**Authors:** John A. Gowan

The primordial conservation role of gravity is to provide negative energy sufficient to exactly balance the positive energy of the "Creation Event", so the universe can be born from a state of zero net energy as well as zero net charge (the latter due to the equal admixture of matter with antimatter). All subsequent conservation roles of gravity are secondary to and derived from this original creation-role. (Negative energy is created by the collapse (rather than expansion) of spacetime and by the explicit presence of the time dimension.) Following on from its primary role of providing negative energy during the "Big Bang", gravity plays two further major conservation roles in the evolving universe: 1) Conserving light's spatial entropy drive (light's intrinsic motion), which is accomplished by the gravitational conversion of space to time - converting light's intrinsic motion to time's intrinsic motion. (See: "The Conversion of Space to Time".) 2) Conserving the non-local distributional symmetry of light's energy, which is accomplished by the gravitational conversion of bound to free energy in stars (partially), and (completely) in Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes (see: "Extending Einstein's "Equivalence Principle"). This double role is consequent upon Noether's Theorem and the double gauge role of "velocity c", which simultaneously regulates the entropy drive of free energy (the intrinsic spatial motion of light), and the non-local distributional symmetry of light's energy (vanishing time and the x (distance) spatial dimension). The entropy conservation role operates at all gravitational energy levels, while the symmetry conservation role must reach an energetic threshold before nuclear fusion can begin (in stellar interiors). Noether's Theorem requires the conservation of light's various symmetries: the charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light. Charge conservation = symmetry conservation. All massive, immobile particles (bound electromagnetic energy) bear a gravitational "location" charge (-Gm) which represents the "non-local" distributional, metric, and entropic symmetry debt of the freely moving light (free electromagnetic energy) which created them. (See: "The Connection Between Gravitation, Time, Entropy, and Symmetry".) At all energies, gravity pays the entropy-"interest" on the symmetry debt of matter by converting space to time, thus providing an alternative entropic domain in which charge conservation can have a deferred historical and causal meaning. At high energy levels (as in stars), gravity also begins to pay the "principle" on matter's symmetry debt, converting bound to free energy (vanishing the gravitational field as mass is vanished). The universal spatial expansion is reduced by the initial entropic conversion, as space is converted to time; the original expansion is restored, however, when mass is converted to light, reducing the total gravitational field energy and producing the impression of an "accelerating" universe. "Dark energy" is therefore simply the reduction of the cosmic gravitational field by the conversion of bound to free energy in stars or by any symmetry conservation/restoration process (which may also be operating in "dark matter").

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[v1] 12 Oct 2009

[v2] 3 Oct 2009

[v3] 2012-02-24 15:40:23

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