[64] **viXra:0911.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 26 Jan 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** pages, 1 figure. Replaced due to marked re dos of contents of document
to adhere to minimum formatting protocol, and information contents expected of a 12
marcel Grossman conference entry. In particular, the conclusion has been almost
totally re done.

The issue of whether or not a correlation exists between neutrino physics and gravitational wave data
sets/gravitons is raised anew. Particular emphasis is placed on analysis of the Fuller and Kishimoto
scenario, suggesting that the wave function of a relic neutrino may span up to billions of light years
across galaxies because of its low energy and particles traveling at different speeds. There is an
initial close relationship between gravitational waves/gravitons and relic neutrinos in early-universe
nucleation, so is there is a corresponding "stretch-out" of gravitons? If so, what would this imply for
improved graviton/gravity wave detectors?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[63] **viXra:0911.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-08 13:44:42*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The simple story of the Cosmos is the devolution of light to matter followed by the evolution of matter back to light - as required by Noether's Theorem (the conservation of light's symmetry), and as regulated by the four conservation laws of the "Tetrahedron Model". But the information content of energy considerably complicates this simple ontogeny - the Universe apparently seeks self-awareness, self-knowledge, and self-experience (perhaps as the goal of, or justification for, all the effort involved in manifestation). The negative entropy of gravity and Natural Selection drives the evolutionary mechanism of biological matter, with DNA providing replication and the genetic system providing information conservation through heritable genes. Because of its genetic system, life has become a biological conservation domain of molecular information, with humanity advancing this principle evolutionary axis of the Cosmos (Chardin's view) through abstract thought, symbolic writing, science and technology. Our planet is in her reproductive phase, with humanity as her dispersal agents, seeking new territory in the Galaxy. The natural tendency to evolve complex information systems of planetary size (and beyond) can be seen as the simple outgrowth of matter's search for antimatter (locally employing human intelligence in the quest), and a reprise of the original unity, symmetry, and connectivity of the primordial light Universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[62] **viXra:0911.0065 [pdf]**
*replaced on 1 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 5 pages.

In this paper the author asks if DM and gravitons could also impact the cosmic acceleration of
the universe, leading to an increase of acceleration one billion years ago, in a manner usually attributed to
DE. Following Alves, et al. (2009) the author will high light what KK style gravitons, with a slightly
different mass profile could mean in terms of DM The consequences are from assuming that axions are
CDM, and KK gravitons are for WDM, then up to a point, ρ_{Warm-Dark-Matter} would dominate not only
structure formation in early universe formation, Further efforts in obtaining data for such suppositions
would lie in electro magnetic-graviton interactions contributing toward h_{0}^{2} Ω_{gw} (f) being appropriately measured.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[61] **viXra:0911.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** Pages.

It seems there isn't any convincing analysis in the physical literature to answer the
above question. We try to find the answer considering that it must be found in the
simultaneous appearance of sunshine on the horizon and the sudden fall in the
weather temperature.

**Category:** Climate Research

[60] **viXra:0911.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-12-01 13:46:34*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We explore the hypothesis that there are 3 "families" or energy levels of the Higgs bosons and their associated Intermediate Vector Bosons (IVBs), analogously to the three families or energy levels of the quarks and leptons. With its origin in the "Multiverse", our Universe apparently devolved (rapidly) downward in an asymmetric "Higgs Cascade" to the electromagnetic ground state, and now evolves (slowly) upward again in a "rebound" driven by negentropic gravity and symmetry conservation (Noether's Theorem), back to the Multiverse state (in a "Big Crunch" gravitational cosmic collapse) or to a state of pure electromagnetic radiation (light). CERN announced the discovery of a Higgs-like boson on 4 July, 2012 (energy level ~126 GEV).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[59] **viXra:0911.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 7 pages

Although some people dismiss dowsing because of perceived inconsistencies of
results, this variability can be of great benefit in researching the factors that cause the
phenomenon of dowsing. Experimental results, using robust scientific techniques and
protocols for measurements, are starting to show not just how dowsing works, but its
use as a tool in scientific research into the understanding of consciousness and the
universe.
This paper is the first of a series and shows why different dowsers obtain different
results for the same measurement. The personal interpretation of observations by the
dowser's mind, including possible physiological effects is covered in this paper.
Surprisingly, the general reasons for this variability are numerous, including the
superimposition of many local and non-local factors, and depend on different times of
the day, month, or year on which those measurements are made. As the reasons for
the variations involve different branches of physics, including gravity, quantum
physics, cosmology, and astrophysics, the following complimentary papers should
assist comprehension of the unexpected but exciting findings.
Part 1 - Introduction and Personal Factors
Part 2 - Daily Variations caused by the Earth Spinning on its Axis
Part 3 - Monthly and Annual Variations caused by Gravity
Part 4 - The Effects of Geometric Alignments, the Structure of the Universe, and
Subtle Energies
Part 5 - Communicating Information Instantaneously across the Galaxy
In the wider context, the conclusions of this research suggest that concepts such as the
mind, consciousness, or even the menstrual cycle are affected not just by our local
environment on the Earth, but by the cosmos in general.

**Category:** Mind Science

[58] **viXra:0911.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Chris Forbes, Dan Visser

**Comments:** 18 pages

In this, the final paper in the recent series on the new twin-tori model of
cosmology, the model is developed in a logical way. Its historical
development is included, and what follows is a statement of the central
axioms of the theory. The reasons for them are described and their use in the
theory is shown. What then follows is a brief description of the cosmological
side of the theory, and its application to large scale structures and
astrophysics. The paper then begins to develop the opposite length scale of
the model, that on the order of the nuclear scale and ranging down to planck
scale physics and Quantum Gravity.
The theory is developed by laying theoretical foundations and mathematical
idea's and structures and building on these using phenomenology and
statistical techniques to fit parameters for the theory, including the dark
energy - dark matter coupling constants. Many basic simplified models are
then set out in various dimensions and with varying degrees of physical
relevance.
The models are also tested against current theory using observations of
various physical systems ranging from nuclear physics, both earth-bound
and stellar, to galactic dynamics and rotations. Historical deatils are included
to increase readability from a variety of backgrounds.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[57] **viXra:0911.0060 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-11 08:47:05*

**Authors:** H. Ron Harrison

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Final version includes a small variation to the basic equation.

Galileo studied bodies falling under gravity and Tycho Brahe made extensive astronomical observations which led Kepler to formulate his three famous laws of planetary motion. All these observations were of relative motion. This led Newton to propose his theory of gravity which could just as well have been expressed in a form that does not involve the concept of force. The approach in this paper extends the Newtonian theory and the Special Theory of Relativity by including relative velocity by comparison with electromagnetic effects and also from the form of measured data. This enables the non-Newtonian effects of gravity to be calculated in a simpler manner than by use of the General Theory of Relativity (GR). Application to the precession of the perihelion of Mercury and the gravitational deflection of light gives results which agree with observations and are identical to those of GR. It also gives the accepted expression for the Schwarzschild Radius. This approach could be used to determine non-Newtonian variations in the trajectories of satellites.
An extra term is then added to the initial basic equation which acts in the direction of the relative velocity. The amended basic equation now predicts a change in the speed of light and derives the accepted measured result for the Shapiro time delay. It also gives the accepted value for the Last Stable Orbit.
Because the extra term is a function of (v/c)4 the previously mentioned predictions are not significantly changed

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[56] **viXra:0911.0059 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-01 10:08:54*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Replacing "alternative pathways" section with general discussion.

A table of elementary particles, including the Higgs boson and weak force IVBs, is presented and discussed. Examples of decays are given, and a list of technical terms is appended.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[55] **viXra:0911.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Amrit S. Sorli

**Comments:** 3 pages

Original solution of gravity motion is curved 4 dimensional cosmic space. Massive objects
move into direction of higher curvature of space. Quantum gravity introduces idea that
cosmic space is made out of grains of Planck size. If space has granular structure one
can consider space also has its density. More mass in given volume of quantum space less
space is dense. Less space is dense more space is curved. Massive objects move always
into direction of lover density in higher curvature of quantum space. Gravitational
motion of massive objects is result of change of density of quantum space. Change of
nsity of quantum space is a physical basis for change of its curvature. In black holes
density of mass is extremely high and density of space is extremely low. In a centre of
black holes mass is transforming in to quanta of space. In outer space density of mass
is extremely low, density of space is extremely high. In outer space quanta of space are
transforming onto elementary particles i.e. cosmic rays.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[54] **viXra:0911.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Robert A.J. Matthews

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We describe an empirical study of the formation of knots in open and closed self-avoiding walks
(SAWs), based on a simple model involving randomly agitated cords. The results suggest that
the probability of a closed SAW remaining knot-free follows a similar scaling law to that for
open-ended SAWs. In particular, the process of closing a given SAW prior to random agitation
substantially increases the probability that it will be knot-free following agitation. The results
point to a remedy for the well-known problem of tangling of cord, rope, headphone cables etc.
The simple act of connecting the two free ends to each other, thus creating a loop, greatly
reduces the risk of such tangling. Other implications, in particular for DNA storage in cells, are
briefly discussed.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[53] **viXra:0911.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** S. Halayka

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Added Appendix section (and idea for possible experiment?).
Added references related to "quantum graphity"

The objective of this paper is to identify a way to relate entropy with
the synchronization of the input/output power of a system of oscillators.
This view is ultimately reconciled through an examination of the geometric
differences that exist between 2D shell and 3D lattice oscillator
arrangements.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[52] **viXra:0911.0053 [pdf]**
*replaced on 15 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** James Gunasekera

**Comments:** All databases and the source code are available. Abstract: Percentage
of persons satisfying the criterion is higher than expected not only for Nobel Prize
laureates, but also for winners of similar awards in similar categories: Ramon Magsaysay
Award, Wolf Prize, Pulitzer Prize.

The main purpose of this study is to test the criterion and methods described in the article about
Nobel Prize laureates[1] on other data.
It was shown that the moments of birth of Nobel Prize laureates satisfy the so-called Quaoar
criterion much more often than other moments. A random moment of time satisfies the criterion
with probability around 0.245, but among the Nobel laureates 33.47% satisfy the criterion.
Because there are 726 persons in five categories, this is a statistically significant deviation: 243 of
them satisfy, while the mean value is 177.352, and the standard deviation is 11.535. Shape of the
distribution is "bell curve". It was observed that deviation is higher if all laureates in Chemistry
and Physics are excluded. +6.145 stdev if only 391 laureates in the remaining three categories
are considered: Literature, Physiology/Medicine, Peace prize.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[51] **viXra:0911.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 4 pages, This paper has also been published as a Google "Knol".

Man's role in nature seems to divide naturally in two parts: 1) the dispersal of Earth-Life into
the galaxy; 2) the enhancement and development of the self-awareness and creativity of the
Cosmos. Humanity is, in the first instance, the practical, scientific tool of Gaia, or Mother
Earth, evolved as her reproductive agent; and in the second instance, humanity is the perceptual
or intelectual tool of the Cosmos, evolved to carry the intelligence and self-awareness of the
Cosmos, the agent by which the Cosmos explores, understands, and appreciates itself, including
exploring new modes of creativity. Our native spiritual awareness appears to be our intuitive
recognition of this cosmic connection. The first role is Earth-oriented, manifesting socially as
Science; the second role is Universe-oriented, manifesting socially as Art and Religion, in all
their forms. It should be obvious that the first role is in no way intrinsically at odds with the
second.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[50] **viXra:0911.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 12 pages, 1 figure, 5 tables, Submitted to the Apeiron Journal

This reading is a continuation of the earlier reading Nyambuya (2008); where three new Curved
Spacetime Dirac Equations have been derived mainly to try and account in a natural way for the observed
anomalous gyromagnetic ratio of fermions and the suggestions is that particles including the Electron, which
is thought to be a point particle, do have a finite spatial size and this is one of the reasons for the observed
anomalous gyromagnetic ratio. Combining the idea in Nyambuya (2008) which lead to the derivation of the
three new Curved Spacetime Dirac Equations, and the proposed Unified Field Theory (Nyambuya 2007), a
total of 12 equations each with 16 sub-components are generated thus leading to a total of 192 equations for
the Curved Spacetime Dirac Equation. Some symmetries of these equations are investigated, i.e., the Lorentz
symmetry, charge conjugation symmetry (C), time reversal symmetry (T), Space reversal (P) and a combination
of the C, P&T-symmetries. It is shown that these equations are Lorentz invariant, obey C-symmetry and that
some violate T and P-symmetry while others do not and that they all obey PT-symmetry. These symmetries
show (or modestly said - seem to suggest) that anti-particles have positive mass and energy but a negative
rest-mass and the opposite sign in electronic charge. Through the inspection of these symmetries, a suggestion
is (here) made to the effect that the rest-mass of a particle must be related to the electronic charge of that
particle thus leading us to a possible resolution of whether or not Neutrinos do have a none-zero rest-mass.
Additionally, we demonstrate that these equations have the potency to explain naturally the observed lepton
generation phenomena.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[49] **viXra:0911.0050 [pdf]**
*replaced on 5 Jan 2010*

**Authors:** Steven Sesselmann

**Comments:** 12 pages.

A relativistic theory of cosmology proposing that the size of an observers Universe
depends on it's own rest mass, and that the observers total potential energy domain is
2mc^{2} , spanning the range from -mc^{2} to +mc^{2} . The space dimension of the observers
Universe is shown to be limited by the Schwarzschild Radius near the observers center of
gravity and by the observers Mass Horizon Radius (MHR) which is the maximum distance
from the origin, that an observer of mass m is able to interact.
By a leap of faith, this theory draws the conclusion that the size of the Universe is a mass
dependent variable. Calculations show that the current astronomical measurements of the
Universe, agrees closely with the MHR for a human weighing around 80 kg.
More importantly, the MHR gives us a mass to space ratio, which allows us to accurately
calculate the mass-energy of empty space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[48] **viXra:0911.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Wei Lu

**Comments:** 20 pages, to be published in Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras.

A model of Yang-Mills interactions and gravity in terms of the Clifford algebra
Cl_{0,6} is presented. The gravity and Yang-Mills actions are formulated as different order
terms in a generalized action. The feebleness of gravity as well as the smallness
of the cosmological constant and theta terms are discussed at the classical level. The
invariance groups, including the de Sitter and the Pati-Salam SU(4) subgroups, consist
of gauge transformations from either side of an algebraic spinor. Upon symmetry
breaking via the Higgs fields, the remaining symmetries are the Lorentz SO(1,3),
color SU(3), electromagnetic U(1)_{EM}, and an additional U(1). The first generation
leptons and quarks are identified with even and odd parts of spinor idempotent projections.
There are still several shortcomings with the current model. Further research
is needed to fully recover the standard model results.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[47] **viXra:0911.0048 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-13 18:00:44*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The primordial role of gravitation is to supply sufficient negative energy to balance the positive energy of the "Creation Event", so the Cosmos may be born from a condition of zero net energy. Matter and antimatter are also present in equal amounts, so the Universe is likewise born from a condition of zero net charge. All latter-day gravitational conservation roles are derived from and reflect gravity's primordial energy-conserving role.
Gravity has two primary conservation roles in today's universe: 1) entropy conservation (at all gravitational field strengths), and 2) symmetry conservation (at high gravitational field strengths). Entropy conservation is accomplished by the gravitational annihilation of space, exposing a metrically equivalent temporal residue. The annihilation of space converts the expansive spatial entropy drive of free energy (the intrinsic motion of light), to the expansive historical entropy drive of bound energy (the intrinsic motion of time). The implicit temporal drive of spatial expansion (recognized as the time component of "spacetime") is converted to, (and conserved as), the explicit temporal drive of history - via gravity. Symmetry conservation is accomplished by the gravitational conversion of bound to free energy (mass to light) in stars, and related astrophysical processes, and ultimately and completely, via Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes. Sunlight indicates the completion of a symmetry conservation cycle: light -> matter -> light, which begins with the conversion of light to matter (free to bound electromagnetic energy) during the "Big Bang", and ends with the gravitational conversion of bound to free energy in stars, black holes, and possibly, the "Big Crunch".

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[46] **viXra:0911.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 9 pages, This paper has also been published as a Google "Knol".

General Systems, as I use the term, denotes a repeating pattern of natural organization - a
fractal algorithm or ordering principle in the Cosmos. While not enforced with the same
stringency as a natural law (such as energy conservation), the pattern-forming impulse is
nevertheless all-pervasive in nature and seems to proceed from such fundamental principles as
resonance and the pathway of least energy or least resistance. It is just simpler, more efficient,
and takes less energy to create a universe using self-similar repeating patterns than following
any other plan. The "Tetrahedron Model" of cosmic order presents a General System based on a
4x3 universal fractal algorithm.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[45] **viXra:0911.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Richard Ruquist

**Comments:** 6 pages, Retired physicist, Grafton, Massachusetts, USA

Vafa's (11+1) F theory is extended by means of Bars' 2T holographic theory to yield a 14d
Multiverse theory that permeates the brane of a 12d Universe in which both the Universe and
the Multiverse have (3+1) spacetimes.
Given the 2d toroidal compactification of F theory, we conjecture that the Multiverse has a 4d
Cartesian compactification that is filled with 3D+T spacetime via the standard 6d elliptic
Calabi-Yau compactification, as in both M and F theory. The result is exemplified using supermassive
black hole cosmology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[44] **viXra:0911.0045 [pdf]**
*replaced on 17 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 18 pages, Published in Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation 13 (2008) 1397-1404.
Also published in "Hadron Models and New Energy Issues" InfoLearn Quest (2007), ISBN 978-1-59973-042-4.

Fractional dynamics is an attractive framework for understanding the complex phenomena that are likely to
emerge beyond the energy range of the Standard Model for particle physics (SM). using fractional
dynamics and complex-scalar field theory as a baseline, our work explores how physics on the high-energy
scale may help solve some of the open questions surrounding SM. Predictions are shown to be consistent
with experimental results.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[43] **viXra:0911.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid Reza Karimi

**Comments:** 23 pages.

In this paper we present a model in which the time and
length are considered quantized. We try to explain the internal
structure of the elementary particles in a new way. In this model a
super-dimension is defined to separate the beginning and the end of
each time and length quanta from another time and length quanta.
The beginning and the end of the dimension of the elementary
particles are located in this super-dimension. This model can describe
the basic concepts of inertial mass and internal energy of the
Elementary particles in a better way. By applying this model, some
basic calculations mentioned below, can be done in a new way:
1- The charge of elementary particles such as electrons and protons
can be calculated theoretically. This quantity has been measured
experimentally up to now.
2- By using the equation of the particle charge obtained in this model,
the energy of the different layers of atoms such as hydrogen and
helium is calculated. This approach is simpler than using Schrödinger
equation.
3- Calculation of maximum speed of particles such as electrons and
positrons in the accelerators is given.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[42] **viXra:0911.0043 [pdf]**
*replaced on 3 Feb 2009*

**Authors:** Giuliano Bettini

**Comments:** 19 pages

As I showed in my previous writings [16], a field similar to the gauge boson W
provides a helical motion that transforms a TEM in a TE (or TM) in a waveguide.
This helical motion in the Hestenes interpretation of electron is the zitterbewegung.
In [16] I just talk about electromagnetic fields, TEM and TE, TM.
I noticed that "a TEM is wrapped in a waveguide and becomes a TE or TM with
mass" and "the Higgs particle do not appear".
Similarities inevitable appear, already appeared in [15], all questionable, with
neutrinos and electrons / positrons.
However Hestenes in "Spacetime calculus", speaking of the helical motion ie
zitterbewegung makes more explicitly the hypothesis that, given the above
similarities, it seems interesting:
"This opens up possibilities for integrating the zitterbewegung idea with electroweak
theory. Evidently that would obviate the need for including Higgs bosons in the
theory, since the zitterbewegung provides an alternative mechanism to account for
the electron mass."
In face of a possible elimination of the Higgs particle from the electroweak theory it
appears useful to repeat my ideas in a popular way.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[41] **viXra:0911.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Philip Gibbs

**Comments:** 222 pages, e-book published by Weburbia Press 1998

How much can physics explain? "Event-Symmetric Space-Time" presents a startlingly integrated world
view from the forefront of physics. So often we read about the new quantum paradigm which has replaced
the old mechanistic philosophy of physics, but seldom do we find "what the paradigm is" spelt out so
succinctly. "The universe is made of stories, not of atoms." (Muriel Rukeyser) This is the
storyteller's point of view. Through a literal interpretation of those words we transcend causality
and determinism to see the quantum multiverse as a whole.
Throughout this book, the author returns to the principle of event symmetry - in particle physics,
in cosmology, in superstring theory, in epistemology. Coupled to the storyteller's paradigm this new
idea of philosophy and physics dares to free us from the constraints of our intuition, to reveal
natures truths. We are in the midst of a revolution in our understanding of physics and the universe.
This new interpretation of superstring theory is slowly helping to bring physicists' long search for
the holy grail of knowledge to fruition.
At the debut of the twentieth century Einstein revealed how the laws of nature are independent of any
co-ordinate system. According to general relativity, no matter how a reference frame of space-time is
turned, pulled and stretched, the laws of physics remain the same because gravity keeps track of the
changes. Einstein's only restriction was that he did not allow space-time to tear. You cannot cut out
two pieces of space-time and swap them over expecting the forces of nature to compensate, or can you?
Research attempting to form a theory of quantum gravity suggests that space-time can tear and reconnect
in ways which change its topology. This book suggests that Einstein's symmetry must be extended to allow
space-time to be atomised into space-time events which can be pulled apart and recombined in any
permutation. The unified forces of nature must permit this "event symmetry" just as gravity already
permits the more restricted co-ordinate transformations.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[40] **viXra:0911.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-23 22:24:02*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 17 Pages. revising abstract

The weak force is responsible for the creation of our matter-only universe during the "Big Bang", apparently via the asymmetric decay of electrically neutral leptoquark-antileptoquark particle pairs. The weak force is also responsible for the creation, transformation, and destruction of single elementary particles - particles that do not exist in matter-antimatter pairs (as seen in radioactivity, fission, single-particle decays and transformations). Single elementary particles created today must be interchangeable with those created during the "Big Bang" (or anywhere/when else) with respect to all conserved parameters - mass, spin, charge, etc. Creating absolutely (globally) invariant single elementary particles at any (local) time or place is the "global/local gauge symmetry" conservation challenge presented to and surmounted by the weak force, requiring (as a response) the elaborate mechanism of the massive Higgs boson and the Intermediate Vector Bosons (IVBs). The great mass of the IVBs recreates the original energy density of the electro-weak unified-force symmetric energy state in which the elementary particle classes (leptons and quarks) were first created, while the Higgs boson scales and selects the appropriate IVBs and unified-force symmetric energy state to deal with the conservation problem at hand (since there are several possibilities). It is the quantization of the Higgs boson and the IVB masses that ensures the invariance of the weak force transformation mechanism, and further to this point, the masses of these bosons are neither affected nor attenuated by the entropic march of our expanding spatio/temporal universe. The weak force charge is "identity" charge (AKA lepton "number" charge), and is carried implicitly by all massive leptons (including leptoquarks and their derivative baryons) and explicitly by neutrinos.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[39] **viXra:0911.0040 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-28 16:32:39*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 17 Pages. adding postscript

Following on from its primary role of providing negative energy during the "Big Bang", gravity plays two further major conservation roles in the evolving universe: 1) energy conservation (at all gravitational field strengths) for bound forms of energy, via the creation of time, history, and matter's temporal entropy drive; 2) symmetry conservation (at stellar and higher gravitational field strengths) via the conversion of bound to free energy (mass to light) in stars, supernovas, quasars, and related astrophysical processes, and ultimately and completely, via Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes. These secondary conservation roles, manifesting as the gravitational conversion of space to time and bound to free energy, are natural consequences of the mode of action of gravity's primary role, which is the creation of negative energy and entropy via the contraction, heating, and destruction of space (creating time), in contradistinction to the creation, expansion, and cooling of space by the positive energy and entropy of light.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[38] **viXra:0911.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Bodo Lampe

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Based on a possible solution to the tetron spin problem, a modification of the
standard Big Bang scenario is suggested, where the advent of a spacetime
manifold is connected to the appearance of tetronic bound states. The metric
tensor is constructed from tetron constituents and the reason for cosmic inflation
is elucidated. Furthermore, there are natural dark matter candidates
in the tetron model. The ratio of ordinary to dark matter in the universe is
calculated to be 1:5.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[37] **viXra:0911.0038 [pdf]**
*replaced on 17 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 15 Pages. This article has been submitted to the J. Phys. A : Math.

A Moyal deformation quantization approach to a spherical membrane
(moving in flat target backgrounds) in the light cone gauge is presented.
The physical picture behind this construction relies in viewing the two
spatial membrane coordinates σ_{1}, σ_{2} as the two phase space variables
q, p, and the temporal membrane coordinate τ as time. Solutions to
the Moyal-deformed equations of motion are explicitly constructed in
terms of elliptic functions. A knowledge of the Moyal-deformed light-cone
membrane's Hamiltonian density H(q, p, τ ) allows to construct a timedependent
Wigner function ρ(q, p, τ ) as solutions of the Moyal-Liouville
equation, and from which one can obtain the expectation values of the operator
< H > = Trace (ρH) that define the quantum average values of the
energy density configurations of the membrane at any instant of time. It
is shown how a time-dependent quartic oscillator with q^{4}, p^{4}, q^{2}p^{2} terms
plays a fundamental role in the quantum treatment of membranes and
displays an important p ↔ q duality symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[36] **viXra:0911.0037 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-07 17:27:17*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Because the papers themselves can be difficult for the uninitiated, in spite of my efforts to make them simple and clear, I have written a series of introductory papers designed as a guide to assist the interested reader in working through them. I will try to bring out the main points of the paper, its relation to the remaining body of work, and perhaps make a few comments on its history and structure. There is almost no mathematics in these papers; for the most part, the papers deal only with conservation principles, although of course I make reference to the mathematical theories which provide the formal basis for the conceptual synthesis of this work (Noether's theorem, Einstein's "Interval" and energy relations, the 1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics, etc.).

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[35] **viXra:0911.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Madonna-Megara Holloway

**Comments:** 15 pages, This paper is being published by the American Institue of Physics in the conference
proceedings for Space, Propulsion & Energy Sciences International Forum, February 23-26, 2010, at
John Hopkins University.

This paper is an abstract of a greater volume of work more than 30 years in formation. It is a thought
experiment. In order to present certain concepts, statements are made without supporting scientific
observations which would require a substantial manuscript to present. This paper defines a new fabric
for space and hypothesizes that matter is formed from this fabric through the agency of Black Holes.
Dark sound is theorized. As a consequence of this hypothesis a new model for the origin of the universe
is given including new definitions for Black Holes, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy. Neutral electricity,
cosmic planes and sub planes are defined. New processes for the coalescing of atoms, the rotation of
planets and the observed phenomena of Cosmic Fire are given. Gravity is defined as the result of
magnetism and chemical bonds between structures.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:0911.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 14 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 3 pages, This paper has also been published as a Google "Knol".

Fractal or General Systems models have been extended into the area of human life span development,
by myself, deliberately, and earlier by my father, and others, following their own agendas (not
intentional GS models). A short discussion with both models is presented below.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[33] **viXra:0911.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Por Kujonai

**Comments:** 82 pages, In Spanish

A continuación, pretendo relacionar varios conceptos como modulo, opuestos (o signos),
aritmética, el cuarto nivel de hypernumeros de Musean, politopos, especialmente el
triangulo, matrices y determinantes, complejos, raices, ..., ya que de esta sopa de
conceptos nace mi trabajo, aunque a un nivel mas profundo nace por darle un sentido
matemático simple al concepto de opuesto, especialmente a una aritmética de 3 signos, y
lo demás fue saliendo a medida de que avanzaba en esto, mientras iba adquiriendo
sentido y fuerza.

**Category:** Algebra

[32] **viXra:0911.0033 [pdf]**
*replaced on 25 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 6 pages.

"Noether's Theorem" states that in a multicomponent field such as the electromagnetic field (or
the metric field of spacetime), symmetries are associated with conservation laws. In matter,
light's (broken) symmetries are conserved by charge and spin; in spacetime, light's symmetries
are protected by inertial forces, and conserved (when broken) by gravitational forces. All forms
of energy originate as light; matter carries charges which are the symmetry/entropy debts of the
light which created it (both concepts are required to fully integrate gravity - which has a double
conservation role - with the other forces). Charges produce forces which act to return the
material system to its original symmetric state, repaying matter's symmetry/entropy debts.
Repayment is exampled by any spontaneous interaction producing net free energy, including:
chemical reactions and matter-antimatter annihilation reactions; radioactivity, particle and
proton decay; the nucleosynthetic pathway of stars, and Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black
holes. Identifying the broken symmetries of light associated with each of the 4 charges and
forces of physics is the first step toward a conceptual unification. The charges of matter are the
symmetry debts of light.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[31] **viXra:0911.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-07 15:01:09*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 16 Pages. additional "General Systems"connections are noticed

The notion of the neutrino as an explicit or "bare" form of weak force "identity" charge is presented. Some connections to "General Systems" ideas regarding cosmic organization are also suggested.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[30] **viXra:0911.0031 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-28 18:46:02*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 4 Pages. paper has been split into two parts, both revised

The inertial resistance to acceleration, a measure of a particle's mass, is attributed not to the "ether drag" of the Higgs boson, but to the resistance by the spacetime metric to the metric-warping intrusion forced upon it by the gravitational field of the accelerated particle. The gravitational field of a particle, whether composite or elementary, is an exact measure of its rest mass (Gm).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[29] **viXra:0911.0030 [pdf]**
*replaced on 21 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 14 pages, 1 figure. Published: Research in Astron. Astrophys. 2010 Vol. 10 No. 11, pp.1137-1150

A massive star is defined to be one with mass greater than ~ 8-10M_{☉}. Central
to the on-going debate on how these objects [massive stars] come into being is the socalled
Radiation Problem. For nearly forty years, it has been argued that the radiation field
emanating from massive stars is high enough to cause a global reversal of direct radial
in-fall of material onto the nascent star. We argue that only in the case of a non-spinning
isolated star does the gravitational field of the nascent star overcome the radiation field. An
isolated non-spinning star is a non-spinning star without any circumstellar material around
it, and the gravitational field beyond its surface is described exactly by Newton's inverse
square law. The supposed fact that massive stars have a gravitational field that is much
stronger than their radiation field is drawn from the analysis of an isolated massive star. In
this case the gravitational field is much stronger than the radiation field. This conclusion
has been erroneously extended to the case of massive stars enshrouded in gas & dust. We
find that, for the case of a non-spinning gravitating body where we take into consideration
the circumstellar material, that at ~ 8 - 10M_{☉}, the radiation field will not reverse the
radial in-fall of matter, but rather a stalemate between the radiation and gravitational field
will be achieved, i.e. in-fall is halted but not reversed. This picture is very different from
the common picture that is projected and accepted in the popular literature that at ~
8-10M_{☉}, all the circumstellar material, from the surface of the star right up to the edge
of the molecular core, is expected to be swept away by the radiation field. We argue that
massive stars should be able to start their normal stellar processes if the molecular core
from which they form has some rotation, because a rotating core exhibits an Azimuthally
Symmetric Gravitational Field which causes there to be an accretion disk and along this
disk. The radiation field cannot be much stronger than the gravitational field, hence this
equatorial accretion disk becomes the channel via which the nascent massive star accretes
all of its material.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[28] **viXra:0911.0029 [pdf]**
*replaced on 1 Apr 2010*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 4 pages, Published in Prespacetime Journal March 2010 Vol.1 Issue 2 Page 190-192

Giovanni Amelino-Camelia (2002) has proposed a theory whose hope (should
it be confirmed by experiments) is to supersede Einstein's 1905 Special Theory of
Relativity (STR). This theory is known as the Doubly Special Relativity (DSR)
and it proposes a new observer-independent scale-length. At this scale, it is agreed
that a particle that has reached this scale-length, has entered the Quantum Gravity
regime. According to the STR, observers will - in principle; not agree on whether
or not a particle has reached this length hence they will not agree as to when does
a particle enter the Quantum Gravity regime. This presents the STR with a "paradox".
Amongst others, the DSR is fashioned to solve this "puzzle/paradox". We
argue/show here, that the STR already implies such a scale-length - it is the complete
embodiment of the STR, thus we are left to excogitate; "Is the Doubly Special
Relativity theory necessary?".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:0911.0028 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2011-12-30 19:10:22*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The creation of matter during the "Big Bang" is apparently due to the asymmetric decay of electrically neutral leptoquarks and antileptoquarks, in which the antileptoquarks decay at a slightly faster rate than the leptoquarks. The leptoquarks in these decays (which are electrically neutral due to the fractionally charged quarks) are also colorless (in the limit of "asymptotic freedom"), due to the great compressive force exerted by the "X" IVB. A leptoquark antineutrino is produced in this decay, balancing the baryon "number" charge of the eventual proton. This neutrino is a "dark matter" candidate. The interaction is the initiating example of a general class of reactions between symmetric primary energy fields and asymmetric secondary or "alternative" information fields or charge carriers.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[26] **viXra:0911.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 14 May 2010*

**Authors:** Noel Eberz

**Comments:** 8 pages

While the assertions here are very different, they only add equivalent but
generalizing views on time, energy, mass & space, with a minimal set of operational
parameters. Foremost, justifying time as only Now and a 'dependant' variable of the Space
fabric and its contained Substance can yield a concise view of how the immediate universe
works. This includes defining all Mass as the confinement of energy and Energy, a
ubiquitous particle, always in motion with self-induced refractive optics behavior and
enhanced by decoding some relevance in the partial charge of Quarks.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:0911.0026 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-18 10:17:49*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 4 Pages. adding French translation link

Two giants of British science, Newton and Darwin, developed theories of negentropic force in physics and biology. The two scientists are adjacently interred in Westminster Abby, and their theories of gravity and evolution likewise share common ground and a fractal resonance with DNA. Because DNA/RNA is both a replicating molecule and part of the universal 4x3 fractal pattern, the implications for the abundance of life in the Cosmos are enormous.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[24] **viXra:0911.0025 [pdf]**
*replaced on 21 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 26 pages, 2 Figures, Published in Research in Astron. Astrophys. 2010 Vol. 10 No. 11, 1151-1176

Abstract This reading is part in a series on the Azimuthally Symmetric Theory of
Gravitation (ASTG) set-out in Nyambuya (2010a). This theory is built on
Laplace-Poisson's well known equation and it has been shown therein (Nyambuya 2010a) that the
ASTG is capable of explaining - from a purely classical physics standpoint; the precession
of the perihelion of solar planets as being a consequence of the azimuthal symmetry
emerging from the spin of the Sun. This symmetry has and must have an influence on the
emergent gravitational field. We show herein that the emergent equations from the ASTG
- under some critical conditions determined by the spin - do possess repulsive gravitational
fields in the polar regions of the gravitating body in question. This places the ASTG
on an interesting pedal to infer the origins of outflows as a repulsive gravitational phenomena.
Outflows are an ubiquitous phenomena found in star forming systems and their true
origins is a question yet to be settled. Given the current thinking on their origins, the
direction that the present reading takes is nothing short of an asymptotic break from conventional
wisdom; at the very least, it is a complete paradigm shift as gravitation is not at
all associated; let alone considered to have anything to do with the out-pour of matter but
is thought to be an all-attractive force that tries only to squash matter together into a single
point. Additionally, we show that the emergent Azimuthally Symmetric Gravitational
Field from the ASTG strongly suggests a solution to the supposed Radiation Problem
that is thought to be faced by massive stars in their process of formation. That is, at
~ 8 - 10M_{☉}, radiation from the nascent star is expected to halt the accretion of matter
onto the nascent star. We show that in-falling material will fall onto the equatorial disk
and from there, this material will be channelled onto the forming star via the equatorial
plane thus accretion of mass continues well past the curtain value of ~ 8-10M_{☉} albeit
via the disk. Along the equatorial plane, the net force (with the radiation force included)
on any material there-on right up-till the surface of the star, is directed toward the forming
star, hence accretion of mass by the nascent star is un-hampered.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[23] **viXra:0911.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 27 pages, first published in the October 2007 Issue of the Aperion Journal. Further work on these ideas is underway.

The Gravitational, Electromagnetic, Weak & the Strong force are here
brought together under a single roof via an extension of Reimann geometry to a new
geometry (coined Reimann-Hilbert Space); that unlike Reimann geometry, preserves both
the length and the angle of a vector under parallel transport. The affine connection of this
new geometry - the Reimann-Hilbert Space, is a tensor and this leads us to a geodesic
law that truly upholds the Principle of Relativity. The geodesic law emerging from the
General Theory of Relativity (GTR) is well known to be in contempt of the Principle of
Relativity which is a principle upon which the GTR is founded. The geodesic law for
particles in the GTR must be formulated in special (or privileged) coordinate systems i.e.
gaussian coordinate systems whereas the Principle of Relativity clearly forbids the existence
of special (or privileged) coordinate systems in manner redolent of the way the Special
Theory of Relativity forbids the existence of an absolute (or privileged) frame of reference.
In the low energy regime and low spacetime curvature the unified field equations derived
herein are seen to reduce to the well known Maxwell-Procca equation, the none-abelian
nuclear force field equations, the Lorentz equation of motion for charged particles and the
Dirac Equation. Further, to the already existing four known forces, the theory predicts the
existence of yet another force. We have coined this the super-force and this force obeys
SU(4, 4) gauge invariance. Furthermore, unlike in the GTR, gravitation is here represented
by a single scaler potential, and electromagnetic field and the nuclear forces are described
by the electromagnetic vector potential (A_{μ}) which describes the metric tensor i.e. g_{μν} = A_{μ}A_{ν}.
From this (g_{μν} = A_{μ}A_{ν}), it is seen that gravity waves may not exist in the sense envisaged by
the GTR.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[22] **viXra:0911.0023 [pdf]**
*replaced on 17 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Bruce Rout

**Comments:** 11 pages

To date, methods of direct measurement of the distance to galaxies
have been limited in their range[1]. This paper makes direct
measurements of distant galaxies by comparing spiral arm structures to the
expected locus of gravitational influence along the geodesic in a
centripetally accelerating reference frame. Such measurements provide a
method of independent validation of the extragalactic distance ladder
without presupposition of the uniformly expanding universe theory. The
methodology of this paper avoids the use of Hubble's constant in the
measurement of the distance to galaxies beyond the range of
contemporary direct measurement methods. The measurements are validated by
meaningful trends between distance and other variables such as mass,
rotational velocity, size and angular momentum to validate the
measurements made. A Hubble diagram calculated using this method is
presented from data obtained from 111 spiral galaxies in the
southern hemisphere to about 200 MPc distance. The galactic red shift from
these galaxies appears independent to distance. Galactic structure, size,
masses and angular momentum are seen to have a distinct relationship
to the spin velocity, or tangential velocity, associated with each galaxy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:0911.0022 [pdf]**
*replaced on 28 Sep 2010*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 6 pages, This paper has also been published as a Google "Knol".

In 1997 the Argentinean physicist Juan Maldacena produced a mathematically rigorous
model of a hypothetical 5-dimensional Universe which conforms to certain principles of
the holographic metaphor. In Maldacena's model a 4-D Universe (3 space, 1 time) is the
boundary membrane of the 5-D "bulk" Universe (4 space, 1 time). The physics in the two
Universes are virtually indistinguishable, except that the 4-D Universe lacks gravity while
the 5-D Universe is gravitational. Maldacena's model seems to fit my own "Spacetime
Map of the Universe", which I have consequently come to interpret as a map of a 5-dimensional
Cosmos, incorporating 4 large spatial dimensions and 1 time dimension.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:0911.0021 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-08-14 17:52:06*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Moving clocks measure spacetime, not just "pure" time. Insofar as the intrinsic motion of light and the intrinsic motion of time are the entropy drives of free and bound energy, clocks also measure the march of temporal entropy. A moving clock incorporates space into its time measurements, thus "spacing out" its ticks or temporal intervals in relativistic proportion to its velocity, hence "running slow" (and hence measuring spacetime, not just time). The stationary clock of course does not incorporate any space into its temporal measurement, and so records "pure" time. A clock's running rate can be changed by mechanical accelerations/decelerations or a gravitational field. This was Einstein's great discovery regarding the relative or local nature of time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:0911.0020 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-28 12:24:05*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Abstract: Currents of Magnetism and Gravity
As magnetism is the invisible, projective, electrically active ("electro-motive") force of the loadstone, so gravity is the invisible, projective, dimensionally active ("inertio-motive") force of the ordinary rock. In the case of magnetism, we trace the force back to the moving (and aligned) electrical charges of electrons in the loadstone; in the case of gravity, we trace the force back to the moving (and one-way) temporal charges of matter in the rock. A moving electric charge creates a magnetic field; a moving temporal charge creates a gravitational field. In both cases the field is produced at right angles to the current. Both relations are reciprocal: moving magnetic and spatial (gravitational) fields create electric and temporal currents. Magnetism and time are both "local gauge symmetry currents", the variable magnetic current protecting the invariance of electric charge in relative motion, the variable temporal current protecting the invariance of causality and velocity c ("Lorentz Invariance"). Finally, time and gravity induce each other endlessly, as do the electric and magnetic components of an electromagnetic field. This is the analogy between electromagnetism and gravitation which so intrigued Einstein. (See: "The Conversion of Space to Time".)

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18] **viXra:0911.0019 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-08-15 21:59:50*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Whereas massless forms of energy (such as light) have intrinsic motion within their entropic conservation domain (space), massive forms of energy (such as ourselves) have no intrinsic motion within our entropic conservation domain (history). Rather, we experience an eternal "now", which is only tangentially connected to history. In our case, it is the time dimension itself which moves, carrying us with it, like passengers on a train. This arrangement allows the "passengers" to achieve an intrinsic motion in history which is the metric equivalent of light's intrinsic motion in space, a velocity which would otherwise be impossible for them (excepting only in the black hole, where a moving spatial dimension carries massive objects at "velocity c").

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:0911.0018 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-10-04 15:07:12*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Entropy (the second law of thermodynamics) is a corollary of energy conservation (the first law of thermodynamics). Entropy exists to ensure energy conservation and prevent the abuse and misuse of energy. Because of entropy, we are allowed to use and transform energy. Without entropy, transformations of energy would not be allowed by energy conservation. The function of entropy is so fundamental to energy conservation that it is built into the basic structure of energy itself. In free electromagnetic energy, this embedded, primordial entropy "drive" is expressed as the intrinsic motion of light: creating, expanding, and cooling space, the conservation domain of light. In bound electromagnetic energy (atomic matter), the embedded entropy drive is the intrinsic motion of matter's time dimension - causing the decay of matter (as in a radioactive "half-life"), and the expansion, dilution, and aging of history. Historic spacetime is the (necessary) conservation domain of matter's causal information "matrix". Time is the product of the gravitational field of mass/matter: gravity annihilates space, revealing a (metrically equivalent) explicit temporal residue, which formerly had served as the implicit drive of light's intrinsic motion. (See: " The Conversion of Space to Time".) Gravity is the conservation force which converts the spatial entropy drive of free electromagnetic energy (light's intrinsic motion), to the historical entropy drive of bound electromagnetic energy (time's intrinsic motion), and vice versa (as in the stars). (See: "The Double Conservation Role of Gravitation".)

**Category:** Classical Physics

[16] **viXra:0911.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** V.A.Induchoodan Menon

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The author extends his approach which treats the elementary
particle as a standing luminal half wave to the 3-dimensional situation
incorporating spin. It is shown that the function representing the
circularly polarized standing electromagnetic half wave is a solution
to the Dirac equation and the two positive energy solutions turn out to
be formed by the forward and the reverse luminal half waves
belonging to two different spin states of the standing wave. In the
process, the author presents the physical picture behind the spinor
representation of the particle. The standing wave structure formed by
the circularly polarized luminal wave offers a simple explanation for
the "zitterbewegung" undergone by the electron. Besides, this
structure of the half spin particle offers a simple but elegant
explanation for the Pauli's exclusion principle.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[15] **viXra:0911.0016 [pdf]**
*replaced on 18 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Bruce Rout

**Comments:** 4 pages

The accurate measurement of extragalactic distances is a central
challenge of modern astronomy, being required for any realistic
description of the age, geometry and fate of the Universe. The measurement
of relative extragalactic distances has become fairly routine, but
estimates of absolute distances are rare.[1] In the vicinity of the Sun, direct
geometric techniques for obtaining absolute distances, such as orbital
parallax, are feasible, but heretofore such techniques have been difficult
to apply to other galaxies. As a result, uncertainties in the expansion
rate and age of the Universe are dominated by uncertainties in the
absolute calibration of the extragalactic distance ladder[2]. Here we compare
previous distance measurements to the galaxy NGC 4258 from both an
estimate of Hubble's constant and a direct measurement of orbital
motions in a disk of gas surrounding the nucleus of this galaxy to a direct
measurement using a model of constant rotational velocity and galactic
spiral morphology. The results of the comparison help validate methods
of direct measurement of spiral galaxies to much greater distances.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:0911.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 10 pages, This paper is a sequel to "Non-unitary evolution in particle physics – a brief overview",
Hadronics Mechanics Journal, 31(3), (2008), 571.

Unitarity and locality are fundamental postulates of Quantum Field Theory
(QFT). By construction, QFT is a replica of equilibrium thermodynamics,
where evolution settles down to a steady state after all transients have
vanished. Events unfolding in the TeV sector of particle physics are prone to
slide outside equilibrium under the combined action of new fields and unsuppressed
quantum corrections. In this region, the likely occurrence of critical
behavior and the approach to scale invariance blur the distinction between
"locality" and "non-locality". We argue that a correct description of this far from
equilibrium setting cannot be done outside nonlinear dynamics and
complexity theory.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[13] **viXra:0911.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 8 pages, Published in Foundation of Physics, Vol. 38, pp.665-667, July 2008 Issue, pp. 665-677;
Also archived at http://arxiv.org/abs/0709.0936

I propose three new curved spacetime versions of the Dirac Equation. These
equations have been developed mainly to try and account in a natural way for the observed
anomalous gyromagnetic ratio of Fermions. The derived equations suggest that particles
including the Electron which is thought to be a point particle do have a finite spatial size
which is the reason for the observed anomalous gyromagnetic ratio. A serendipitous result
of the theory, is that, to of the equation exhibits an asymmetry in their positive and negative
energy solutions the first suggestion of which is clear that a solution to the problem as to
why the Electron and Moun - despite their acute similarities - exhibit an asymmetry in
their mass is possible. The Moun is often thought as an Electron in a higher energy state.
Another of the consequences of three equations emanating from the asymmetric serendipity
of the energy solutions of two of these equations, is that, an explanation as to why Leptons
exhibit a three stage mass hierarchy is possible.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[12] **viXra:0911.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 12 pages, 2 figures, 3 tables, Published: MNRAS, Vol. 403, Issue 3, pp.1381-1392 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.16196.x

From a purely none-general relativistic standpoint, we solve the empty space Poisson equation,
i.e. ∇^{2}Φ = 0, for an azimuthally symmetric setting, i.e., for a spinning gravitational system like
the Sun. We seek the general solution of the form Φ = Φ(r, θ). This general solution is constrained
such that in the zeroth order approximation it reduces to Newton's well known inverse
square law of gravitation. For this general solution, it is seen that it has implications on the orbits
of test bodies in the gravitational field of this spinning body.We show that to second order
approximation, this azimuthally symmetric gravitational field is capable of explaining at least
two things (1) the observed perihelion shift of solar planets (2) that the Astronomical Unit must
be increasing - this resonates with the observations of two independent groups of astronomers
(Krasinsky & Brumberg 2004; Standish 2005) who have measured that the Astronomical Unit
must be increasing at a rate of about 7.0±0.2m/cy (Standish 2005) to 15.0±0.3m/cy (Krasinsky
& Brumberg 2004). In-principle, we are able to explain this result as a consequence of loss
of orbital angular momentum - this loss of orbital angular momentum is a direct prediction of
the theory. Further, we show that the theory is able to explain at a satisfactory level the observed
secular increase Earth Year (1.70±0.05ms/yr;Miura et al. 2009). Furthermore, we show that
the theory makes a significant and testable prediction to the effect that the period of the solar
spin must be decreasing at a rate of at least 8.00 ± 2.00 s/cy.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[11] **viXra:0911.0012 [pdf]**
*replaced on 6 Apr 2010*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The loss of energy of the photon with the time by emission of heat to the intergalactic
space might explain the cosmological redshift.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[10] **viXra:0911.0011 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-31 15:45:55*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 17 Pages. weak force IVBs compared to "wormholes" to early cosmos

Elementary particles created today must be the same in every respect as those created eons ago during the "Big Bang". The conservation requirement of elementary particle invariance constrains the mechanism of weak force particle creation and transformation. Weak force transformations recreate primordial symmetric energy states of the "Big Bang" force-unification eras (in the case of the "W", the electroweak force unification era) to accomplish the invariant creation and transformation of single elementary particles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[9] **viXra:0911.0010 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-19 17:24:58*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 13 Pages. revising abstract

Abstract
The intrinsic motions of light, time, and gravity are primordial forms ("drives") of entropy, causing: 1) the creation, expansion, and cooling of space; 2) the creation, expansion, and aging of history; 3) the conversion of either entropic domain into the other - space to time or the reverse (and both occur in our Sun). The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light (Noether's Theorem), including the conserved "location" charge of gravity, which encodes (in negentropic terms) the lost positive/spatial entropy drive of the free energy (light) which was converted into the bound energy of matter. Alternatively stated: the gravitational "location" charge (Gm) of bound energy is a symmetry debt recording the lost distributional symmetry of the free energy (light) which created the matter, including spacetime location and total amount. Gravity is matter's memory it once was light.
Gravity pays the entropy-"interest" on matter's symmetry debt by creating time from space - giving charge conservation an extended, causal significance in the historic dimension. Light's spatial entropy drive and expansion funds matter's historical entropy drive and expansion, via the gravitational conversion of space to time: cosmic spatial expansion decelerates in consequence. Gravity pays the energy-"principal" of matter's symmetry debt by the conversion of bound to free energy - via the nucleosynthetic pathway in stars and supernovas, via the conversion of gravitational potential energy to radiation in quasars, and via Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes. The cosmic gravitational energy field is reduced as mass is converted to light; cosmic spatial expansion accelerates in consequence."Dark Energy" is therefore simply the ongoing reduction of the cosmic gravitational field as matter reverts to the light which created it.
In the mathematical terms of Evariste Galois' "Group Theory", the "Tetrahedron Model" is a description of the symmetry group of light, including its destruction by asymmetric weak force decays (producing our matter-only Cosmos), and its on-going restoration in obedience to Noether's Theorem of symmetry conservation (as in the conversion of bound to free energy in stars and other astrophysical processes).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:0911.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-25 13:43:45*

**Authors:** John A Gowan

**Comments:** 27 Pages. paper is in 3 parts due to length

"Noether's Theorem" states that in a multicomponent field such as the electromagnetic field (or the metric field of spacetime), symmetries are associated with conservation laws and vice versa. In matter, light's (broken) symmetries are conserved by charge and spin; in spacetime, light's symmetries are protected by inertial/entropic forces, and conserved (when broken) by gravitational forces. All forms of energy originate as light; matter carries charges which are the symmetry/entropy debts of the light which created it (both concepts are required to fully integrate gravity - which has a double conservation role - with the other forces). Charges produce forces which act to return the material system to its original symmetric state (light), repaying matter's symmetry/entropy debts. Repayment is exampled by any spontaneous interaction producing net free energy, including: chemical reactions and matter-antimatter annihilation reactions; radioactivity, particle and proton decay; the nucleosynthetic pathway of stars, the gravitational conversion of bound to free energy (as in supernovas and quasars), and Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes. Identifying the broken symmetries of light associated with each of the 4 charges and forces of physics is the first step toward a conceptual unification.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:0911.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-25 23:11:21*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 28 Pages. Revision of abstract

The "Big Bang" origin of the cosmos is the conversion of pure, symmetric electromagnetic energy (light) into asymmetric "information" (our "matter only" universe). "Noether's Theorem" states that in a multicomponent field such as the electromagnetic field (or the metric field of spacetime), symmetries are associated with conservation laws and vice-versa. Hence the symmetry of light (and spacetime) must be conserved. Noether's Theorem provides the key to Einstein's dream of a "Unified Field Theory" through the seminal concept that the symmetry of light, no less than its energy, must be conserved.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:0911.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 18 pages, This paper has also been published as a Google "Knol".

The hadrons of the SU(3) J^{P}= 0^{-}, ½^{+} and 1^{-} multiplets are shown to have partners of
the same spin or of spin difference ½. Partnerships occur between hadrons with some
quark content in common, there being no distinction between quarks and antiquarks.
The partnerships are centred upon particle mass levels that descend in geometric
progression from the Planck Mass. The mass differences characterising partnerships
are equal to the masses of levels. Isospin doublets behave as single particles,
represented by the geometric mean of the hadron masses. The K-meson isospin
doublets and the electron are arranged as partnerships, as are the π^{+} and π^{-} isospin
triplet states and the muon.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[5] **viXra:0911.0006 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-02 22:40:50*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 25 Pages. new abstract; update Hubble constant value

I present a 4-dimensional spacetime map of the cosmos showing the position from which we view the universe. We exist on the spacetime edge of the cosmos looking (in every direction) backward in time toward its beginning and "center" (the "Big Bang"). As we look deeper into spacetime we see successively smaller and younger historical eras of our universe, all of which nevertheless surround us completely. Implications for cosmology (including the theory of "inflation", the "horizon problem", and the "flatness problem") resulting from this (generally unappreciated) perspective are discussed. The map predicts a "Hubble constant" (expansion rate) in excellent agreement with the currently accepted value.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:0911.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-08 20:30:39*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Generally speaking, the "Tetrahedron Model" addresses symmetry-breaking and symmetry conservation in the macro-physical "rebound" phase of cosmic evolution (the current era of symmetry restoration, in which we live), while the "establishment's" "Standard Model" addresses symmetry-breaking and symmetry conservation in the microphysical "cascade" phase of cosmic devolution, the period of the "Big Bang" which brings the material Cosmos into being. Noether's Theorem of symmetry conservation provides the theoretical basis for unifying the "Standard Model" and the "Tetrahedron Model", indicating a broad pathway of conservation law leading toward Einstein's dream: the Unified Field Theory of physics. (See: "Table of the Higgs Cascade".)
The Charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light (Noether's Theorem). All forces spontaneously work together to return the asymmetric material system of bound electromagnetic energy to its original state, free electromagnetic energy, or perfectly symmetric light.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:0911.0004 [pdf]**
*replaced on 12 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 28 pages, This paper has also been published as a Google "Knol".

A General Systems model of the Universe is presented, based on a fractal paradigm. A 4x3
"metric" or fractal algorithm is proposed as the organizing principle of the Microphysical,
Biophysical, Astrophysical, and Metaphysical realms. The algorithm is expressed through the
conservation laws and forces of physics, symmetry-breaking and the creation of matter during
the "Big Bang", the dimensions of spacetime, the quantum rules of atomic order, the families of
elementary particles, the structure of baryons, alpha particles, carbon atoms, carbon's molecular
and crystal bonds, DNA, the genetic code, the nucleosynthetic pathway of stars, gravitation, etc.
The human mind has discovered this order both intuitively and rationally, where it finds
expression in the 4x3 (and 4x4) patterns of mythological, occult, religious, philosophical, and
scientific "world systems" and cosmologies.
A model of the unified field theory is presented as an example of how the fractal algorithm may
be used in system modeling. In its most general form, the 4-part algorithm consists of an input
of energy, followed by two complementary conservation modes, concluding with a restorative
force which either returns the system to its actual original state, or elevates it to a "harmonic
complexion" or resonant analog of the original state.
Introduction

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:0911.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 22 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Kazuya Kawai

**Comments:** 2 pages

The mersenne prime number exists in infinity.

**Category:** Number Theory

[1] **viXra:0911.0001 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-27 17:30:50*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 6 Pages. new abstract, delete "introduction" section, other changes

Abstract
Time and gravity induce each other in an endless entropic cycle. The gravitational collapse of space produces a metrically equivalent temporal residue; the entropic march of this time residue into history (at right angles to all three spatial dimensions) pulls space along with it. But space cannot travel down the one-way and one-dimensional time line, self-annihilating at the point-like entrance to history, leaving behind a metrically equivalent temporal residue - which continues the endless entropic cycle. Gravity vanishes only when its associated mass vanishes, as in particle decays, matter-antimatter annihilations, or the conversion of bound to free energy in stars and other astrophysical processes. A gravitational field is the spatial consequence of the intrinsic motion of time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory