17 11:00:59

Galaxy Rotation Curves: is there a Need for Dark Matter?

Authors: S.M.Hosseini, M.I.Kendrick
Comments: 4 Pages.

Galaxy rotation curves: is there a need for Dark Matter? Abstract In this paper a new approach to the Galaxy rotation curves has produced two values, one for the expansion of space or opening of space that gives a value three times as large as the actual rotation curves of the galaxy due to the real recession red-shift of the galaxy, see paper on: Hubble constant and the age of the Universe by the same authors[1]. The apparent red-shift will indicate that the values of the rotation velocities are three times the actual values, which in turn makes the mass of the galaxy nine times larger than the actual mass compare with the luminosity mass ratio and therefore indicating nearly an order of magnitude larger mass for the host galaxy of which about 90% of Dark Matter inferred in the host galaxy. Furthermore the values of the rotation curve in our own Milky-Way galaxy needs adjustments due to the nature of the aether or photon background in the galaxy. The background photons in our galaxy are of the shorter wavelengths near the center of the galaxy and longer wavelengths in the outskirt of the galaxy or the dark halo, see paper on: Wave particle and luminiferous aether trinity of the light[2]. The size of the galactic photon background will influence our velocity measurements.
Category: Astrophysics

[232] viXra:1707.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-17 12:43:41

Entanglement in a 2-D Quantum Material

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Now, scientists from EPFL and the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) have realized experimentally a new quantum many body state in a material. [19] Researchers have devised an improved method for checking whether two particles are entangled. [18] A group of researchers from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw has shed new light on the famous paradox of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen after 80 years. They created a multidimensional entangled state of a single photon and a trillion hot rubidium atoms, and stored this hybrid entanglement in the laboratory for several microseconds. [17] Members of the Faculty of Physics at the Lomonosov Moscow State University have elaborated a new technique for creating entangled photon states. [16] Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15] University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[231] viXra:1707.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-17 07:37:26

The Rock Cycle Versus Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

All phases of matter exist in stars as they cool and evolve. This means the rock cycle has a closed loop between solid/liquid material and does not give the complete picture of stellar evolution (planet formation), nor does it explain the structures found on the Earth such as a giant iron nickel/core, which comprises a much larger portion of the Earth than just a thin lithosphere.
Category: Geophysics

[230] viXra:1707.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-17 08:09:39

Beyond the Standard Model

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Although the discovery of the Higgs boson by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations in 2012 completed the Standard Model, many mysteries remain unexplained. For instance, why is the mass of the Higgs boson so much lighter than expected, and why is gravity so weak? [9] Last week, the detectors of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) witnessed their first collisions of 2017. [8] As physicists were testing the repairs of LHC by zipping a few spare protons around the 17 mile loop, the CMS detector picked up something unusual. The team feverishly pored over the data, and ultimately came to an unlikely conclusion—in their tests, they had accidentally created a rainbow universe. [7] The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[229] viXra:1707.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-17 09:01:25

Important Spintronic Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[228] viXra:1707.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-17 09:48:09

Monitor Earth's Rotation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Thanks to an innovative ring laser design, geophysicists at LMU can now measure and monitor Earth's rotation with unprecedented accuracy. [27] Spiral galaxies are found to be strongly rotating, with an angular momentum higher by a factor of about five than ellipticals. [26] Throughout the universe, supersonic shock waves propel cosmic rays and supernova particles to velocities near the speed of light. [25] A team of astronomers from the Inter University Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics (IUCAA), and Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), both in Pune, India, and members of two other Indian universities, have identified a previously unknown, extremely large supercluster of galaxies located in the direction of constellation Pisces. [24] Enigmatic 'dark energy', thought to make up 68% of the universe, may not exist at all, according to a Hungarian-American team. [23] Astronomers in the US are setting up an experiment which, if it fails – as others have – could mark the end of a 30-year-old theory. [22] Russian scientists have discovered that the proportion of unstable particles in the composition of dark matter in the days immediately following the Big Bang was no more than 2 percent to 5 percent. Their study has been published in Physical Review D. [21] Researchers from the University of Amsterdam's (UvA) GRAPPA Center of Excellence have just published the most precise analysis of the fluctuations in the gamma-ray background to date. [20] The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, called DESI, has an ambitious goal: to scan more than 35 million galaxies in the night sky to track the expansion of our universe and the growth of its large-scale structure over the last 10 billion years. [19] If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17]
Category: Astrophysics

[227] viXra:1707.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-17 05:49:20

A Generalized Similarity Measure ISSN 1751-3030

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research Technical Note the author has presented a novel method of finding a Generalized Similarity Measure between two Vectors or Matrices or Higher Dimensional Data of different sizes.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[226] viXra:1707.0229 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-23 10:10:35

Entanglement

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 2 Pages.

Physicists claimed that a quantum process between photons was instantaneous, but the conclusion of an instantaneous entangled state was a fallacy. The physicists compared the time that they needed for their measurement to the time that was required for a quantum process, that quantum process was a change in the quantum state of entangled photon over a distance of 1.3 kilometers. They concluded that there wasn't enough time to complete that quantum process within the time period of their measurement, so they concluded that it was instantaneous. But they were wrong, those physicists didn't realize that there was another option.
Category: Quantum Physics

[225] viXra:1707.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-16 14:46:05

Microscopic Theory of Gravitation

Authors: Baihua Qi, Tian Qi
Comments: 5 Pages.

The source of gravitation may come from the virtual electron-positron pairs generated by vacuum polarization and the force carrier particles would be pairs of virtual photons generated by the virtual electron-positron pair that travels in unison, and the origin of gravitation would be electron-positron pair that exchanges virtual photons. Based on this assumption, we establish a theory to describe gravitation. We discuss Barnett effect
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[224] viXra:1707.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-16 19:44:28

The Electrostatic Force

Authors: Preston Guynn
Comments: 7 Pages.

In our previous paper, 'Electromagnetic Effects and Structure of Particles due to Special Relativity', we proved that electromagnetic effects are due to special relativity. We also proved that particle structure is due to special relativity and derived the structure of electron and proton. In addition, we developed a framework for interaction between charged particles and photons. In this paper we extend that work with additional insights into the electrostatic force.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[223] viXra:1707.0226 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-30 10:01:14

Dialogues Between Two Universes

Authors: Bandaru Ramu
Comments: 10 Pages.

I. Accelerating aspects can follow General relativity? II. Dialogues between : 1.Acceleration by dark energy and Acceleration by gravitation 2. Expanding Universe and Rotating Universe 3. Finite space and infinite space
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[222] viXra:1707.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-17 01:50:21

Multi Class Classification Using Holistic Non-Unique Clustering {File Closing Version 8}. ISSN 1751-3030

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this research Technical Note the author has presented a novel method to find all Possible Clusters given a set of M points in N Space.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[221] viXra:1707.0224 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-21 04:01:29

The Magic of the New Electric Dark Matter Black Hole.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 24 Pages.

Black Hole Quantum Gravity examples in space observed between different nebula (B 1509 and the Helix). According to Function Follows Form (FFF) Theory, Hawking black hole should be interpreted differently. The new (FFF) black hole says that the BH nucleus is a bunch of rigid string particles compressed by the oscillating vacuum particles. All Fermions should be repelled at a new physics BH repelling horizon which has supposed to have two globular shells of positive or negative charge! As a result, each black hole is assumed to have a globular shell of positron and proton based plasma at the inside and a negative electron based plasma shell outside this positive shell. If we include existence of small interference black holes (or Quantum Knots) then Ball lightning and micro comets ( including Comets and sunspots) are to be explained as micro black holes violating the second law of thermodynamics. The form and microstructure of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of functional differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon and Fermion particles. As a consequence of the quantum gravity difference on fermions and black hole nuclei, the new splitting, accelerating and pairing massless black hole, is able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease. This explains quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprites and Elves, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning according to quantum.
Category: Astrophysics

[220] viXra:1707.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-16 07:10:07

Doppler Effect and Aberration in my New Relativistic Space-Time Theory

Authors: A.V. Mamaev
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this article using Einstein’s method from his known 1905 year article the formulas for the Dopler effect and aberration valid in my new relativistic space-time theory are derived. Key words: relativity, Doppler effect, aberration
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[219] viXra:1707.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-16 08:27:03

DNA Mini-Machines Store Information

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Biomedical engineers have built simple machines out of DNA, consisting of arrays whose units switch reversibly between two different shapes. [15] Scientists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have succeeded at measuring these forces for the very first time on the level of single base pairs. This new knowledge could help to construct precise molecular machines out of DNA. The researchers published their findings in the journal Science. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[218] viXra:1707.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-16 09:21:39

Spinors with Deformed Lorentz Transformations

Authors: Clemens Heuson
Comments: 6 Pages.

In deformed special relativity with commuting coordinates transforming according special relativity and deformed plane waves the field equations and interactions in coordinate space remain unchanged. However in momentum space Lorentz transformations of spinors, the Dirac equation and helicity spinors are modified. The calculation of some simple tree level scattering amplitudes is discussed.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[217] viXra:1707.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-16 10:14:11

Proof of ZFC Axioms as Normal Statements No. 2.2

Authors: Thomas Limberg
Comments: 6 Pages. Language: German

We interpret 5 of the 10 axioms of ZFC (Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory with axiom of choice) as normal statements and proof them. So these 5 sentences don't need to be introduced as axioms, but can be used as proven statements.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[216] viXra:1707.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-16 10:14:52

Brain Training on Decision-Making

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

During the last decade, commercial brain-training programs have risen in popularity, offering people the hope of improving their cognitive abilities through the routine performance of various "brain games" that tap cognitive functions such as memory, attention and cognitive flexibility. [29] The human brain is smaller than most people imagine, it can be held in one hand and weighs about 3 pounds. However, the innocuous looking gray matter is infinitely complex and barely understood. But part of the challenge to understanding, despite the number of researchers, scientists, and doctors dedicated to its study, is that there is no central hub of information, mapping, or data gathering for brain research. Soon though, the Human Brain Project (HBP) hopes to change all that. [28] Many universities and institutes suggested that inside microtubules of brain cells, quantum vibrational computations were orchestrated. [27] New research proposes a way to test whether quantum entanglement is affected by consciousness. [26] Using atomic-scale quantum defects in diamonds known as nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers to detect the magnetic field generated by neural signals, scientists working in the lab of Ronald Walsworth, a faculty member in Harvard's Center for Brain Science and Physics Department, demonstrated a noninvasive technique that can image the activity of neurons. [25] Neuroscience and artificial intelligence experts from Rice University and Baylor College of Medicine have taken inspiration from the human brain in creating a new "deep learning" method that enables computers to learn about the visual world largely on their own, much as human babies do. [24]
Category: Mind Science

[215] viXra:1707.0218 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-16 10:13:32

The First Big Question Facing Physics and Science

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint with regards to first big question facing physics and science.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[214] viXra:1707.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-15 15:40:09

How to Prove that an Integer Number is Prime with the Factoriels.

Authors: Mendzina Essomba Francois
Comments: 1 Page.

How to prove that an integer number is prime with the factoriels. We give in this article which is not complete a property of the facoral which allows in an interval of given length to verify if the number is prime
Category: Number Theory

[213] viXra:1707.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-15 19:08:22

The Role of Dialectical Forces in Quantum Physics and General Relativity

Authors: Tracy Klein
Comments: 9 Pages.

The following manuscript establishes the role of dialectical forces in our physical universe. The dialectical relationship links opposing theories of quantum mechanics and bridges the gap between quantum physics and general relativity.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[212] viXra:1707.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-15 20:28:14

The Solar System Geometry (III)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 74 Pages.

Abstract The Total Solar Eclipse tells us… "The Earth orbital distance / Earth moon distance = the sun diameter / the moon diameter" No geometrical reason behind ! The solar planets creation theory tells us, a big star was following the sun, and exploded, from his material the solar planets were formed by the gravity … i.e. The Solar Planets were created Randomly, and so any relationship as the previous one must be found by "Pure Coincidence"! I suggest, alternative theory concerns the solar group creation…let's write it: -The solar planets were created Relating Geometrically to each other and Not Randomly. -The Matter in general is produced in pairs relating geometrically (or in some other features) and there's no any matter is found individually. -The solar group is one building, each planet is a component in this same building, that's why each planet has a geometrical relationship with one or more of other planets … -The sun is created related to the solar planets geometrically. To support my theory let's use Einstein Equation E=mc2 We consider Each Particle Mass & Energy is independent from any other Particle Mass & Energy… But let's suppose that, there's One General Energy (E), for the whole universe. So the universe will be as a puppets theater, the puppets are the masses but all of them are connected together in the General Energy i.e. Each Planet (Particle) Energy Is Created Connected To This General Energy, And So They Are Connected & Related Geometrically To Each Other…. that's what my theory suggests
Category: Astrophysics

[211] viXra:1707.0214 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-15 15:09:05

The Grand Unification Scheme and Metaspace

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

Advance superstrings are consider incalculable particles. With this in mind a more refine definition of the grand unification scheme and metaspace is presented.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[210] viXra:1707.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-15 04:13:59

Galaxy Rotation Secrets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Spiral galaxies are found to be strongly rotating, with an angular momentum higher by a factor of about five than ellipticals. [26] Throughout the universe, supersonic shock waves propel cosmic rays and supernova particles to velocities near the speed of light. [25] A team of astronomers from the Inter University Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics (IUCAA), and Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), both in Pune, India, and members of two other Indian universities, have identified a previously unknown, extremely large supercluster of galaxies located in the direction of constellation Pisces. [24] Enigmatic 'dark energy', thought to make up 68% of the universe, may not exist at all, according to a Hungarian-American team. [23] Astronomers in the US are setting up an experiment which, if it fails – as others have – could mark the end of a 30-year-old theory. [22] Russian scientists have discovered that the proportion of unstable particles in the composition of dark matter in the days immediately following the Big Bang was no more than 2 percent to 5 percent. Their study has been published in Physical Review D. [21] Researchers from the University of Amsterdam’s (UvA) GRAPPA Center of Excellence have just published the most precise analysis of the fluctuations in the gamma-ray background to date. [20] The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, called DESI, has an ambitious goal: to scan more than 35 million galaxies in the night sky to track the expansion of our universe and the growth of its large-scale structure over the last 10 billion years. [19] If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun’s core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[209] viXra:1707.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-15 05:03:42

Quantum Dot Position Determination

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Scientists from the Swiss Nanoscience Institute and the University of Basel have succeeded in coupling an extremely small quantum dot with 1,000 times larger trumpet-shaped nanowire. The movement of the nanowire can be detected with a sensitivity of 100 femtometers via the wavelength of the light emitted by the quantum dot. [18] The rapidly developing science and technology of graphene and atomically-thin materials has taken another step forward with new research from The University of Manchester. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[208] viXra:1707.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-15 07:55:46

Molecular Motor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

A team of scientists has used microwaves to unravel the exact structure of a tiny molecular motor. The nano-machine consists of just a single molecule, made up of 27 carbon and 20 hydrogen atoms (C27H20). [31] Skyrmions are swirling spin structures with spiral shapes described in 2009. They have attracted attention in academia as representing a possible basic unit of ultra-high-density next-generation memory devices due to their unique topological stability, small size, and efficient movement. [30] That could lead to new devices such as polariton transistors, Fei said. And that could one day lead to breakthroughs in photonic and quantum technologies. [29] The future of nano-electronics is here. A team of researchers from the Air Force Research Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines, and the Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois have developed a novel method for the synthesis of a composite material that has the potential of vastly improving the electronics used by the Air Force. [28] Physicists have theoretically shown that a superconducting current of electrons can be induced to flow by a new kind of transport mechanism: the potential flow of information. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[207] viXra:1707.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-15 08:31:23

Carbon Quantum Effects

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Chemists at Ruhr-Universität Bochum have found evidence that carbon atoms cannot only behave like particles but also like waves. This quantum-mechanical property is well-known for light particles such as electrons or hydrogen atoms. [32] A team of scientists has used microwaves to unravel the exact structure of a tiny molecular motor. The nano-machine consists of just a single molecule, made up of 27 carbon and 20 hydrogen atoms (C27H20). [31] Skyrmions are swirling spin structures with spiral shapes described in 2009. They have attracted attention in academia as representing a possible basic unit of ultra-high-density next-generation memory devices due to their unique topological stability, small size, and efficient movement. [30] That could lead to new devices such as polariton transistors, Fei said. And that could one day lead to breakthroughs in photonic and quantum technologies. [29] The future of nano-electronics is here. A team of researchers from the Air Force Research Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines, and the Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois have developed a novel method for the synthesis of a composite material that has the potential of vastly improving the electronics used by the Air Force. [28] Physicists have theoretically shown that a superconducting current of electrons can be induced to flow by a new kind of transport mechanism: the potential flow of information. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[206] viXra:1707.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-15 09:08:58

Protein Engineering

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

The stage is set for a new era of data-driven protein molecular engineering as advances in DNA synthesis technology merge with improvements in computational design of new proteins. [15] Scientists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have succeeded at measuring these forces for the very first time on the level of single base pairs. This new knowledge could help to construct precise molecular machines out of DNA. The researchers published their findings in the journal Science. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[205] viXra:1707.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 11:34:33

Astrophysical Shock Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Throughout the universe, supersonic shock waves propel cosmic rays and supernova particles to velocities near the speed of light. [25] A team of astronomers from the Inter University Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics (IUCAA), and Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), both in Pune, India, and members of two other Indian universities, have identified a previously unknown, extremely large supercluster of galaxies located in the direction of constellation Pisces. [24] Enigmatic 'dark energy', thought to make up 68% of the universe, may not exist at all, according to a Hungarian-American team. [23] Astronomers in the US are setting up an experiment which, if it fails – as others have – could mark the end of a 30-year-old theory. [22] Russian scientists have discovered that the proportion of unstable particles in the composition of dark matter in the days immediately following the Big Bang was no more than 2 percent to 5 percent. Their study has been published in Physical Review D. [21] Researchers from the University of Amsterdam's (UvA) GRAPPA Center of Excellence have just published the most precise analysis of the fluctuations in the gamma-ray background to date. [20] The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, called DESI, has an ambitious goal: to scan more than 35 million galaxies in the night sky to track the expansion of our universe and the growth of its large-scale structure over the last 10 billion years. [19] If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[204] viXra:1707.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 12:10:20

Magnetic Domain Walls

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Materials Science and Engineering Ph.D. students Price Pellegren and Derek Lau, led by Assistant Research Professor of Materials Science & Engineering Vincent Sokalski, demonstrate that this stiffness is precisely what governs how the domain wall moves around in certain ultrathin magnets. [21] Liquid electrolytes are essential components in a variety of emerging energy technologies, including batteries, supercapacitors and solar-to-fuel devices. [20] Basic processes in chemistry and biology involve protons in a water environment. [19] Scientists from the QUEST Institute at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) have now presented a model system that allows the investigation of atomic-scale friction effects and friction dynamics that are similar to those taking place in proteins, DNA strands and other deformable nanocontacts. [18] New research could make lasers emitting a wide range of colors more accessible and open new applications from communications and sensing to displays. [17] A novel way to harness lasers and plasmas may give researchers new ways to explore outer space and to examine bugs, tumors and bones back on planet Earth. [16] A team of researchers at Harvard University has successfully cooled a three-atom molecule down to near absolute zero for the first time. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11]
Category: Condensed Matter

[203] viXra:1707.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 07:21:23

Why Protein Fibers Form

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Alzheimer's disease results from a dysfunctional stacking of protein molecules that form long fibers inside brain cells. Similar stacking occurs in sickle-cell anemia and mad cow disease. [26] Japanese researchers from Osaka University have uncovered a way in which our cells regulate the repair of broken DNA. [25] Scientists at the University of York have used florescent proteins from jellyfish to help shed new light on how DNA replicates. [24] When the molecules that carry the genetic code in our cells are exposed to harm, they have defenses against potential breakage and mutations. [23] A Harvard researcher seeking a model for the earliest cells has created a system that self-assembles from a chemical soup into cell-like structures that grow, move in response to light, replicate when destroyed, and exhibit signs of rudimentary evolutionary selection. [22] New research led by Harvard Medical School reveals a critical step in a molecular chain of events that allows cells to mend broken DNA. [21] Now, Barton's lab has shown that this wire-like property of DNA is also involved in a different critical cellular function: replicating DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16]
Category: Physics of Biology

[202] viXra:1707.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 07:42:01

Determining the Ages of Stars Using Isotropic Abundances According to Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 illustrative graph

In stellar metamorphosis stars in different stages to their evolution are present in the solar system. They are all mutually exclusive objects not related to the Sun, therefore should all have different isotropic abundances of essentially all elements. Since oxygen has three isotopes that are stable, O-16, O-17 and O-18 then we can use their ratios to determine how old a star is, based off simple processes that occur in stellar evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[201] viXra:1707.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 07:48:59

Liquid Electrolytes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Liquid electrolytes are essential components in a variety of emerging energy technologies, including batteries, supercapacitors and solar-to-fuel devices. [20] Basic processes in chemistry and biology involve protons in a water environment. [19] Scientists from the QUEST Institute at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) have now presented a model system that allows the investigation of atomic-scale friction effects and friction dynamics that are similar to those taking place in proteins, DNA strands and other deformable nanocontacts. [18] New research could make lasers emitting a wide range of colors more accessible and open new applications from communications and sensing to displays. [17] A novel way to harness lasers and plasmas may give researchers new ways to explore outer space and to examine bugs, tumors and bones back on planet Earth. [16] A team of researchers at Harvard University has successfully cooled a three-atom molecule down to near absolute zero for the first time. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11]
Category: Condensed Matter

[200] viXra:1707.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 08:14:11

Large-Scale Structures in the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

A team of astronomers from the Inter University Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics (IUCAA), and Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), both in Pune, India, and members of two other Indian universities, have identified a previously unknown, extremely large supercluster of galaxies located in the direction of constellation Pisces. [24] Enigmatic 'dark energy', thought to make up 68% of the universe, may not exist at all, according to a Hungarian-American team. [23] Astronomers in the US are setting up an experiment which, if it fails – as others have – could mark the end of a 30-year-old theory. [22] Russian scientists have discovered that the proportion of unstable particles in the composition of dark matter in the days immediately following the Big Bang was no more than 2 percent to 5 percent. Their study has been published in Physical Review D. [21] Researchers from the University of Amsterdam’s (UvA) GRAPPA Center of Excellence have just published the most precise analysis of the fluctuations in the gamma-ray background to date. [20] The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, called DESI, has an ambitious goal: to scan more than 35 million galaxies in the night sky to track the expansion of our universe and the growth of its large-scale structure over the last 10 billion years. [19] If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun’s core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[199] viXra:1707.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 10:58:21

Reflective Nanostructures

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[198] viXra:1707.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 04:54:54

Laser-Cooled Ions Friction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Scientists from the QUEST Institute at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) have now presented a model system that allows the investigation of atomic-scale friction effects and friction dynamics that are similar to those taking place in proteins, DNA strands and other deformable nanocontacts. [18] New research could make lasers emitting a wide range of colors more accessible and open new applications from communications and sensing to displays. [17] A novel way to harness lasers and plasmas may give researchers new ways to explore outer space and to examine bugs, tumors and bones back on planet Earth. [16] A team of researchers at Harvard University has successfully cooled a three-atom molecule down to near absolute zero for the first time. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[197] viXra:1707.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 04:55:42

Multi Class Classification Using Holistic Non-Unique Clustering ISSN 1751-3030

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 1 Page.

In this research technical Note the author have presented a novel method to find all Possible Clusters given a set of M points in N Space.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[196] viXra:1707.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 05:22:43

Proton Hydration

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Basic processes in chemistry and biology involve protons in a water environment. [19] Scientists from the QUEST Institute at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) have now presented a model system that allows the investigation of atomic-scale friction effects and friction dynamics that are similar to those taking place in proteins, DNA strands and other deformable nanocontacts. [18] New research could make lasers emitting a wide range of colors more accessible and open new applications from communications and sensing to displays. [17] A novel way to harness lasers and plasmas may give researchers new ways to explore outer space and to examine bugs, tumors and bones back on planet Earth. [16] A team of researchers at Harvard University has successfully cooled a three-atom molecule down to near absolute zero for the first time. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10]
Category: Condensed Matter

[195] viXra:1707.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 05:30:10

Multi Class Classification Using Holistic Non-Unique Clustering. {File Closing Version 7} ISSN 1751-3030

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 1 Page.

In this research technical Note the author have presented a novel method to find all Possible Clusters given a set of M points in N Space.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[194] viXra:1707.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 05:44:03

Controlling Heat and Particle Currents

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[193] viXra:1707.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 06:53:48

Quantum Oscillations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

The rapidly developing science and technology of graphene and atomically-thin materials has taken another step forward with new research from The University of Manchester. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[192] viXra:1707.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 03:38:22

Mathematical Origins of Comparative Nonequivalence in Physics

Authors: Paris Samuel Miles-Brenden
Comments: 10 Pages. The laws of physics in their abstraction are blind to the world.

The laws of physics in their abstraction are blind to the world.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[191] viXra:1707.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 13:15:43

Watch Molecular Dynamics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Researchers have developed a fast and practical molecular-scale imaging technique that could let scientists view never-before-seen dynamics of biological processes involved in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. [26] A research team led by Professor YongKeun Park of the Physics Department at KAIST has developed an optical manipulation technique that can freely control the position, orientation, and shape of microscopic samples having complex shapes. [25] Rutgers researchers have developed a new way to analyze hundreds of thousands of cells at once, which could lead to faster and more accurate diagnoses of illnesses, including tuberculosis and cancers. [24] An international team including researchers from MIPT has shown that iodide phasing—a long-established technique in structural biology—is universally applicable to membrane protein structure determination. [23] Scientists in Greece have devised a new form of biometric identification that relies on humans' ability to see flashes of light containing just a handful of photons. [22] A research team led by Professor CheolGi Kim has developed a biosensor platform using magnetic patterns resembling a spider web with detection capability 20 times faster than existing biosensors. [21] Researchers at Columbia University have made a significant step toward breaking the so-called "color barrier" of light microscopy for biological systems, allowing for much more comprehensive, system-wide labeling and imaging of a greater number of biomolecules in living cells and tissues than is currently attainable. [20] Scientists around the Nobel laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now achieved what was for a long time considered impossible – they have developed a new fluorescence microscope, called MINFLUX, allowing, for the first time, to optically separate molecules, which are only nanometers (one millionth of a millimeter) apart from each other. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18]
Category: Physics of Biology

[190] viXra:1707.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 13:33:10

Veblen's Identities, Maxwell's Equations and Weyl's Unified Field Theory

Authors: William O. Straub
Comments: 3 Pages.

An intriguing connection between some work of Oswald Veblen with that of Hermann Weyl is presented.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[189] viXra:1707.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 13:44:51

Control and Measure Electron Spin Voltage

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Information technologies of the future will likely use electron spin—rather than electron charge—to carry information. But first, scientists need to better understand how to control spin and learn to build the spin equivalent of electronic components, from spin transistors, to spin gates and circuits. [28] In the quest to make computers faster and more efficient, researchers have been exploring the field of spintronics—shorthand for spin electronics—in hopes of controlling the natural spin of the electron to the benefit of electronic devices. [27] When two researchers from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) announced in April that they had successfully simulated a 45-qubit quantum circuit, the science community took notice: it was the largest ever simulation of a quantum computer, and another step closer to simulating "quantum supremacy"—the point at which quantum computers become more powerful than ordinary computers. [26] Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania, in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College, have discovered a new topological material which may enable fault-tolerant quantum computing. [25] The central idea of TQC is to encode qubits into states of topological phases of matter (see Collection on Topological Phases). [24] One promising approach to building them involves harnessing nanometer-scale atomic defects in diamond materials. [23] Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22] Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[188] viXra:1707.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 07:28:41

Smart Atomic Cloud

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Copenhagen have developed a hands-on answer to a challenge linked to Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle. [18] ICFO Researchers report the discovery of a new technique that could drastically improve the sensitivity of instruments such as magnetic resonance imagers (MRIs) and atomic clocks. [17] Research groups at Aalto University and the University of Jyväskylä have demonstrated a new microwave measurement method that goes to the quantum limit of measurement and beats it. [16] New method allows for quick, precise measurement of quantum states. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[187] viXra:1707.0190 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-09 12:47:15

Demonstration of Existence of Superlight Speeds

Authors: Mamaev A.V.
Comments: 4 Pages. The article is published in the journal "The Scientific Heritage" # 14 (14) 2017

This paper introduces an idea of experimental demonstration of electrons superluminal speed existence or non-existence in vacuum of near-Earth space of Universe. As according to Einstein’s special relativity theory superlight speeds of both particles having non-zero mass and particles with zero mass are forbidden, such an experiment will either confirm Einstein’s special relativity theory in the part of absence in Nature of superlight speeds of any particles or disprove Einstein’s theory clearly, crudely and seeably.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[186] viXra:1707.0189 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-14 05:30:02

Black Hole Nuclei as a Bunch of Rigid Transformable Higgs Strings Splitting by Relative Small Companion Mergers or Decreased Vacuum Pressure.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 20 Pages.

Complex galaxy / star evolution seems to be not only created by galaxy or star merging, but even by central galaxy- and stellar mass black hole chopping into two equal parts to form black hole based Hotspots for Herbig Haro systems or even for Double Radio Galaxies. This process is supposed to be the consequence of the new physics Electric Dark Matter Black Hole (EDM-BH) principle of Quantum FFF Theory ( Function Follows Forms) and supported by observation of Triple Double Radio Galaxies and even by BH splitting in the Spire Eagle nebula. The EDM-BH is assumed to contain a real particle nucleus of so called Axion-Higgs rigid transformable strings , which are compressed together by the pressure of the oscillation Axion Higgs vacuum lattice. Even the Big Bang nucleus is assumed to contain only compressed Axion Higgs strings which could explode into splinters and dual vacuum particles by the reduced vacuum pressure around the Big Crunch nucleus of a former universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[185] viXra:1707.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 08:57:00

The Hypergeometrical Universe: Cosmogenesis, Cosmology and Standard Model

Authors: Marco Pereira
Comments: 79 Pages.

This paper presents a simple and purely geometrical Grand Unification Theory. Quantum Gravity, Electrostatic and Magnetic interactions are shown in a unified framework. Newton's Gravitational Law, Gauss' Electrostatics Law and Biot-Savart's Electromagnetism Law are derived from first principles. Gravitational Lensing and Mercury Perihelion Precession are replicated within the theory. Unification symmetry is defined for all the existing forces. This alternative model does not require Strong and Electroweak forces. A 4D Shock-Wave Hyperspherical topology is proposed for the Universe which together with a Quantum Lagrangian Principle and a Dilator based model for matter result in a quantized stepwise expansion for the whole Universe along a radial direction within a 4D spatial manifold. The Hypergeometrical Standard Model for matter, Universe Topology and a new Law of Gravitation are presented. Newton's and Einstein's Laws of Gravitation and Dynamics, Gauss Law of Electrostatics among others are challenged when HU presents Type 1A Supernova Survey results. HU's SN1a results challenge current Cosmological Standard Model (L-CDM) by challenging its Cosmological Ruler d(z). SDSS BOSS dataset is shown to support a new Cosmogenesis theory and HU proposal that we are embedded in a 5D Spacetime. The Big Bang Theory is shown to be challenged by SDSS BOSS dataset. Hyperspherical Acoustic Oscillations are demonstrated in the SDSS BOSS Galaxy density. A New de-Broglie Force is proposed.
Category: Astrophysics

[184] viXra:1707.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 09:07:27

Atomic Cousins Team Up

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Large-scale quantum computers, which are an active pursuit of many university labs and tech giants, remain years away. But that hasn't stopped some scientists from thinking ahead, to a time when quantum computers might be linked together in a network or a single quantum computer might be split up across many interconnected nodes. [26] Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania, in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College, have discovered a new topological material which may enable fault-tolerant quantum computing. [25] The central idea of TQC is to encode qubits into states of topological phases of matter (see Collection on Topological Phases). [24] One promising approach to building them involves harnessing nanometer-scale atomic defects in diamond materials. [23] Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22] Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[183] viXra:1707.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 10:22:39

Explanation of the Nature of Negative, Dark Energy, and Dark Matter.

Authors: Richard Palkovac
Comments: 2 Pages.

Although contemporary cosmology and physics allow the mass to be pushed into the singularity (dimensionless point) in the center of black holes, it still doesn't understand that mass in such a state loses the quality of matter. Matter, being a substance and field, is the energy distributed in space. If we take away space from energy, it then changes to a different quality, to pure energy. Today it is often called the negative, dark energy, causing the expansion of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[182] viXra:1707.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 10:30:27

Universes in Other Dimensions.

Authors: Richard Palkovac
Comments: 2 Pages.

Can there be universes in dimensions other than those of our 3 (or 4 if we are talking about a time-space) ? When we want to talk about it, we must first make sure there is a logical reason for the existence of other dimensions.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[181] viXra:1707.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 06:44:47

Quantum Cooling Process

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

New research at the U of A is helping physicists better understand optomechanical cooling, a process that is expected to find applications in quantum technology. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[180] viXra:1707.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 07:24:00

Physicochemical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Characterization of Sodium Selenate Using XRD, PSD, DSC, TGA/DTG, UV-vis, and FT-IR

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 8 Pages.

Sodium selenate is an important inorganic compound but lacks reliable and accurate physico-chemical and spectral characterization information. The study was carried out for the in-depth physicochemical, thermal, and spectroscopic characterization of sodium selenate using various analytical techniques. The powder X-ray diffraction spectroscopy analysis showed well-defined and sharp peaks indicated sodium selenate is crystalline in nature. The crystallite size was found to be in the range of 28.75 to 49.97 nm. The average particle size was found to be of 3.93 (d10), 14.44 (d50), and 40.648 (d90) µm with an average surface area of 0.676 m2/g. The differential scanning calorimetry showed the endothermic inflation at 588.81 °C with the latent heat of fusion 103 J/g. The thermogravimetric analysis revealed two steps of the thermal degradation process. Similarly, the differential thermogravimetric analysis exhibited the major peaks in the thermogram and disclosed Tmax at 852.65 °C. The UV-visible spectrum showed maximum absorbance at 205.1 nm (λmax). The Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed a peak at 888 cm-1 due to the Se-O stretching. This information would be very much useful in the field of nutraceuticals/ pharmaceuticals and other industries using sodium selenate as an ingredient.
Category: Chemistry

[179] viXra:1707.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 07:25:03

Effect of a Novel Ashwagandha-Based Herbomineral Formulation on Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Expression in Mouse Splenocyte Cells: a Potential Immunomodulator

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Background: Herbomineral formulations are momentous in an audience of worldwide by virtue of their holistic approach to life. These formulations are widely used as complementary therapies in immunocompromised patients including cancer. Still, there is the need of cost-effective and safe herbomineral-based formulation that can modulate immune response by the regulation of cytokines cascades. Objective: Current study, we investigated immunomodulatory effect of TEBEH in LPS-induced cytokines expression levels in mouse splenocytes in vitro. Materials and Methods: The most effective and safe concentrations of TEBEH were chosen by determining the cell viability of splenocytes using MTT assay. The pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, MIP-1α, and IFN-γ were measured in cell supernatants using ELISA. Results: MTT data showed TEBEH formulation was found safe up to 10.53 µg/mL. At noncytotoxic concentrations (0.00001053–10.53 µg/mL), TEBEH significantly (P ≤ 0.001) inhibited the expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, and MIP-1α in mouse splenocytes as compared with vehicle control. Conclusion: In summary, TEBEH may indeed promote an anti-inflammatory environment by suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These observations indicated that TEBEH has potential effects in downregulating the immune system and might be developed as a useful anti-inflammatory product for various inflammatory disorders. Summary: The present study was undertaken to evaluate an immunomodulatory effect of the herbomineral formulation in LPS-induced mouse splenocytes with the measurement of cytokines expression such as TNF-α, IL-1β, MIP-1α and IFN-γ. The results showed that the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and MIP-1α was significantly down-regulated while, IFN-γ was significantly up-regulated in mouse splenocytes. It is hypothesized that modulation of the proinflammatory cytokines might occur via NF-kB pathway. Therefore, the herbomineral test formulation might act as an effective anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory product, and this can be used as a complementary and alternative treatment for the prevention of various types of inflammatory and auto-immune disorders.
Category: Chemistry

[178] viXra:1707.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-12 20:58:33

14

Authors: Pan Zhang
Comments: 14 Pages.

Let $V$ be an asymptotically cylindrical K\"{a}hler manifold with asymptotic cross-section $\mathfrak{D}$. Let $E_\mathfrak{D}$ be a stable Higgs bundle over $\mathfrak{D}$, and $E$ a Higgs bundle over $V$ which is asymptotic to $E_\mathfrak{D}$. In this paper, using the continuity method of Uhlenbeck and Yau, we prove that there exists an asymptotically translation-invariant Hermitian projectively Hermitian Yang-Mills metric on $E$.
Category: Geometry

[177] viXra:1707.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-12 21:06:31

Explaining Two Major Jet Propulsion Lab Mysteries Concerning Planet Formation and Star Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 picture, 1 internet link

Two major mysteries are still prevalent according to scientists at Jet Propulsion Laboratories. The first mystery is how micron sized dust particles can clump together into kilometer sized planetesimals. The second mystery is why the oxygen-16 is higher in abundance and nitrogen-15 is in lower comparable abundance in solar wind measurements. In short, the extent and origin of isotopic variations in all samples of solar system objects can be attributable to one factor, which can also explain how micron sized objects become 1 kilometer sized ones during planet formation. Both mysteries are solved with one simple realization, or “aha!” moment.
Category: Astrophysics

[176] viXra:1707.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 01:20:46

Modification To The Scaling Aspect In Gower’s Scheme Of Calculating Similarity Coefficient

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 1 Page.

In this research technical Note the author have presented a tiny modification to the Numeric Variables Scaling Aspect In Gower’s Scheme of calculating Similarity Coefficient.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[175] viXra:1707.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 02:34:27

Recursive Future Average Of A Time Series Data Based On Cosine Similarity

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research Technical Note the author have presented a Recursive Future Average Of A Time Series Data Based on Cosine Similarity.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[174] viXra:1707.0176 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-21 06:58:15

Uncertainty and the Lonely Runner Conjecture

Authors: John Atwell Moody
Comments: 9 Pages.

By convolving the distribution of one of the non-chosen runners with a step function (to introduce some uncertainty in its start time) we arrange that the mutual expectation reverts to the continuous extension of its value in the transcendental case.
Category: Number Theory

[173] viXra:1707.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-12 07:20:28

Skyrmion Physics Driven by Magnons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

The magnetic skyrmion is a current hot topic in condensed matter physics, as it is a promising candidate as information carrier for building novel memory and logic computing devices. [32] Measurements at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering have helped clarify the arrangement of magnetic vortices, known as skyrmions, in manganese silicide (MnSi). [31] Skyrmions are swirling spin structures with spiral shapes described in 2009. They have attracted attention in academia as representing a possible basic unit of ultra-high-density next-generation memory devices due to their unique topological stability, small size, and efficient movement. [30] That could lead to new devices such as polariton transistors, Fei said. And that could one day lead to breakthroughs in photonic and quantum technologies. [29] The future of nano-electronics is here. A team of researchers from the Air Force Research Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines, and the Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois have developed a novel method for the synthesis of a composite material that has the potential of vastly improving the electronics used by the Air Force. [28] Physicists have theoretically shown that a superconducting current of electrons can be induced to flow by a new kind of transport mechanism: the potential flow of information. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[172] viXra:1707.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-12 07:32:30

A Simple Proof of the Last Fermat Theorem (RUSSIAN Version)

Authors: Victor Sorokine
Comments: 4 Pages.

The proof of Fermat's last theorem for the base case / Доказательство ВТФ для базового случая ABSTRACT The essence of the proof: From the known properties of the Fermat’s equality An+Bn=Cn follows: If the second digits of all the prime factors of the numbers A, B, and C are reduced to zero, then the new reduced numbers A°, B°, C° become /remain/ infinitely large. Суть доказательства: Из базового равенства Ферма An+Bn=Cn следует: Если вторые цифры всех простых сомножителей чисел А, В, С УМЕНЬШИТЬ до нуля, то новые уменьшенные числа А°, В°, С° становятся /остаются/ бесконечно большими. (See also http://vixra.org/abs/1707.0092)
Category: Number Theory

[171] viXra:1707.0173 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-30 01:01:21

Quantum Inverse Measurement Theory Contributing to the Birth of Interpretation System of Quantum Mechanics of Local-Realism and Determinism

Authors: Runsheng Tu
Comments: 61 Pages.

The existing interpretation of quantum mechanics is contrary to common sense. The existing quantum mechanical interpretation schemes are puzzling. The confusing theory is unconvincing, and need to be amended and completed. The successful interpretation program of quantum mechanics of local-realism and determinism is undoubtedly the most attractive. Preparing the interpretation program deserves to be chosen as a research goal. It is a very good premise to believe that an object particle consist of light-knot of monochromatic waves. According to this premise, the erroneous recognition about "superposition principle, wave-particle duality and uncertainty principle" can be corrected. Under this premise, above research goal is achieved by establishing, applying quantum mechanics inverse measurement theory, adhering to the principle that there must be a complete empirical chain in the derivation process of experimental conclusion, and using the side effect caused by accompanying-light to explain the diffraction experiment of object particles. Electron secondarily diffraction and other experiments directly prove that there is the measurement (observation) which may not destroy quantum coherence. The diffraction experiments of all kinds of particles show that the Keeping and playing of the coherence of moving particles in the vacuum have nothing to do with their previous experience. These are the existing experiments, to be found, that support the theory of quantum inverse measurements. The verification experiment of quantum inverse measurement is designed. The absolute superiorities of quantum inverse measurement and the new view of measurement of quantum mechanics are listed.These superiorities are: that it has the characteristics of local-realism and determinism; it is not contrary to common sense and there is no confusing place; it can predict several phenomena that cannot be predicted by other theories. A solid theoretical foundation has been laid for “correctly understanding the microscopic world” and establishment of local realism quantum mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[170] viXra:1707.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-12 07:57:16

DNA Damage Repair

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Japanese researchers from Osaka University have uncovered a way in which our cells regulate the repair of broken DNA. [25] Scientists at the University of York have used florescent proteins from jellyfish to help shed new light on how DNA replicates. [24] When the molecules that carry the genetic code in our cells are exposed to harm, they have defenses against potential breakage and mutations. [23] A Harvard researcher seeking a model for the earliest cells has created a system that self-assembles from a chemical soup into cell-like structures that grow, move in response to light, replicate when destroyed, and exhibit signs of rudimentary evolutionary selection. [22] New research led by Harvard Medical School reveals a critical step in a molecular chain of events that allows cells to mend broken DNA. [21] Now, Barton's lab has shown that this wire-like property of DNA is also involved in a different critical cellular function: replicating DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17]
Category: Physics of Biology

[169] viXra:1707.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-12 08:29:36

Molecules Breathe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Molecules Breathe Laser light excited an electron in the central iron atom (red). The electron transferred to one of the attached bipyridine structures, and then returned to the iron atom 100 femtoseconds later. [31] Skyrmions are swirling spin structures with spiral shapes described in 2009. They have attracted attention in academia as representing a possible basic unit of ultra-high-density next-generation memory devices due to their unique topological stability, small size, and efficient movement. [30] That could lead to new devices such as polariton transistors, Fei said. And that could one day lead to breakthroughs in photonic and quantum technologies. [29] The future of nano-electronics is here. A team of researchers from the Air Force Research Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines, and the Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois have developed a novel method for the synthesis of a composite material that has the potential of vastly improving the electronics used by the Air Force. [28] Physicists have theoretically shown that a superconducting current of electrons can be induced to flow by a new kind of transport mechanism: the potential flow of information. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[168] viXra:1707.0170 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-24 08:38:52

The Covariance of the Wave Equation Does not Support the Constant Hypothesis of Light Speed

Authors: Xiao Jun
Comments: 5 Pages.

On the basis of Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory, the relationship between the speed of light and source is obtained for the first time according to the conclusion that the form of wave equation has nothing to do with the moving velocity of light source. Under the condition to do not make any amendments to the classical absolute space-time theory, all the current dynamic electromagnetic measurement results are easily explained by using this relationship.
Category: Classical Physics

[167] viXra:1707.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 16:45:28

The Particle Model for the Higgs’ Condensate and the Anomalous Geometrical Diffraction

Authors: Jiri Soucek
Comments: 19 Pages.

In this paper we propose a particle model for the Higgs’ condensate: we propose that this condensate is the set of (infinite velocity) non-local tachyons. We show that then there exists the anomalous geometrical diffraction (which contradicts to quantum mechanics). We show that there exists a universal time constant which defines the limits of the validity of quantum mechanics. We propose an experiment testing the existence of the anomalous geometrical diffraction. We proposed the dark energy conjecture which enables to make an estimate of the time constant. We assume certain (“Feynman”) interaction between standard particle and the non-local tachyon. All this is related to the new (finite) form of the Feynman integral.
Category: Quantum Physics

[166] viXra:1707.0168 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-05 15:40:50

The Q-Universe: A Set Theoretic Construction

Authors: Wes Hansen
Comments: 100 Pages.

In an earlier paper, “Q-Naturals: A Counter-Example to Tennenbaum’s Theorem,” we developed a set of non-standard naturals called q-naturals and demonstrated a counter-example to Tennenbaum’s Theorem. In this paper we extend the q-naturals to the Q-Universe and explore the properties of the various subsets along the way. In the process of this development, we realize that the standard Universe and the Q-Universe are simply the zeroth-order and first-order Universes, respectively, in a countable subsumption hierarchy of recursive Universes; there exist countably many counter-examples to Tennenbaum’s Theorem.
Category: Number Theory

[165] viXra:1707.0167 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-03 18:41:24

The Surprising Proofs

Authors: Leszek Włodzimierz Guła
Comments: 10 Pages. This is the new variant of my work.

The proof of the Fermat’s Last Theorem. The proof of the theorem - For all n∈{3,5,7,…} and for all z∈{3,7,11,…} and for all natural numbers u,υ: z^n≠u^2+υ^2. The proof of the Goldbach’s Conjecture. The proof of the Beal’s Conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[164] viXra:1707.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-12 01:12:07

Theoretical Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

University have created the first general-purpose method for using machine learning to predict the properties of new metals, ceramics and other crystalline materials and to find new uses for existing materials, a discovery that could save countless hours wasted in the trial-and-error process of creating new and better materials. [28] As machine learning breakthroughs abound, researchers look to democratize benefits. [27] Machine-learning system spontaneously reproduces aspects of human neurology. [26] Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[163] viXra:1707.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-12 01:25:24

Multi Class Classification Using Holistic Non-Unique Clustering

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research technical Note the author have presented a novel method to find all Possible Clusters given a set of M points in N Space.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[162] viXra:1707.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-12 02:37:27

Photosynthesis Help Computer Technology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

"From new ways of capturing and storing the energy coming to us from the Sun, to developing new forms of computing technology, this research opens up some exciting new opportunities." [30] Jiang and his team created a way to measure and control the energy differences of electron valley states in silicon quantum dots, which are a key component of quantum computing research. [29] Now, researchers at Stanford University and MIT have built a new chip to overcome this hurdle. [28] In the quest to make computers faster and more efficient, researchers have been exploring the field of spintronics—shorthand for spin electronics—in hopes of controlling the natural spin of the electron to the benefit of electronic devices. [27] When two researchers from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) announced in April that they had successfully simulated a 45-qubit quantum circuit, the science community took notice: it was the largest ever simulation of a quantum computer, and another step closer to simulating "quantum supremacy"—the point at which quantum computers become more powerful than ordinary computers. [26] Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania, in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College, have discovered a new topological material which may enable fault-tolerant quantum computing. [25] The central idea of TQC is to encode qubits into states of topological phases of matter (see Collection on Topological Phases). [24] One promising approach to building them involves harnessing nanometer-scale atomic defects in diamond materials. [23] Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22] Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[161] viXra:1707.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-12 03:52:25

Hints of TeV-Scale Black Holes

Authors: Bernard Riley
Comments: 8 Pages.

By application of the 10D/4D correspondence, the radii of nearby stars have been shown to map onto the masses of stable atomic nuclei. The correspondence is now used to calculate the mass m and radius r of the subatomic object that corresponds to a typical 1.4 solar mass neutron star. The mass m is found to be 4.0 TeV. Using natural units, r/m is precisely 2.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[160] viXra:1707.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 12:04:39

What Went Wrong with the “interpretation” of Quantum Theory?

Authors: Robert H. McEachern
Comments: 41 Pages.

This slideshow is a preliminary account of how the misinterpretation of quantum theory originated.
Category: Quantum Physics

[159] viXra:1707.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 12:35:27

Information Compression Via the Matching and Unification of Patterns as a Unifying Principle in the Workings of Brains and Nervous Systems

Authors: J Gerard Wolff
Comments: 38 Pages.

This paper presents evidence for the idea that much of the workings of brains and nervous systems may be understood as compression of information via the matching and unification of patterns. Information compression can mean selective advantage for any creature: in the efficient storage and transmission of information; and, owing to the close connection between information compression and concepts of prediction and probability, in the making of predictions about where food may be found, potential dangers, and so on. Several aspects of our everyday perceptions and thinking may be seen as information compression. For example, many words in natural languages may be seen as relatively short identifiers or ``codes'' for relatively complex concepts. When viewing the world with two eyes, we see one view, not two. Random-dot stereograms provide confirmation that, in binocular vision, we do indeed merge information from our two eyes and thus compress it. Information compression may be seen in the workings of sensory units in the eye of "Limulus", the horseshoe crab. Computer models demonstrate how information compression may be a key to the unsupervised discovery of grammars for natural language, including segmental structures (words and phrases), classes of structure, and abstract patterns. Information compression may be seen in the perceptual "constancies", including size constancy, lightness constancy, and colour constancy. Mathematics, which is a product of the human intellect, may be seen to be a set of techniques for the compression of information, and their application. The "SP theory of intelligence" provides evidence for the importance of information compression in several aspects of human intelligence. Four objections to the main thesis of this paper are described, with answers to those objections.
Category: Mind Science

[158] viXra:1707.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 07:05:04

Interactions and Limiting Speed.

Authors: Elkin Igor Vladimirovich
Comments: 7 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

Relativistic physics is based on the principle of least action. Conclusions from the proposed theory give formulas that the electrical interaction makes responsible for the gravitational interaction, inertia and accelerated "expansion of the universe." The calculations are all extremely elementary and indisputable, since they use the conclusions of relativistic physics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[157] viXra:1707.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 07:18:06

Alternative Reflections on the "Speed of Gravity"

Authors: Johann Albers
Comments: 4 Pages.

The attractive force of gravity, according to Newton's law, enables the planet Earth to move on a planetary orbit around the Sun. The observed stability of Earth's orbital parameters obviously demands an instantaneous interaction along the line between the actual positions of both bodies. Especially on the basis of Special Relativity (STG), General Relativity (GTR), and a lot of experimental results, it is a commonly accepted result, that the speed of gravity, at which gravitational interactions propagate, is equal to c, the speed of light. This rather low speed, however, leads to aberration effects with an amount of 20 arcsec, which prevent a stable orbit. Newtonian Mechanics therefore prefer to assume an almost infinitely high value of the speed of gravity to solve this problem. Relativistic Mechanics seem to favor the existence of appropriate forces which are dictated by conservation laws and the quadrupole nature of gravitational radiation. The Alternative Reflections on Gravitation (ARG), however, let expect quite different results. In a Sun-Earth system the aberration is at least five orders of magnitude lower than expected from Newtonian Mechanics. In a Sun-satellite system the aberration is immeasurably small. This result may be compared to Newtonian and Relativistic Mechanics which also for this system let expect the same amount of aberration of 20 arcsec as for the Sun-Earth system.
Category: Astrophysics

[156] viXra:1707.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 07:32:02

The Relation of Surface Temperature and Populations of Stars in Evolving Galaxies

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 diagram

A simple relation of stellar surface temperature and population counts of stars in evolving galaxies is provided. They are inversely proportional.
Category: Astrophysics

[155] viXra:1707.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 07:52:28

Earth-to-Space Quantum Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Two teams of researchers in China have advanced the distance that entangled particles can be used to send information, including encryption keys. [20] Scientists at the University of York's Centre for Quantum Technology have made an important breakthrough in the theory of quantum secure communications. [19] How to reliably transfer quantum information when the connecting channels are impacted by detrimental noise? Scientists at the University of Innsbruck and TU Wien (Vienna) have presented new solutions to this problem. [18] Adding to strong recent demonstrations that particles of light perform what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance," in which two separated objects can have a connection that exceeds everyday experience, physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have confirmed that particles of matter can act really spooky too. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[154] viXra:1707.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 08:12:37

Space Quantum Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

NICT developed the world's smallest and lightest quantum communication transmitter (SOTA) onboard the microsatellite SOCRATES. [21] Two teams of researchers in China have advanced the distance that entangled particles can be used to send information, including encryption keys. [20] Scientists at the University of York's Centre for Quantum Technology have made an important breakthrough in the theory of quantum secure communications. [19] How to reliably transfer quantum information when the connecting channels are impacted by detrimental noise? Scientists at the University of Innsbruck and TU Wien (Vienna) have presented new solutions to this problem. [18] Adding to strong recent demonstrations that particles of light perform what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance," in which two separated objects can have a connection that exceeds everyday experience, physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have confirmed that particles of matter can act really spooky too. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[153] viXra:1707.0155 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-22 12:28:29

On a Problem in Euler and Navier-Stokes Equations

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 30 Pages. See also viXra:1708.0123, "Describing a Fluid in Three-Dimensional Circular Motion with One Independent Variable by Rectangular Coordinate", by Valdir M.S. Godoi

A study respect to a problem found in the equations of Euler and Navier-Stokes, whose adequate treatment solves a centennial problem about the solution of these equations and a most correct modeling of fluid movement.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[152] viXra:1707.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 09:05:24

Biological Structure from Limited Data

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Understanding the 3D molecular structure of important nanoobjects like proteins and viruses is crucial in biology and medicine. [25] A quantum sensor developed by a team headed by Professor Jörg Wrachtrup at the University of Stuttgart and researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research in Stuttgart, now makes it possible to use nuclear magnetic resonance scanning to even investigate the structure of individual proteins atom by atom. [24] Scientists at the University of Nottingham are working with University College London (UCL) on a five year project which has the potential to revolutionise the world of human brain imaging. [23] Scientists in Greece have devised a new form of biometric identification that relies on humans' ability to see flashes of light containing just a handful of photons. [22] A research team led by Professor CheolGi Kim has developed a biosensor platform using magnetic patterns resembling a spider web with detection capability 20 times faster than existing biosensors. [21] Researchers at Columbia University have made a significant step toward breaking the so-called "color barrier" of light microscopy for biological systems, allowing for much more comprehensive, system-wide labeling and imaging of a greater number of biomolecules in living cells and tissues than is currently attainable. [20] Scientists around the Nobel laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now achieved what was for a long time considered impossible – they have developed a new fluorescence microscope, called MINFLUX, allowing, for the first time, to optically separate molecules, which are only nanometers (one millionth of a millimeter) apart from each other. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[151] viXra:1707.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 09:17:53

Stationary Frame is the “denied” Absolute Rest

Authors: Mohammed Mezouar
Comments: 3 Pages.

Einstein’s relativism is not only “physical” but also philosophical because it forbids any concept leading to the idea of the absolute. But this phobia is translated into flight forward without giving decisive answers to the crucial questions raised by the paradoxes arising from Special Relativity. In what follows, we show by a thought experiment that absolute rest has it’s discreet but real place in the Einsteinian reasoning under the pseudonym of stationary system.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[150] viXra:1707.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-10 13:09:21

A Conjecture About Prime Numbers Assuming the Riemann Hypothesis

Authors: Rédoane Daoudi
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper we propose a conjecture about prime numbers. Based on the result of Pierre Dusart stating that the n th prime number is smaller than n(ln n + ln ln n − 0.9484) for n ≥ 39017 we propose that the n th prime number is smaller than n(ln n + ln ln n − 1+) when n → +∞.
Category: Number Theory

[149] viXra:1707.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-10 13:29:52

Second Quantization of the Square-Root Klein-Gordon Operator, Microscopic Causality, Propagators, and Interactions

Authors: John R. Smith
Comments: 60 Pages.

The square-root Klein-Gordon operator, √m^2 − ∇^2 , is a non-local operator with a natural scale inversely proportional to the mass (the Compton wavelength). The fact that there is a natural scale in the operator as well as the fact that the single particle theory for the Coulomb potential, V (r) = −Ze2/r, yields a different eigenvalue spectrum from either the Dirac Hamiltonian or the Klein-Gordon Hamiltonian indicates that this operator is truly distinct from either of the other two Hamiltonians (all three single-particle Hamiltonians have eigenspectra for the 1s states that converge at small atomic numbers, Z → 0, but diverge from each other at large Z). We see no fundamental reason to exclude negative energy states from a “square-root” propagation law and we find several possible Hamiltonians associated with √m2 − ∇2 which include both positive and negative energy plane wave states. Depending on the specific Hamiltonian, it is possible to satisfy the equations of motion with commutators or anticommutators. However, for the scalar case considered, only the Hamiltonian that requires commutation rules has a stable vacuum. We investigate microscopic causality for the commutator of the Hamiltonian density. Also we find that despite the non-local dependence of the energy density on the field operators, the commutators of the physical observables vanish for space-like separations. This result extends the application of Pauli’s1 result to the non-local case. Pauli explicitly excluded √m2 − ∇2 because this op- erator acts non-locally in the coordinate space. We investigate the problems with applying minimal coupling to the square-root equation and why this method of interactions is inconsistent with the exponential shift property of the square-root operator and the demand for gauge-invariance. The Mandelstam representation offers the possibility of avoiding the difficulties inherent in minimal coupling (Lorentz invariance and gauge-invariance). We also compute the propagators for the scat- tering problem and investigate the solutions of the square-root equation in the Aharonov-Bohm problem.
Category: Quantum Physics

[148] viXra:1707.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-10 13:51:15

Superfluid Helium

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

When Cornell physicists Robert Richardson, David Lee and Douglas Osheroff received the 1996 Nobel Prize for their discovery of the superfluid state of liquid helium, it was only the beginning. Now a new team of Cornell researchers, building on that work, have found new complexities in the phenomenon, with implications for the study of superconductivity and theoretical models of the origin of the universe. [10] MIT physicists have created a superfluid gas, the so-called Bose-Einstein condensate, for the first time in an extremely high magnetic field. The magnetic field is a synthetic magnetic field, generated using laser beams, and is 100 times stronger than that of the world's strongest magnets. Within this magnetic field, the researchers could keep a gas superfluid for a tenth of a second—just long enough for the team to observe it. The researchers report their results this week in the journal Nature Physics. [9] Phonons—the elemental particles that transmit both heat and sound—have magnetic properties, according to a landmark study supported by Ohio Supercomputer Center (OSC) services and recently published by a researcher group from The Ohio State University. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[147] viXra:1707.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-10 14:41:45

Religious Science

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity is a very “popular” theory among physicists, so don’t dare to state that it is a nonsense theory. The most basic reason for the weirdness of this theory is the acceptance by almost all physicists of the fact that the velocity of light in vacuum in this theory is fully undefined.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[146] viXra:1707.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-10 15:03:13

Is Hubble’s Law an Evidence for the Big Bang Theory?

Authors: Arieh Sher
Comments: 11 Pages.

Hubble's law is considered the first and most cited observational basis for the Big Bang (BB) theory. Hubble, relying on observations made by him and by others, postulated that galaxies are receding from each other at a velocity that is linear to their relative distances. He used the Doppler effect for finding the receding velocity. He claimed that there is a linear relation between the galaxy’s receding velocity and the measured redshift of the galaxy. These observations led to acceptance of the BB theory. The linear relation seemed valid for galaxies relatively close to the Milky Way with small redshifts. However, later measurements done on distant galaxies with high redshift show that the linear graph curves up. These later observations led to the theory that the universe is expanding at an ever-accelerating rate and subsequently to the theory of Dark Energy to account for this accelerated expansion. These new theories related to the accelerated expanding universe has raised controversies among the scientific community. The Pivot theory is a new theory, that I originally suggested for solving the dark matter problem. I claim that the current structure of the universe structure is a huge black hole, the Pivot, where all the dark matter is concentrated, and a ring of a visible universe is orbiting it. In the current article, I claim that the observed z shift of galaxies is caused by gravitational shift of the Pivot rather than by Doppler shift suggested by Hubble. A detailed description of this theory is presented by Sher [1]
Category: Astrophysics

[145] viXra:1707.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-10 19:13:14

Yuheng Zhang Effect: Strain-Induced Electric Effect in Metals

Authors: Yuanjie Huang
Comments: 21 Pages.

As is known, the piezoelectric effect and electrostrictive effect exist in some ceramics and dielectric materials. However, such effect has never been discovered in conventional metals before. Here, strain-induced electric effect in conventional metals, named after Professor Yuheng Zhang, was first uncovered theoretically in this work. This effect gives several interesting and surprising predictions for metals as follows: 1) conduction electrons in metals no longer obey Einstein diffusion relation but satisfy a new relation given in this work; 2) a metal with strain gradients at a uniform temperature is no longer an equal-electric potential body even without any external electromagnetic disturbances; 3) a metal possessing non-uniform strains may behave as an ideal p-n junction, blocking electric current completely if the applied reverse-biased voltage is not large enough; 4) the long-standing physical puzzle for thermoelectric effect of metals, the positive sigh of Seebeck coefficient for metals, is unraveled by means of Yuheng Zhang coefficient, a newly found vital coefficient induced by both thermal expansion and Yuheng Zhang effect; 5) a notable electric voltage maintains across the shock wave front in metals; 6) an electric voltage appears between two phases when phase transition happens for metals, offering a new probe to detect phase transions. In all, this effect may expand one's fundamental knowledge on metals and find applications in various fields.
Category: Condensed Matter

[144] viXra:1707.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-10 23:16:42

Discuss on The Individual Freedom of Choice in Abolition of Death Penalty

Authors: Yuan Kai
Comments: 3pages. Chinese version.

Each individual is offered the following two options in adulthood: once someone's right to life is deprived, the offender can be sentenced to death or be waived the death penalty rely on victim's former individual choice. Each individual in society has the right to choose freely according to his will. In the circumstances of being deprived of their right to life,all Individuals in the society chose criminals who could be waived the death penalty. The Abolition of Death Penalty will come naturally and easily.
Category: Social Science

[143] viXra:1707.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 02:29:17

A Novel Type Of Time Series Type Forecasting

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel Time series type of forecasting.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[142] viXra:1707.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 03:13:02

The Ultimate Nature of Reality Part 1

Authors: John Peel
Comments: 35 Pages. Part 1 of two files regarding information fields

The role of geometry in particle physics
Category: Mathematical Physics

[141] viXra:1707.0143 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-12 04:36:18

New Physics Resulting from Far Too Large a Mass Distance Between the Doubly Charmed Baryons Xi

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

The Standard Model (SM) and experimental data show that the change of the up quark for down quark increases the mass of nucleon by about 1 MeV. On the other hand, SM and experimental results show that the same change in the doubly charmed baryons Xi decreases the mass by about 100 MeV. Within the SM we cannot explain such two major inconsistencies (i.e. 100 MeV instead 1 MeV and the increase-decrease asymmetry) so such problems suggest new physics. To save the SM, some scientists suggest that the first doubly charmed Xi, detected by the SELEX collaboration based at Fermilab, should disappear! Here, applying the atom-like structure of baryons that follows from the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated masses and I, J and P of baryon Delta, of many charmed and bottom baryons and masses of the two doubly charmed baryons Xi. Calculated mass of Xi_cc+ is 3519.08 MeV whereas of Xi_cc++ is 3621.90 MeV - the results are consistent with experimental data. The other theoretical masses obtained here are very close to experimental results. We present a generalized scheme that is very helpful in calculating masses and other physical quantities that characterize baryons. Charmed baryons contain relativistic, positively charged pion in the d = 0 state which mass is 1256.6 MeV - this mass is close to the mass of the charm quark (in SST it is 1267 MeV) so the quark model can mimic presented here the atom-like theory of baryons. On the other hand, relativistic mass of charged kaon in the d = 0 state is 4444.9 MeV so it can mimic the mass of the bottom quark (in SST it is 4190 MeV).
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[140] viXra:1707.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 04:48:06

A Novel Type Of Time Series Type Forecasting. {File Closing Version 1}

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel Time series type of forecasting.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[139] viXra:1707.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-10 08:37:45

Spintronics Breakthrough

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

It's ultra-thin, electrically conducting at the edge and highly insulating within—and all that at room temperature: Physicists from the University of Würzburg have developed a promising new material. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley, fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[138] viXra:1707.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-10 09:01:10

Maxwell's Demon in Quantum Measurement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[137] viXra:1707.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-10 10:44:11

Occupation of the Sun Which Causes Approach of Ice Age

Authors: Korniienko V
Comments: 16 Pages. In Russian

Our observations have shown that in the summer of 2003 Earth and the Sun were occupied by a power information field (EIF) and since then sucks away S-radiations which consist of electromagnetic energiya of elementary particles of solar matter from the Sun. It has caused decrease of the activity of the Sun, and also the fact that his crown began to generate waves of S-radiations which brought high-temperature deep solar heat to Earth. However in April, 2017 these waves have disappeared. It, and also the fact that EIF shield solar S-radiations, and with them and warmly solar flashes, has led to decrease in revenues to Earth of solar heat that is the most sensitive in middle and high latitudes. It has also caused extraordinary cold spring and summer 2017 that foretells approach of Ice Age. In article the method of cleaning of the Sun of EIF is offered that will return him in the normal state and will prevent frosting of the planet.
Category: Astrophysics

[136] viXra:1707.0138 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-11 01:18:35

Higgs Bosons and Neutrinos

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show the viewpoint with regards to the higgs boson and neutrinos.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[135] viXra:1707.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-10 05:41:54

An Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Tejas A. Chaudhari
Comments: 8 Pages. Email id:- tejastalk@gmail.com

This paper gives interpretation of Quantum Mechanics (QM) by redefining the theory using 3 new postulates. The first of these postulates specifies the underlying structure that every massive fundamental particle must possess. The mass-Energy equivalence and wave nature of matter emerge as a direct consequence. The second postulate describes the quantum state of particles. Wave function, its conjugate, Born interpretation and the Energy-momentum operators can be derived from these two postulates. The third postulate describes the effect of measurement and interaction on the wave function. The equations of QM starting from Schrödinger’s equation are described. The phenomenon of Quantum entanglement and Schrödinger’s cat thought experiment are described under this interpretation. Finally, the origin of spin resulting from the first postulate is discussed.
Category: Quantum Physics

[134] viXra:1707.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-09 14:35:31

Electromagnetic Waves Within Small Dielectric Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Scientists from the Lomonosov Moscow State University together with their Russian and foreign colleagues have done for the first time direct measurements of giant electromagnetic fields, emerging in dielectric particles with the high refractive index at the scattering of electromagnetic waves. [17] AMOLF researchers have developed nanoscale strings whose motion can be converted to light signals with unprecedented strength. [16] Twisted PCFs show some amazing features, from circular birefringence to conservation of the angular momentum. [15] Photonics applications rely greatly on what physicists call nonlinear optics-the different way in which materials behave depending on the intensity of light that passes through them. The greater the nonlinearity, the more promising the material for real-life applications. Now a team, led by Robert W. Boyd, Professor of Optics and Physics at the University of Rochester and the Canada Excellence Research Chair in Quantum Nonlinear Optics at the University of Ottawa, has demonstrated that the transparent, electrical conductor indium tin oxide can result in up to 100 times greater nonlinearity than other known materials. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape,
Category: Condensed Matter

[133] viXra:1707.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-09 16:28:40

Money Whirling Flow and Keynesian

Authors: Chuanli Chen
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper, I will make use of the Keynes theory to describe the money flow in the free market. I will build a new model based on the Keynes’ model. Then I will use the model to explain how the stagnation occur.
Category: Economics and Finance

[132] viXra:1707.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-09 16:29:33

The Economic Crisis Model Under Whirling Flow of Money

Authors: Chuanli Chen
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper, I will briefly discuss about the formation of an economic crisis during the movement of free market. I will describe the whole process in a simple way. To make things more easy to understand, I won’t use any math models, which will only make the process more complex.
Category: Economics and Finance

[131] viXra:1707.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-09 17:37:53

New Infinite Product Representation for Cosine Function and Power Series for Tangent Function

Authors: Edigles Guedes
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper, I demonstrate one new infinite product representation for cosine function, one new power series representation for tangent function and amazing identities involving radical.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[130] viXra:1707.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-09 17:41:03

New Proof of the Infinite Product Representation for Gamma Function and Pochhammer's Symbol and New Infinite Product Representation for Binomial Coefficient

Authors: Edigles Guedes, Cícera Guedes
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper, we demonstrate some limit's formulae for gamma function and binomial coefficient among other things.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[129] viXra:1707.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-09 21:31:05

The Ultimate Nature of Reality

Authors: John Peel
Comments: 72 Pages. Perhaps important

This paper hopes to clarify the notion of Information Fields and the role of geometry in particle physics.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[128] viXra:1707.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-09 22:59:57

Gravitational Forces Revisited

Authors: Jack Bidnik
Comments: 13 Pages.

Abstract: This paper explains my derivation of a number of equations to describe gravitational forces from the relativistic relative momentum of Albert Einstein's Special Relativity. One of these equations parallels Issac Newton's Gravitational Equation by replacing the Gravitational Constant, G, with a velocity dependent expression. The resulting equation is applied to the orbital parameters of the planets and a number of their moons, with very close results. The forces derived have applications in other areas of physics, including electromagnetic force, and have some surprising properties hitherto unknown in physics. I derive these results with no external forces assumed to be present, so that the only mechanical force here must be gravity.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[127] viXra:1707.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-09 11:29:59

The Cohomology with Automorphism

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 2 pages, written in french

A cohomology is defined with an automorphism of the tangent fiber bundle. The so defined cohomology is a topological invariant of the manifold considered.
Category: Topology

[126] viXra:1707.0126 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-13 11:10:52

A Cursory Examination of "Electric Universe" Claims Regarding Planetary Orbits

Authors: Bob Ham
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper I examine the claim that the orbits of planets can be explained by nothing more than the electricity and magnetism. For the "overdensity claim," I find that the surface charge densities required to account for observations of the orbits of planets in our own Solar System are not physical. For the "dipole claim," I find that the electric field from the Sun is negligibly small, causing a central force that is 75 orders of magnitude too small to account for the motion of the Earth. These models cannot explain planetary orbits.
Category: Astrophysics

[125] viXra:1707.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-09 12:27:37

Fayaz Quantum-Relativity Conception and Resolution

Authors: Fayaz Ahmed Siyal
Comments: 6 Pages. my research have well application for the resolution of black hole information paradox and singularity solution . author have prove it by mathematically

Contemporary physics of this century have measured many problems regarding the behaviour of gravity, black hole evolution and its information paradox. Our physicists have struggled to resolve these problems but they again and again failed. The reason of their failure has been resolved by author. The general relativity narrates the behaviour of masses and their gravitational fields on the basis of their space time curvatures. The reason scientist failed to measure the relation of mass and space time curvature because, always they made their calculations in inertial frame of reference for space time curvature but the galaxies, stars, sun, earth, etc are continued in acceleration or moving in accelerating frame of reference so, their space time curvature must be in acceleration. Then space time curvature should behave like variable accelerating wave (these are same waves which have been discovered by LIGO gravitational waves) and by author with mathematical proof it is estimated that space time curvature is the classical property of matter or mass depending upon alternation in the quantum energy of mass or matter. Then the Schrödinger, Hamilton operator H and time evolution operator are applicable for the calculation of space time geometry and its energy. From the author creational research black hole problems are easily solved. Even the unification of general relativity and quantum mechanics can be done.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[124] viXra:1707.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-09 07:05:19

Quantum Vibrations in Brain Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Many universities and institutes suggested that inside microtubules of brain cells, quantum vibrational computations were orchestrated. [27] New research proposes a way to test whether quantum entanglement is affected by consciousness. [26] Using atomic-scale quantum defects in diamonds known as nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers to detect the magnetic field generated by neural signals, scientists working in the lab of Ronald Walsworth, a faculty member in Harvard's Center for Brain Science and Physics Department, demonstrated a noninvasive technique that can image the activity of neurons. [25] Neuroscience and artificial intelligence experts from Rice University and Baylor College of Medicine have taken inspiration from the human brain in creating a new "deep learning" method that enables computers to learn about the visual world largely on their own, much as human babies do. [24]
Category: Physics of Biology

[123] viXra:1707.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-09 10:32:40

Human Brain Project

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

The human brain is smaller than most people imagine, it can be held in one hand and weighs about 3 pounds. However, the innocuous looking gray matter is infinitely complex and barely understood. But part of the challenge to understanding, despite the number of researchers, scientists, and doctors dedicated to its study, is that there is no central hub of information, mapping, or data gathering for brain research. Soon though, the Human Brain Project (HBP) hopes to change all that. [28] Many universities and institutes suggested that inside microtubules of brain cells, quantum vibrational computations were orchestrated. [27] New research proposes a way to test whether quantum entanglement is affected by consciousness. [26] Using atomic-scale quantum defects in diamonds known as nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers to detect the magnetic field generated by neural signals, scientists working in the lab of Ronald Walsworth, a faculty member in Harvard's Center for Brain Science and Physics Department, demonstrated a noninvasive technique that can image the activity of neurons. [25] Neuroscience and artificial intelligence experts from Rice University and Baylor College of Medicine have taken inspiration from the human brain in creating a new "deep learning" method that enables computers to learn about the visual world largely on their own, much as human babies do. [24]
Category: Mind Science

[122] viXra:1707.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-09 05:22:24

Peters & TOZZI’S Scientific Results: an Overview

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
Comments: 5 Pages.

This short manuscript summarizes the framework developed by Tozzi and Peters in the years 2015-2017. We claim that the Borsuk-Ulam Theorem (BUT), is not simply a metaphor, rather a real computational tool standing for a universal principle for physical and biological systems. Indeed, the BUT perspective allows a feature (e.g., a shape, a trajectory or an energy) located in the environment to be translated to an abstract space and vice versa. Achieving a map from one system to another enables researchers to assess and elucidate a wide range of phenomena. We provided either demonstrations or testable hypotheses related to the BUT framework in far-flung disciplines, such as neuroscience, theoretical physics, nanomaterials, computational topology, applied algebraic topology, philosophy of the mind, chaotic systems, group theory and cosmology. We collaborated with foremost scientists from Canada, China, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Hungary, Iran, Italy, Norway, Poland, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom, U.S.A.
Category: Mind Science

[121] viXra:1707.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-09 05:49:29

Dynamics of Statistical Fermionic and Boson-Fermionic Quantum System in Terms of Occupation Numbers

Authors: I. V. Drozdov, B. Drozdov
Comments: 17 Pages.

The ergodic second-order approach of entropy gradient maximization, applied on the problem of a quantum bosonic system, does not provide dynamic equations for pure fermionic system. The first-order dynamic equation results for a system of bosonic and fermionic \dofs interacting by a conservation of a common sum of quantum occupation numbers.
Category: Quantum Physics

[120] viXra:1707.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-08 16:46:36

On an Experimentum Crucis for Optics

Authors: Ionel DINU, M.Sc.
Comments: 9 Pages.

Formulated almost 150 years ago, Thomas Young’s hypothesis that light might be a transverse wave has never been seriously questioned, much less subjected to experiment. In this article I report on an attempt to prove experimentally that Young’s hypothesis is untenable. Although it has certain limitations, the experiment seems to show that sound in air, a longitudinal wave, can be “polarized” by reflection just like light, and this can be used as evidence against Young’s hypothesis. Further refinements of the experimental setup may yield clearer results, making this report useful to those interested in the important issue of whether light is a transverse or a longitudinal wave.
Category: Classical Physics

[119] viXra:1707.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-08 20:41:58

Radio Map of North Galactic Pole Reveals Influx of Hydrogen

Authors: B. Rout, Z. Cutter, T. Fairbrother, K. Pantherbone, J. Black Plume, M. Stevens, I. Big Tobacco
Comments: 2 Pages.

A 21-cm radio map around the north galactic pole reveals both an influx of Hydrogen with a velocity of 25-30 kps and and out-flux of Hydrogen at about 2 kps. Data in this region shows a distinct double peak in signal strength vs velocity centered at 1.42 GHz. The map shows a quasi-circular region of Hydrogen influx centered on the north galactic pole and having a diameter of about 10 degrees of arc.
Category: Astrophysics

[118] viXra:1707.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-08 23:56:21

Magic of Physics, Math Tricks and an Observer with His Own Brain

Authors: George Kirakosyan
Comments: 9 pages 2 figures. The article published in FQXi contest

Here we talk that our bitter lessons have been consigned to oblivion. Disputable divisions of physics have degenerated to a kind of elitist - unproductive genre of creativity because of arbitrary, unreasonable methodology. There is an actual opportunity to come to a high-grade realistic science by returning to natural thinking and objective scientific approaches. To do this we need to overcome the imposed firm convictions with tremendous psychological and political significance. De facto, it is banned to do in present physics, by historical or other circumstances unclear to us.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[117] viXra:1707.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-08 08:00:43

Majorana Highway

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

A collaboration of researchers has now combined novel nanowires with a high-quality interface to other required materials on a chip. This allows for bullet-like collisionless quantum transport of charges through the nanowires: a requirement for larger-scale Majorana-based experiment. [9] On a more fundamental level, the GeTe compound used in this study shows that the electric and magnetic polarization are exactly antiparallel, unlike the few other known multiferroic materials. Exactly this property forms the basis for the formation of Majorana particles to be used in quantum computers. [8] Researchers in the University of Tokyo have demonstrated that it is possible to exchange a quantum bit, the minimum unit of information used by quantum computers, between a superconducting quantum-bit circuit and a quantum in a magnet called a magnon. This result is expected to contribute to the development of quantum interfaces and quantum repeaters. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[116] viXra:1707.0116 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-13 13:14:05

Unique Relativistic Extension of the Pauli Hamiltonian

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 11 Pages.

Relativistic extension of the Pauli Hamiltonian is ostensibly achieved by minimal coupling of electromagnetism to the free-particle Dirac Hamiltonian. But the free-particle Pauli Hamiltonian is pathology-free in its nonrelativistic domain, while the free-particle Dirac Hamiltonian yields completely fixed particle speed which is greater than c, spin orbit torque whose ratio to kinetic energy tends to infinity in the zero-momentum limit, and mega-violation of Newton's First Law in that limit. Furthermore, relativistic extension of the Pauli Hamiltonian is unique in principle because inertial frame hopping can keep the particle nonrelativistic. That extension is indeed readily achieved by upgrading the terms of the Pauli Hamiltonian's corresponding action to appropriate Lorentz invariants. The resulting relativistic Lagrangian yields a canonical momentum that can't be analytically inverted in general, but a physically-sensible successive-approximation scheme applies. For hydrogen and simpler systems approximation isn't needed, and the result, which includes spin-orbit coupling, is as transparently physically sensible as the relativistic Lorentz Hamiltonian is, a far cry from the Dirac Hamiltonian pathologies.
Category: Quantum Physics

[115] viXra:1707.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 19:00:40

Dynamics_and_chemistry_of_earth_atmosphere

Authors: Islam Atef Aly
Comments: 23 Pages. 5 figures, 1 table

ThispaperoverviewingthedynamicsoftheEarthatmosphereandthechemistrycontentsoftheatmosphericlayers includingsomeexperimentstodescribesomeclimateevents liketornadoes,hurricanes,heatwavesandthunderstorm.
Category: Climate Research

[114] viXra:1707.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 11:58:52

Graphene in Zero Gravity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Researchers and students in the Graphene Flagship are preparing for two exciting experiments in collaboration with the European Space Agency (ESA) to test the viability of graphene for space applications. [18] For the first time, scientists created a tunable artificial atom in graphene. They demonstrated that a vacancy in graphene can be charged in a controllable way such that electrons can be localized to mimic the electron orbitals of an artificial atom. Importantly, the trapping mechanism is reversible (turned on and off) and the energy levels can be tuned. [17] Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11]
Category: Condensed Matter

[113] viXra:1707.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 12:56:14

Interaction is Given by the Limiting Speed.

Authors: Elkin Igor Vladimirovich
Comments: 6 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

Calculations of relativistic physics are based on the principle of least action. Conclusions from the proposed theory give formulas that the electrical interaction makes responsible for the gravitational interaction, inertia and accelerated "expansion of the universe." The calculations are all extremely elementary and indisputable, since they use the conclusions of relativistic physics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[112] viXra:1707.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 07:59:08

Zero Work, Escape Velocity and the Condition of Minimum Energy Change

Authors: Sonal Jagdish Gupta
Comments: 12 Pages. the paper dealswith the interpretation and co-relation of zero work and escape velocity

Abstract All material bodies compromises of atoms/molecules in there pure form. The kinetic energy of any body is the sum of energies of its atoms and molecules this also applies to potential energy. The smallest change in energy is governed by the quantum of action and should be equal to 6.623 × 10ିଷସ J. The number of atoms in a body determines its requirement for minimum energy when the applied force is unable to deliver this least quantum of energy to all the constituent particles compromising the body then there will be no observational motion and the work done is zero work. Mass act as a reluctance which opposes the change in state. When a body moves with reference to massive gravitating body then after a particular distance the potential energy of the system becomes lesser than the minimum energy then the massive body is unable to do any work on the moving body and the motion of the moving body becomes inertial thereafter. Velocity is quantized in one dimensional linear motion.
Category: Astrophysics

[111] viXra:1707.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 08:34:01

Manipulate Silicon Qubits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

Jiang and his team created a way to measure and control the energy differences of electron valley states in silicon quantum dots, which are a key component of quantum computing research. [29] Now, researchers at Stanford University and MIT have built a new chip to overcome this hurdle. [28] In the quest to make computers faster and more efficient, researchers have been exploring the field of spintronics—shorthand for spin electronics—in hopes of controlling the natural spin of the electron to the benefit of electronic devices. [27] When two researchers from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) announced in April that they had successfully simulated a 45-qubit quantum circuit, the science community took notice: it was the largest ever simulation of a quantum computer, and another step closer to simulating "quantum supremacy"—the point at which quantum computers become more powerful than ordinary computers. [26] Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania, in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College, have discovered a new topological material which may enable fault-tolerant quantum computing. [25] The central idea of TQC is to encode qubits into states of topological phases of matter (see Collection on Topological Phases). [24] One promising approach to building them involves harnessing nanometer-scale atomic defects in diamond materials. [23] Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22] Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[110] viXra:1707.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 10:27:21

Photonic Crystal Fibers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Twisted PCFs show some amazing features, from circular birefringence to conservation of the angular momentum. [15] Photonics applications rely greatly on what physicists call nonlinear optics-the different way in which materials behave depending on the intensity of light that passes through them. The greater the nonlinearity, the more promising the material for real-life applications. Now a team, led by Robert W. Boyd, Professor of Optics and Physics at the University of Rochester and the Canada Excellence Research Chair in Quantum Nonlinear Optics at the University of Ottawa, has demonstrated that the transparent, electrical conductor indium tin oxide can result in up to 100 times greater nonlinearity than other known materials. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
Category: Condensed Matter

[109] viXra:1707.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 10:28:47

General Exact Tetrahedron Argument for the Fundamental Laws in Continuum Mechanics

Authors: Ehsan Azadi
Comments: 28 pages

In this article, we give a general exact mathematical framework that all of the fundamental relations and conservation equations in continuum mechanics can be derived based on it. We consider a general integral equation contains the parameters that act on the volume and the surface of the integral's domain. The idea is to determine how many local relations can be derived from this general integral equation and what these local relations are? Thus, we first derive the general Cauchy lemma and then by a new general exact tetrahedron argument derive two other local relations. So, there are three local relations that can be derived from the general integral equation. Then we show that all of the fundamental laws in continuum mechanics, include the conservation of mass, linear momentum, angular momentum, energy, and the entropy law, can be shown and considered in this general framework. So, we derive the integral form of these fundamental laws in this framework and applying the general three local relations lead to exactly derivation of the mass flow, continuity equation, Cauchy lemma for traction vectors, existence of stress tensor, general equation of motion, symmetry of stress tensor, existence of heat flux vector, differential energy equation, and differential form of the Clausius-Duhem inequality for entropy law. The general exact tetrahedron argument is an exact proof that removes all of the challenges on the derivation of fundamental relations in continuum mechanics. During this proof, there is no approximating or limiting process and the parameters are exact point-base functions. Also, it gives a new understanding and a deep insight into the origins and the physics and mathematics of the fundamental relations and conservation equations in continuum mechanics. This general mathematical framework can be used in many branches of continuum physics and the other sciences.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[108] viXra:1707.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 11:09:27

Nanoscale Motion Sends Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

AMOLF researchers have developed nanoscale strings whose motion can be converted to light signals with unprecedented strength. [16] Twisted PCFs show some amazing features, from circular birefringence to conservation of the angular momentum. [15] Photonics applications rely greatly on what physicists call nonlinear optics - the different way in which materials behave depending on the intensity of light that passes through them. The greater the nonlinearity, the more promising the material for real-life applications. Now a team, led by Robert W. Boyd, Professor of Optics and Physics at the University of Rochester and the Canada Excellence Research Chair in Quantum Nonlinear Optics at the University of Ottawa, has demonstrated that the transparent, electrical conductor indium tin oxide can result in up to 100 times greater nonlinearity than other known materials. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[107] viXra:1707.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 06:54:57

New Particle of the Strong Force

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

There's a new particle in town, and it's a double-charmingly heavy beast. Researchers working on the LHCb experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider have announced the discovery of the esoterically named Xicc++ particle. [13] One of the fundamental challenges in nuclear physics is to predict the properties of subatomic matter from quantum chromodynamics (QCD)—the theory describing the strong force that confines quarks into protons and neutrons, and that binds protons and neutrons together. [12] At very high energies, the collision of massive atomic nuclei in an accelerator generates hundreds or even thousands of particles that undergo numerous interactions. [11] The first experimental result has been published from the newly upgraded Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The result demonstrates the feasibility of detecting a potential new form of matter to study why quarks are never found in isolation. [10] A team of scientists currently working at the Large Hadron Collider at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) announced that it has possibly discovered the existence of a particle integral to nature in a statement on Tuesday, Dec. 15, and again on Dec.16. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[106] viXra:1707.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-06 13:56:20

Cauchy Tetrahedron Argument and the Proofs for the Existence of Stress Tensor, a Comprehensive Review, Challenges, and Improvements

Authors: Ehsan Azadi
Comments: 34 pages

Cauchy in 1822 presented the idea of traction vector that contains both the normal and tangential components of the internal surface forces per unit area and gave the tetrahedron argument to prove the existence of stress tensor. These great achievements form the main part of the foundation of continuum mechanics. During nearly two centuries, some versions of tetrahedron argument and a few other proofs for the existence of stress tensor are presented in every text in continuum mechanics, fluid mechanics, and the related subjects. In this article, we show the birth, importance, and location of these Cauchy's achievements, then by presenting the formal tetrahedron argument in detail, for the first time we extract some fundamental challenges. These conceptual challenges are related to the result of applying the conservation of linear momentum to any mass element and the order of its surface and volume terms, the definition of traction vectors on the surfaces that pass through the same point, the limiting and approximating processes in the derivation of stress tensor, and some others. In a comprehensive review, we present the different tetrahedron arguments and the proofs for the existence of stress tensor, consider the challenges in each one, and classify them in two general approaches. In the first approach that is followed in most texts, the traction vectors do not define exactly on the surfaces that pass through the same point so, most of the challenges hold. But in the second approach, the traction vectors are defined on the surfaces that pass exactly through the same point, so some of the related challenges are removed. We also represent the improved works of Hamel and Backus, and show that the original work of Backus removes most of the challenges. This article shows that the foundation of continuum mechanics is not a finished subject and there are still some fundamental challenges.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[105] viXra:1707.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-06 15:56:41

Trump's Political Manifesto

Authors: Adolfo Kitler
Comments: 557 Pages.

Trump's Political Manifesto
Category: Social Science

[104] viXra:1707.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-06 18:16:34

From 0 to 1+1=2: On the Grand Unified Theory in Philosophy

Authors: Lei Shi
Comments: 4 Pages.

The conflict between formal logic and dialectical logic is a big problem in philosophy. This paper attempts to unify them by dialectics. Using unified methodology, we can unify all theories and establish the Grand Unified Theory in philosophy. Here we show that we must accept that there is no difference in the world and nothing makes differences which lead to matter and consciousness at the same time. That everything comes from nothing and matter and consciousness are unified, is the Grand Unified Theory in philosophy.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[103] viXra:1707.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-06 20:04:58

Second Quantization of the Square-Root Klein-Gordon Operator

Authors: John R. Smith
Comments: 58 Pages.

The square-root Klein-Gordon operator,√(m^2− ∇^2), is a non-local operator with a natural scale inversely proportional to the mass (the Compton wavelength). There is no fundamental reason to exclude negative energy states from a “square-root” propagation law. We find several possible Hamiltonians associated with √(m^2− ∇^2) which include both positive and negative energy plane wave states. It is possible to satisfy the equations of motion with commutators or anticommutators. For the scalar case, only the canonical commutation rules yield a stable vacuum. We investigate microscopic causality for the commutator of the Hamiltonian density. We find that despite the non-local dependence of the energy density on the field operators, the commutators of the physical observables vanish for space-like separations. Hence, Pauli’s result can be extended to the non-local case. Pauli explicitly excluded √(m^2− ∇^2) because this operator acts non-locally in the coordinate space. The Mandelstam representation offers the possibility of avoiding the difficulties inherent in minimal coupling (Lorentz invariance and gauge invariance). We also compute the propagators for the scattering problem and investigate thesolutions of the square-root equation in the Aharonov-Bohm problem.
Category: Quantum Physics

[102] viXra:1707.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 01:23:03

Holistic Non-Unique Clsutering. {File Closing Version 1} ISSN 1751-3030

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research technical Note the author have presented a novel method to find all Possible Clusters given a set of points in N Space.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[101] viXra:1707.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 01:43:14

Overall Skin Health Potential of the Biofield Energy Healing Based Herbomineral Formulation Using Various Skin Parameters

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Janice Patricia Kinney
Comments: 10 Pages.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the Consciousness Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treatment based test formulation and medium (DMEM) against various skin health parameters using three cell lines i.e., HFF-1, HaCaT, and B16-F10. The various study parameters viz. collagen, elastin, hyaluronic acid, melanin, cell viability against UV-B induced stress, and wound healing were evaluated. The test formulation and DMEM were divided into two parts. One part of the test formulation and one part of the DMEM received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by Janice Patricia Kinney and were defined as the Biofield Energy Treated samples, while the other parts were denoted as the untreated test samples. Cell viability using MTT assay showed more than 70% cells were viable in all the tested concentrations in three cells, indicating that the test formulation was safe and nontoxic. The collagen synthesis was significantly (p≤0.001) increased by 22.42% and 17.48% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group at 0.63 and 2.5 µg/mL, respectively in relation to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group. The Elastin level was significantly (p≤0.001) increased by 28.41% in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group at 5 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Hyaluronic acid at 0.63 µg/mL was increased significantly by 15.90% in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared to the untreated group. The level of melanin was reduced significantly by 9.25% and 7.26% in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group at 0.013 and 0.063 µg/mL, respectively in relation to the untreated group. Protection of skin cells after UV-B exposure data displayed that the cell viability was increased significantly by 17.88%, 20.10%, and 25.77% in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group at 0.625, 1.25, and 2.5 µg/mL, respectively compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group. Wound healing data exhibited significant wound closure and cell migration activities in the HFF-1 and HaCaT cells compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation. Overall, the data suggests that the Biofield Energy Treated DMEM and test formulation demonstrated better responses compared to the untreated medium and test formulation with respect to the tested skin health parameters. Therefore, the Biofield Energy Healing and the Treated test formulation could be developed as an effective cosmetic product to protect and treat the various skin problems including infection, photosensitivity, erythema, contact dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, athlete's foot, psoriasis, erythema, cutis rhomboidalis nuchae, skin aging, wrinkles and/or change in skin color, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[100] viXra:1707.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 01:43:59

The Study of Biofield Energy Treatment Based Herbomineral Formulation in Skin Health and Function

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Johanne Dodon
Comments: 12 Pages.

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the The Trivedi Effect®- Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment based new proprietary herbomineral formulation and cell medium (DMEM) on various skin health parameters using HFF-1, HaCaT, and B16-F10 cell lines. It contained minerals (zinc chloride, sodium selenate, and sodium molybdate), L-ascorbic acid, along with the mixture of Centella asiatica extract and tetrahydrocurcumin (THC). The test formulation and DMEM were divided into two parts each, one part of each was coded as untreated (UT), while the second part of each was treated with the Biofield Treatment by Johanne Dodon and denoted as the Biofield Energy Treated (BT) test items. MTT assay result showed that the test formulation was safe and nontoxic up to 80 µg/mL concentration. The fibroblast cell proliferation assay using BrdU method showed a significant increased cell proliferation at 2.13, 8.75, and 17.53 µg/mL by 3.90%, 14.68% and 29.54%, respectively in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared to the untreated group. The collagen data showed an increased synthesis by 7.42% and 3.84% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.625 µg/mL with respect to the untreated group. Similarly, the elastin synthesis was increased by 19.8% and 25.8% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 5 µg/mL with respect to the untreated group. However, the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation showed an increased level of hyaluronic acid by 1.7% in UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared to the untreated group. Melanin synthesis inhibition was observed by 15.21% and 11.43% in UT-DMEM + BT-Test Formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test Formulation groups, respectively at 0.125 µg/mL compared with the untreated group in B16-F10 melanoma cell line. Anti-wrinkling effects showed an improved cell viability by 7.65% at 1.25 µg/mL in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation experimental group compared with the untreated test group. In addition, the Biofield Energy Treated Test formulation/DMEM showed a significant wound healing activity and high cellular migration of fibroblast and keratinocytes in HFF-1 and HaCaT cells, respectively. Overall, the data suggested that Biofield Treated formulation/DMEM could be helpful for skin healing, improvement the skin health, elasticity, and tightness, as well as, improving skin health issues such as wrinkling, pigmentation disorders, redness, swelling, skin cancer, aging, rashes, and skin sagging.
Category: Chemistry

[99] viXra:1707.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 01:44:56

Skin Nourishing Effects of Biofield Energy Healing Treatment Based Herbomineral Formulation

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Shirley Theresa Holmlund
Comments: 10 Pages.

The aim of the present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of a Consciousness Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treatment based test formulation on skin health. The test formulation and DMEM were separated into two parts. One part of each received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by Shirley Theresa Holmlund and were termed as the Biofield Energy Treated samples, while the other parts were considered as the untreated test samples. MTT assay showed more than 70% cells were viable in all the tested concentrations in three cell lines and that the test formulation was safe and nontoxic. The percent cell proliferation using BrdU assay was significantly increased by 343.57%, 100.29%, and 132.6% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 8.75 µg/mL compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group. The collagen synthesis was significantly increased by 5.94% and 10.84% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.625 µg/mL with respect to the untreated group. Elastin level was significantly (p≤0.001) increased by 15.95%, 58.31%, and 47.18% at 2.5 µg/mL in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively compared to the untreated group. The level of hyaluronic acid was significantly increased by 15.13% and 68.56% in the BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.625 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. The level of melanin was significantly reduced by 17.06%, 6.94%, and 13.07% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.063 µg/mL compared to untreated group. The effect of skin protection upon exposure with UV-B rays displayed some alteration of the percent cell viability in all the tested groups. The wound healing activity by scratch assay exhibited significant wound closure and cell migration in the test formulation and DMEM in HFF-1 cells compared to the untreated group. Altogether, the data suggests that the Consciousness Energy Healing Treated DMEM and test formulation exhibited better skin protective responses compared to the untreated DMEM and test formulation group with respect to the skin health parameters. Therefore, the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation could be developed as a potential cosmetic product against various skin problems viz. eczema, vitiligo, psoriasis, acne, hives, rosacea, ichthyosis, seborrheic dermatitis, erythema, contact dermatitis, skin aging, wrinkles, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[98] viXra:1707.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 01:44:57

Holistic Non-Unique Clsutering. {File Closing Version 2} ISSN 1751-3030

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research technical Note the author have presented a novel method to find all Possible Clusters given a set of M points in N Space.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[97] viXra:1707.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 01:47:41

The Use of Consciousness Energy Healing Based Herbomineral Formulation for Skin Anti-Aging Strategies

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Vaibhav Rajan Parulkar
Comments: 11 Pages.

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of a Consciousness Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treatment based test formulation and medium (DMEM) against skin health parameters using HFF-1, HaCaT, and B16-F10 cells. The test formulation and DMEM were divided into two parts. One part of the test formulation and one part of the DMEM received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by Vaibhav Rajan Parulkar and were defined as the Biofield Energy Treated samples, while the other parts were denoted as the untreated test samples. Cell viability using MTT assay showed more than 75% cells were viable in all the tested concentrations in three cells, indicating that the test formulation was safe and nontoxic. The percent cell proliferation by BrdU assay was significantly increased by 434.14%, 244.77%, and 268.53% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test Formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test Formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test Formulation groups, respectively at 8.75 µg/mL in relation to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test Formulation group. Elastin was significantly (p≤0.001) increased 93.52% and 75.81% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test Formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test Formulation groups, respectively at 10 µg/mL compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test Formulation group. Hyaluronic acid was significantly increased by 100.07% (p≤0.05), 41.60%, and 50.10% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test Formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test Formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test Formulation groups, respectively at 0.625 µg/mL in relation to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test Formulation group. Melanin was decreased by 10.09% and 6.51% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test Formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test Formulation groups, respectively at 0.125 µg/mL compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test Formulation group. Protection of skin cells after UV-B exposure data displayed that the cell viability was increased by 7.22%, 5.75%, and 8.15% in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test Formulation at 0.625%, 1.25%, and 2.5% µg/mL, respectively compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test Formulation group. Wound healing data exhibited significant wound closure and cell migration activities in the HFF-1 cells compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group. Overall, the data suggests that the Biofield Energy Treated DMEM and test formulation demonstrated better skin protection action compared to the untreated DMEM and test formulation. Therefore, the Biofield Energy Treated test herbomineral formulation could be useful for the development of effective cosmetic products for the prevention and treatment of several skin problems such as erythema, contact dermatitis, skin aging, wrinkles and/or change in the skin color, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[96] viXra:1707.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 01:48:10

An in Vitro Study of Biofield Energy Healing Based Herbomineral Formulation for Skin Protection

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Eileen Mary Meagher
Comments: 11 Pages.

The current research work deals with the impact of the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) based herbomineral test formulation and cell medium (DMEM) against various skin health parameters. The test formulation is the combination of minerals (zinc chloride, sodium selenate, and sodium molybdate), L-ascorbic acid, herbal (Centella asiatica) extract, and tetrahydrocurcumin (THC). The test formulation and DMEM media were divided into two equal parts, i.e. one part received the Biofield Energy Treatment by Eileen Mary Meagher and was labeled as the Biofield Treated (BT) samples, while other represented was defined as the untreated test (UT) samples. The MTT assay showed that the test formulation was found safe and nontoxic with greater than 75% cell viability. Cell proliferation assay using BrdU method showed an improved proliferation rate by 343.23%, 316.13%, and 512.75% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 17.5 µg/mL, compared with the untreated group. The collagen level was significantly increased by 15.70% and 13.52% at 2.5 and 0.625 µg/mL, respectively in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation compared with the untreated group. The level of elastin was increased by 47.0% and 64.1% at 2.5 and 1.25 µg/mL, respectively in the BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, group compared with the untreated group. Hyaluronic acid synthesis was increased by 4.37%, 41.47%, and 19.74% at 2.5, 1.25, and 0.625 µg/mL, respectively in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group with respect to the untreated group. Melanin synthesis was significantly inhibited by 8.83%, 5.78%, and 12.68% at 0.0125, 0.0625, and 0.125 µg/mL, respectively in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared with the untreated group. Anti-wrinkling effect showed an improved cell viability by 4.32% and 2.47% at 2.5 µg/mL in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT- Test formulation groups, respectively in HFF-1 cells compared with the untreated group. Wound healing activity using scratch assay exhibited improved a healing rate up to 6% in the HFF-1 and HaCaT cells lines in the Biofield Energy Treated Test formulation. In conclusion, results suggest that The Trivedi Effect®- Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment based test formulation and medium have the ability to improve the skin health and can be used as skincare products cosmetics for anti-ageing, anti-wrinkling action and for the treatment of many skin diseases such as Eczema, diaper rash, chickenpox, measles, warts, acne, hives, wrinkles, ringworm, Rosacea, psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, skin cancer, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[95] viXra:1707.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-06 11:40:34

The Principle of Diminishing Internal Pressure in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new principle of stellar evolution/planet formation is presented to explain the changes in pressure on evolving stars (forming planets) internally. A few consequences to the dogma are outlined as well.
Category: Astrophysics

[94] viXra:1707.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-06 07:33:30

Individual Atoms in Biomolecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

A quantum sensor developed by a team headed by Professor Jörg Wrachtrup at the University of Stuttgart and researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research in Stuttgart, now makes it possible to use nuclear magnetic resonance scanning to even investigate the structure of individual proteins atom by atom. [24] Scientists at the University of Nottingham are working with University College London (UCL) on a five year project which has the potential to revolutionise the world of human brain imaging. [23] Scientists in Greece have devised a new form of biometric identification that relies on humans' ability to see flashes of light containing just a handful of photons. [22] A research team led by Professor CheolGi Kim has developed a biosensor platform using magnetic patterns resembling a spider web with detection capability 20 times faster than existing biosensors. [21] Researchers at Columbia University have made a significant step toward breaking the so-called "color barrier" of light microscopy for biological systems, allowing for much more comprehensive, system-wide labeling and imaging of a greater number of biomolecules in living cells and tissues than is currently attainable. [20] Scientists around the Nobel laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now achieved what was for a long time considered impossible – they have developed a new fluorescence microscope, called MINFLUX, allowing, for the first time, to optically separate molecules, which are only nanometers (one millionth of a millimeter) apart from each other. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16]
Category: Physics of Biology

[93] viXra:1707.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-06 10:51:15

Schrodinger’s Register: Foundational Issues and Physical Realization

Authors: Stephen Pink, Stanley Martens
Comments: 4 Pages. In the Proceedings of the Future Computer Conference, Rome, Italy, 2011

This work-in-progress paper consists of four points which relate to the foundations and physical realization of quantum computing. The first point is that the qubit cannot be taken as the basic unit for quantum computing, because not every superposition of bit-strings of length n can be factored into a string of n-qubits. The second point is that the “No-cloning” theorem does not apply to the copying of one quantum register into another register, because the mathematical representation of this copying is the identity operator, which is manifestly linear. The third point is that quantum parallelism is not destroyed only by environmental decoherence. There are two other forms of decoherence, which we call measurement decoherence and internal decoherence, that can also destroy quantum parallelism. The fourth point is that processing the contents of a quantum register “one qubit at a time” destroys entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[92] viXra:1707.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-06 04:02:34

A Simple Proof of the Last Fermat Theorem

Authors: Victor Sorokine
Comments: 6 Pages. The text is in French

English. The essence of the proof From the known properties of the Fermat’s equality A n +B n =C n follows: If the second digits of all the prime factors of the numbers A, B, and C are reduced to zero, then the new reduced numbers A°, B°, C° become infinitely large. From which follows the truth of the FLT? Français. L'essence de la preuve : A partir des propriétés connues de l'égalité de Fermat A n +B n =C n il suit: Si les deuxièmes chiffres de tous les facteurs premiers des nombres A, B, C, réduit à zéro, alors les nombres de nouveaux A°, B°, C°, devenir infiniment grand. Ce qui implique la vérité du DTF ? Русский. Суть доказательства: Из базового равенства Ферма A n +B n =C n следует: Если вторые цифры всех простых сомножителей чисел А, В, С УМЕНЬШИТЬ до нуля, то новые уменьшенные числа А°, В°, С° становятся бесконечно большими. Из чего следует истинность ВТФ?
Category: Number Theory

[91] viXra:1707.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-06 04:33:07

Chip Combines Computing and Data Storage

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

Now, researchers at Stanford University and MIT have built a new chip to overcome this hurdle. [28] In the quest to make computers faster and more efficient, researchers have been exploring the field of spintronics—shorthand for spin electronics—in hopes of controlling the natural spin of the electron to the benefit of electronic devices. [27] When two researchers from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) announced in April that they had successfully simulated a 45-qubit quantum circuit, the science community took notice: it was the largest ever simulation of a quantum computer, and another step closer to simulating "quantum supremacy"—the point at which quantum computers become more powerful than ordinary computers. [26] Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania, in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College, have discovered a new topological material which may enable fault-tolerant quantum computing. [25] The central idea of TQC is to encode qubits into states of topological phases of matter (see Collection on Topological Phases). [24] One promising approach to building them involves harnessing nanometer-scale atomic defects in diamond materials. [23] Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22] Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18]
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[90] viXra:1707.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-06 07:07:23

Vibrating Solitons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

The general consensus from past studies is that solitons are essentially unchanged by such an interaction and pass through one another, but physics professor Erich Mueller and graduate student Shovan Dutta have challenged that notion in a report just published in Physical Review Letters. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[89] viXra:1707.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 13:20:12

Retrocausal Quantum Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

However, recently some physicists have been looking into this idea, called "retrocausality," because it can potentially resolve some long-standing puzzles in quantum physics. [15] The likelihood of seeing quantum systems violating the second law of thermodynamics has been calculated by UCL scientists. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[88] viXra:1707.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 14:35:06

The Role of Vaginal Acidity: the Production of Glycogen and It's Role on Determining the Gender of the Fetus

Authors: Mohamed Atef Aly, I.A. Aly
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper describes the important role of the vaginal acidity not only in the health of the vagina, but also in determining the gender of the fetus, we have put in mind that where there is vaginal acidity, so we should connect this to the production of oestrogen hormones, putting in mind the cases that lead to high oestrogen level.
Category: Biochemistry

[87] viXra:1707.0087 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-26 11:06:39

Effects of Coordinate Curvature on Integration

Authors: C. A. Laforet
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper, the integration of a function over a curved manifold is examined in the case where the curvature of the manifold results in a varying density of coordinates over which the function is being integrated where the upper bound of the of integration is infinity. It is shown that when the coordinate density varies in such a case, the true area under the curve is not correctly calculated by traditional techniques of integration. This situation is then applied to the Schwarzschild metric and geodesic equation of General Relativity to examine the proper time taken for a freefalling observer to reach the event horizon of a black hole.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[86] viXra:1707.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 14:31:20

Zeta Function and Infinite Sums

Authors: François Mendzina Essomba
Comments: 5 Pages.

I have come to the conclusion, after finishing a first reection on infinite sums, that all the functions which are written in the form of an infinite sum are written according to the famous Zeta function, this statement is explicitly presented in this article.
Category: Number Theory

[85] viXra:1707.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-06 01:25:12

Quantum Higgs Amplitude Mode

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

A team led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has used sophisticated neutron scattering techniques to detect an elusive quantum state known as the Higgs amplitude mode in a two-dimensional material. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Condensed Matter

[84] viXra:1707.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-06 02:19:34

Skin Protective Activity of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment Based Herbomineral Formulation

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Dennille Mellesia Smith
Comments: 10 Pages.

The current study was attempted to evaluate the impact of the Consciousness Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treatment based herbomineral test formulation and cell medium (DMEM) against skin health. The test formulation and DMEM were divided into two parts. One of each part was received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by Dennille Mellesia Smith and was termed as the Biofield Energy Treated samples, while the other parts were denoted as the untreated test items. MTT showed >78% viable cells, indicating that the test formulation was safe and nontoxic in all the tested concentrations in three cell lines. The percent cell proliferation by BrdU assay was significantly increased by 238.30%, 192.06%, and 43.96% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 17.5 µg/mL with respect to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group. The level of collagen was significantly increased by 55.55%, 32.65%, and 52.48% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 1.25 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Elastin was significantly (p≤0.001) increased by 6.30%, 105.04%, and 29.41% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 10 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Hyaluronic acid was increased by 4.78%, 29.71%, and 58.29% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.63 µg/mL compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test Formulation group. The level of melanin was reduced by 14.64% and 18.25% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, respectively at 0.13 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Skin protection against UV-B data displayed that cell proliferation was increased by 17.88%, 20.14%, and 9.89% in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation at 0.63, 1.25, and 2.5 µg/mL, respectively compared to the untreated group. Wound healing activity exhibited significant wound closure and cell migration in all the tested groups compared to the untreated group. Overall, result suggests that the Biofield Energy Treated DMEM and test formulation exhibited better responses compared to the untreated medium and test formulation. Therefore, the Biofield Energy Treated herbomineral formulation could be useful for the development of an effective cosmetic product for the prevention and treatment of several skin problems such as erythema, contact dermatitis, skin aging, wrinkles and/or change in the skin color, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[83] viXra:1707.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-06 02:20:14

Biofield Energy Healing Based Herbomineral Formulation: An Emerging Frontier in Cosmetic Medicine

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Dezi Ann Koster
Comments: 11 Pages.

The application of the herbomineral formulations in general skin health are increasing day-by-day due to the excellent outcomes without any adverse effects. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of The Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on an herbomineral formulation and cell medium against various skin health parameters. The test formulation consists of minerals (zinc chloride, sodium selenate, and sodium molybdate) and L-ascorbic acid along with herbal extracts, Centella asiatica, and tetrahydrocurcumin (THC). The test formulation and DMEM media were divided into two equal parts, one was treated with a Biofield Treatment (BT) by Dezi Ann Koster and denoted as treated, while the other part was coded as the untreated (UT) groups. MTT assay results showed that test formulation was safe and nontoxic with more than 89% cell viability in the tested cell lines. BrdU assay showed an improved cell proliferation by 2.82% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared with the untreated group. The level of collagen was significantly increased by 32.42%, 33.64%, and 29.13% at 2.5, 1.25 and 0.625 µg/mL, respectively in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, while34.17%, 26.73%, and 17.56% increased at 2.5, 1.25 and 0.625 µg/mL, respectively in BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared with the untreated group. Elastin level was increased by 408.6% at concentration of 0.625 µg/mL in UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared with untreated group. However, hyaluronic acid (HA) level was increased by 31.88%, 15.52%, and 58.29% at 2.5, 1.25, and 0.625 µg/mL, respectively in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared with untreated group. Besides, melanin synthesis was significantly inhibited by 16.09% and 18.93% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.125 µg/mL compared with the untreated group. Anti-wrinkling activity in HFF-1 cells showed an improved cell viability by 5.49% and 11.26% at 1.25 and 0.625 µg/mL, respectively in BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared with the untreated group. Wound healing scratch assay results showed a significant healing rate by 5% and 10% in HFF-1 and HaCaT cells lines, respectively with high cellular migration of fibroblast and keratinocytes. Overall, it can be concluded that the Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) based test formulation and cell medium could be helpful against various skin disorders and can be used in psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, skin cancer, rashes from bacterial or fungal infections as anti-wrinkling, skin-whitening, anti-ageing, and rejuvenating agent.
Category: Chemistry

[82] viXra:1707.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-06 02:20:56

Evaluation of Skin Protective Effect Using in Vitro Cell Line Models of Biofield Energy-Consciousness Energy Healing Treated Herbomineral Formula

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, William Dean Plikerd
Comments: 11 Pages.

Alternative or natural systems of medicine are practiced worldwide that mostly emphasize research of herbal formulations, which might be helpful against various disorders. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of The Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on an herbomineral test formulation and cell medium (DMEM) for the skin health. The formulation contained minerals (zinc chloride, sodium selenate, and sodium molybdate), L-ascorbic acid, herbal (Centella asiatica) extract, and tetrahydrocurcumin (THC). The test formulation and DMEM media were divided into two equal parts. One part received Biofield Energy Treatment (BT) by William Dean Plikerd and other part was denoted as the untreated test items (UT). MTT assay showed that the test formulation was found safe and nontoxic with greater than 75% cell viability against various tested concentrations. The cell proliferation using BrdU method showed improved cell proliferation by 43.63% and 10.97% in the BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group, respectively at 17.5 µg/mL compared with the untreated group. The collagen level was significantly increased by 2.65% and 23.56% at 2.5 and 1.25 µg/mL, respectively in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation compared with the untreated group. The elastin level was increased by 8.34% at a concentrations of 2.5 µg/mL in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared with the untreated group. However, the hyaluronic acid (HA) level was increased by 2.60% at 0.625 µg/mL in the BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group compared with the untreated group. Moreover, melanin synthesis was decreased by 14.22% and 17.61% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation groups, respectively at a concentration of 0.125 µg/mL. Anti-wrinkling activity in HFF-1 cells showed improve cell viability by 14.54% and 11.32% at 1.25 µg/mL in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively compared with the untreated group. Wound healing scratch assay results showed significantly increased healing rates by 10.5% and 8.3% in the HFF-1 and HaCaT cells lines, respectively in the Biofield Energy Healing based test formulation. In conclusion, The Trivedi Effect® based test formulation and DMEM could be useful to improve the skin ECM components, along with protection against UV-B rays, which could be useful for the development of an effective cosmetic product for the prevention and treatment of several skin problems such as erythema, contact dermatitis, skin aging, wrinkles and/or change in the skin color, etc. as an anti-ageing, skin-whitening, and anti-wrinkling.
Category: Chemistry

[81] viXra:1707.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-06 02:21:33

Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment Based Herbomineral Formulation: A Safe and Effective Approach for Skin Health

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Jagdish Singh
Comments: 10 Pages.

Oxidative stress causes serious skin damage that is characterized by ageing, wrinkling, roughness, laxity and pigmentation. In the present work, the impact of Biofield Energy (The Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing) Treatment on the herbomineral test formulation and cell medium (DMEM) was evaluated for skin health parameters. The test formulation was consisted of minerals (zinc chloride, sodium selenate, and sodium molybdate), L-ascorbic acid, herbal (Centella asiatica) extract, and tetrahydrocurcumin (THC). The test formulation and DMEM media were divided into two parts. One part received the Biofield Energy Treatment by Jagdish Singh and was termed as the Biofield Treated (BT) sample, while other was denoted as the untreated (UT) samples. MTT assay showed that test formulation was found safe and nontoxic with greater than 75% cell viability against various tested concentrations. Cell proliferation data using BrdU method showed an improved cell proliferation by 149.13% and 118.80% at 8.75 µg/mL in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation groups, respectively compared with the untreated group. The collagen level was significantly increased by 28.14% and 44.45% at 1.25 and 0.625 µg/mL, respectively in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation compared with the untreated group. The elastin level was increased by 10.38%, 14.66%, and 48.24% at 2.5, 1.25, and 0.625 µg/mL, respectively in the BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group, compared with the untreated group. Moreover, melanin synthesis was significantly inhibited by 5.93%, 1.43%, and 1.43% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.0625 µg/mL compared with the untreated group. However, melanin synthesis was decreased by 11.71% and 15.75% at 0.125 µg/mL in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation groups, respectively. Anti-wrinkling effects exhibited improved cell viability by 17.19% and 28.68% at 2.5 µg/mL in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively in HFF-1 cells compared with the untreated group. Wound healing activity using scratch assay showed a significantly improved healing rate upto 5% in the HFF-1 and HaCaT cells lines in the Biofield Energy Healing based test formulation. Overall, the data suggests that The Trivedi Effect® treated test formulation and DMEM has the capacity to improve the skin health and suggests its use in psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, skin cancer, rashes from bacterial or fungal infections, and many more skin diseases.
Category: Chemistry

[80] viXra:1707.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-06 02:22:12

Skin Rejuvenating Effect of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment Based Herbomineral Formulation

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, James Jeffery Peoples
Comments: 11 Pages.

Currently in today’s world, herbomineral based cosmetic formulations are continuously gaining popularity globally because they have a high safety profile and skin protection effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a Consciousness Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treatment based test formulation and medium (DMEM) against different skin health parameters. The test formulation and DMEM were divided into two parts. One part of each received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by James Jeffery Peoples and were termed as the Biofield Energy Treated samples, while the other samples were denoted as the untreated test items. MTT assay showed more than 70% viable cells, indicating that the test formulation was safe and nontoxic in all the tested concentrations in three cell lines. The percent cell proliferation by BrdU assay was increased by 251.30%, 373.36%, and 722.48% at 8.75, 17.5, and 35 µg/mL, respectively in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group. Collagen synthesis was significantly (p≤0.001) increased by 32.96% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group at 2.5 µg/mL with respect to the untreated group. Elastin was significantly (p≤0.001) increased by 69.49% and 17.13% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 10 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. The level of hyaluronic acid was increased remarkably by 14.78% in the BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group at 1.25 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Melanin was suppressed significantly by 14.64% and 18.25% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.13 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Skin cells protection against UV-B exposure revealed that the percent cell viability was increased by 4.23% in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group at 2.5 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. The wound healing activity by scratch assay showed significant wound closure and cell migration activity in the test formulation and DMEM group in both HFF-1 and HaCaT cells compared to the untreated group. Altogether, the data suggests that the Biofield Energy Treated DMEM and test formulation showed better responses compared to the untreated group. Overall, the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation could be developed as an effective cosmetic product to protect and treat various skin problems including infection, photosensitivity, cutis rhomboidalis nuchae, erythema, contact dermatitis, behcet's disease, blepharitis, boil, bowen's disease, skin aging, wrinkles and/or change in skin colour, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[79] viXra:1707.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-06 03:30:33

Without Fakes by Quantum Technology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Counterfeit products are a huge problem-from medicines to car parts, fake technology costs lives. But researchers exhibiting at the Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition believe we are on the verge of a future without fakes thanks to new quantum technology. [11] The distillation and dilution process allows measuring the strength of coherence of the initial state of superposition with experiments tailored to each particular case. [10] University of Vienna physicists have, for the first time, evaluated the almost 100-year long history of quantum delayed-choice experiments—from the theoretical beginnings with Albert Einstein to the latest research works in the present. The extensive study now appeared in the renowned journal Reviews of Modern Physics. [9] Two of the most important ideas that distinguish the quantum world from the classical one are nonlocality and contextuality. Previously, physicists have theoretically shown that both of these phenomena cannot simultaneously exist in a quantum system, as they are both just different manifestations of a more fundamental concept, the assumption of realism. Now in a new paper, physicists have for the first time experimentally confirmed that these two defining features of quantum mechanics never appear together. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Condensed Matter

[78] viXra:1707.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 11:42:46

Electromagnetic Energy, Momentum and Forces in a Dielectric Medium with Losses

Authors: Yurii A. Spirichev
Comments: 6 Pages.

From the energy-momentum tensors of the electromagnetic field and the mechanical energy-momentum, the equations of energy conservation and balance of electromagnetic and mechanical forces are obtained. The equation for the Abraham force in a dielectric medium with losses is obtained
Category: Classical Physics

[77] viXra:1707.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 11:47:51

About the Abraham Force in a Conducting Medium

Authors: Yurii A. Spirichev
Comments: 6 Pages.

The article is devoted to the Abragam force in a conducting medium. From the energy-momentum tensor of the electromagnetic field interaction with moving charges the equation for the Abraham force is obtained. It is shown that the Abraham force in a conducting medium, as well as in a dielectric medium, has vortical character. Сurrent density vectors and vector potential must be non-collinear.
Category: Classical Physics

[76] viXra:1707.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 11:50:37

Results on the Problem of Abraham-Minkowski and the Abraham Force

Authors: Yurii A. Spirichev
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this article the final results on the Abraham-Minkowski problem are presented. It is shown that the Minkowski momentum is related to the dielectric characteristics of the medium, and the Abraham momentum is related to the magnetic characteristics of the medium. The total electromagnetic momentum in the medium is equal to the half-sum of the Minkowski and Abraham momentums. Therefore, the Minkowski momentum and the Abraham momentum have equal importance in electrodynamics, and the discussion of which of these forms of electromagnetic momentum is better does not make sense. It is shown that only an asymmetric energy-momentum tensor describes the total electromagnetic momentum in the medium. The Abraham force in a dielectric and conducting medium is described. It is shown that the Abraham force does not transmit a mechanical impulse to the medium, that means it is a fictitious force that really does not exist and it is impossible to detect it experimentally
Category: Classical Physics

[75] viXra:1707.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 12:23:13

Maxwell's Demon's Mind

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[74] viXra:1707.0074 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-11 13:15:48

Fractality and Coherent Structures in Satisfiability Problems

Authors: Theophanes Raptis
Comments: 47 Pages. Typo correction in eq. (29a-b) and (35a-b)

We utilize a previously reported methodological framework [5], to find a general set of mappings for any satisfiability (SAT) problem to a set of arithmetized codes allowing a classification hierarchy enumerable via integer partition functions. This reveals a unique unsatisfiability criterion via the introduction of certain universal indicator functions associating the validity of any such problem with a mapping between Mersenne integers and their complements in an inclusive hierarchy of exponential intervals. Lastly, we present means to reduce the complexity of the original problem to that of a special set of binary sequences and their bit block analysis via a reduction of any expression to a type of a Sequential Dynamical System (SDS) using the technique of clause equalization. We specifically notice the apparent analogy of certain dynamical properties behind such problems with resonances and coherencies of multi-periodic systems leading to the possibility of certain fast analog or natural implementations of dedicated SAT-machines. A Matlab toolbox is also offered as additional aid in exploring certain simple examples.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[73] viXra:1707.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 08:42:25

Spin Currents Switch

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

DESY scientist Lars Bocklage has discovered a new way of producing ultrafast spin currents. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley, fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[72] viXra:1707.0072 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-21 15:40:10

Resolution to the Liar Paradox.

Authors: Ameet Sharma
Comments: 7 Pages.

We present a resolution to the liar paradox. The basic idea is that the liar sentence is ambiguous. Depending on the method of analysis of the liar sentence, it can express a true proposition, a false proposition or no proposition at all. There is no logical contradiction since we never get two truth values for the same proposition. We can avoid this problem of ambiguous sentences by always using the same rules of analysis for a sentence every time.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[71] viXra:1707.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 08:51:43

Seeing All The Clusters

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 1 Page.

In this technical note the author has presented a novel method to find all the clusters (overlapping and non-unique) formed by a given set of points.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[70] viXra:1707.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 08:58:23

Seeing All Clusters Formed By A Given Set Of Points (File Closing Version) ISSN 1751-3030

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 1 Page.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a novel technique to find all Clusters that may be overlapping to some extent.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[69] viXra:1707.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 09:30:51

Quantum Dots Antibacterial Eye Drops

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

But now, one group reports in ACS Nano that these tiny structures may someday provide relief for eye infections resulting from contact lens wear, trauma or some types of surgeries. [12] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Physics of Biology

[68] viXra:1707.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 10:01:56

The Spin Switched Off

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

The experiment setup consists of a heterostructure of graphene and molybdenum disulphide; a spintronic device. [16] DESY scientist Lars Bocklage has discovered a new way of producing ultrafast spin currents. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley, fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[67] viXra:1707.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 04:09:06

Pulsar Emits a Rotating Beam

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Southampton have cast doubt over established explanations for certain behaviours in pulsars-highly magnetised rotating neutron stars, formed from the remains of supernovae. [8] Installed on the International Space Station, by mid-July it will commence its scientific work – to study the exotic astrophysical objects known as neutron stars and examine whether they could be used as deep-space navigation beacons for future generations of spacecraft. [7] NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[66] viXra:1707.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 04:12:49

Einstein’s Dream

Authors: David A. Edwards
Comments: 17 Pages.

The singularities of ordinary General Relativity can be avoided by considering the (mathematically well-defined) Einstein-Yang-Mills-Dirac-Higgs system which is (heuristically) the super-classical limit of the (not mathematically well-defined) Standard Model. This system has complete solutions without singularities, solitons, and a Cyclic Universe solution. (The system has negative energy density; hence doesn't satisfy the positivity conditions in the Penrose-Hawking Singularity Theorems.) One would like to be able to apply deformation quantization to this system to get a mathematically rigorous Standard Model in a Curved Noncommutative Spacetime. This would obviate any necessity of going further to a full quantum gravity theory. The deformation parameter would be Planck’s constant and the associated Planck Length would be the scale at which the manifold structure of spacetime gives way to a rougher structure of a noncommutative geometry. The Einstein-Yang-Mills-Dirac-Higgs Equations provide an alternative approach to a Cyclic Universe which Penrose has recently been advocating. They also imply that the massive compact objects now classified as Black Holes are actually Quark Stars, possibly with event horizons, but without singularities.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[65] viXra:1707.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 04:20:26

On Rational vs. Adelic Homotopy Theory

Authors: David Edwards, Robert Varley
Comments: 7 Pages.

We define Adelic Homotopy Theory and compare it with Rational Homotopy Theory.
Category: Topology

[64] viXra:1707.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 05:52:44

Majorana Particle is a Neutral Self-Conjugated Electron

Authors: Antonio Puccini
Comments: 12 Pages.

With the neutron decay, a proton and an electron (e-) are emitted. The energy gap, which should be offset by the emission of a 3rd particle, is randomly included between 0.511 and 0.7828 MeV. These values correspond to those of a more or less accelerated electron, but not those of a neutrino, which mass is considered to be ≤ 0.01 electronic masses. Pauli and Fermi hypothesized that this 3rd particle should be free of electric charge and provided with the same mass and spin of an electron. Such requests may be fully met by an electron, but without electric charge: a neutral electron (e°), equally safeguarding all Conservation Laws. If we analyze the properties of this possible particle, they seem to coincide with those attributed to the Majorana Spynor or Fermion: that is, a massive particle, free of electric charge, self-conjugated, i.e. it identifies with its antiparticle (with the exception of the spin: antiparallel): ↓e° ≡ ē°↑
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[63] viXra:1707.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 06:01:28

Impact of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on Herbomineral Formulation in Different Skin Health Parameters

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Deborah Lea Smith
Comments: 10 Pages.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Consciousness Energy Healing based test formulation and cell medium (DMEM) against various skin health parameters. The test formulation and DMEM were divided into two parts. One part received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) by Deborah Lea Smith and termed as the Biofield Energy Treated sample, while other part denoted as untreated test item. The study was assessed for the measurement of collagen, elastin, hyaluronic acid, melanin synthesis, cell viability against UV-B induced stress, and wound healing activity. MTT assay showed that the test formulation was safe and nontoxic in three cell lines. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) assay data showed that the percent cell proliferation was increased significantly by 22.69% and 34.99% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 8.75 µg/mL compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group. Collagen was increased by 15.12% and 15.26% in the BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.625 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Elastin was significantly increased by 9.10%, 13.71%, and 12.41% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 5 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Elastin was also increased significantly by 17.78% and 6.01% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 10 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Hyaluronic acid was significantly increased by 3.90%, 5.37%, and 6.82% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation at 0.625, 1.25, and 2.5 µg/mL, respectively compared to the untreated group. Melanin level was reduced by 14.64% and 18.25% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.13 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Skin cells protection was significantly increased by 21.32%, 23.81%, and 7.20% at 0.625, 1.25, and 2.5 µg/mL, respectively in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation compared to the untreated group. Wound healing assay exhibited significant wound closure and cell migration in all the tested groups compared to the untreated group. Overall, the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation and DMEM (The Trivedi Effect®) were found to be safe and can be developed as an effective cosmetic product to protect and treat the skin problems including infection, photosensitivity, acne, hives, chickenpox, eczema, rosacea, seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, erythema, contact dermatitis, skin aging, wrinkles, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[62] viXra:1707.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 06:43:11

Quantum Sensors Brain Imaging

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Scientists in Greece have devised a new form of biometric identification that relies on humans' ability to see flashes of light containing just a handful of photons. [22] A research team led by Professor CheolGi Kim has developed a biosensor platform using magnetic patterns resembling a spider web with detection capability 20 times faster than existing biosensors. [21] Researchers at Columbia University have made a significant step toward breaking the so-called "color barrier" of light microscopy for biological systems, allowing for much more comprehensive, system-wide labeling and imaging of a greater number of biomolecules in living cells and tissues than is currently attainable. [20] Scientists around the Nobel laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now achieved what was for a long time considered impossible – they have developed a new fluorescence microscope, called MINFLUX, allowing, for the first time, to optically separate molecules, which are only nanometers (one millionth of a millimeter) apart from each other. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[61] viXra:1707.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 06:54:24

Holistic Non-Unique Clsutering. ISSN 1751-3030

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 1 Page.

In this technical note, the author has presented a novel scheme of Holistic Non-Unique Clustering.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[60] viXra:1707.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-04 13:10:40

New Spin on Computer Technology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

In the quest to make computers faster and more efficient, researchers have been exploring the field of spintronics—shorthand for spin electronics—in hopes of controlling the natural spin of the electron to the benefit of electronic devices. [27] When two researchers from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) announced in April that they had successfully simulated a 45-qubit quantum circuit, the science community took notice: it was the largest ever simulation of a quantum computer, and another step closer to simulating "quantum supremacy"—the point at which quantum computers become more powerful than ordinary computers. [26] Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania, in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College, have discovered a new topological material which may enable fault-tolerant quantum computing. [25] The central idea of TQC is to encode qubits into states of topological phases of matter (see Collection on Topological Phases). [24] One promising approach to building them involves harnessing nanometer-scale atomic defects in diamond materials. [23] Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22] Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16] For the past 15 years, the big data techniques pioneered by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, have been revolutionizing biomedical research. On Sept. 6, 2016, JPL and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, renewed a research partnership through 2021, extending the development of data science that originated in space exploration and is now supporting new cancer discoveries. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[59] viXra:1707.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-04 13:57:13

Limiting Speed.

Authors: Elkin Igor Vladimirovich
Comments: 5 Pages. 0

Relativistic physics is built on the principle of least action. The conclusions from this theory give the formulas that the electrical interaction makes responsible for the gravitational interaction, inertia and accelerated "expansion of the universe." The calculations are all extremely elementary and indisputable, since they use the conclusions of relativistic physics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[58] viXra:1707.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-04 14:18:04

Sphere Theory, the New Grand Unified Theory, GUT, Predicts Planck’s Constant

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Sphere Theory is a theory of granular spacetime. In Sphere theory the mass ratios of the electron to the neutron, the proton to the neutron, and the fine structure can be directly estimated using Sphere Theory’s unification of gravity and charge, and using a resonance of radiation similar to Bremsstrahlung Cherenkov Radiation. The values of the ratios calculated by these methods are as follows. The mass ratio of the electron to the neutron, Me/Mn = 5.438673444242 *10^-4. The mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, Mp/Mn=0.9986234786761 and the Sommerfeld fine structure constant Alpha=137.035999097020 (1). In this paper we use the values of Me/Mn (2), Mp/Mn (3), and Alpha, Sommerfeld fine structure constant, (4) determined from Sphere Theory to calculate the Planck Constant from each CODATA publication year, and compare it to the CODATA value of the Planck constant. These calculations may show that Sphere Theory is useful for making sense of the universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[57] viXra:1707.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-04 18:28:18

The Shape of the Universe and It's Density Parameter; the Ratio of the Actual Density of the Universe to the Critical Density that Would be Required to Cause the Expansion to Stop

Authors: Islam Atef Aly
Comments: 7 Pages.

This paper overviewing the answer to a reasonable question to wonder what the shape of the Universe is. Is it a sphere? A torus? Is it open or closed, or flat? And what does that all mean anyway? Is it doubly curved like a western saddle? What can determine the entire fate of the Universe. Does the Universe go on forever? If not is there some kind of giant brick wall at the edge of the Universe? As it turns out, the answer is both simpler and weirder than all those options. What does the Universe look like is a question we love to guess at as a species and make up all kinds of nonsense.
Category: Astrophysics

[56] viXra:1707.0056 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-05 15:43:42

Exact Tetrahedron Argument for the Existence of Stress Tensor and General Equation of Motion

Authors: Ehsan Azadi
Comments: 19 pages

The birth of modern continuum mechanics was the Cauchy's idea for traction vectors and his achievements of the existence of stress tensor and derivation of the general equation of motion. He gave a proof for the existence of stress tensor that is called Cauchy tetrahedron argument. But there are some challenges on the different versions of tetrahedron argument and the proofs for the existence of stress tensor. We give a new proof for the existence of stress tensor and derivation of the general equation of motion. The exact tetrahedron argument for the first time gives us a clear and deep insight into the origins and the nature of these fundamental concepts and equations in continuum mechanics. This new approach leads to the exact point-base definition and derivation of these fundamental parameters and relations in continuum mechanics. By the exact tetrahedron argument we derived the relation for the existence of stress tensor and the general equation of motion, simultaneously. In this new proof, there is no approximating or limiting process and all of the effective parameters are exact values not average values. Also, we show that in this proof, all the challenges on the previous tetrahedron arguments and the proofs for the existence of stress tensor are removed.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[55] viXra:1707.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 01:05:04

Solid State Characterization of Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract After Treatment with Consciousness Energy Healing

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Ashwagandha root extract is useful as an herbal medicine and nutraceuticals for the prevention and treatment of various diseases. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the influence of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) on the physico-chemical, thermal and behavioral properties of ashwagandha root extract using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), particle size distribution analysis (PSD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment, and another part was treated with the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as Biofield Energy Treated sample. The PXRD analysis concluded that both the control and treated samples were amorphous in nature. The particle size values at d10, d50, and d90 of the treated sample were significantly decreased by 36.78%, 15.18%, and 5.06%, respectively compared with the control sample. Likewise, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 85.14% compared to the control sample. FT-IR results showed a small impact of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the phytoconstituents of ashwagandha root extract to reduce the force constant of O-H (str.) bond. UV-vis analysis revealed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance (λmax) of both the samples was at 206.4 in methanol. TGA revealed the three steps of thermal degradation and the total weight loss was decreased by 0.73% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. Consequently, the maximum thermal degradation temperature was found at 272.53°C and 393.35°C for two broad peaks in the treated sample was increased by 0.05% and 0.08%, respectively compared to the control the sample (272.67°C and 393.66°C). The DSC analysis indicated that the evaporation temperature and latent heat of vaporization were lowered significantly by 4.98% and 35.67%, respectively in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The current outcomes suggested that the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might have the amazing capacity to enhance the solubility, dissolution, absorption, bioavailability and thermal stability of ashwagandha root extract in the various form of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical formulation by modifying its particle size and surface area. Thus, the Biofield Energy Treated ashwagandha root extract might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, sexual disorders, arthritis, stress, cancer, ageing, diabetes, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[54] viXra:1707.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 01:06:42

Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Characterization of the Consciousness Energy Healing Treated Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) root extract is a popular health supplement, with purported health benefits including prevention and treatment of various diseases, i.e. anxiety, stress, etc. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the impact of Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) on the characteristic properties of the phytoconstituents present in the ashwagandha root extract using LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR spectroscopy. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control (without treatment), while another part was treated with the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. The liquid chromatographic data of the control and Biofield Energy Treated samples revealed that the retention time of the 25 chromatographic peaks remained same, whereas the peak area% i.e. the relative amount of the phytoconstituents was altered significantly. The peak area% of the treated ashwagandha root extract representing the phytoconstituents was significantly decreased in the range of 6.02% to 39.74% at Rt of 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.6, 5.7, 6.9, 7.1, 7.3, 7.8, 7.9, 8.0, and 8.5 minutes compared to the control sample. On the contrary, the peak area% of the other phytoconstituents present in the treated sample was significantly increased in the range of 4.12% to 82.32% at Rt of 5.1, 6.4, 6.6, 6.8, 8.1, 8.2, 8.4, 8.6, 8.8, 8.9, 9.0, 9.1, and 9.2 minutes, respectively compared to the control sample. A total of 16 withanolides such as sitoindoside IX, viscosa lactone B, dihydrowithanolide D, withanolide A, withaferin A, ixocarpalactone A, withanolide sulfoxide, etc. were proposed from the molecular mass at m/z 605, 489, 473, 471, 505, and 992 at the retention times of 6.9, 7.1, 7.8, 8.2, 8.5, and 9.2 minutes with the help of LC-MS, GC-MS and NMR data of both the samples. Subsequently, the mass peak intensities of the treated sample were significantly changed in the range of -61.24% to 106.61% compared with the control sample at the same retention time. These findings suggest that Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment could be advantageous for altering the concentration of the phytoconstituents in the ashwagandha root extract by modifying their intrinsic physicochemical properties, which might be helpful to improve the bioavailability of active constituents of ashwagandha extract that might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, arthritis, stress, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[53] viXra:1707.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 01:07:25

A Systematic Study of the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment on Physicochemical, Thermal, Structural, and Behavioral Properties of Magnesium Gluconate

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is a pharmaceutical/nutraceutical compound used as a source of magnesium ion. The recent study described the impact of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on magnesium gluconate for the variation in physicochemical, structural, thermal and behavioral properties using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited that the crystallite size of the treated sample was remarkably altered from -70% to 130% compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size was significantly decreased by 23.74% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. Biofield Energy Healing Treatment significantly reduced the particle size of magnesium gluconate at d10, d50, and d90 values by 12.15%, 8.98% and 15.35%, respectively compared to the control sample. The surface area analysis showed that surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 11.76% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR and UV-vis analysis displayed that structure of the magnesium gluconate persisted identical in both the treated and control samples. The TGA analysis exhibited four steps thermal degradation in both samples and the total weight loss of the Biofield Energy Treated sample was reduced by 0.19% compared with the control sample. The melting temperature of the Biofield Energy Treated sample (171.25ºC) was slightly (0.16%) higher from the control sample (170.97ºC). The latent heat of fusion was significantly decreased by 7.76% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The TGA and DSC analysis revealed that the thermal stability of the treated sample was enhanced compared with the control sample. The current study revealed that The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might produce a new polymorphic form of magnesium gluconate, which could be more soluble and bioavailable along with improved thermal stability compared with the untreated compound. The Biofield Treated sample could be more stable during manufacturing, delivery or storage conditions than the untreated sample. Hence, The Trivedi Effect® Treated magnesium gluconate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic responses against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[52] viXra:1707.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 01:09:38

Photo-Protective Effect of Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treatment Based Herbomineral Formulation Against Various Skin Health Parameters

Authors: Aksana Hancharuk, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) based herbomineral formulation on various skin health parameters. The test formulation consisted of minerals (zinc, selenate, and molybdenum), L-ascorbic acid, along with Centella asiatica extract, and tetrahydrocurcumin (THC). The test formulation and DMEM were divided into two parts, one part of each was treated with the Biofield Energy Treatment by Aksana Hancharuk and denoted as treated group, while other part was coded as the untreated groups. Skin parameters against various cell lines such as HFF-1, HaCaT and B16-F10 were examined with the combination of Biofield Treated (BT) and untreated test formulation (UT) with DMEM. MTT assay result showed that the test formulation was found to be safe and nontoxic at tested concentrations. Human fibroblast cell proliferation using BrdU method showed a significant increased cell proliferation by 91.51% and 201.14% in different Biofield Energy Treated groups. UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group showed an increased level of collagen by 64.58% (2.5 µg/mL) and 55.55% (1.25 µg/mL), respectively compared with the untreated group. Similarly, elastin synthesis was increased in UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group by 21.96% and 11.42% at concentration 10 and 5 µg/mL, respectively compared to the untreated group. However, hyaluronic acid level was increased by 14.02% and 6.57% at concentrations 1.25 and 0.625 µg/mL, respectively in BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared with the untreated group. Moreover, inhibition of melanin synthesis was observed by 12.95% and 17.86% (0.125 µg/mL) in UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation groups, respectively compared with the untreated group in B16-F10 melanoma cell line. Anti-wrinkling activity in HFF-1 cells showed a notable cell viability in all the groups at various concentrations, i.e. in UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group by 15.68%, 36.47%, and 29.64%, respectively at 2.5 µg/mL compared with the untreated group. The significant wound healing activity was reported in scratch assay in HFF-1 and HaCaT cells due to the significantly higher cellular migration of fibroblast and keratinocytes. Therefore, Biofield Energy Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) based test formulation and cell medium might be a suitable approach for the development for herbal cosmetics and formulations as anti-wrinkling, skin-whitening, anti-ageing, and rejuvenating action. It can improve the overall skin health care against many skin disorders such as Eczema, diaper rash, seborrheic dermatitis, chickenpox, measles, warts, acne, hives, ringworm, Rosacea, psoriasis, skin cancer, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[51] viXra:1707.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 01:10:26

Skin Photo-Protective and Anti-ageing Activity of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment Based Herbomineral Formulation

Authors: Bonnie P. Hegarty-Diaz, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of The Trivedi Effect®- Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment based herbomineral formulation on various skin parameters using HFF-1, HaCaT, and B16-F1 cell lines. The test formulation was composed of minerals (zinc, selenium, and molybdenum), and L-ascorbic acid along with the mixture of Centella asiatica extract and tetrahydrocurcumin (THC). Test formulation and DMEM were divided into two equal parts, one was treated with the Biofield Energy Treatment by Bonnie P. Hegarty-Diaz and denoted as treated, while other part was coded as untreated groups. MTT assay result showed that the test formulation was found safe and nontoxic at tested concentration 40 µg/mL. Fibroblast cell proliferation assay showed significant increased cell proliferation by 26.83% at 8.75 µg/mL in BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared to the untreated group. The level of collagen was significantly increased by 22.05% and 22.24% (at 2.5 µg/mL) in BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively. However, collagen amount was increased by 11.08% and 9.52% in BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 1.25 µg/mL, compared to untreated group. Similarly, elastin synthesis was increased in the BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group by 19.98%, 72.54% and 105.04% at the concentrations 10, 5, and 2.5 µg/mL, respectively compared to the untreated group. However, level of hyaluronic acid was increased by 5.19% at 0.625 µg/mL in UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared with the untreated group. Besides, melanin synthesis inhibition was found to be inhibited by 14.80% and 17.40% at 0.125 µg/mL in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation groups, respectively compared with the untreated group in B16-F10 melanoma cell line. Anti-wrinkling activity in HFF-1 cells showed improve cell viability in all the groups at various concentrations, i.e. in UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group by 10.69%, 6.9%3, and 11.86%, respectively at 0.625 µg/mL compared with the untreated group. In addition, wound healing scratch assay data suggest significantly higher cellular migration of fibroblast and keratinocytes cells in HFF-1 and HaCaT cells lines, respectively. In conclusion, Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) based test formulation and DMEM could be beneficial against various skin disorders such psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, skin cancer, rashes from bacterial or fungal infections and can be significantly used as anti-wrinkling, skin-whitening, anti-ageing, and rejuvenating action.
Category: Chemistry

[50] viXra:1707.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 01:55:53

Another Path Towards the Truth About How the Universe Works?

Authors: Dino Bruniera
Comments: 16 Pages.

In the article titled “Each Point of Space in Expansion is the Preferred Reference Frame for Any Object Transiting to that Point”, published on March 30th, 2017, I presented a theory that demonstrates the existence of the Preferred Reference Frame and at which speed the Earth moves relative to it. I also stated that further theories about various phenomena of the Universe, may be derived from this theory and that it, therefore, opens a new path towards the truth about how the Universe works. And now, with this article, I will tray to begin to walk the above path, exposing some hypotheses explaining various phenomena of the Universe, in a way compatible with said theory. Here are, in short, these hypotheses. The Universe is exclusively composed of an infinity of space quanta, which tend to expand and thus cause it to expand, as a consequence. Matter manifests on sets of space quanta, which are compressed and thus enable the neighbouring quanta, and later the quanta further apart, to expand further. Gravity is the effect of the fact that each object tends to move towards the least compressed space quanta and, therefore, towards other objects. Speed of light depends on the degree of compression of space quanta in the locations (or points) in which it transits, meaning that the greater the compression, the higher the speed. But since also clocks move more or less rapidly according to their degree of compression, speed of light results always the same at any location. Therefore, in the past, when the degree of compression of space quanta was greater, speed of light was also greater. Cosmological redshift is due to the speed of the location in which the celestial object receiving photons, is moving, compared to the location in which the celestial object emitting it, has moved, in a Universe in decelerating expansion. In support of this hypothesis, I present two tables that simulate the journey of the photons of a high-redshift galaxy and that of CMBR photons, and, above all, a formula for calculating apparent luminosity, compatible with the observations of the high-redshift type Ia supernovae. I would like to point out that I haven’t mentioned either the dark energy or dark matter, since I haven’t considered it necessary for this model of the Universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[49] viXra:1707.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 02:11:11

Impurities in Topological Insulators

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

The researchers gained insights into the interaction between the atoms of magnetic impurities in such materials. [25] In the world of electronics, where the quest is always for smaller and faster units with infinite battery life, topological insulators (TI) have tantalizing potential. [24] At first glance, biomedical imaging devices, cell phones, and radio telescopes may not seem to have much in common, but they are all examples of technologies that can benefit from certain types of relaxor ferroelectrics— ceramics that change their shape under the application of an electric field. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17]
Category: Condensed Matter

[48] viXra:1707.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 03:01:29

More Insight in Sequence of Happy Cube Numbers

Authors: Muneer Jebreel Karama
Comments: 2 Pages.

A positive integer is called Fixed Happy Cube Numbers (FHCN) in case, if you are cubing its digits and adding them together one time you got the same number. For example the number 153 is happy cube because; 153= 1^3+5^3+3^3, in fact this paper will address new propriety of this extraordinary happy cube number .
Category: Number Theory

[47] viXra:1707.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-04 11:39:20

Breakthrough Quantum Benchmark

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

By gently prodding a swirling cloud of supercooled lithium atoms with a pair of lasers, and observing the atoms' response, researchers at Swinburne have developed a new way to probe the properties of quantum materials. [36] The nickel-bismuth (Ni-Bi) sample studied here is the first example of a 2-D material where this type of superconductivity is intrinsic, meaning that it happens without the help of external agents, such as a nearby superconductor. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[46] viXra:1707.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-04 11:58:48

Complex Laplacian Operator

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 2 pages, written in french

A Laplacian operator is defined bound to a riemannian manifold with a pseudo-complex structure.
Category: Geometry

[45] viXra:1707.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-04 05:49:46

The Wheeler-Feynman Interpretation of the Delayed-Choice Experiment and its Consequences for Quantum Computation

Authors: Stephen Pink, Stanley Martens
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper, we shall describe the delayed-choice experiment first proposed by Wheeler and then analyze the experiment based on both our interpretation of what is happening and the Wheeler/Feynman interpretation. Our interpretation includes wave-function collapse due to a measurement, while the Wheeler/Feynman interpretation attempts to avoid wave-function collapse in a measurement, as part of their explanation, to preserve consistent unitarity. in quantum processes. We will also show that there are severe consequences for quantum computing if there is no wave function collapse due to a measurement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[44] viXra:1707.0044 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-10 05:53:15

The Emergence of Consciousness from Chaos

Authors: Stephen H. Jarvis
Comments: 8 Pages.

The idea of consciousness emerging from chaos is not a new idea. In fact, it is one of the oldest ideas of philosophy. What makes it an important idea to herald here (in the context of quantum gravity and a new type of string theory incorporating the Golden Ratio) is how the idea has been derived, namely from “chaos theory” sprung from two key preliminary papers [1][2]. This third paper shall take up from where the second paper [2] left off. Here, we shall explain the Schrodinger equation for light, and then present an improved equation for the energy of a photon, then confirm the emergence of light from the atomic level represents a well-known equation for chaos theory, the “logistic map equation”. From there we shall present the idea of consciousness as a need for this system of time and space to resolve the disparity between light and particle location, together with the need to reach an exact value for “π” (as was the basis for the axioms of time upon space in the development of the atom in the second paper). A list of features of this proposal of consciousness as an emergent entity will be presented that describes well-known features of the idea of our own ability to reason and be aware.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[43] viXra:1707.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 22:47:02

Using the Appropriate Norm In The K-Nearest Neighbours Analysis

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 1 Page.

In this Technical Note the author has presented and alternative to the use of L2 Norm for Nearness Analysis in K-Nearest Neighbours Algorithm.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[42] viXra:1707.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 07:59:50

Individual Atomic Collisions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Now, physicists in Kaiserslautern and Erlangen have succeeded in observing the fundamental steps of diffusion by individual atoms in a gas and have provided a theoretical description of this mechanism. [18] Van der Waals interactions between molecules are among the most important forces in biology, physics, and chemistry, as they determine the properties and physical behavior of many materials. [17] Physicists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute and the University of Basel have succeeded in measuring the very weak van der Waals forces between individual atoms for the first time. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[41] viXra:1707.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 08:24:06

45-Qubit Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

When two researchers from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) announced in April that they had successfully simulated a 45-qubit quantum circuit, the science community took notice: it was the largest ever simulation of a quantum computer, and another step closer to simulating "quantum supremacy"—the point at which quantum computers become more powerful than ordinary computers. [26] Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania, in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College, have discovered a new topological material which may enable fault-tolerant quantum computing. [25] The central idea of TQC is to encode qubits into states of topological phases of matter (see Collection on Topological Phases). [24] One promising approach to building them involves harnessing nanometer-scale atomic defects in diamond materials. [23] Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22] Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[40] viXra:1707.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 08:31:25

New String Method

Authors: Yihan Lin
Comments: 2 Pages. no!

a brand new chinese version of string method which is arouse by a freshman from Peking university it is so revolutionary that may win the 2018 Nobel Prize! so please read it carefully!
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[39] viXra:1707.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 10:19:49

Toward a Systemic View for Plant Learning: an (Eco)physiological Perspective.

Authors: Gustavo M. Souza, Gabriel R. A. Toledo, Gustavo F. R. Saraiva
Comments: 43 Pages.

Herein, we have proposed a concept of plant learning based on some principles of systemic plant ecophysiology. In order to accomplish this task, a framework consisting in basic epistemological assumptions is offered, as well as a cognitive context that underpins the perspective of learning. Accordingly, a number of empirical studies are quoted to illustrate the basic idea presented herein.
Category: Mind Science

[38] viXra:1707.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 04:37:19

Quantum Detection of Nuclear Spins

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Melbourne have demonstrated a way to detect nuclear spins in molecules non-invasively, providing a new tool for biotechnology and materials science. [16] Precision measurement on heavy ions contradicts theory of interaction between atomic nucleus and electron. [15] For the first time, scientists have succeeded in studying the strength of hydrogen bonds in a single molecule using an atomic force microscope. [14] International team solves mystery of colloidal chains. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[37] viXra:1707.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 05:10:35

Destabalization of the Religious State and Ultranationalism

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

A carefully worded response.
Category: Social Science

[36] viXra:1707.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 06:23:42

A Cellular Automaton Molecular Model based on Wave Equation: An Alternative to Cellular Automata QM

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 11 Pages. this paper has been submitted to MDPI - Mathematics

In a recent paper, it has been argued that QM can arise from classical cellular automata. This is a fresh approach started by some authors including Prof. Gerard ‘t Hooft. Nonetheless, in a previous paper, we have reviewed some inadequacies of Schrödinger equation, hence the entire wave mechanics. According to Shpenkov, the classical wave equation is able to derive a periodic table of elements -which is close to Mendeleyev’s periodic table-, and also other phenomena related to the structure of molecules. It is suggested that Shpenkov’s interpretation of classical wave equation can complement Schrödinger equation. Therefore in this paper we will discuss how we can arrive to a cellular automaton molecular model starting from classical wave equation, as an alternative to cellular automata based QM.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[35] viXra:1707.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-02 13:39:04

Properties of Kinematics with the Universal Frame of Reference

Authors: Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman
Comments: 15 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether

In this article, we derive the properties of kinematics of bodies from the universal frame of reference (UFR, ether), which we called the Special Theory of Ether. The article explains why Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike experiments could not detect the universal frame of reference. In article, a different transformation of time and position than the Lorentz transformation is derived on the basis of the geometric analysis of the Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike experiments. The transformation is derived based on the assumption that the universal frame of reference exists. UFR is a frame of reference in which the velocity of light is constant in every direction. In inertial frames of reference moving in the UFR, the one-way velocity of light may be different. Formulas for summation for absolute speed and relative speeds has been derived. The formulas for length contraction and dilatation of time were also derived. The entire article contains only original research conducted by its authors.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[34] viXra:1707.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-02 13:41:25

Właściwości Kinematyki Z Uniwersalnym Układem Odniesienia (In Polish)

Authors: Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman
Comments: 15 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether

W artykule wyprowadzamy własności kinematyki ciał z uniwersalnym układem odniesienia (universal frame of reference - UFR, eter), którą nazwaliśmy Szczególną Teorią Eteru. W artykule wyjaśniono dlaczego eksperyment Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a nie były w stanie wykryć uniwersalny układ odniesienia. W artykule wyprowadzamy na podstawie geometrycznej analizy eksperymentów Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a inną transformację czasu i położenia niż transformacja Lorentza. Transformację wyprowadzamy przy założeniu, że istnieje uniwersalny układ odniesienia. UFR jest układem odniesienia wyróżniającym się tym, że prędkość światła jest w nim stała w każdym kierunku. W inercjalnych układach odniesienia poruszających się względem UFR, jednokierunkowa prędkość światła może być inna. Wyprowadzone zostały wzory na sumowanie prędkości dla prędkości bezwzględnej oraz prędkości względnych. Wyprowadzone zostały także zależności na skrócenie długości oraz dylatację czasu. Cały artykuł zawiera tylko oryginalne badania autorów publikacji.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[33] viXra:1707.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 01:31:47

An Astronomical Hypothesis in 6 Parts

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 16 Pages. This is a backup for my files of my entry in the "Catch A Star" contest for 2017

AN ASTRONOMICAL HYPOTHESIS IN 6 PARTS - 1) Uniting Quantum Mechanics with General Relativity 2) Special Relativity Viewed from Einstein's Unified Field 3) MATHEMATICS AND UNIFICATION 4) IMAGINARY TIME, QUANTUM GRAVITY AND CREATING THE COSMOS 5) NEGATIVE ENTROPY AND ETERNAL LIFE 6) DARK ENERGY, DARK MATTER, AND THE UNIFYING QUBIT IN A NONEXPANDING AND TOPOLOGICAL COSMOLOGY Science today - this report focuses on physics, quantum physics, cosmology and mathematics - is naturally very dependent on the empirical aspects of observation and experiment. The trend in modern physics is towards a unified theory of the universe - starting with the unified theories of the 20th century (notably Einstein's) and extending to string theory. At present, no observation or experiment can confirm or deny the existence of unification. The main point of this report is to show how sciences, and maths, could be altered by a unified space-time. In 1919, Einstein wrote a paper asking if gravitational waves play an essential role in forming elementary particles. If so, the waves that fill the space-time between particles would connect them in a unified field which a future LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory) may be able to detect.* With waves that travel forwards in time being potentially cancelled by waves going back in time (see TIQM and Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory in this report), the cancelling of the waves might unite Relativity's gravity with quantum mechanics by producing what we call entanglement. * See "Physicists use Einstein’s ‘spooky’ entanglement to invent super-sensitive gravitational wave detector" - May 17, 2017 by David Blair.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32] viXra:1707.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 01:55:40

Clinical Study on Transcranial Magnetoelectric Encephalopathy Treatment Instrument Treatmenting Vascular Dementia

Authors: Wei Zou, Qiang Tang, Zuodong Sun, Yanli Xing, Xueping Yu, Kang Li, Wuyi Sun, Wenhua Wang, Bo Liu, Li Zhang, Xiaohong Dai, Yan Hou
Comments: 6 Pages.

[Objective] Evaluate on the treatment efficacy and safety for transcranial magnetoelectric encephalopathy treatment instrument (brand name: AOBO Alzheimer’s Treatment Instrument) treatmenting vascular dementia. [Methods] Methods 80 patients with mild to moderate VD [Hachinski ischemia score ≥7 cent, degree of dementia (CDR=1.0) or(CDR=2.0)]were double center,randomized,double blind,Parallel,placebo controlled, clinical trial for 4 weeks, including treatment group and control group, each of 40 case. All the patients were given regular basic medical treatment and standardized nursing care, The patients of treatment group were treated with Transcranial magnetoelectric encephalopathy treatment instrument, The patients of control group were simulated treated with Transcranial magnetoelectric encephalopathy treatment instrument. [Results] After treated for 4 weeks, Compared with the control group, the treatment group’s score of MMSE、CDR and ADL improved significantly (difference between groups is P<0.0001、0.05、0.05). There was no adverse reaction in the two groups. [Conclusions] Transcranial magnetoelectric encephalopathy treatment instrument has good therapeutic effect for treatment mild to moderate vascular dementia. It can improve the mental state, cognitive behavior and self-care ability of daily life, and it is used safety.
Category: Physics of Biology

[31] viXra:1707.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 01:59:33

Clinical Study on Transcranial Magnetoelectric Encephalopathy Treatment Instrument Treatmenting Parkinson’s Disease

Authors: Qiang Tang, Wei Zou, Zuodong Sun, Kang Li, Wuyi Sun, Wenhua Wang, Yanli Xing, Xueping Yu, Jing Bai, Xiuying Teng, Yan Hou
Comments: 9 Pages.

[Objective] Evaluate on the treatment efficacy and safety for transcranial magnetoelectric encephalopathy treatment instrument (brand name: AOBO Parkinson’s Treatment Instrument) treatmenting parkinson's disease. [Methods] Use methods of double center,randomized, double blind, self crossover, 22 Parkinson’s patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomly divided into A group and B group, then were carried on the curative effect analysis, and were observed therapeutic effect. [Results] The treatment group of 22 cases, basically cured in 0 cases, markedly effective in 9 cases, effective in 8 cases, ineffective in 5 cases. The total efficiency rate and total effective rate were 40.91% (9/22) or 77.27% (17/22) respectively. The control group of 22 cases, basically cured in 0 cases, markedly effective in 2 cases, effective in 3 cases, ineffective in 17 cases. The total efficiency rate and total effective rate were 9.09% (2/22) or 22.73% (5/22) respectively, the total effective rate and total effective rate in the treatment group were higher than those in the control group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Among them, the main symptoms of resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, evaluation, the treatment group has significant difference (P<0.01); There was no significant difference in the control group (p>0.05); There was significant difference between the treatment group and the control group (p<0.05). [Conclusions] Transcranial magnetoelectric stimulation can significantly improve resting tremor, muscle rigidity, bradykinesia in patients with Parkinson’s disease and other symptoms, and the use of safety.
Category: Physics of Biology

[30] viXra:1707.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 02:02:34

Clinical Study on Transcranial Magnetoelectric Encephalopathy Treatment Instrument Treatmenting Alzheimer’s Disease

Authors: Qiang Tang, Wei Zou, Zuodong Sun, Yanli Xing, Xueping Yu, Kang Li, Wuyi Sun, Wenhua Wang, Bo Liu, Li Zhang, Xiaohong Dai, Yan Hou
Comments: 7 Pages.

[Objective] Evaluate on the treatment efficacy and safety for transcranial magnetoelectric encephalopathy treatment instrument (brand name: AOBO Alzheimer’s Treatment Instrument) treatmenting mild to moderate alzheimer’s disease. [Methods] Methods 80 patients with mild to moderate AD [Hachinski ischemia score ≤ 4 cent, degree of dementia(CDR=1.0)or (CDR=2.0)]were double center,randomized,double blind,Parallel,placebo controlled, clinical trial for 8 weeks, including treatment group and control group, each of 40 case. All the patients were given regular basic medical treatment and standardized nursing care, The patients of treatment group were treated with Transcranial magnetoelectric encephalopathy treatment instrument, The patients of control group were simulated treated with Transcranial magnetoelectric encephalopathy treatment instrument. [Results] Clinical trial results show, after treated for 8 weeks, Compared with the control group, the treatment group’s score of MMSE、ADAS-Cog and ADL improved significantly (difference between groups is P<0.001、0.0001、0.05). When treated 4 weeks, the score of MMSE and ADAS has been improved.There was no adverse reaction in the two groups. [Conclusions] The test statistical results proved, Transcranial magnetoelectric encephalopathy treatment instrument has good therapeutic effect for treatment mild to moderate alzheimer’s disease. It can improve the mental state, cognitive behavior and self-care ability of daily life, and it is used safety.
Category: Physics of Biology

[29] viXra:1707.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 02:02:37

Assessment of the Consciousness Energy Healing Treated Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract Using LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR Spectroscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract is an important herbal medicine. The current study was designed to investigate the impact of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) on the characteristic properties of the phytoconstituents present in the ashwagandha root extract using LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR spectroscopy. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control (without treatment), while another part was treated with the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. The LC-MS analysis revealed that the retention time (Rt) of the phytoconstituents remained same in both the control and treated samples, whereas the peak area% was significantly altered. The peak area% of the treated sample at Rt of 5.06, 5.24, 5.49, 5.68, 6.78, 6.87, 8.12, 8.22, 8.36, 8.55, 9.02, and 10.13 minutes were significantly increased in the range of 0.27% to 146.94% compared to the control sample. In addition, the peak area% of the treated sample at Rt of 5.29, 5.36, 6.40, 6.49, 6.56, 6.67, 7.08, 7.37, 7.76, 7.87, 8.02, 8.43, 8.85, 8.97, and 9.12 minutes were significantly decreased in the range of 1.83% to 23.53% compared with the control sample. A total of 18 withanolides such as sitoindoside IX, viscosa lactone B, 24, 25-dihydrowithanolide D, withanolide A, withanone, withaferin A, withanolide D, ixocarpalactone A, withanolide S, withanolide sulfoxide, etc. were proposed with their structure from the molecular mass at m/z 650, 489, 473, 471, 505, and 992 at retention times of 6.87, 7.10, 7.87, 8.22, 8.54, and 9.11 minutes with the help of GC-MS and NMR data of both the control and Biofield Energy Treated samples. The mass peak intensity values of the Biofield Energy Treated sample at the same retention time in was significantly decreased in the range of 3.99% to 52.28% compared with the control sample. These findings suggest that Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment could be beneficial for altering the concentration of the phytoconstituents in the ashwagandha root extract by modifying their intrinsic physicochemical properties, which might be helpful to improve the bioavailability of active constituents of ashwagandha root extract that might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[28] viXra:1707.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 02:04:40

Evaluation of the Physico-chemical, Thermal and Behavioral Properties of Ashwagandha Root Extract: Effects of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract has a broad range of pharmacological activities due to the presence of many biologically active metabolites. The current study was designed to evaluate the influence of The Trivedi Effect® - Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing) on the physical, spectroscopic, thermal and behavioral properties of ashwagandha root extract using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment and another part was treated with the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as Biofield Energy Treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited that both the control and treated samples were amorphous in nature. The particle size values at d10, d50, and d90 of the treated sample were increased significantly by 8.69%, 7.32%, and 6.50%, respectively compared with the control sample. Similarly, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly decreased by 12.69% compared to the control sample. The FT-IR analysis indicated no significant alteration of the force constant for the functional groups in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The UV-vis analysis revealed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of the control and treated samples were at 207.5 and 205.2 nm, respectively. The TGA revealed the two major thermal degradation steps and the total weight loss was decreased by 0.86% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. Consequently, the maximum thermal degradation temperature at 273.53°C and 389.39°C for two broad peaks in treated sample was increased by 0.78% and 0.31%, respectively compared to the control the sample (271.40°C and 388.48°C). The DSC analysis indicated that the evaporation temperature was significantly increased by 10.95% in the Biofield Energy Treated sample with a 5.34% reduced the latent heat of vaporization compared with the control sample. The overall thermal analysis indicated that the treated sample was thermally more stable as compared to the control sample. The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to have better powder flowability and long-term storage stability compared with the control sample. Thus, the treated ashwagandha root extract might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, ageing, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[27] viXra:1707.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 02:05:10

LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR Spectroscopy Based Evaluation of the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treated Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

Withania somnifera root extract which contains withanolides as major active constituent and it is used traditionally for the prevention and treatment of several diseases. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the structural properties of the ashwagandha root extract using LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR spectroscopy. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control (without treatment), while other part was treated with the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. The LC-MS analysis revealed that the retention time of the phytoconstituents remained same in the control and Biofield Energy Treated samples, whereas the peak area% i.e. the relative amount of the phytoconstituents at respective retention time was significantly altered. The peak area% at Rt of 5.6, 6.8, 6.9, 7.2, 7.9, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, and 9.2 minutes of the treated sample were increased significantly in the range of 1.46% to 253.06% compared to the control sample. In the contrary, the peak area% of the treated sample at Rt of 6.4 and 8.2 minutes were significantly decreased by 12.72% and 17.35%, respectively with respect to the control sample. A total of 16 withanolides such as withanoside IV, coagulin Q, viscosa lactone B, dihydrowithanolide D, withanolide A, withaferin A, withanone, withanolide D, ixocarpalactone A, withanolide sulfoxide, withanolide B, etc. were proposed with their structure from the molecular mass at m/z 783, 621, 489, 473, 767, 471, 505, and 992 at retention times of 6.4, 6.8, 7.2, 7.9, 8.2, 8.4, and 9.1 minutes, respectively with the help of LC-MS, GC-MS and NMR data of both the control and Biofield Energy Treated samples. The mass peak intensities of the Biofield Energy Treated sample were significantly changed in the range of -81.36% to 1720.90% compared with the control sample at the same retention time. These findings suggest that The Trivedi Effect® - Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment could be beneficial for altering the concentration of the phytoconstituents in the ashwagandha root extract by modifying their intrinsic physicochemical properties, which might be helpful to improve the bioavailability of active constituents of W. somnifera extract that might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[26] viXra:1707.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 02:07:44

Clinical Study on Transcranial Magnetoelectric Depression Treatment Instrument Treatmenting Depression

Authors: Wei Zou, Qiang Tang, Zuodong Sun, Kang Li, Wuyi Sun, Wenhua Wang, Xueping Yu, Yanli Xing, Xiuying Teng, Li Zhang, Yan Hou
Comments: 10 Pages.

[Objective] Evaluate on the treatment efficacy and safety for transcranial magnetoelectric depression(insomnia) treatment instrument (brand name:AOBO BAIYOUDU) treatmenting depression. [Methods] Methods 80 patients with mild to moderate depression were double center,randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial for 4 weeks, including treatment group and control group, each of 40 case. The patients of treatment group were treated with Transcranial magnetoelectric depression(insomnia) treatment instrument,The patients of control group were simulated treated(music comfort)with Transcranial magnetoelectric depression(insomnia) treatment instrument, The course of treatment was 4 weeks. Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD24) was used to evaluate the efficacy and safety evaluation. [Results] After treated for 4 weeks, the total efficiency rate and total effective rate of the control group were 5% (2/40) and 35% (14/40) respectively, the total efficiency rate and total effective rate of the control group were 65.00%(26/40)and 80.00%(32/40) respectively; The performance test of total efficiency rate and total effective rate for each group was P<0.0001, and the treatment group was higher than the control group, it prove the treatment group was better than the control group. There was no adverse reaction in the two groups. [Conclusions] Transcranial magnetoelectric depression(insomnia) treatment instrument (brand name:AOBO BAIYOUDU) is safe and effective for the treatment of depression,especially in the depression, guilt, sleep disorders, work and interest, retardation, irritability, anxiety and other major symptoms have been significantly improved.
Category: Physics of Biology

[25] viXra:1707.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 02:05:44

Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on Withania Somnifera Root Extract and Its Effects on the Physical, Spectroscopic, Thermal and Behavioral Properties

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) is useful as an herbal medicine and nutraceuticals for the prevention and treatment of anxiety, insomnia, tuberculosis, tumors, menstrual problems, etc. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the influence of The Trivedi Effect® - Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the physical, spectroscopic, thermal and behavioral properties of ashwagandha root extract using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment and another part was treated with the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as Biofield Energy Treated sample. The PXRD analysis demonstrated that both the control and treated samples were amorphous in nature. The particle size values at d10, d50, and d90 of the treated sample were decreased significantly by 18.88%, 8.60%, and 4.00%, respectively compared with the control sample. Similarly, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 102.63% compared to the control sample. FT-IR results suggest that there was a small impact of Biofield Energy Treatment on ashwagandha root extract at the atomic level to reduce the force constant of O-H (str.) bond. UV-vis analysis revealed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of the control and treated samples were at 207.4 and 207.7 nm, respectively. TGA revealed the three steps of thermal degradation steps and the total weight loss was decreased by 0.13% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. Consequently, the maximum thermal degradation temperature at 272.73°C and 393.14°C for two broad peaks in treated sample was increased by 1.13% and 0.85%, respectively compared to the control the sample (269.68°C and 389.83°C). DSC analysis indicated that the evaporation temperature and latent heat of vaporization was increased by 1.35% and 5.52%, respectively in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The current findings suggested that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might have the astounding capacity to enhance the solubility, absorption, dissolution, bioavailability and thermal stability of ashwagandha root extract in various form of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical formulation by modifying its particle size and surface area. Thus, the treated ashwagandha root extract might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, arthritis, sexual disorders, stress, cancer, diabetes, ageing, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[24] viXra:1707.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 02:06:14

Study of the Consciousness Energy Healing Treated Ashwagandha Root Extract by LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR Spectroscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) contains many biologically active constituents used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) on the characteristic properties of the ashwagandha root extract using LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR spectroscopy. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control (without treatment), while another part was treated with the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. LC-MS data revealed that the retention time of the phytoconstituents remained same in the control and Biofield Energy Treated samples, whereas the peak area% i.e. the relative amount of the phytoconstituents was significantly altered. The peak area% at Rt of 5.1, 5.7, 6.4, 6.6, 6.9, 7.1, 7.4, 7.8, 7.9, 8.0, 8.2, 8.5, and 8.9 minutes of the treated sample were increased in the range of 0.92% to 14.67% compared to the control sample. On the contrary, the peak area% of the treated sample at Rt of 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.6, 6.8, 8.1, 8.4, 8.6, 9.0, 9.1, and 9.2 minutes were decreased by 1.59% to 36.69% with respect to the control sample. A total of 14 withanolides such as sitoindoside IX, dihydrowithanolide D, withanolide A, withaferin A, ixocarpalactone A, withanolide S, withanolide sulfoxide, etc. were proposed with their structure from the molecular mass at m/z 605, 489, 473, 471, 505, and 992 at retention times of 6.9, 7.1, 7.9, 8.2, 8.5, and 9.3 minutes with the help of LC-MS, GC-MS and NMR data of both the control and Biofield Energy Treated samples. Consequently, the mass peak intensities of the treated sample were significantly changed in the range of -36.67% to 106% compared with the control sample at the same retention time. These findings suggest that Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment could be advantageous for altering the concentration of the phytoconstituents in the ashwagandha root extract by modifying their intrinsic physicochemical properties, which might be helpful to improve the bioavailability of active constituents of ashwagandha extract that might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, arthritis, stress, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[23] viXra:1707.0023 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-18 03:50:04

An Interval Unifying Theorem About Primes

Authors: Juan Moreno Borrallo
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this paper it is proved the existence of a prime number in the interval between the square of any natural number greater than one, and the number resulting from adding or subtracting this natural number to its square (Oppermann’s Conjecture). As corollaries of this proof, they are proved three classical prime number’s conjectures: Legendre’s, Brocard’s, and Andrica’s. It is also defined a new maximum interval between any natural number and the nearest prime number. Finally, it is stated as corollary the existence of infinite prime numbers equal to the square of a natural number, plus a natural number inferior to that natural number, and minus a natural number inferior to that natural number.
Category: Number Theory

[22] viXra:1707.0022 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-03 00:54:24

A Computer Algebra Solution of Ermakov Equation Corresponding to Diffusion Interpretation of Wave Mechanics

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 8 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

It has been long known that a year after Schrödinger published his equation, Madelung also published a hydrodynamics version of Schrödinger equation. Quantum diffusion is studied via dissipative Madelung hydrodynamics. Initially the wave packet spreads ballistically, than passes for an instant through normal diffusion and later tends asymptotically to a sub‐diffusive law. In this paper we will review two different approaches, including Madelung hydrodynamics and also Bohm potential. Madelung formulation leads to diffusion interpretation, which after a generalization yields to Ermakov equation. Since Ermakov equation cannot be solved analytically, then we try to find out its solution with Mathematica package. It is our hope that these methods can be verified and compared with experimental data. But we admit that more researches are needed to fill all the missing details.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[21] viXra:1707.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-02 05:27:39

Faster-Than-Light Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

A new theory proposes that faster-than-light particles known as tachyons could answer a lot of questions about the universe, writes Robyn Arianrhod. [29] In a recent publication, Aalto University researchers show that in a transparent medium each photon is accompanied by an atomic mass density wave. [28] New research has made it possible for the first time to compare the spatial structures and positions of two distant objects, which may be very far away from each other, just by using a simple thermal light source, much like a star in the sky. [27] In an arranged marriage of optics and mechanics, physicists have created microscopic structural beams that have a variety of powerful uses when light strikes them. [26] At EPFL, researchers challenge a fundamental law and discover that more electromagnetic energy can be stored in wave-guiding systems than previously thought. [25] The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[20] viXra:1707.0020 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-04 01:55:55

One, Zero, Ada, and Cyclic Number System

Authors: I Gede Putra Yasa ``Gus Satya''
Comments: 23 Pages.

Division by 0 is not defined in mathematics. Mathematics suggests solutions by work around methods. However they give only approximate, not the actual or exact, results. Through this paper we propose methods to solve those problems. One characteristic of our solution methods is that they produce actual or exact results. They are also in conformity with, and supported by, physical or empirical facts. Other characteristic is their simplicity. We can do computations easily based on basic arithmetic or algebra or other computation methods we already familiar with.
Category: Number Theory

[19] viXra:1707.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-02 06:00:23

Laser Illuminates the Subatomic Realm

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

The brightest light ever created by humans has revealed that at high enough intensities the interactions between light and subatomic particles change drastically. [30] A new theory proposes that faster-than-light particles known as tachyons could answer a lot of questions about the universe, writes Robyn Arianrhod. [29] In a recent publication, Aalto University researchers show that in a transparent medium each photon is accompanied by an atomic mass density wave. [28] New research has made it possible for the first time to compare the spatial structures and positions of two distant objects, which may be very far away from each other, just by using a simple thermal light source, much like a star in the sky. [27] In an arranged marriage of optics and mechanics, physicists have created microscopic structural beams that have a variety of powerful uses when light strikes them. [26] At EPFL, researchers challenge a fundamental law and discover that more electromagnetic energy can be stored in wave-guiding systems than previously thought. [25] The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[18] viXra:1707.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-02 06:30:15

Quantum Cryptography Based on the Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura, Ahmed Farouk
Comments: 10 Pages. International Journal of Theoretical Physics, (2017), DOI: 10.1007/s10773-017-3456-x

Recently, secure quantum key distribution based on Deutsch's algorithm using the Bell state is reported \cite{NN2}. Our aim is of extending the result to a multipartite system. In this paper, we propose a highly speedy key distribution protocol. We present secure quantum key distribution based on a special Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states. Originally, Bob has promised to use a function $f$ which is of one of the two kinds; either the value of $f(x)$ is constant for all $x$, or the value of $f(x)$ is balanced, that is, it is equal to $1$ for exactly half of all the possible $x$, and $0$ for the other half. Here, Bob uses a special function when it is not constant. We may say the value of $f(x)$ is special. Our quantum key distribution overcomes a classical counterpart by a factor $O(2^N)$.
Category: Quantum Physics

[17] viXra:1707.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-01 15:26:08

Gravitation Stronger Than Strong Nuclear Force. Gravitons Stronger Than Gluons

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 69 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

I explained that inside a black hole, Gravitation is much stronger than the Strong nuclear force, Gravitons are stronger than Gluons! The energy of the gravitons inside a black hole is higher than: 4.14559 × 10^5 GeV “The energy of the gravitons inside a black hole, is much higher than the energy of the gluons” Adrian Ferent This means, this is the proof that: “Inside the black holes, Gravitation is much stronger than the Strong nuclear force” Adrian Ferent This is another proof that my Gravitation theory is right. “Ferent Gravitation theory explains the Universe at Galaxies level and at the Quantum level, explains black holes” Adrian Ferent “Einstein bent the space, Ferent unbent the space” Adrian Ferent
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16] viXra:1707.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-01 21:38:47

Proposal: How to Achieve an Important Advance in Spatial Propulsion.

Authors: Carlos Barona
Comments: 2 Pages. In the pdf document there is a link that allows access to all the information: electrodynamic calculations, didactic animations of the same, and an experimental proposal.

This is a scientific proposal with which it's sought to establish the theoretical-practical basis that permits that a device can be able to change its gravity environment (self-acceleration without lose mass). I propose that such effect might appear in an oscillating magnetic dipoles system. This work is based on simultaneous electrodynamic calculations, the results of which lead me to pose that effect as probabilistic exotic acceleration that must be taken into account in the Equivalence Principle analysis.
Category: Classical Physics

[15] viXra:1707.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-02 02:38:21

There is no Such Thing as a Black Hole

Authors: Bill Gaede
Comments: 15 Pages.

The black hole and dark matter are two pillars of contemporary General Relativity. Week after week, we read about them in the specialized journals and in popularization magazines. Here we show that the term ‘black hole’ has yet to be defined scientifically. To pique the skeptic, mathematical physicists assign many dimensions to the black hole, confess that they have never seen one, and have no idea what these alleged objects are mad of. For its part, dark matter is nothing more than an ad hoc variable that Mathematical Physics invented to plug holes in its leaky conception of gravity. The Rope Model of Light and Gravity offers a rational alternative for phenomena attributed to magical black holes and invisible dark matter.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14] viXra:1707.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-02 03:15:58

4 Science Letters

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 6 Pages. Previous versions unsuccessfully submitted to Nature, New Space, Medical Journal of Australia

These letters cannot, I've discovered, be published in science or medical journals. In the first case, they don't conform to editorial standards which say they aren't suitable for the Correspondence (Letter to Editor) section. In the second case, the relevant letter (3) is not based on "evidence-based medicine" (ideas limited to verification by present technology). So it appears that the only way to express these thoughts is to be nonconformist, give science higher priority than editorial matters, and offer them to the preprint vixra.org. The 4 letters are: Letter 1 - Broken Infinity (paragraphs kept getting added to this original letter, so some references are included in the letter while some are listed at the end) Letter 2 - "Unscientific" Possibilities Of A Universal Unified Theory Letter 3 - Science's Resurrected Immortals Letter 4 - New Space-time Travel
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[13] viXra:1707.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-01 07:28:54

Tease Out the Strong Force

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

One of the fundamental challenges in nuclear physics is to predict the properties of subatomic matter from quantum chromodynamics (QCD)—the theory describing the strong force that confines quarks into protons and neutrons, and that binds protons and neutrons together. [12] At very high energies, the collision of massive atomic nuclei in an accelerator generates hundreds or even thousands of particles that undergo numerous interactions. [11] The first experimental result has been published from the newly upgraded Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The result demonstrates the feasibility of detecting a potential new form of matter to study why quarks are never found in isolation. [10] A team of scientists currently working at the Large Hadron Collider at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) announced that it has possibly discovered the existence of a particle integral to nature in a statement on Tuesday, Dec. 15, and again on Dec.16. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[12] viXra:1707.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-01 08:10:08

Spot Anyons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Well-established spectroscopic techniques such as neutron scattering could be used to identify anyons in two-dimensional materials. [17] Now in a new paper published in Physical Review Letters, mathematical physicist Paul Sutcliffe at Durham University in the UK has theoretically shown that nanoparticles called magnetic skyrmions can be tied into various types of knots with different magnetic properties. [16] A new study by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory determined that magnetic skyrmions – small electrically uncharged circular structures with a spiraling magnetic pattern – do get deflected by an applied current, much like a curveball getting deflected by air. [15] Researchers at Aalto University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have demonstrated that polaron formation also occurs in a system of magnetic charges, and not just in a system of electric charges. Being able to control the transport properties of such charges could enable new devices based on magnetic rather than electric charges, for example computer memories. [14] The electronic energy states allowed by quantum mechanics determine whether a solid is an insulator or whether it conducts electric current as a metal. Researchers at ETH have now theoretically predicted a novel material whose energy states exhibit a hitherto unknown peculiarity. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10]
Category: Condensed Matter

[11] viXra:1707.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-01 08:14:34

Solution of Poincare's Vector Field Problem

Authors: John Atwell Moody
Comments: 17 Pages. written September 2014

When a meromorphic vector field is given on the projective plane, a complete holomorphic limit cycle, because it is a closed singular submanifold of projective space, is defined by algebraic equations. Also the meromorphic vector field is an algebraic object. Poincare had asked, is there just an algebraic calculation leading from the vector field to the defining equations of the solution, without the mysterious intermediary of the dynamical system. The answer is yes, that there is nothing more mysterious or wonderful that happens when a complete holomorphic limit cycle is formed than could have been defined using algebra.
Category: Geometry

[10] viXra:1707.0010 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-30 11:06:38

Nine Notes on Modular Forms

Authors: John Atwell Moody
Comments: 115 Pages.

Contents:

Analytic primality testing 1
Lefshetz numbers of modular curves 23
Grothendieck sections and rational points of modular curves 29
Rational points of modular curves 33
Conclusion about modular forms 41
Outline geometric proof of Mordell’s conjecture 48
Example:the Fermat curves 63
The residue calculation 69
The meaning of positive and negative 81

Category: Number Theory

[9] viXra:1707.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-01 08:21:26

First Introduction to Toric Geometry

Authors: John Atwell Moody
Comments: Pages.

Contents

Projective toric varieties
Divisors
Maps
Chow ring
Fourier series and generalizations


Category: Geometry

[8] viXra:1707.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-01 08:25:08

Standing Waves

Authors: John Atwell Moody
Comments: Pages.

Contents

Part I
O(j) is not fully equivariant if j is odd
Representations of SO3
Eigenfunctions of the Laplacian
Attempts to explain the periodic table
Attempts to explain atomic spectra

Part II
Three corrections to the fine structure
A discussion of perturbation theory
Half-integer values of l – first explanation
Generalities about the Hamiltonian formulation
Schroedinger’s function W
Half-integer values of l – other explanations
The atom
Schroedinger’s choice of solutions
Residues
The canonical divisor and j quantum number
Intuitive description of polarization
Relation between smooth and holomorphic Laplacian operators
A coincidence about the periodic table
Linear systems of wave forms
Hodge theory
The Levi-Civita action is not Lagrangian for its Riemann metric
Foundations
Unification of the various coupling schemes
Discussion of the problem of non-convergent integrals
The ethics of science
First concepts of the Lamb shift
A question about Pauli exclusion
The notion of probability
Concluding remark
False fine structure
Electron spin and Pauli exclusion
It was not the right conclusion

Category: Chemistry

[7] viXra:1707.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-01 08:27:45

Transparency with a Magnetic Field

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

A magnetic field applied to an atomic sample in an optical cavity generates optical transparency that could be used to enhance the frequency stability of lasers. [17] Now in a new paper published in Physical Review Letters, mathematical physicist Paul Sutcliffe at Durham University in the UK has theoretically shown that nanoparticles called magnetic skyrmions can be tied into various types of knots with different magnetic properties. [16] A new study by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory determined that magnetic skyrmions – small electrically uncharged circular structures with a spiraling magnetic pattern – do get deflected by an applied current, much like a curveball getting deflected by air. [15] Researchers at Aalto University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have demonstrated that polaron formation also occurs in a system of magnetic charges, and not just in a system of electric charges. Being able to control the transport properties of such charges could enable new devices based on magnetic rather than electric charges, for example computer memories. [14] The electronic energy states allowed by quantum mechanics determine whether a solid is an insulator or whether it conducts electric current as a metal. Researchers at ETH have now theoretically predicted a novel material whose energy states exhibit a hitherto unknown peculiarity. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10]
Category: Quantum Physics

[6] viXra:1707.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-01 09:28:54

Probability Dynamics II

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 2 Pages.

I search to obtain a generalized probability equation
Category: Classical Physics

[5] viXra:1707.0005 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-20 07:22:36

Solving the Dark Matter Riddle

Authors: Karan R.Takkhi
Comments: 8 pages, 6 figures, 2 tables

Dark matter is considered to be responsible for the unexpectedly high velocities exhibited by the galactic components within the galactic disc and by the galaxies situated within rich galaxy clusters. The velocities are high and the total light output due to visible matter alone cannot account for all the mass and gravity for the overall observed stability. The presence of additional matter in the form of dark matter is required to explain the gravitational stability at such high velocities. I present a theory based on the study of certain characteristics responsible for causing the galaxy rotation problem. Solution to the mentioned problem has been discussed by considering the baryonic matter distribution only. The orbital stability of galaxies at high velocities within rich galaxy clusters has also been taken into account. The theory provides a credible solution without considering dark matter and also without modifying the laws of gravity.
Category: Astrophysics

[4] viXra:1707.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-01 02:04:06

Optical Nanomotors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Researchers have created in simulations the first system in which can be manipulated by a beam of ordinary light rather than the expensive specialized light sources required by other systems. [16] A discovery of how to control and transfer spinning electrons paves the way for novel hybrid devices that could outperform existing semiconductor electronics. In a study published in Nature Communications, researchers at Linköping University in Sweden demonstrate how to combine a commonly used semiconductor with a topological insulator, a recently discovered state of matter with unique electrical properties. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley, fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[3] viXra:1707.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-01 03:11:34

The Green Disease and Our Cosmic Connection

Authors: Edward J Steele
Comments: 7 Pages. A paper currently under submission to Quadrant

The Green Disease and Our Cosmic Connection : A Review of several books with respect to Climate Change and the accretion of carbon at the earth's formation. Namely : a). The Deep Hot Biosphere: The Myth of Fossil Fuels, Thomas Gold, Copernicus, Springer. Verlag, New York, 1999, 243 pages.b). A Journey With Fred Hoyle, Chandra Wickramasinghe 2nd edition Ed. KamalaWickramasinghe, World Scientific, Singapore, 2013, 248 pages. and c). The Search For Our Cosmic Ancestry, Chandra Wickramasinghe, World Scientific, Singapore, 2015, 196 pages. ( Quadrant – Categories Books ->Science->Politics in that order. Corrected 16 Oct 2016)
Category: Climate Research

[2] viXra:1707.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-01 04:24:01

Inner Workings of Neural Networks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Neural networks learn to perform computational tasks by analyzing large sets of training data. But once they've been trained, even their designers rarely have any idea what data elements they're processing. [20] Researchers from Disney Research, Pixar Animation Studios, and the University of California, Santa Barbara have developed a new technology based on artificial intelligence (AI) and deep learning that eliminates this noise and thereby enables production-quality rendering at much faster speeds. [19] Now, one group reports in ACS Nano that they have developed an artificial synapse capable of simulating a fundamental function of our nervous system— the release of inhibitory and stimulatory signals from the same "pre-synaptic" terminal. [18] Researchers from France and the University of Arkansas have created an artificial synapse capable of autonomous learning, a component of artificial intelligence. [17] Intelligent machines of the future will help restore memory, mind your children, fetch your coffee and even care for aging parents. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[1] viXra:1707.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-01 04:51:48

Atomistic Description of the Hydration Process of Graphene Oxide

Authors: Antenor Neto, Vitaly V. Chaban, Eudes E. Fileti
Comments: 18 Pages.

Hydration of graphene oxide (GO) is an important process for most of areas planning to use it in practical applications. This process is described in this work by molecular dynamics atomistic simulations for seven different models for GO at different levels of oxygenation. Two charge models for GO were considered: a simplified one, where sp2 carbons were treated as LJ uncharged sites and another with charges at all sites obtained by the CHELPG scheme. We observed that the structural properties suffer little or no effect in relation to the charge model, on the other hand the energetics is much more sensitive. Our model employing CHELPG charges shows that the simplified model tends to overestimate the GO/water interaction energy. For all of the investigated systems, hydration free energy values are in the range of -5 to -45 kJ mol-1 indicating that hydration is a favorable process for all investigated systems. The results presented here is relevant in the context of several applications, such as the use of GOs as electrodes in supercapacitors or inhibitors in processes involving biological molecules.
Category: Chemistry