[66] **viXra:0910.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 31 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Vladimir I. Smirnov

**Comments:** 34 pages, Russian and English versions included

It is identified the new class of invariants which values are constant at change of value of an inde-pendent variable.
Their properties and a deriving method are shown on already known and still un-known instances, concerning to various
areas of physics. In particular, new invariants (50), (55) and (57) for the straight lines intersected in one point on
a plane have been discovered. Besides, the re-quest for detection of the third (not dependent on two already known) an
invariant (31) electromag-netic fields for a special case of the special theory of relativity is made.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[65] **viXra:0910.0068 [pdf]**
*replaced on 1 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 16 pages, This paper has also been published as a Google "Knol".

The "Tetrahedron Model" is a model of the devolution (asymmetric transformation) of light (free
electromagnetic energy) into matter (bound electromagnetic energy), that is, of the relationship between the
two forms of electromagnetic energy which constitute our Universe. The "Tetrahedron Model" revolves
around the conversion of light into matter and vice versa, as regulated by four conservation laws: the
Conservation of Energy, Entropy, Symmetry, and Causality. These four conservation laws underlie the
formulation of any Unified Field Theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[64] **viXra:0910.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-08-27 08:41:59*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 18 Pages. adding discussion of black holes

The subject of entropy can be dauntingly technical in its full thermodynamic formality. However, we are primarily interested in three simple, fundamental, and typically overlooked examples of entropy in its most common, primordial, and significant form: 1) the dimensional spatial expression of entropy as observed in the cosmological expansion and cooling of space; 2) the dimensional temporal expression of entropy as observed in the cosmological expansion, decay, and causal dilution of history; 3) the continuous formation of spacetime by the negentropic action of gravitation. These dimensional or entropic conservation domains are created by the primordial entropy drives of free electromagnetic energy (light's intrinsic motion), and bound electromagnetic energy (mass/matter - the historical entropy drive of time's intrinsic motion).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[63] **viXra:0910.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 1 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** M. R. Carvajal

**Comments:** 4 pages,

We point to a problem with the current generally accepted idea that work W = ∫ F⋅dx transfers kinetic
energy KE = (1/2)mv^{2}, showing that with exactly the same amount of work, done through a pulley or a
lever, different amounts of kinetic energy can be imparted to objects of different masses. We do this
without violating the laws of classical mechanics, or the work-kinetic energy theorem W = ΔKE.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[62] **viXra:0910.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 30 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 11 pages. Expected delivery time 2 hours , 30 minutes for the five referenced topics.

We present a lay out of five different, inter related themes encapsulated in
five articles which will be presented at Chongquing University, PRC, by Dr. Andrew
Beckwith as a guest of Prof Fangyu Li, of the Chongquing University Gravitational
physics group

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[61] **viXra:0910.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 30 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 7 pages, Published in the Apeiron Journal, 2009, Vol. 4, pp.516-531:
http://redshift.vif.com/JournalFiles/V16NO4PDF/V16N4NYA.pdf

In its bare and natural form, the Dirac Equation describes only spin-1/2
particles. The main purpose of this reading is to make a valid and justified mathematical
modification to the Dirac Equation so that it describes any spin particle. We show that
this mathematical modification is consistent with the Special Theory of Relativity (STR).
We believe that the fact that this modification is consistent with the STR gives the present
effort some physical justification that warrants further investigations. From the vantage
point of unity, simplicity and beauty, it is natural to wonder why should there exist
different equations to describe particles of different spins? For example, the Klein-Gordon
equation describes spin-0 particles, while the Dirac Equation describes spin-1/2, and the
Rarita-Schwinger Equation describes spin-3/2. Does it mean we have to look for another
equation to describe spin-2 particles, and then spin-5/2 particles etc? This does not look
beautiful, simple, or at the very least suggest a Unification of the Natural Laws. Beauty
of a theory is not a physical principle but, one thing is clear to the searching mind - i.e.,
a theory that possesses beauty, appeals to the mind, and is (posteriori) bound to have
something to do with physical reality if it naturally submits itself to the test of experience.
The effort of the present reading is to make the attempt to find this equation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[60] **viXra:0910.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-26 15:05:06*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 15 Pages. adding new section

As Carl Sagan famously said, we are "star stuff" exploring the stars. Life is the information pathway by which the universe achieves consciousness and self-awareness, and begins to explore itself, including evolving new modes of experience, creativity, and beauty. In terms of creativity, humans represent a fractal iteration of the creative energy of the Cosmos, as well as of its evolutionary powers. Because the entire material universe devolves from light, matter and life are a conserved form of the information content latent in the energy of light, expressed primordially through the broken symmetry of light leading to atomic matter and charge conservation. The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light (Noether's Theorem), and through these charges the energy of light is transformed into the information content of the world. Hence it is ultimately through the connection between atoms and light, charge conservation and symmetry conservation, that humans retain their connection to the primordial creative energies and latent information content of the universe (and the multiverse). "We come trailing clouds of glory..."

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[59] **viXra:0910.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 2 pages

In the article is professed superstrong anthropic principle.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[58] **viXra:0910.0061 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-17 17:11:27*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 6 Pages. adding section on "Time"

Light traveling freely in space does not produce a gravitational field - contrary to most "establishment" thinking. Because the "Interval" of light = zero, light has no specific location in spacetime (light is "non-local"), and hence cannot provide a center for such a field. Since an uncentered gravitational field violates energy (and symmetry) conservation (including the "Equivalence Principle"), light moving freely in vacuum cannot and does not produce a gravitational field. This result is important for theories attempting to unify gravity with the other forces.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[57] **viXra:0910.0060 [pdf]**
*replaced on 6 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Giuliano Bettini

**Comments:** 46 pages, V1 In Italian, V2 in English

In a previous paper [1] we showed that the energy impulse four vector of the
propagation of electromagnetic fields into a waveguide and in free space can be
described by a Dirac spinor ψ .
This suggest an analogy with for example TE-electron, TM-positron and possibly
TEM-neutrino.
Aim of this work is an interpretation of the action, if any, of the electroweak gauge
group SU(2) ⊗ U(1) on the before mentioned e.m. fields (TE, TM, TEM modes). This
is based on the following observation: the energy impulse four vector is invariant
under a global transformation of SU(2) ⊗ U(1), so ψ can be "gauged" in order to verify
the effect not only of the electromagnetic force but also of the weak forces.
In other words, what are "weak forces", if any, on TE, TM and TEM?
Obviously this requires "a modification of the Dirac equation to accomodate the
larger gauge group" (Hestenes, [2]).
This is in fact done here, and it is shown that the analogous of the "weak forces" can
be roughly interpreted in the following way: the W boson acts as a horn antenna
(receiving or transmitting), performing the transformation TEM ↔ TE, TM, giving
or subtracting mass to the field; the Z^{0} boson is as a radar target acting on the TEM
(neutrinos) with a doppler frequency. Those objects have a mathematical counterpart
in gauge fields.
No Higgs boson is needed in the theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[56] **viXra:0910.0059 [pdf]**
*replaced on 21 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Giuliano Bettini

**Comments:** 51 pages, V1 and v3 in Italian, V2 and v4 in English, (slightly amended, corrected formula (123)) .

Following Hestenes and others we explore the possibility that the electron is a (sort
of) bound electromagnetic wave.
To do this a waveguide analogy is considered. The E, H field components in
waveguide satisfy the second order Klein Gordon equation. The question is if a (first
order) Dirac equation is involved.
Making use of Clifford Algebra, by first it is shown that a spinor ψ satisfying Dirac
equation describes, trough the relativistic energy impulse four vector, the energy
propagation of the electromagnetic field into a waveguide and in free space. At the
same time ψ automatically describes TE and TM modes (TEM in free space), each
with Right or Left polarization.
It is shown that this description with Dirac equation has been implicit in the
waveguide theory all the time. The equivalence is embedded in the usual V and I
mode description [1].
The Dirac equation for TE, TM modes opens new interesting interpretations. For
example the effect on ψ of a gauge transformation with the electromagnetic gauge
group generator ( iσ_{3} in the Hestenes notation [2]) is readily interpreted as a
modification of the TE, TM group velocity. This acts as the electromagnetic force on
a charge, and requires two opposite sign of (fictitious) charges for TE or TM.
Obviously this suggest an analogy with electron, positron and possibly neutrino for
the TEM.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[55] **viXra:0910.0058 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-26 13:31:33*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 10 Pages. adding an introduction section

The primordial conservation role of gravity is to provide negative energy sufficient to exactly balance the positive energy of the "Creation Event", so the universe can be born from a state of zero net energy as well as zero net charge (the latter due to the equal admixture of matter with antimatter). All subsequent conservation roles of gravity are secondary to and derived from this original creation-role.
Following on from its primary role of providing negative energy during the "Big Bang", gravity plays two further major conservation roles in the evolving universe: 1) conserving the spatial entropy drive of light; 2) conserving the non-local distributional symmetry of light. In its entropy conservation role, gravity converts the intrinsic motion of light to the intrinsic motion of time - via the annihilation of space and the extraction of a metrically equivalent temporal residue. In its symmetry conservation role, gravity converts bound to free energy in stars and via Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes. These two conservation roles derive from the double gauge role of "velocity c", which regulates both light's intrinsic motion (the entropy drive of free electromagnetic energy), and light's non-local distributional symmetry (vanishing time and distance). Conserving light's non-local energy state via "location" charge, gravity simultaneously conserves light's entropy drive, since time itself is the active principle of "location" charge. Hence gravity's entropy conservation role is by default brought under the mantle of Noether's symmetry conservation theorem, revealing a pathway to the unification of gravitation with the other forces of physics: all charges of matter are symmetry debts of light.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[54] **viXra:0910.0057 [pdf]**
*replaced on 30 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 32 pages, 3 figures [ part a and b of figure 3, which are of the same process ] (instead of four ). Re do of conclusion, plus some other changes after first version of this article rejected by American physics journal. Now sent to European physics journal.
Emphasis put upon , in conclusion an open inquiry as to how to use concept of entropy
as a way to add more structure to obtaining from a GW detector the normalized GW
'energy density' "function" which may have coupling of gravitons with E and M & other
stuff. Open question as to if Instanton-anti instanton representation of graviton as a way
to explain 10^ - 65 gram supposed deviation of graviton from usual zero rest mass in
zeroth order KK tower representation of KK gravitons introduced, as possible deviation from
correspondence principle. Possible role for t'Hoofts treatment of QM in his 2006 article about deterministic QM, as embedding background for QM.

In the 12th Marcel Grossmann Meeting, July 9th, 2009, the author raised the issue of whether early graviton
production could affect non-Gaussian contributions to DM density profiles. Non gaussianity of evolving
cosmological states is akin to asking if there is a way to get quantum contributions due to squeezed initial
vacuum states which act highly non classically. If particle counting algorithms in graviton production is
important as for entropy, and if entropy perturbations affects the density profile of dark matter clumping
profiles, then there is room to ask to what degree initial perturbations affecting structure formation are due
to classical/ non linear processes, or more quantum theoretic states. If squeezing of the initial vacuum
states is essential in the relic conditions, then quantization is unavoidable. If squeezing is not essential, then
coherent initial vacuum states may contribute in semi classical ways to GW production. The end result of
this stated inquiry may be answering if or not gravity in the onset of inflation is a quantized field. Or if a
highly non linear set of complex initial conditions for gravity can be stated using purely classical models,
as T'Hooft, Corda, and others believe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[53] **viXra:0910.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 2 pages

This theory concerns to systems, which one yet not living, but already and not
dead. The solution of a problem of an origin of life lies through a solution of a problem
of a genesis protolife, being a link between the living and not living nature.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[52] **viXra:0910.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Isaac Shomer

**Comments:** The title and abstract of this article have been submitted for inclusion in the April 2010 meeting of the American Physical Society
Additionally, information covered by this paper will likely be presented in video format on my web site,
http://www.metacafe.com/channels/SpaceCadet262/

The hypothesis of Fischbach and Jenkins that neutrinos emitted from the
sun accelerate radioactive decay is noted. It is thought that neutrinos accelerate
beta decay by reacting with neutron-rich nuclides to form a beta particle and a
daughter product, with no antineutrino emitted. Conversely, it is proposed that
antineutrinos can react with proton-rich nuclides to cause positron decay, with no
neutrino emitted. It is also proposed that the nuclear fusion of the hydrogen bomb
is triggered not only by the energy of the igniting fission bomb, but by the
antineutrinos created by the rapid beta decay of the daughter products in the
fission process. The contemplated mechanism for this chain reaction fusion
process is the following: (1) The antineutrinos from the fission daughter products
cause positron decay of deuterium by the process outlined above. (2) In a later
fusion step, these positrons subsequently react with neutrons in deuterium to
create antineutrinos. Electrons are unavailable to annihilate positrons in the
plasma of the hydrogen bomb. (3) These antineutrinos thereafter react with more
deuterium to form positrons, thereby propagating the chain.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[51] **viXra:0910.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** H.-J. Hochecker

**Comments:** 12 pages, More details and the version in German language can be found on the authors web site (named inside the pdf)

It is clear that an electric field of moving charges is geometrically changed by this motion. A new
representation way of this change will be shown here. With the help of this representation the magnetic
effect can than be calculated directly from the geometric change in the electric field. The analysis of
different reference systems/frames (as in the special theory of relativity) is not necessary for doing this.
(The geometric changes, of course, still do arise from the special theory of relativity, however.) Finally,
through these observations, it may be noted that gravitation is also an effect of the translation of charges,
which can be represented mathematically here. So: under consideration of the special theory of relativity,
geometrical changes in the electric field caused by translation produce magnetism and gravitation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[50] **viXra:0910.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** H.-J. Hochecker

**Comments:** 23 pages, More details and the version in German language can be found on the authors web site (named inside the pdf)

From the constancy of light speed as demanded by the theory of special relativity (SRT) the time
dilatation, the length contraction and the unsynchronisation of time arises. These three quantities (values)
are not to be applied only to matter but also to the space as such, which is contained by matter. Due to this it
yields that space areas can be distinguished from other space areas by these three quantities (values). Since
these space areas, which are burdened with SRT values, must be in space again, too, it results that these
space areas (burdened with SRT values) can move in space as objects. When these space areas meet then
they overlap each other three-dimensionally and by doing this they build overlap areas (OA) with new SRT
values. In this way these space areas burdened with SRT values can interact with each other, what for they
are named space objects (SOs). It turns out that the SOs are able to interact with each other in the most
various ways. How this happens is shown among others in this work. Due to their interactions the SOs are
able to form highly complex structures, which we know as matter. Matter in its turn interacts by emitting
and absorbing grate numbers of SOs in a field like manner. The great importance of the SOs in our world is
underpinned in this work with several interesting examples; with that it is shown how the concept of the
definition of the SOs can be used, and that it makes sense to use it. The SOs are the elements upon which all
things are based and simultaneous they are the most basic of all elements also (in the time burdened threedimensional
space). The "Theory of Space Objects" represents a link between different sections of physics
such as gravitation, quantum theory, relativity, electromagnetism, building-up of matter, and much more.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[49] **viXra:0910.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 30 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 3 pages. no figures. Beginning of evolution and work on submission for the
12 Marcel Grossman conference by A. Beckwith for a written summary of the contribution
A. Beckwith gave in the July 17th meeting of the Paris Obervatory of the Dark Matter
parallel session run by Dr. Chardin, of France, in 2009

In the 12th Marcel Grossmann Meeting, July 17, 2009, the author raised the issue of whether early
graviton production could affect non-Gaussian contributions to DM density profiles. Non
gaussianity of evolving cosmological states is akin to asking if there is a way to get quantum
contributions due to squeezed initial vacuum states which act highly non classically. If particle
counting algorithms in graviton production is important as for entropy, and if entropy perturbations
affects the density profile of dark matter clumping profiles, then there is room to ask to what degree
initial perturbations affecting structure formation are due to classical/ non linear processes, or more
quantum theoretic states.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[48] **viXra:0910.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 7 pages, Published in Nonlinear Phenomena in Complex Systems 8:4 (2005), 366-372.

Gauge bosons are fundamental fields that mediate the electroweak interaction of leptons and quarks.
The underlying mechanism explaining how gauge bosons acquire mass is neither definitively settled nor
universally accepted and several competing theories coexist. The prevailing paradigm is that boson
masses arise as a result of coupling to a hypothetical scalar field called the Higgs boson. Within the
current range of accelerator technology, compelling evidence for the Higgs boson is missing. We discuss
in this paper a derivation of boson masses that bypasses the Higgs mechanism and is formulated on
the basis of complexity theory. The key premise of our work is that the dynamics of the gauge field
may be described as a stochastic process caused by the short range of electroweak interaction. It is
found that, if this process is driven by Levy statistics, mass generation in the electroweak sector can
be naturally accounted for. Theoretical predictions are shown to agree well with experimental data.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[47] **viXra:0910.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 5 pages, Published in "Hadron Models and Related New Energy Issues" InfoLearnQuest USA (2007), ISBN 978-1-59973-042-4

The cosmological constant problem continues to represent a major challenge for the theoretical physics and
cosmology. The main difficulty arises from the large numerical discrepancy between observational limits of
the cosmological constant and quantum predictions based on gravitational effects of the vacuum energy. In
this work we argue that the experimental value of this constant may be recovered from the dynamics of
neutrino oscillations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[46] **viXra:0910.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** T. De Mees

**Comments:** 5 pages

The quasar's redshift distribution is found to have a periodicities, according to K. G. Karlsson and others. Here, we
analyse if these peaks could be an indication of circling light about the centre of the universe. We find that the
Zwicky-Ashmore redshift theory provides an excellent evidence for circling light. We can confirm the age of the
universe and define its radius and its mass with a good approximation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[45] **viXra:0910.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 25 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Amrit S. Sorli

**Comments:** 3 pages

Original solution of gravity motion is curved 4 dimensional cosmic space. Massive objects move into
direction of higher curvature of space. Quantum gravity introduces idea that cosmic space is made out of
grains of Planck size. If space has granular structure one can consider space also has its density.
According to the second low of thermodynamics in the universe distribution of energy tends to be
homogeneous. More mass in given volume of quantum space less space is dense. Less space is dense
more space is curved. Massive objects move always into direction of lover density in higher curvature of
quantum space. Gravitational motion of massive objects is result of change of density of quantum space.
Change of density of quantum space is a physical basis for change of its curvature.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[44] **viXra:0910.0046 [pdf]**
*replaced on 18 May 2011*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 12 pages, This paper has also been published as a Google "Knol".

The conceptual basis of the Unified Field Theory as presented in these pages is summarized below:
"Noether's Theorem" states that in a multicomponent field such as the electromagnetic field (or the metric
field of spacetime), symmetries are associated with conservation laws and vice versa. In matter, light's
(broken) symmetries are conserved by charge and spin; in spacetime, light's symmetries are protected by
inertial forces, and conserved (when broken) by gravitational forces. All forms of energy originate as light;
matter carries charges which are the symmetry/entropy debts of the light which created it. The charges of
matter are the symmetry debts of light. Charges produce forces which act to return the material system to its
original symmetric state, paying matter's symmetry/entropy debts. Payment is exampled by annihilation
reactions (electromagnetic force); radioactivity (fission), fusion, particle and proton decay (weak and strong
nuclear forces); the nucleosynthetic pathway of stars, and Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes
(gravitational force). Identifying the broken symmetries of light associated with each of the 4 charges and
forces of physics is the first step toward a conceptual unification.
The conservation of energy, symmetry, entropy, and causality, plus the requirement of primordial
symmetry-breaking followed by the maintenance of charge invariance (including the phenomena of "local
gauge symmetry"), are all key conceptual elements in the formulation of a Unified Field Theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[43] **viXra:0910.0045 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-12-20 13:48:03*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The significance of proton decay is that it is the end-point of time and temporal entropy for matter, in much the same way we might say the black hole is the end-point of space and spatial entropy for light. Again we find that "the extremes meet": proton decay is surely commonplace inside black holes, while Hawking's "quantum radiance" returns bound energy to free energy and temporal entropy to spatial entropy.
The notion that the ratio of force strengths relates the "heat death" and the "information death" of the Cosmos via proton decay suggests that if we knew one we would know the other; unfortunately, we know neither, and our force ratio is a pure number, without units. Nevertheless, I will use it to make a naive guess at the proton's lifetime. The lower experimental bound on proton decay is currently 10(35) years. According to the hypothesis advanced here, that the proton lifetime reflects the force ratio, in 2.5 x 10(41) seconds all protons will have decayed, which, curiously enough, yields an observational expectation (8 x 10(33) years) not far off the current lower experimental bound.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[42] **viXra:0910.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** B N Sreenath

**Comments:** 71 pages.

Quantum-Gravity (QG) is limited to bodies, which have attained their 'gravitational
radius' like Black holes (BH) and Quasars. QG has been explained and solved on entirely new
concepts and laws so as to bring within its scope not only unification of all physical interactions
including gravitation in its 'distorted' form and electro-magnetism but also other cosmological
problems which involve high energy existence like the BH dynamics, dark-energy, etc. This
becomes obvious once we go through the BH Chart and the Interaction-Table (IT). In BH Chart
and the IT, gravitational radius and the interaction-range are identified thus unifying the
phenomena occurring in BH with those of the micro-world. The two laws of QG enunciated
give rise to two fundamental constants in physics whose values are reciprocal to the values of
'C'and 'G'. The Quantum-Gravity field is identified with the "Exponentially Varying
Accelerated (or Gravity) Field" so that in it both test masses of classical size and micro-particles
of quantum size, describe the same 'Logarithmic Spiral Path'. Micro-particles can also describe
'Conical Spiral Path'. Thus QG field is an 'inward spinning field' which involves 'Torsion' and
'Curvature' varying. 'Spinors', which are used to describe the "Logarithmic Spiral Path" in BH,
give rise to "Immirzi Parameter". From the concept of 'unitary change in acceleration', atomic
transitions are explained and 'Heisenberg's Principle of Indeterminacy' is derived.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[41] **viXra:0910.0043 [pdf]**
*replaced on 28 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Martín López-Corredoira

**Comments:** 15 pages, version published in Int. J.
Astr. Astrophys, 1, 73. (previously it had been
accepted by Invertis J. Sci. Techn. for a special issue, but finally the edition of that special issue
was cancelled)

Quasars (Quasi Stellar Objects, abbreviated as QSOs) are still nowadays, close to half a century
after their discovery, objects which are not completely understood. In this brief review a description
of the pending problems, inconsistencies and caveats in the QSO's research is presented. The standard
paradigm model based on the existence of very massive black holes that are responsible for the QSO's
huge luminosities, resulting from to their cosmological redshifts, leaves many facts without explanation.
There are several observations which lack a clear explanation, for instance: the absence of bright QSOs at
low redshifts, a mysterious evolution not properly understood; the inconsistencies of the absorption lines,
such as the different structure of the clouds along the QSO's line of sight and their tangential directions;
the spatial correlation between QSOs and galaxies; and many others.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[40] **viXra:0910.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 11 pages, Published in Intl. Journal for Nonlinear Science 3 (2007), 170-180

Bringing closure to the host of open questions posed by the current Standard Model
for particle physics (SM) continues to be a major challenge for theoretical physics community.
Motivated by recent advances in the study of complex systems, our work suggests that the
pattern of particle masses and gauge couplings emerges from the critical dynamics of renormalization
group equations. Using the ε-expansion method along with the universal path to chaos
in unimodal maps, we find that the observed hierarchies of SM parameters amount to a series
of scaling ratios depending on the Feigenbaum constant.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[39] **viXra:0910.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Amrit S. Sorli

**Comments:** 2 pages

In 1949, Gödel postulated a theorem that stated: "In any universe described by the theory of relativity,
time cannot exist". Gödel idea was that forth coordinate of space-time is not time. Fourth coordinate is
spatial too. In this article will be shown that on the base of elementary perception and experimental data
Gödel theorem is right. With eyes one observes universe is in a continuous change. A change n gets
transformed into a change n+1, the change n+1 into a change n+2 and so on. Clocks measure a
frequency, velocity and numerical order of change. Experimental date confirms that changes and clocks
do not run time; they run in space only. Time is not a part of space. Fourth coordinate of space-time is
spatial too. Space itself is timeless. Physical time that is clocks run is man created physical reality.
Fundamental arena of the universe is timeless space. In the timeless space into which massive bodies
and elementary particles move there is no past and no future. Past and future belong to the inner
neuronal space-time that is a result of neuronal activity of the brain.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[38] **viXra:0910.0040 [pdf]**
*replaced on 26 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 12 pages. Re formatted with font size 12 . Document
to be delivered to AIBEP.org meeting in Scottsville, Arizona, November
2nd.

In other conference research papers, Beckwith obtained a maximum DM mass/
energy value of up to 5 TeV, as opposed to 400 GeV for DM, which may mean more convertible
power for a dark matter ram jet. The consequences are from assuming that axions are CDM, and
KK gravitons are for WDM, then ρ_{Warm-Dark-Matter} would dominate not only structure
formation in early universe formation , but would also influence the viability of the DM ram jet
applications for interstellar travel. The increase in convertible DM mass makes the ram jet a
conceivable option. This paper in addition to describing the scientific issues leading to that 5
TeV mass for DM also what are necessary and sufficient laser boost systems which would
permit a ram net to become operational.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[37] **viXra:0910.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Adem Bilgin

**Comments:** 16 pages

Kinematical transformations are expressed as time independent and time dependent functions
of work and energy to be employed in motions of mechanical systems. Relations between the
kinematical parameters of moving mechanical systems and energy transformations occurring
in them are also considered.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[36] **viXra:0910.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Xavier Terri Castañé

**Comments:** 6 pages, Spanish language

In this article is presented the formulas of the acceleration and speed
orbital according to three different theories: the gravitation of Newton, general relativity
of Einstein and, finally, the connected theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:0910.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 6 pages

For the calibration of dowsing measurements, a practical standard "yardstick" has
been adopted that involves dowsing pure geometry: in particular a dot (0-dimensional),
as this produces a dowsable line, the furthest point of which is a precise
measureable boundary.
The advantages of this technique include an easy to produce universal standard, which
is very practical, provides precise measurements, and is easily repeatable. The
validation of this technique is proven as members of a group dowse the same
phenomenon.
Successful ground breaking research using this yardstick includes quantifying how
dowsing measurements vary over time, and how earth energies and cosmic factors
change dowsed dimensions.

**Category:** Mind Science

[34] **viXra:0910.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Amrit S. Sorli

**Comments:** 3 pages

Thought experiment here describes consciousness as a basic frequency of quanta of space QS that
have a size of Planck 1,6*10^{-35}m. Atom has a size in range 10^{-10}m. The question is how extremely
small QS can communicate with an atom that builds up molecules which constitute living cells. One can
predict existence of some hypothetical quanta which are transferring information i.e. basic frequency of
QS to atom. Several experiments have been done which show some unknown energy is entering living
organism in growing phase and leaving it at the time of death. It seems this energy is spread out in
space and additionally concentrated in living organisms. Additional concentration causes increasing of
the mass of living organism regarding the mass of same dead organism. This unknown energy spread
out in cosmic space and additionally concentrated in living organisms could also be "dark energy".

**Category:** Mind Science

[33] **viXra:0910.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-09-17 09:10:41*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The rationale for gravity begins with the creation of the Cosmos - the negative energy of gravity is necessary to balance the positive energy of the "Big Bang", so that the "Creation Event" requires zero net energy. In a similar fashion, antimatter is also required to balance the charges of matter so that creation occurs from a state of zero net charge. Beginning in such a state of complete neutrality (perhaps as a giant quantum fluctuation of the vacuum, an "inflationary bubble", or by Divine Fiat), the Universe must subsequently evolve into a state of complete conservation.
The gravitational rationale extends beyond the Creation Event to the creation of matter's time dimension and the conservation of the entropy drive and symmetric energy state of free electromagnetic energy (light). These secondary conservation roles (which manifest as the gravitational conversion of space to time, the gravitational conversion of bound to free energy via the nucleosynthetic pathway of stars, the conversion of in-falling matter's potential gravitational energy to light in quasars, and Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes), are natural consequences of the mode of action of gravity's primary role, which is the creation of negative energy and a negative entropy drive via the contraction and destruction of space (creating time), in contradistinction to the creation and expansion of space by the positive energy and entropy drive of light.
Both roles hinge upon the gravitational conservation of light's "non-local" distributional symmetry, yet they work in essentially opposite directions. The non-local symmetric energy state of light is a consequence of light's intrinsic motion, "velocity c", which gauges both the distributional symmetry and the symmetric, "all-way" spatial entropy drive of free energy. In these conservation roles gravity, like inertia and charge, enforces the conservation of free energy's symmetric energy state, as required by "Noether's Theorem". (See: "The Double Conservation Role of Gravitation".)

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[32] **viXra:0910.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-05-04 19:17:42*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The exact origin of the strong force (holding compound atomic nuclei together) is not yet a completely settled matter. Some authors (Robert Oerter) attribute this force to the exchange of virtual mesons between protons and neutrons (as in the original theory of Yukawa), while others (Frank Close) claim this old model has been superseded by the modern theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), and attribute the binding of nucleons to a magnetic analog of the color charge, originating in the exchange of gluons between quarks (theory of Gell-Mann). Still others (Nicholas Mee), think both gluons and mesons play a role. My own view is that the original Yukawa model is correct, but the reader will have to make his own choice, and realize that not all experts would agree with me (or each other).
My reasons for preferring the original Yukawa model are several:
1) Yukawa's mathematics work, correctly predicting the mass of the exchanged mesons. If we deny the validity of this model, what are we to do with this mathematical structure and these mesons?
2) If the color-magnetism theory is correct, then all proton-neutron combinations should be equivalent, whereas we know that some are favored - the alpha particle, for example, and all combinations of even numbers of nucleons. There are also "magic numbers" of nucleons, combinations of special stability among the heavier nuclei. Finally, why do we not find isolated neutron-neutron pairings? The pion exchange model answers all these questions.
3) Because mesons carry both flavor and color charges, it is also possible that both effects are at work simultaneously (after all, gluons do attract each other, so if nucleons are sufficiently closely packed, there might be gluon-gluon attraction between nucleons as well as within nucleons). Mesons carry color-anticolor charges (always of the same color), so they can neatly substitute themselves for the color charge of a baryon's quark. Because they also carry flavor/anti-flavor charges (in this case not necessarily of the same flavor: d and anti- u, for example), they can just as neatly change a baryon's "u" quark into a "d" quark (and hence a proton into a neutron), or vice versa. A "magnetic" color effect, however, could not by itself change a quark's flavor. The exchange of mesons allows the neutron to satisfy its natural tendency to undergo beta decay via a virtual reaction rather than an actual decay.
4) A true magnetic analog of the color charge is expressed as "asymptotic freedom" - the increasing freedom of movement of the quarks as they approach each other at the center of the baryon. Hence this is an inwardly directed "magnetic" effect, typical of the strong force, not a likely source of binding energy beyond the confines of the baryon. The symmetry-keeping role of the color charge is to permanently confine the fractional charges of the quarks to whole quantum charge units. While "asymptotic freedom" is completely understandable within this conservation context as a "local gauge symmetry" effect, the external binding of other baryons is not.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[31] **viXra:0910.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Xavier Terri Castañé

**Comments:** 7 pages, Spanish language

Einstein pone el conocido ejemplo de un observador A que, estando en reposo junto
a la vía del tren, observa dos rayos que caen en sendos extremos de la vía C y D.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:0910.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Xavier Terri Castañé

**Comments:** 3 pages, Spanish language

La teoría de la relatividad de Albert Einstein se sustenta en las transformaciones de
Lorentz.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:0910.0031 [pdf]**
*replaced on 28 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** B. Serifo Balde

**Comments:** 17 pages, This manuscript is a preliminary draft of work in progress : Set Theoretic
Axiomatization of Physics. Comments , corrections and typo alerts are most welcome !

Motivated by Hilbert's sixth problem on axiomatization of physics, the author is proposing a rather
provocative abstract axiomatic framework called S - formalization, where S is an arbitrary physical
system .The proposal is an attempt to provide a general axiomatic framework , from which mathematical
frameworks of new physical theories can be formulated on firm axiomatic basis and the mathematical
frameworks of subjects such as standard (nonrelativistic) quantum mechanics are naturally derived as
special cases of this general axiomatic framework.
Introduction

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[28] **viXra:0910.0030 [pdf]**
*replaced on 23 Jan 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 4 pages, no figures

The
consequence of abnormally low lithium abundance in a nearby population II star
(which is almost as old as the supposed population III stars) as represented by HE0107-5240
is that the standard BBN theory is out of sync with observations.
The analysis of the big bang
nucleosynthesis may help explain the anomalously low value of lithium abundance in the
star HE0107-5240, which by orthodox BBN, should not exist, as explained by Shigeyama
et al. (2003) [1]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:0910.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 2 pages, Rejected by ArXIV as unsuitable for their general physics arXIV section. Supposition
accepted as talk for ACGRG5, in Christchurch, New Zealand,December 2009, and a small part of the talk Beckwith
will give in Beyond the Standard Model, 2010 conference, South Africa

This thought experiment supposition will be raised in the ACGRG5, in Christchurch, New
Zealand, December 2009, as a way to start investigations as to being able to choose either LQG, or string
theory, as an initial space time template for emergent gravity . The author was exposed to Batisti's talk as
of the 12 Marcel Grossman conference, and intends to explore the applications of deformed Euclidian
space to questions as of the role of either string theory and/or LQG as to what degree the fundamental
constants of nature are preserved between different cosmological cycles, and also the degree that gravity is
an emergent field which is either partly/ largely classical, with extreme non linearity, or a far more quantum
phenomenon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:0910.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Mohd Abubakr

**Comments:** 16 Pages, Written in Hindi Language

Composition and nature of dark energy and dark matter remains one of the critical open
problems in modern cosmology. Several modified models within the framework of FLRW
cosmology have been proposed to explain dark energy and dark matter, however there has
been little progress. In this paper, we present a hypothesis on existence of discrete
energy bands accounting ordinary matter, dark matter and dark energy. Categorization of
forces into global and local forces, leads to classification of one energy bands. We
also explore the observational evidence to establish the existence of energy bands.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:0910.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Hideyuki Ohtsuka

**Comments:** 2 Pages

In this paper, we show a geometry approach to the expansion of
(1 + x + x^{2} + ... + x^{n})^{3}. This proof is a "Proof Without Words"

**Category:** Algebra

[24] **viXra:0910.0025 [pdf]**
*replaced on 23 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 19 pages, This paper has also been published as a Google "Knol".

The Fractal Organization of Nature is seen as an information pathway whereby the Universe becomes selfaware
through the spiritual awakening of humanity. The natural hierarchy is modeled as a sort of "Jacob's
ladder" whereby Homo sapiens ascends to the astrophysical realm, realizing our destiny as galactic citizens,
and dispersing Earth-life into the Cosmos.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[23] **viXra:0910.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 15 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Jakob Petelin

**Comments:** 1 Page

A recent paper came to our attention in which the author makes a striking conclusion
about the properties of space. This paper investigates it in detail and demonstrates that
upon such conclusion either the General Theory of Relativity is wrong or the mentioned
author made some mistakes which have yet to be identified.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[22] **viXra:0910.0023 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-08-28 15:31:24*

**Authors:** John C. Gonsowski

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Updates the author's 1999 and 2001 papers in the e-journal The Enneagram and the MBTI.

James Reynierse says: "You have it exactly right when you refer to the
symmetry of type beginning with the Pair interactions. My colleague and
fellow researcher John Harker and I have frequently discussed these
relationships in terms of the natural symmetry of type... showing a
circumplex structure for the MBTI is interesting and instructive" E8 and its
subalgebras are mapped to MBTI types and Enneagram numbers. In the
process, analogies with the use of E8 in physics are explored. Down at D3,
a Process Circumplex is constructed from MBTI type pair interactions and an
analogy is shown with conformal gravity and its rotation, boost, translation,
and special conformal bivectors. At D4, an analogy is constructed between
the Enneagram's Law of 7 (1-4-2-8-5-7) and the electroweak force. Also,
the Enneagram's Law of 3 (3-6-9) is related to the color force. At D5, an
analogy is constructed between the Enneagram's first (1-2-3-4) and second
(8-7-6-5) quaternities and the real and imaginary dimensions of complex
spacetime. At E6, the analogy constructed is between two additional
Enneagram patterns and matter/antimatter. E7 and E8 relate to brane
universes and perhaps to multiple MBTI type spaces encoded in the brain.

**Category:** Mind Science

[21] **viXra:0910.0022 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-12-02 18:40:22*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 9 Pages. original paper revised and split into three parts

There is a very good reason why the field vectors of the weak force involve the hugely massive Intermediate Vector Bosons (IVBs) and the associated Higgs boson (while the field vectors of the other forces, the photon, gluon, and graviton, are massless energy forms): the weak force is the only force that creates and/or transforms "singlet" elementary particles (single elementary particles without antimatter partners). Single elementary particles cannot be directly produced from the vacuum "zoo" of virtual (and symmetric) particle-antiparticle pairs, as in the case of electromagnetic or strong force particle-pair production (in collisions, for example). Hence some other mechanism for reproducing the original and invariant conserved parameters of single elementary particles must be employed.
Single elementary particles created today must be the same in all respects as those created eons ago during the "Big Bang", and the massive and elaborate mechanism of the weak force is the only way to accomplish this imperative of energy and symmetry conservation - the invariance of the mass of all elementary particles, wherever and whenever they may be created. It is also for this reason that the whole weak force transformation mechanism is quantized in terms of the invariant Higgs boson and IVB mass.
The large mass of the Higgs and IVBs actually recreates the energy-density of the primordial environment in which the elementary particles whose transformations they now mediate were originally created. A weak force transformation is in effect a "mimi-Big Bang", reproducing locally the conditions of the global "macro-Big Bang", so that the elementary particles produced by each are the same in every respect. This is the only way such a replication could be accomplished after eons of entropic evolution by the Cosmos (because the mass of the Higgs and IVBs (or of particles generally) is not enervated by the entropic expansion, spatial or historic, of the Cosmos. This is the fundamental reason why the weak force transformation mechanism employs massive bosons). The role of the Higgs is to select and gauge the appropriate unified-force symmetric energy-density state (usually the electroweak (EW) force-unification energy level) for the transformation at hand; IVBs appropriate for that particular symmetric energy state (the "W" family of IVBs in the electroweak case) then access (energize) the state and perform the requisite transformation. (See: "The 'W' IVB and the Weak Force Mechanism".)

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[20] **viXra:0910.0021 [pdf]**
*replaced on 30 May 2009*

[19] **viXra:0910.0020 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-20 15:46:35*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Einstein's "Equivalence Principle" asserts that a gravitational field cannot be distinguished from a suitably chosen accelerated reference frame - essentially because we cannot distinguish between the reciprocal cases of spacetime accelerating through us (gravity), or our own acceleration through spacetime (as in a rocket ship). Hence the equivalence between inertial and gravitational mass - classically recognized by Newton as the equivalence between inertial resistance and gravitational "weight", but not understood.
Co-movers with a gravitational field (in free fall or orbit) experience no "weight" - the field apparently vanishes. This seminal observation allowed Einstein to equate gravitational and inertial fields in his General Theory of Relativity. Because there is another way to "vanish" a gravitational field, the possibility of extending Einstein's "Equivalence Principle" beyond inertial force is raised. The conversion of bound to free energy (mass to light) in many spontaneous astrophysical processes, such as stars (partially) and black holes (completely), "vanishes" the gravitational field that had been associated with the converted mass. This suggests a heuristic conceptual pathway for the unification of forces through Noether's symmetry conservation theorem via the equivalence of all charges and forces (including gravity) as symmetry debts of light: the charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light.
In this view gravity is seen as arising from a "location" charge which records the symmetry debt carried by any immobile massive particle, the debt arising from the loss of the non-local distributional symmetry of the light which created the particle or otherwise contributed to its mass. The active principle of this "location" charge is time, whose intrinsic motion also produces the historical entropy drive of matter. (See: "Symmetry Principles of the Unified Field Theory: Part I"; "Gravity, Entropy, and Thermodynamics"; "The Double Conservation Role of Gravitation: Entropy vs Symmetry".)

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18] **viXra:0910.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Amrit S. Sorli

**Comments:** 2 pages

Penrose describes consciousness as a result of quantum gravity acting on the
neurons of the brain. Consciousness is non local; it does not exist exclusively in the
brain. Here it is introduced idea that consciousness is a basic frequency of quantum
space. Human brains have ability to "connect" and harmonize with consciousness. In
scientific experiment consciousness acts as an observer.

**Category:** Mind Science

[17] **viXra:0910.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** John Hunter

**Comments:** 2 pages

Mach argued that since the acceleration of a body can only be measured relative to
other bodies, then the inertia of masses is somehow due to the presence of distant
matter in the universe.
Here an alternative is put forward...that the acceleration (of one part of a body)
can be measured relative to other parts. Inertia is thus considered to be due to the
force needed to compress (or stretch) a body undergoing acceleration.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[16] **viXra:0910.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Chris Forbes

**Comments:** 10 pages

In this, a follow up to a previous paper 'A Short Article On A Newly
Proposed Model Of Cosmology' (viXra:0909.0005), some of the basic
mathematical structures to be used in the formulation of the model are
shown, and several advantages are discussed. The paper then takes a
more phenomenological approach and several simple (1+1) dimensional
models are explored.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[15] **viXra:0910.0015 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-24 15:40:23*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The primordial conservation role of gravity is to provide negative energy sufficient to exactly balance the positive energy of the "Creation Event", so the universe can be born from a state of zero net energy as well as zero net charge (the latter due to the equal admixture of matter with antimatter). All subsequent conservation roles of gravity are secondary to and derived from this original creation-role. (Negative energy is created by the collapse (rather than expansion) of spacetime and by the explicit presence of the time dimension.)
Following on from its primary role of providing negative energy during the "Big Bang", gravity plays two further major conservation roles in the evolving universe:
1) Conserving light's spatial entropy drive (light's intrinsic motion), which is accomplished by the gravitational conversion of space to time - converting light's intrinsic motion to time's intrinsic motion. (See: "The Conversion of Space to Time".)
2) Conserving the non-local distributional symmetry of light's energy, which is accomplished by the gravitational conversion of bound to free energy in stars (partially), and (completely) in Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes (see: "Extending Einstein's "Equivalence Principle").
This double role is consequent upon Noether's Theorem and the double gauge role of "velocity c", which simultaneously regulates the entropy drive of free energy (the intrinsic spatial motion of light), and the non-local distributional symmetry of light's energy (vanishing time and the x (distance) spatial dimension). The entropy conservation role operates at all gravitational energy levels, while the symmetry conservation role must reach an energetic threshold before nuclear fusion can begin (in stellar interiors).
Noether's Theorem requires the conservation of light's various symmetries: the charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light. Charge conservation = symmetry conservation. All massive, immobile particles (bound electromagnetic energy) bear a gravitational "location" charge (-Gm) which represents the "non-local" distributional, metric, and entropic symmetry debt of the freely moving light (free electromagnetic energy) which created them. (See: "The Connection Between Gravitation, Time, Entropy, and Symmetry".)
At all energies, gravity pays the entropy-"interest" on the symmetry debt of matter by converting space to time, thus providing an alternative entropic domain in which charge conservation can have a deferred historical and causal meaning. At high energy levels (as in stars), gravity also begins to pay the "principle" on matter's symmetry debt, converting bound to free energy (vanishing the gravitational field as mass is vanished). The universal spatial expansion is reduced by the initial entropic conversion, as space is converted to time; the original expansion is restored, however, when mass is converted to light, reducing the total gravitational field energy and producing the impression of an "accelerating" universe. "Dark energy" is therefore simply the reduction of the cosmic gravitational field by the conversion of bound to free energy in stars or by any symmetry conservation/restoration process (which may also be operating in "dark matter").

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] **viXra:0910.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Amrit S. Sorli

**Comments:** 1 pages

Quantization of the cosmic space allows introduction of density of cosmic space. Medium that has
granular structure can also have density. More mass is in a given volume of quantum space, less space
is dense. In General Theory of Relativity gravity is generated by change of curvature of cosmic space,
here by change of density. The basis for curvature of space is its density. Einstein curvature tensor in a
form 1/G is Density tensor of quantum space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] **viXra:0910.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 36 pages, 8 figures, one table.

The talk presents a first order approximation for a non SUSY presentation of not only
neutrino physics, but also DM, as a candidate having 400 or so MeV in value. Based in
part on a Lagrangian presented to the author by K.A. Meissner, and H. Nicolai,
"Neutrinos, Axions, and Conformal Symmetry", arXIV 0803.281 version 2, April 2nd 2008
(Presented at IDM 2008 in Parallel session, at the Alpha Nova center, Strockholm, Sweden)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:0910.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Hideyuki Ohtsuka, Shigeru Nakamura

**Comments:** 3 Pages, Published: Congressus Numerantum, Proceedings of the Thirteenth Conference
on Fibonacci Numbers and their Applications, Vol. 201, pp.297-300 (2010).

Sloane's On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences incorrectly states
a lengthy formula for the sum of the sixth powers of the first n Fibonacci numbers.
In this paper we prove a more succinct formulation. We also provide an
analogue for the Lucas numbers. Finally, we prove a divisibility result for the
sum of certain even powers of the first n Fibonacci numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[11] **viXra:0910.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 14 pages Actual submission for the SPESIF 2010 conference, minus home address and phone
number. Adheres to the SPESIF conference formatting guide lines. Has three figures in it.

In this paper Beckwith asks if DM and gravitons could also impact the cosmic acceleration of the universe,
leading to an increase of acceleration one billion years ago, in a manner usually attributed to DE.
Following Marcio E. S. Alves, Oswaldo D. Miranda, Jose C. N. de Araujo, 2009 Beckwith will high light
what KK style gravitons, with a slightly different mass profile could mean in terms of his DM rocket
proposal brought up in both Christ Church, Dark 2009, and in SPESIF, 2009. I.e. value of up to 5 TeV,
as opposed to 400 GeV for DM, which may mean more convertible power for a dark matter ram jet. The
consequences are from assuming that axions are CDM, and KK gravitons are for WDM, then up to a point,
the density of warm dark matter candidates would dominate not only structure formation in early
universe formation , but would also influence the viability of the DM ram jet applications for
interstellar travel

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:0910.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 11 pages. Actual submission for the SPESIF 2010 conference, minus home address and phone number.
Adheres to SPESIF 2010 conference formatting guidelines. No figures

We argue in this document that initial vacuum state values possibly responsible for GW
generation in relic conditions in the initial onset of inflation may have a temporary unsqueezed , possibly
even coherent initial value, which would permit in certain models classical coherent initial gravitational
wave states Furthermore, several arguments pro and con as to if or not initial relic GW should be high
frequency will be presented, with the reason given why earlier string models did NOT favor low frequency
relic GW from the big bang.. What is observed is that large higher dimensions above our 4 Dimensional
space time, if recipients of matter-energy from collapse and re birth of the universe are enough to insure
low relic GW. The existence of higher dimensions, in itself if the additional dimensions are small and
compact will have no capacity to lower the frequency limit values of relic GW, as predicted by
Giovannini, et.al. in 1995.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:0910.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 16 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 10 pages, Published in the Electronic Journal of Theoretical Physics, EJTP 7, No. 23 (2010) 75–84.

We present analytic evidence that the distribution of hadron masses follows from the universal transition to
chaos in non-equilibrium field theory. It is shown that meson and baryon spectra obey a scaling hierarchy
with critical exponents ordered in natural progression. Numerical predictions are found to be in close
agreement with experimental data.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8] **viXra:0910.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** John L. Haller Jr.

**Comments:** 9 pages

The thermal diffusion of a free particle is a random process and generates entropy
at a rate equal to twice the particle's temperature, R = 2k_{B}T/ℎ (in natural units of information per
second). The rate is calculated using a Gaussian process with a variance of (Δx_{0} + Δp⋅t/m)^{2}. One
would be keen to notice that the solution to the quantum mechanical diffusion of a free particle is
(Δx_{0})^{2} + (Δp⋅t/m)^{2}, however we assume that concurrent to quantum diffusion, the center of the
wavepacket is also undergoing classical diffusion which adds an addition variance in the amount of
(ℎ⋅t/m), making up the difference. Derivations of the variance and subsequent entropy rate are given.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[7] **viXra:0910.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 28 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Amrit S. Sorli

**Comments:** 5 pages

Clocks measure a frequency, velocity and numerical order of change. Experimental date confirms that
changes and clocks do not run time; they run in quantum space only. Time is not a part of quantum
space. Quantum space itself is timeless. In the universe as a whole amount of matter energy and
amount of quantum space energy is constant. Density of mass and density of quantum space in a given
volume of quantum space tends to be constant. Mass here is considered as a compressed energy of
quantum space. Presence of mass in a given volume of quantum space diminishes its density. Massive
objects move always into direction of lover density of quantum space. Gravitational motion of massive
objects is result of change of density of quantum space. In space with no change of density massive
object will not have gravitational motion as in centre of stellar objects or in a flat quantum space where
massive objects are far away. Change of density of quantum space corresponds in General Theory of
Relativity to the change of the curvature of space. Lower is density of quantum space bigger is its
curvature. Here is introduced density/curvature of quantum space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:0910.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Paul A. LaViolette

**Comments:** 30 pages, This paper was published in 2008 in the International Journal of General Systems., vol 37, pp. 649-676.

Subquantum kinetics, a physics methodology that applies general systems theoretic concepts
to the field of microphysics has gained the status of being a viable unified field theory.
Earlier publications of this theory had proposed that a subatomic particle should consist of an
electrostatic field that has the form of a radial Turing wave pattern whose form is maintained
through the ongoing activity of a nonlinear reaction-diffusion medium that fills all space.
This subatomic Turing wave prediction now finds confirmation in recent nucleon scattering
form factor data which show that the nucleon core has a Gaussian charge density distribution
with a peripheral periodicity whose wavelength approximates the particle's Compton
wavelength and which declines in amplitude with increasing radial distance. The subquantum
kinetics explanation for the origin of charge correctly anticipates the observation that the
proton's charge density wave pattern is positively biased while the neutron's is not. The
phenomenon of beta decay is interpreted as the onset of a secondary bifurcation leading from
the uncharged neutron solution to the charged proton solution. The Turing wave dissipative
structure prediction is able to account in a unitary fashion for nuclear binding, particle diffraction,
and electron orbital quantization. The wave packet model is shown to be fundamentally
flawed implying that quantum mechanics does not realistically represent the microphysical
world. This new conception points to the possible existence of orbital energy states below the
Balmer ground state whose transitions may be tapped as a new source of energy.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5] **viXra:0910.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 3 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 4 pages, Paper published in Nonl. Sci. Lett. A, vol.1, No.1, 39-42, 2010.

In this report we argue that complex dynamics has the potential of becoming a key tool
for the "new physics" sector of particle theory. The report includes a list of candidate
signals for "new physics" that were recently recorded above the scale of electroweak
interaction. Some of the pioneering efforts directed towards application of complex
dynamics in high-energy physics are briefly surveyed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[4] **viXra:0910.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Amrit S. Sorli

**Comments:** 4 pages

The universe is in a continuous change. A change n gets transformed into a change n+1, the change
n+1 into a change n+2 and so on. Clocks measure a frequency, velocity and numerical order of change.
Experimental date confirms that changes and clocks do not run time; they run in quantum space only.
Time is not a part of quantum space. Quantum space itself is timeless. Physical time that is clocks run is
man created physical reality. Space-time is a math model merely. Fundamental arena of the universe is
timeless quantum space. In the timeless quantum space into which massive bodies and elementary
particles move there is no past and no future. Past and future belong to the inner neuronal space-time
that is a result of neuronal activity of the brain.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:0910.0003 [pdf]**
*replaced on 15 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** James Gunasekera

**Comments:** all databases and the source code are included

Some inexplicable statistical variations in Nobel Prize laureates natal
data are reported and discussed, with additional data examined
afterwards. If observed on other similar data, the effect can be
considered as astrobiological or astroanthropological. The observed
strong correlation with Quaoar position is probably caused by the fact
that Quaoar's cycle correlates with a non-trivial solar, lunar or
terrestrial cycle. It is well known that some astronomical conditions
influence human health, but the possibility of influence on long-term
physiological and/or psychological characteristics since birth is still
under question.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[2] **viXra:0910.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 38 pages, TNS ( triple nine society ) presentation as an invited speaker, in
Denver, Colorado, 2009. Has very advanced material with respect to non Gaussian contributions
to cosmological evolution put in, in last 27 slides.

In the first 11 pages, we present the simplest argument possible as to what is known and
not known as to higher dimensions, and how they fit in cosmology. The remaining 27 slides
are back up, to illustrate additional points which may come up in discussions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:0910.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 3 pages, prototype of information to be transferred to Erice School of Nucear physics,
in latex form before November 20, 2009 for Erice Nuclear physics 2009 conference, in "Progress in
Particle and Nuclear physics", special edition.

The consequences of abnormally low lithium abundance in a nearby population II star (which is almost
as old as the supposed population III stars) as represented by HE0107-5240 are that standard BBN
theory is out of sync with observations. Why such a low value for lithium problem in any stars as
due to stellar formation and gravitational perturbation on DM will be discussed. Neutrino-gravitational
wave interaction leads to a damping factor in intensity of relic GW of {1-5*(neutrino density/total
density) +.. }, as shown in CMBR data sets may be a solution.. Analysis the big bang nucleosynthesis
may help explain the anomalously low value of lithium abundance in the star HE0107-5240 which by
orthodox BBN should not exist, as explained by Shigeyama et al. 2003

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology