[76] **viXra:1011.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 15 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Li Zhou

**Comments:** 7 pages.

We discuss the logical fallacies in an article appeared in The
American Mathematical Monthly [6], and present the historical origin
and motivation of the simple proofs of the irrationality of π.

**Category:** Number Theory

[75] **viXra:1011.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 30 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** S. Halayka

**Comments:** 6 pages.

A graph model of general relativity is discussed. The relationship between
entropy and the incompressibility of information is highlighted.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[74] **viXra:1011.0075 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-05-03 03:28:42*

**Authors:** Zhan Likui

**Comments:** 14 pages, 4 figures, 3586 words, In English

In a black hole, no force can prevent matter from collapsing into a point, a gravitational singularity. The problem of the singularity is always a difficult one. We attempt to discussion gravitation from another angle in this work. Based on experimental analysis and theoretical verification, a hypothesis regarding mass in gravitational fields is presented. It can avoid the problem of singularity, and the meaning of gravitation is simple to determine.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[73] **viXra:1011.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 30 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Akindele J. Adekugbe

**Comments:** 20 pages. Submitted to Progress in Physics

Graphical analysis of the geometry of a curved 'three-dimensional' absolute intrinsic
metric space, (an absolute intrinsic Riemannian metric space) φM^{3}, which is curved
onto the absolute time/absolute intrinsic time 'dimensions' (along the vertical), as a
curved hyper-surface, and projects a flat three-dimensional proper intrinsic metric space
φE'^{3} underlying its outward manifestation namely, the flat proper physical Euclidean
3-space φE'^{3}, both as flat hyper-surfaces along the horizontal, isolated in part one of this
paper, is done. Two absolute intrinsic tensor equations, one of which is of the divergenceless
form of Einstein free-space field equations and the other which is a tensorial
statement of local Euclidean invariance on φM^{3}, are derived. Simultaneous (algebraic)
solution of the equations yields the absolute intrinsic metric tensor and absolute intrinsic
Ricci tensor of absolute intrinsic Riemann geometry on the curved absolute intrinsic
metric space φM^{3}, in terms of an isolated absolute intrinsic curvature parameter.
Relations for absolute intrinsic coordinate projections into the underlying flat proper
intrinsic space are derived. A superposition procedure that yields resultant absolute intrinsic
metric tensor and resultant absolute intrinsic Ricci tensor, as well as resultant
absolute intrinsic coordinate projection relations when two or a larger number of absolute
intrinsic Riemannian metric spaces co-exist, are developed. Finally the fact that
a curved 'three-dimensional' absolute intrinsic metric space φM^{3} is perfectly isotropic
(that is, all directions are perfectly the same) and is consequently contracted to a 'onedimensional'
absolute intrinsic metric space denoted by φρ, which is curved onto the
absolute time/absolute intrinsic time 'dimensions' along the vertical and that the underlying
projective three-dimensional flat proper intrinsic metric space φE'^{3} is perfectly
isotropic and is consequently contracted to a straight line one-dimensional isotropic
proper intrinsic metric space φρ' along the horizontal, with respect to observers in the
physical proper Euclidean 3-space φE'^{3} that overlies φρ', are deduced.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[72] **viXra:1011.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 30 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Akindele J. Adekugbe

**Comments:** 11 pages. Submitted to Progress in Physics

Having isolated a four-world picture in which four symmetrical universes in different
spacetime domains coexist and in which an isolated two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime
underlies the four-dimensional spacetime in each universe, and having shown that
the special theory of relativity rests on a four-world background elsewhere, we review
the geometry of spacetime/intrinsic spacetime in a long-range metric force field within
the four-world picture in the four parts of this paper. We show within an elaborate programme
that the four-dimensional metric spacetime and its underlying two-dimensional
intrinsic metric spacetime undergo two stages of evolution in the sequence of absolute
spacetime/absolute intrinsic spacetime → proper spacetime/proper intrinsic spacetime → relativistic spacetime/relativistic intrinsic spacetime in all finite neighborhood of
a long-range metric force field and that these are supported by a sequence of spacetime
/intrinic spacetime geometries. The programme takes off in this first paper by
isolating two classes of three-dimensional Riemannian metric space namely, the conventional
three-dimensional Riemannian metric space and a new 'three-dimensional'
absolute intrinsic Riemannian metric space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[71] **viXra:1011.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** J. Dunning-Davies

**Comments:** 3 pages.

The possible implications of some reported high-valued red-shifts for both the
age and size of the Universe are examined on the basis of presently accepted theory.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[70] **viXra:1011.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Raymond Jensen

**Comments:** 15 pages, To appear in 2011 SPESIF Proceedings.

In this article it is argued, that the universe cannot be modeled as a space-time manifold. A theorem of
geometry provides that null geodesics on a space-time manifold which begin at the same point with the same initial
tangent vector are unique. But in reality, light originating from a single point with a given initial direction does not travel
along a unique null geodesic path when a massive object attracts it, in particular when the massive object is in an
indefinite location. Therefore, the universe cannot be described as a space-time manifold. It is then argued that the
universe is a superposition of space-time manifolds, where the manifolds form a Hilbert space over the complex numbers.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[69] **viXra:1011.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** V.V. Singh, Alka Mittal, Neetish Sharma, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 12 pages

Rajasthan is the biggest State of India and is currently in the second phase of demographic
transition and is moving towards the third phase of demographic transition with very slow
pace. However, state's population will continue to grow for a time period. Rajasthan's
performance in the social and economic sector has been poor in past. The poor performance
is the outcome of poverty, illiteracy and poor development, which co-exist and reinforce each
other. There are many demographic and socio-economic factors responsible for population
growth. This paper attempts to identify the demographic and socio-economic variables, which
are responsible for population growth in Rajasthan with the help of multivariate analysis.

**Category:** Statistics

[68] **viXra:1011.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Elemér E Rosinger

**Comments:** 7 pages

A simple and basic problem is formulated about symmetric partial
differential operators. The symmetries considered here are other than
Lie symmetries.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[67] **viXra:1011.0068 [pdf]**
*replaced on 14 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 20 pages, submitted to J. Phys. A : Math and Theor.

A novel (to our knowledge) nonassociative and noncommutative octonionic
ternary gauge field theory is explicitly constructed that it is based
on a ternary-bracket structure involving the octonion algebra. The ternary
bracket was defined earlier by Yamazaki. The field strengths F_{μ}_{ν} are given
in terms of the 3-bracket [B_{μ},B_{ν}, Φ] involving an auxiliary octonionic-valued
scalar field Φ = Φ^{a}e_{a} which plays the role of a "coupling" function.
In the concluding remarks a list of relevant future investigations are
briefly outlined.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[66] **viXra:1011.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-08-27 08:35:09*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 12 Pages. adding new section

Fundamentally, the dimensionality of spacetime is a matter of energy conservation: three dimensions are sufficient to establish an entropic domain in which the basic thermodynamic requirements necessary to conserve the energy of free forms of electromagnetic energy (light, EM radiation, etc.) are present; likewise, four dimensions are necessary to meet the conservation requirements of bound forms of electromagnetic energy (mass/matter).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[65] **viXra:1011.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** R. Wayte

**Comments:** 25 pages

Repulsive gravity at large distances has been included in the universal solution of Einstein's
equations by introducing a cosmological constant, which excludes the dark energy
interpretation. For an external-coordinate-observer cosmological model, the big-bang singularity
has been replaced by a granular primeval particle, and expansion is controlled by the velocity of
light. Then problems inherent in the standard model do not arise, and no inflation phase is
necessary. It is advantageous to truncate the graviton field at a maximum radius, which is
related to proton dimensions through the ratio (e^{2}/Gm^{2}). This governs the onset of universal
repulsion at around 7Gyr, in rough agreement with observations of Type Ia supernovae.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[64] **viXra:1011.0065 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-16 08:31:43*

**Authors:** T. E. Raptis

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Corrected Typos in main text

We propose a technique for setting up parallel (self-dual) stationary electromagnetic fields in the context of transformation optics. Several paradoxes that may appear in this regime are discussed. A particular type of communication based on stationary patterns through Aharonov-Bohm interferometry is also introduced as an alternative to a previous proposal by Putthof.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[63] **viXra:1011.0064 [pdf]**
*replaced on 29 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Stephen P. Smith

**Comments:** 17 pages

The indifferent process of natural selection has been dubbed "the blind watchmaker"
by Richard Dawkins. Arguments against natural selection are presented that relate to both
ontology (reason-based) and epistemology (evidence-based), and the belief that the blind
watchmaker drives evolution is revealed to be only a stipulation, at best. The belief is found
coming from a metaphysical preference towards naturalism. A new account of evolution is
presented that does not hold naturalism as a preference, and permits teleological (or guided)
evolution and vitalism. This new account departs from the hidden agenda of naturalism, and fully
discloses its preference towards self-evidence in its pursuit of truth.

**Category:** Mind Science

[62] **viXra:1011.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 23 May 2011*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 10 pages

Intrinsic motions are the expression of conservation law and cosmic order in matter. The Universe, and
everything in it, is always in some type of motion, whether absolute, relative, intrinsic, entropic, atomic,
biological, or evolutionary.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[61] **viXra:1011.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 29 pages

A recent Letter to the Editor (Sharples J. J., Coordinate transformations and metric extension:
a rebuttal to the relativistic claims of Stephen J. Crothers, Progress in Physics,
v.1, 2010) has analysed a number of my publications in Progress in Physics. There
are serious problems with this treatment which should be brought to the attention of
the Journal's readership. Dr. Sharples has committed errors in both mathematics
and physics. For instance, his notion that r = 0 in the so-called "Schwarzschild solution"
marks the point at the centre of the related manifold is false, as is his related
claim that Schwarzschild's actual solution describes a manifold that is extendible. His
post hoc introduction of Newtonian concepts and related mathematical expressions into
Schwarzschild's actual solution are invalid; for instance, Newtonian two-body relations
into what is alleged to be a one-body problem. Each of the objections are treated in turn
and their invalidity fully demonstrated. Black hole theory is riddled with contradictions.
This article provides definitive proof that black holes do not exist.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[60] **viXra:1011.0061 [pdf]**
*replaced on 24 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 50 pages

Quantum Field Theory (QFT) lies at the foundation of the Standard Model for particle physics (SM) and is
built in compliance with a number of postulates called consistency conditions. The remarkable success of
SM can be traced back to a unitary, local, renormalizable, gauge invariant and anomaly-free formulation of
QFT. Experimental observations of recent years suggest that developing the theory beyond SM may require
a careful revision of conceptual foundations of QFT. As it is known, QFT describes interaction of stable or
quasi-stable fields whose evolution is deterministic and time-reversible. By contrast, behavior of strongly
coupled fields or dynamics in the Terascale sector is prone to become unstable and chaotic. Nonrenormalizable
interactions are likely to proliferate and prevent full cancellation of ultraviolet divergences.
A specific signature of this transient regime is the onset of long-range dynamic correlations in space-time,
the emergence of strange attractors in phase space and transition from smooth to fractal topology. Our
focus here is the impact of fractal topology on physics unfolding above the electroweak scale. Arguments
are given for perturbative renormalization of field theory on fractal space-time, breaking of discrete
symmetries, hierarchical generation of particle masses and couplings as well as the potential for highly
unusual phases of matter which are ultra-weakly coupled to SM. A surprising implication of this approach
is that classical gravity emerges as a dual description of field theory on fractal space-time.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[59] **viXra:1011.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Omar Yépez

**Comments:** 12 pages

The hypertorus electron model is applied to the chemical bond. As a consequence,
the bond topology can be determined. A linear correlation is found between the
normalized bond area and the bond energy. The normalization number is a whole number.
This number is interpreted as the Lewis's electron pair. A new electron distribution
in the molecule follows. This discovery prompts to review the chemical bond, as it is
understood in chemistry and physics.

**Category:** Chemistry

[58] **viXra:1011.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 4 pages

In Alan Guth's theory of inflation, "repulsive gravity" is produced by the "negative pressure" of a
supercooled "Higgs inflaton field" in a "false vacuum". This "repulsive gravity" drives the expansion of
space (restoring the "true vacuum") during the brief period of inflation which initiates the Universe. There is
a curious similarity between this conception of the mechanics of inflation and the notion of a "rebound" at
the end of a cosmic life cycle or "Big Crunch" in a closed, cyclic Universe. This "rebound" is the explosion
of a cosmic-sized black hole which has exhausted all external supplies of space, and so can no longer create
the gravitational field and time dimension necessary to contain its energy content, which exists largely or
wholly in the form of gravitationally bound light (due to proton decay within the black hole's event
horizon). (See: "Entropy, Gravitation, and Thermodynamics".)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[57] **viXra:1011.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** A. R. Hadjesfandiari

**Comments:** 73 pages

By examining the theory of relativity, as originally proposed by Lorentz, Poincare and
Einstein, a fundamental theory of general motion is developed. From this, the
relationship between space-time and matter is discovered. As a result, the geometrical
theory of interaction is introduced. The corresponding geometrical theory of
electrodynamics resolves the origin of electromagnetic interaction, as a vortex-like field,
and clarifies some of the existing ambiguities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[56] **viXra:1011.0057 [pdf]**
*replaced on 5 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Jin He

**Comments:** 16 pages

Everyone lives his or her life instinctively. Does the instinct originate from the
natural world? If the instinct is a rational process, is the natural world rational? Unfortunately,
people have not found any rational principle behind the natural world. Because human activities
are realized directly through electromagnetic and nuclear forces of entropy-increase, people are
difficult to recognize the principle. Compared to the large-scale structure of galaxies, human
bodies and their immediate environment are the "microscopic" world. The electromagnetic and
nuclear forces which rule the world, however, disappear in the formation of large-scale galaxy
structures. Similarly they disappear in the formation of the solar system. My previous papers
found many evidences that galaxies are rational. This paper shows that large-scale galaxy structure
must originate from an algebraic cubic equation.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[55] **viXra:1011.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Edmundas Jauniškis

**Comments:** 4 pages

A new approach to the axiom of mechanics. The energetic approach of the first axiom of
mechanics. The principles and the concept of mechanical movement keeps changing. Mechanics
is closely related to thermodynamics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[54] **viXra:1011.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Vincenzo Sicari

**Comments:** 1 page

There are various physics phenomenon which can find a simple explanation in linking
gravity and electromagnetism. Einstein's Relativity can simply explain only the
mass because he considered time as a scalar rather than a vector. The intension of this
paper is to propose a new point of view, treating time as a three-dimensional vector,
finding three vector value formula by three-dimensional space-time formula (curvature
formula), finding a new symmetry on the plane for a wave equation substitute for
Maxwell's symmetrical wave, only E and only B, not E and B linked. This linking
is in error; in fact they are a two sum effect. The electromagnetic wave in space has,
as well known, three energy component: B field E field and wave length (frequency).
This energy is acknowledged, but we must see the wave like an elastic chain of single
wavelets (a string of individual wavelets).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[53] **viXra:1011.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 24 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Elemér E Rosinger

**Comments:** 8 pages

Four comments are presented on the book of Roger Penrose entitled
"The Road to Reality, A Complete Guide to the Laws of the
Universe". The first comment answers a concern raised in the book. The
last three point to important omissions in the book.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[52] **viXra:1011.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** L. Borissova, D. Rabounski

**Comments:** 263 pages, première édition en langue française, traduit de l'anglais et édité par Patrick
Marquet, American Research Press, Rehoboth (NM), USA

Cet ouvrage est la traduction française du livre "Fields, Vacuum and the Mirror Universe"
publié originalement en anglais en 2009, par les physiciens Larissa Borissova et Dmitri
Rabounski, enrichi de nouveaux exposés. Le livre propose une analyse physico-mathématique
nouvelle en élaborant une théorie des observables dans le cadre de la relativité générale.
Dans leur célèbre livre de référence "Théorie des Champs", Lev Landau et Evgeny Lifshitz ont
décrit de manière très complète le mouvement des particules dans les champs électromagnétique
et gravitationnel. Les méthodes d'analyse covariante alors en vigueur depuis le milieu des
années 30 ne prenaient pas encore en compte les concepts de quantités physiquement observables
(grandeurs chronologiquement invariantes ou plus précisément grandeurs dites "chronométriques")
de la relativité générale. Les auteurs ont donc voulu insister sur la nécessité d'étendre
cette perspective mathématique à la théorie physique existante en l'appliquant au mouvement
des particules se déplaçant dans les champs électromagnétiques et gravitationnels. De plus,
l'étude des mouvements d'une particule douée de moment de rotation intrinsèque, n'a pas été
entreprise dans ce contexte par Landau et Lifshitz. C'est pourquoi un exposé séparé du livre
a été entièrement consacré à ce type de mouvement particulier. Les auteurs ont également
ajouté un chapitre redéfinissant les éléments d'algèbre tensorielle et d'analyse dans le
cadre des invariants chronométriques. L'ensemble de cet ouvrage se présente alors comme
une contribution supplémentaire à la "Théorie des Champs".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[51] **viXra:1011.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 22 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** G. V. Sharlanov

**Comments:** 13 pages

The change of the units between two "time-spatial domains" with different
gravitational potentials is analyzed in the article, as a consequence of the nature of
space and time which are mutually connected with each other in the warped spacetime
of the Universe.
The main topic of the article is:
New definition of the postulate "invariance of the speed of light" - "uncertainty
principle of the macro-world".
Other topics concerned:
The change of the SI base units (second and metre) and the speed of light in
the Gravitational Field are analyzed while discussing of the article of Albert
Einstein "On the Influence of Gravitation on the Propagation of Light".
The change of the SI base units (second and metre) in Field without Gravity
is analyzed, and then conclusion about Special Theory of Relativity is made.
new universal hierarchical structure of the SI System is proposed, where
the "second" and "metre" stay at the highest level. The main principle of the
hierarchical place of any unit is also proposed.
The consequences of this article directly reflect on cosmology and give explanations
of a lot of problems (such as: "the accelerated expansion of the Universe", "the
problem with the dark matter", etc.).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[50] **viXra:1011.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Shehrin Sayed

**Comments:** 4 pages

The expansion of the universe is proved to be an adiabatic process. The proposed idea shows good
agreement with the observable universe and can explain some basic characteristics of the universe. It is
also showed that the first kind of Friedmann model contradicts with the observable universe. The proposed
idea also indicates that the size of the universe is finite.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[49] **viXra:1011.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Andrey G. Shapkin, Michael V. Taborov, Yuriy G. Shapkin

**Comments:** 9 pages

This study demonstrates the capability of external signal recording into memory and the reproduction
of memory trace of this pattern in EEG by direct AC electrical stimulation of rat cerebral cortex.
Additionally, we examine shifts of the DC potential level related to these phenomena. We show
that in the course of memory trace reproduction, consecutive phases of engram activation and relaxation
are registered and accompanied by corresponding negative and positive DC shifts. The observed
electrophysiological changes may reflect consecutive activation and inhibition phases of
neural ensembles participating in engram formation.

**Category:** Mind Science

[48] **viXra:1011.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 129 pages, in Romanian

A short history on Smarandache's avant-garde movement called "paradoxism" in Romanian, English,
Portuguese, French, Spanish. Also, polemics and manifestos on paradoxism, new literary species
introduced by the author (paradoxist distichs, dualistic distichs, tautological distichs, etc.),
reviews, interviews.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[47] **viXra:1011.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 127 pages, in Romanian

"Besides and Behind Paradoxism" comprises essays, in Romanian language, on Florentin Smarandache's literary non-paradoxist work (especially his diaries and metaphoric verses), by Silviu Popescu, Marian Barbu, Titu Popescu, Daniel Deleanu, Alexandru Lungu, Evelina Oprea, Lucian Chisu, Ion Radu Zagreanu, Ion Rotaru.
Interviews by Florentin Smarandache with Octavian Blaga, Ada Cirstoiu, Mihail I. Vlad, A. D. Rachieru, Emil Burlacu, Veronica Balaj, Ion Stanica (Radio France Internationale).
Florentin Smarandache in correspondence with 32 writers, among them: Andre Peragallo, Nancy Wilson, Gloria Badarau, Bernardo Schiavetta, Beverly J. Kleikamp, Jessie Hraska, Olof G. Tandberg, Harriet G. Hunt, Al. Cistelecan, Paul Goma, Dan Danila, Constantin Corduneanu, etc.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[46] **viXra:1011.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 98 pages, in Romanian

New functions introduced in number theory by the author are presented, studied,
generalized some of them, and contributions of other mathematicians to these functions
are also showed up.

**Category:** Number Theory

[45] **viXra:1011.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 122 pages, in Romanian

"Paradoxism's Hermeneutics" includes selected by the editor articles on paradoxism, in
Romanian language, articles written by Marian Barbu, George Bajenaru, Radu Enescu, Ovidiu Ghidirmic,
Dumitru Ichim, Alexandru Lungu, Mircea Marinescu, Ion Rotaru, Geo Vasile, etc.
Paradoxism in science, arts and letters was set up by Florentin Smarandache in 1980 and then used in many creations.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[44] **viXra:1011.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 120 pages, in Romanian

Definitions, constructions, properties, and solved and unsolved problems on
Smarandache type functions are presented in this book.

**Category:** Number Theory

[43] **viXra:1011.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Vincenzo Sicari

**Comments:** 3 pages

Explanation of the parameters of the S. Marinov's curve

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[42] **viXra:1011.0043 [pdf]**
*replaced on 13 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 5 pages

In a recent article, a single tired light mechanism, based in the interaction between
electromagnetic waves, has been proposed for explaining both redshifts: cosmological
(without expansion of the universe) and intrinsic. A second paper specifies that said
interaction would be the scattering. This article is to reinforce and clarify the whole
idea.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[41] **viXra:1011.0042 [pdf]**
*replaced on 20 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** S. Halayka

**Comments:** 3 pages

A complete graph model of the Schwarzschild black hole

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[40] **viXra:1011.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 6 pages, 4 figures

In this article two types of diffraction are considered: the macroscopic diffraction
occurs whether with electromagnetic waves or with photon beams like light, the
photon diffraction or nanoscopic diffration occurs only with photons. The difference
between the two diffractions depends on both the width of the slot and the
wavelength of radiation. This consideration proves further that electromagnetism and
optics, including in optics infrared, visible, ultraviolet and X radiation, have a
different physical nature: electromagnetism is characterized by waves, optics by
photon beams. The frequency band employed by infrared radiation represents the
point of connection between the two diffractions and the two physical behaviours.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[39] **viXra:1011.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Zhe Wu

**Comments:** 7 pages, the article will be submitted to 'Journal of Fluids and Structures'

see paper

**Category:** Classical Physics

[38] **viXra:1011.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Guy Moore, Richard Moore

**Comments:** 40 pages

Our obtaining the analytical equations for the gravitation of a particular type of
mathematical annulus, which we called a 'Special Gravitating Annulus' (SGA), greatly
facilitates studying its orbital properties by computer programming. This includes
isomorphism, periodic and chaotic polar orbits, and orbits in three dimensions.
We provide further insights into the gravitational properties of this annulus and
describe our computer algorithms and programs. We study a number of periodic orbits,
giving them names to aid identification.
'Ellipses extraordinaires' which are bisected by the annulus, have no gravitating
matter at either focus and represent a fundamental departure from the normal association
of elliptical orbits with Keplerian motion. We describe how we came across this type of
orbit and the analysis we performed. We present the simultaneous differential equations
of motion of 'ellipses extraordinaires' and other orbits as a mathematical challenge. The
'St.Louis Gateway Arch' orbit contains two 'instantaneous static points' (ISP).
Polar elliptical orbits can wander considerably without tending to form other kinds
of orbit. If this type of orbit is favoured then this gives a similarity to spiral galaxies
containing polar orbiting material.
Annular oscillatory orbits and rotating polar elliptical orbits are computed in
isometric projection. A 'daisy' orbit is computed in stereo-isometric projection.
The singularity at the centre of the SGA is discussed in relation to mechanics and
computing, and it appears mathematically different from a black hole.
In the Appendix, we prove by a mathematical method that a thin plane self-gravitating
Newtonian annulus, free from external influence, exhibiting radial gravitation that varies
inversely with the radius in the annular plane, must have an area mass density which
also varies inversely with the radius and this exact solution is the only exact solution.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[37] **viXra:1011.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 249 pages

This Interval arithmetic or interval mathematics developed in
1950's and 1960's by mathematicians as an approach to putting
bounds on rounding errors and measurement error in
mathematical computations. However no proper interval
algebraic structures have been defined or studies. In this book
we for the first time introduce several types of interval linear
algebras and study them.

**Category:** Algebra

[36] **viXra:1011.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Nathaniel S. K. Hellerstein

**Comments:** 17 pages

This paper redefines the addition of rational numbers, in a way that allows division
by zero. This requires defining a "compensator" on the integers, plus extending
least-common-multiple (LCM) to zero and negative numbers. "Compensated addition"
defines ordinary addition on all ratios, including the 'infinities' n/0, and also
'zeroids' 0/n. The infinities and the zeroids form two 'double ringlets'. The lattice
rationals modulo the zeroids yields the infinities plus the 'wheel numbers'. Due to
the presence of the 'alternator' @ = 0/-1, double-distribution does not apply, but
triple-distribution still does.

**Category:** Algebra

[35] **viXra:1011.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-12-05 14:03:26*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The IVBs (Intermediate Vector Bosons) are the field vectors (force carriers) of the weak force. The IVBs reconstitute (or revisit) the very energy dense, early metric of spacetime (during the "Big Bang"), and their mass is the probable consequence of the binding energy necessary to condense, compact, and/or convolute the spacetime metric to a particular symmetric energy state, defined by a specific force-unification era (such as the Electroweak Era, for instance), with a specific energy density and temperature. Originally, the "W" IVBs were indistinguishable from the early dense metric of which they were a part - the energy level of electroweak unification. The "Electroweak Era" (EW) existed from 10(-12) to 10(-35) seconds after the Big Bang, when collision energy exceeded 100 GEV and the temperature exceeded 10(15) Kelvins. During this time (a tiny fraction of a second in human terms) the whole of spacetime - the whole Cosmos - was in effect a single huge "W" IVB within which all the transitions of "identity" within the lepton family of particles (including the heavy leptons), and all the transitions of "flavor" within the quark family of particles (including quarks of the heavy baryons or "hyperons"), could take place freely without restriction or energy barriers (during the EW Era, quark and lepton families were unified among themselves, but quarks remained separate from leptons.) (See: Brian Greene: "The Fabric of the Cosmos", page 270, Knopf, 2004.)

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[34] **viXra:1011.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Constantin M. Popa

**Comments:** 39 pages

The author studies the paradoxism, a movement originated by the dissident mathematician
Florentin Smarandache in 1980's and based on usage of paradoxes and contradictions in arts,
literature, philosophy, mathematics, science. The author compare paradoxism with other
avant-gardes of the first part of the twenty's century.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[33] **viXra:1011.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Jiang Zhengjie

**Comments:** 152 pages

While Taoism is based on the union of opposites, Neutrosophy considers the union of opposites
and the neutralities in between them. We thought that Neutrosophy and traditional Chinese
Dialectics may be combined, and establish the Chinese Neutrosophy concept, with its premise
about the existence of the universal absolute main body, whose existence may be theoretically
proven through the establishment of Taoist Natural Philosophy.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[32] **viXra:1011.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 15 pages

This article of mathematical education reflects author's experience with job
applications and teaching methods and procedures to employ in the American Higher
Education. It is organized as a standard questionnaire.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[31] **viXra:1011.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 1 pages

Demonstration by recurrence on m .

**Category:** Number Theory

[30] **viXra:1011.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 1 pages

If p is a real number...

**Category:** Number Theory

[29] **viXra:1011.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 pages

One generalizes the inequality of Hödler thanks to a reasoning by recurrence. As
particular cases, one obtains a generalization of the inequality of
Cauchy-Buniakovski-Scwartz, and some interesting applications.

**Category:** Number Theory

[28] **viXra:1011.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 1 pages

Let's consider the points...

**Category:** Geometry

[27] **viXra:1011.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 pages

Let us consider the real numbers...

**Category:** Number Theory

[26] **viXra:1011.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 6 pages

This paper demonstrates that by using Noetics, the mind can quantitatively track the
earth's annual elliptical orbit around the sun, due to the change in the earth-sun
gravitational attraction. These measurements have a remarkable correlation
coefficient of 0.9999 to the inverse of the Newtonian gravitational force raised to the
power of 6.

**Category:** Mind Science

[25] **viXra:1011.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Vincenzo Sicari

**Comments:** 2 pages

There are various physics phenomenon which can find a simple explanation in linking
gravity and electromagnetism. Einstein's Relativity can simply explain only the
mass because he considered time as a scalar rather than a vector. The intension of this
paper is to propose a new point of view, treating time as a three-dimensional vector,
finding three vector value formula by three-dimensional space-time formula (curvature
formula), finding a new symmetry on the plane for a wave equation substitute for
Maxwell's symmetrical wave, only E and only B, not E and B linked. This linking
is in error; in fact they are a two sum effect. The electromagnetic wave in space has,
as well known, three energy components: B field E field and wave length (frequency).
This energy is acknowledged, but we must see the wave like an elastic chain of single
wavelets (a string of individual wavelets).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[24] **viXra:1011.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-07-22 23:10:55*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Although I had heard about, read about, and wondered about the "Higgs boson" for years, I simply couldn't get a "feel" for this particle, mostly because I was unable to place it within any overall, coherent scheme of physical phenomena. I didn't want to believe in its reality, but I hadn't wanted to believe in the reality of the "W" and "Z" IVBs, either. Having eaten a large serving of humble pie with the discovery of these particles in the early 1980s at CERN, I was not eager for second helpings from the Higgs, so I kept searching for its conservation role. What finally broke the impasse for me was the article by Gordon Kane in Scientific American (and there is much else in this article I don't agree with), which mentioned there could be more than one Higgs boson. (See: "The Mysteries of Mass" by Gordon Kane, Scientific American , July 2005, pp. 41-48.) That idea allowed me almost immediately to "do my thing", which is the construction of General Systems hierarchies, using the "phase transition" energy levels, or force- unification symmetric energy states, as benchmarks for the four sequential steps of a weak force decay "cascade" from the "Multiverse" to "ground state" atomic matter in our universe, with one step allotted to each of the four forces as they joined (or separated from) the unification hierarchy, and one Higgs boson identifying each unified-force energy plateau. (See: "Table of the Higgs Cascade".) (On July 4, 2012, CERN announced the tentative discovery of a massive, Higgs-like boson, at 126 GEV on the LHC at Geneva, Switzerland.)

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[23] **viXra:1011.0023 [pdf]**
*replaced on 11 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Jack Sarfatti

**Comments:** 4 pages

I predict a new translational-rotational coupling in rotating frames that may have been
missed hitherto. This eq. 1.12 below should give rise to new physics of clamped charges
in rotating capacitors for example. Since accelerating frames are also locally equivalent
to Newton's gravity force there may be some new quantum mechanical effects here as
well.

**Category:** Mind Science

[22] **viXra:1011.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu

**Comments:** 34 pages

It is our comprehension that Conciousness is both transcendent and immanent as simialarly
understood in Hinuism. The transcendetal aspect of Conciousness produced and
influences reality through self-referential spin as the interactive output of Conciousness. In
turn, relaiuty produces and influences immanent aspect of Conciousness as the interactive
inout to Conciousness through self-referential spin. The spin-mediated copnsciousness
theory as originally proposed has mainly dealt with the immenant aspect of Conciousness
which is driven by the self-referential spin processes. This paper focuses and "e;regurgitates"
on the transcendental aspect of Conciousness which drives the self0referential spin
processes.

**Category:** Mind Science

[21] **viXra:1011.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu

**Comments:** 29 pages

This paper summarizes experimental support to spin-mdeiated conciousness theory from
variuos sources including the results of our own. Ind oing so we also provide explanations bases
on this theory to experimental phenomena such as out-of-body experience and sensed presence.
quantum-like cognitive functions and optical illusions. Whether one agrees or not with the
spin-mediated consciousness theory is for one alone to judge. In any event, the importance of the
experimental results mentioned in this paper is obvious: quantum effects play important roles in
brain/cognitive functions despite of the denials and suspicions of the naysayer and skeptics.

**Category:** Mind Science

[20] **viXra:1011.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu

**Comments:** 10 pages

The issues surrounding quantum brain/mind/conciousness research are both confusing and
complex. If one can manage to grasp these issues, one may find that the past of this field has
been fruitful and its future is indeed very promising. The current landscape and past
achievements in this filed have already been discussed by our colleagues as pointed herein.
This editorial mainly attempts to classify/clarify some of the major issues and discuss what
are lying ahead. Whatever difficulties may still remain, recent experimental results by
several groups including those of the aauthors' own make it very clear that quantum effects
play important roles in brain functions despite of the denials and suspicions of the naysayer
and skeptics

**Category:** Mind Science

[19] **viXra:1011.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Nathaniel S. K. Hellerstein

**Comments:** 33 pages

In this paper I discuss "reduction", a.k.a. "reciprocal addition"; addition conjugated by reciprocal.
I discuss reduction's definition, its laws, its graphs, its geometry, its algebra, its calculus, and its
practical applications. This paper contains a problem set with answer key.

**Category:** Algebra

[18] **viXra:1011.0018 [pdf]**
*replaced on 21 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 10 pages

The IVBs (Intermediate Vector Bosons) are the field vectors (force carriers) of the weak force. The IVBs
reconstitute the very dense, early metric of spacetime (during the "Big Bang"), and their mass is the
probable consequence of the binding energy necessary to condense, compact, and/or convolute the
spacetime metric. Originally, the "W" IVBs were indistinguishable from the early dense metric of which
they were a part - the energy level of electroweak unification. The "Electroweak Era" existed from 10(-12)
to 10(-35) seconds after the Big Bang, when collision energy exceeded 100 GEV and the temperature
exceeded 10(15) Kelvins. During this time (a tiny fraction of a second in human terms) the whole of
spacetime - the whole Cosmos - was in effect a single huge "W" IVB within which all the transitions of
"identity" within the lepton family of particles (including the heavy leptons), and all the transitions of
"flavor" within the quark family of particles (including quarks of the heavy baryons or "hyperons"), could
take place freely without restriction or energy barriers (quark and lepton families were unified among
themselves, but quarks remained separate from leptons.) (See: Brian Greene: "The Fabric of the Cosmos",
page 270, Knopf, 2004.)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1011.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Henry D. May

**Comments:** 7 pages

The cosmological model of Roland Omnès was abandoned more than 30 years ago because it
failed to show that coalescence was able to continue long enough to produce aggregations as large as the
masses of galaxies. It was also determined that a universe containing antimatter galaxies is inconsistent with
observations of cosmic annihilation radiation. This paper explores the implications of a simple assumption
that suggests a reevaluation of those objections is needed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1011.0016 [pdf]**
*replaced on 6 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Elemér E Rosinger

**Comments:** 165 pages.

When I was a small boy, about two years old, on occasion, I had some nightmares. One
morning I mentioned that to my Mother, and she replied, in a most natural matter of course
manner, as if it had been about a simple and trivial issue, that next time, when I would again
have such a nightmare, I should simply remember that I was dreaming, that all it would only
be in a dream, and then I should just wake up ...
Since my Mother's reply came so instantly, smoothly, and without the least emotion, let alone
dramatization, I simply took it as such ...
And next time, when a nightmare came upon me during my dream, I simply did, and yes, I
managed rather naturally to do, what my Mother had told me to do ...
And never ever I would again have nightmares for more than a mere moment, before I would
manage to wake up from them ...
Later, nightmares would, so to say, even avoid me completely...

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[15] **viXra:1011.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Ron Bourgoin

**Comments:** 3 pages

The authors of The Grand Design treat the gravitational
energy of a large astronomical object as a negative quantity.
The formula used to calculate gravitational energy is GM 2 r ,
in which all quantities are positive. Even if mass were considered
to be negative, the square of the mass is a positive quantity. All
other quantities in the formula are positive because G is positive,
and since there is no such physical thing as a negative radius, r is
positive. The authors have simply affixed a negative sign in front
of the formula, which is neither correct mathematically nor physically.
We show in this paper that the correct treatment of gravitational energy
leads to the conclusion that Earth's gravitational energy produces Earth's
space. Earth has its own space, as does every astronomical object in the
Universe. The general overall space of the Universe, therefore, is a
series of interacting spaces.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] **viXra:1011.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 4 pages

"Identity" charge (also known as "number" charge) is the fundamental charge of the weak force
and the most important of the particle charges. Identity charge is the symmetry debt of light's
anonymity, or complete lack of identity. One photon cannot be distinguished from another, but
the elementary leptonic particles are distinct from photons and from each other, and hence carry
identity charges. Neutrinos are the explicit or "bare" form of identity charge, which is also
carried in a "hidden" or implicit form by the massive leptonic elementary particles - electrons
and their heavier kin. Single elementary particles cannot enter or leave the 4-dimensional realm
of manifest reality without a conserving identity charge - the functional equivalent of a human
"soul" or a citizen's passport. The utility of identity charge (in terms of symmetry conservation)
is to facilitate particle-antiparticle annihilations by helping particles identify their appropriate
"anti-mates" in a timely fashion - ensuring a conserved pathway for elementary particles
returning to their original state of symmetry (light). For more on the function of identity charge
see: "Identity Charge and the Weak Force", and "The Origin of Matter and Information".

**Category:** Biochemistry

[13] **viXra:1011.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Alexander G. Kyriakos

**Comments:** 18 pages.

The purpose of this chapter is to describe the mechanism of generation of massive
fermions - electron and positron. The presented below theory describes the electron and
positron mass production by means of breakdown of massive intermediate boson without
the presence of Higgs's boson. It is shown that nonlinearity is critical for the
appearance of fermions' currents and masses. Here is considered only the linear form of
equations. The analysis of nonlinear forms will be making in the following chapter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[12] **viXra:1011.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Leonid I. Filippov

**Comments:** 11 pages, 8 figures, In Russian

The mass point is moving along the circle of a radius at angular velocity of ω and interacts with
the spherical domain of 3.10^{26}m radius, with a uniform mass and 10^{-26} kg/m^{3}density. As a result of the treatment
we arrive at the formula for a centrifugal force F = m,ω^{2}.a.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1011.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Akindele O. J. Adekugbe

**Comments:** 15 pages. Paper to appear in Progress in Physics vol.1, 2011, pp. 25-39.

The re-identification of the many-world background of the special theory of relativity
(SR) as four-world background in the first part of this paper (instead of two-wold
background isolated in the initial papers), is concluded in this second part. The flat
two-dimensional proper intrinsic spacetime, which underlies the flat four-dimensional
proper spacetime in each universe, introduced as ansatz in the initial paper, is derived
formally within the four-world picture. The identical magnitudes of masses, identical
sizes and identical shapes of the four members of every quartet of symmetry-partner
particles or objects in the four universes are shown. The immutability of Lorentz invariance
on flat spacetime of SR in each of the four universes is shown to arise as a
consequence of the perfect symmetry of relative motion at all times among the four
members of every quartet of symmetry-partner particles and objects in the four universes.
The The perfect symmetry of relative motions at all times, coupled with the
identical magnitudes of masses, identical sizes and identical shapes, of the members of
every quartet of symmetry-partner particles and objects in the four universes, guarantee
perfect symmetry of state among the universes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1011.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Akindele O. J. Adekugbe

**Comments:** 22 pages. Paper to appear in Progress in Physics, vol.1, 2011, pp. 3-24.

The pair of co-existing symmetrical universes, referred to as our (or positive) universe
and negative universe, isolated and shown to constitute a two-world background for
the special theory of relativity (SR) in previous papers, encompasses another pair of
symmetrical universes, referred to as positive time-universe and negative time-universe.
The Euclidean 3-spaces (in the context of SR) of the positive time-universe and the
negative time-universe constitute the time dimensions of our (or positive) universe and
the negative universe respectively, relative to observers in the Euclidean 3-spaces of our
universe and the negative universe and the Euclidean 3-spaces of or our universe and
the negative universe constitute the time dimensions of the positive time-universe and
the negative time-universe respectively, relative to observers in the Euclidean 3-spaces
of the positive time-universe and the negative time-universe. Thus time is a secondary
concept derived from the concept of space according to this paper. The one-dimensional
particle or object in time dimension to every three-dimensional particle or object in
3-space in our universe is a three-dimensional particle or object in 3-space in the positive
time-universe. Perfect symmetry of natural laws is established among the resulting
four universes and two outstanding issues about the new spacetime/intrinsic spacetime
geometrical representation of Lorentz transformation/intrinsic Lorentz transformation
in the two-world picture, developed in the previous papers, are resolved within the larger
four-world picture in this first part of this paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1011.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 13 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Saurav Dwivedi

**Comments:** 10 pages.

Quantum theory brought an irreducible lawlessness in physics. This is accompanied by lack of
specification of state of a system. We can not measure states even though they ever existed. We
can measure only transition from one state into another. We deduce this lack of determination
of state mathematically, and thus provide formalism for maximum precision of determination of
mixed states. However, the results thus obtained show consistency with Heisenberg's uncertainty
relations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8] **viXra:1011.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 3 May 2010*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 9 pages.

We observe that the "local gauge symmetry currents" (the field vectors of the forces, or components
thereof), are in the case of both the spacetime metric (time) and the electromagnetic force (magnetism),
derived from an implicit expression embedded in the original global symmetry state. Magnetism, for
example, occurs in its primordial state as the magnetic half of an electromagnetic wave, or light. Likewise,
time occurs in an implicit and suppressed state ("frequency") in the global metric of space, again as gauged
by the global energy and metric constant c (frequency x wavelength = c). This naturally leads us to suspect
the same relationship should hold for the two particle forces (strong and weak forces) - we should find the
precursors of their local, material gauge currents in the primordial and symmetric global metric of light and
space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1011.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Lukasz Glinka

**Comments:** 12 pages, published in Prespacetime Journal 1(9), pp. 1395-1402 (November 2010)

The boson-phonon duality due to inflaton energy is presented in the context
of quantum universes discussed recently by the author. The duality leads
to bonons, i.e. the bosonic-phononic quantum universes. This state of things
manifestly corresponds to the Lewis-Kripke modal realism, and physical
presence of Multiverse in Nature.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1011.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Juan Carlos Alcerro Mena

**Comments:** 11 pages

An unpublished observation made in the theory of relativity, reveals a reality of higher
spatial dimensions which implies a new model of matter, called equivalent photon model of
matter, which displays every particle with rest mass greater than zero, as a photon in a fourdimensional
space (without referring to the space-time). This gives an alternative derivation of
quantum physics, also can observe the reality behind special relativity, arise physical predictions
that not are covered by the existing physical theory and spontaneously arises the concept of fivedimensional
space-time, with its fourth spatial axis of compact type.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1011.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Vincenzo Sicari

**Comments:** 38 pages

My theory states that our space-time (energy) is 6-dimensional; three spatial and three time,
but only if the energy and thus the mass is considered as the effect of curvature.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1011.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 6 pages

It is demonstrated that the proton-, neutron-, and muon-electron mass ratios may be expressed
precisely and economically with the aid of two constants that derive from twin approximations
of the fine structure constant.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[3] **viXra:1011.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Royce Haynes

**Comments:** 11 pages, Paper 3 in series of 3, "Zero Kelvin Big Bang, an Alternative Paradigm", submitted to Apeiron, November 2, 2010.

In the first paper in this series, we described a "cosmic fabric" which served as the birthplace of our
universe: spin-oriented hydrogen atoms at zero Kelvin in a matrix perhaps infinite and (almost) eternal. In
the second paper we described how a portion of the cosmic fabric ultimately condensed into a
Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), the "primeval atom". In this third paper we describe the Big Bang itself, an
implosion-explosion event involving nuclear fusion of hydrogen into the primordial mix of elements. Using
the ZKBB model, one can calculate the approximate temperature of the Big Bang as 5.7 billion K. The
explosion fragmented the remaining BEC, propelling billions of fragments of "cosmic shrapnel" out from
the locus of the Big Bang, which ultimately evolved into the structures we see in our present universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1011.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Royce Haynes

**Comments:** 8 pages, Paper 2 in series of 3, "Zero Kelvin Big Bang, an Alternative Paradigm", submitted to Apeiron, November 2, 2010.

In the first paper in this series, we described the logic suggesting a "cosmic fabric", which served as the
birthplace of our universe: a sparse distribution of spin-oriented hydrogen atoms at zero Kelvin, perhaps
infinite and (almost) eternal. This second paper describes how a portion of this cosmic fabric could have
condensed into a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). This cold ball of highly concentrated matter may be the
"primeval atom", proposed by Georges Lemaître in 1931, as the starting point for our universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1011.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Royce Haynes

**Comments:** 13 pages, Paper 1 in series of 3, "Zero Kelvin Big Bang, an Alternative Paradigm", submitted to Apeiron, November 2, 2010.

This is the first in a series of papers describing an alternative paradigm for the history of the universe. The
Zero Kelvin Big Bang (ZKBB) theory is compared to the prevailing paradigm of the Standard Big Bang
(SBB), and challenges the notion that the universe is "all there is". Logic suggests that the Big Bang was
not a creation event, but that the universe did have a beginning: a "cosmic fabric" of pre-existing matter, in
pre-existing space. Instead, the ZKBB was a transitional event between that "beginning" and our present
universe. Extrapolating entropy back in time (as SBB does for matter and energy) and applying simple
logic suggests a "cosmic fabric" consisting of the simplest, stable particles of matter, at the lowest energy
state possible: singlet state, spin-oriented atomic hydrogen at zero Kelvin, at a density of, at most, only a
few atoms per cubic meter of space, infinite and (almost) eternal. Papers II and III in this series describe
formation of an atomic hydrogen Bose-Einstein condensate as Lemaître's primeval atom, followed by an
implosion-explosion Big Bang.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology