[99] **viXra:1101.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 31 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 18 pages.

D.Zagier (1984) and K.Inkeri(1990) said[7]: Jiang mathematics is true, but Jiang
determinates the irrational numbers to be very difficult for prime exponent p>2. In 1991
Jiang studies the composite exponents n=15,21,33,...,3p and proves Fermat last theorem. In
1986 Gerhard Frey places Fermat last theorem at the elliptic curve that is Frey curve.
Andrew Wiles studies Frey curve. In 1994 Wiles proves Fermat last theorem.
Conclusion:Jiang proof is direct and simple,but Wiles proof is indirect and complex.

**Category:** Number Theory

[98] **viXra:1101.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 31 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Amrit Srecko Sorli

**Comments:** 5 pages.

Today's physics understands space and time as being coupled in “space-time”; a
fundamental arena in which universe takes place. Einstein himself has never
considered time as being part of space; he was talking about a “four-dimensional
continuum” in which physical events occur. In his Special Theory of Relativity Einstein
used Minkowski's 4-dimensional space that has four coordinates: X1, X2, X3, X4 where
X4 = ict. X4 is not a “temporal coordinate”, X4 is not the time t that is measured with
clocks. In the formula X4 = ict, time t is only a component. Out of this mathematical
formalism one can conclude that in the Special Theory of Relativity time t is not part of
space. Minkowski space is not 3D+T, it is 4D (1).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[97] **viXra:1101.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 31 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** S.V.Akimenko, V.V.Demjanov

**Comments:** 3 pages.

The article shows that in case if the photon is viewed as a particle moving in empty space
the zero value of chemical potential of equilibrium electromagnetic radiation cannot be explained
basing only on first principles of statistical physics. On the contrary, to explain the chemical
potential of equilibrium electromagnetic radiation being equal to zero is rather simple if the photon
is considered as a quasi-particle that is the way to describe collective motion of a system consisting of
particles whose number is a fixed value. Collective motions of the particles of mentioned system are
interpreted in the article as oscillations of an electromagnetic eld that corresponds to observation
data of modern astronomy, according to which the space, that fills the gaps, both between massive
objects and between massive particles forming them, should be attributed to characteristics of a
continuous medium.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[96] **viXra:1101.0099 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-03 01:49:09*

**Authors:** Yongfeng Yang

**Comments:** 48 Pages. 18 figures and 2 tables

Observations show that there are an asteroid belt, four giant planetary ring systems, and countless comets in the solar system. Various scenarios in the past had been presented to account for their origins, but none of them is competent. Asteroid belt located between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter is flat, circular, and parallel to the ecliptic, similarly, planetary ring located between the orbits of satellites is also flat, circular, and approximately parallel to planetary equatorial plane. This resemblance implies that both asteroid belt and planetary ring are likely to derive from a common physical process. Here we propose 5 significantly disruptive collisions of the two bodies of binary planetary (satellite) systems in the history of the solar system to be responsible for the formation of asteroid belt and giant planets’ ring systems. In each collision the two bodies of a binary system are firstly shattered into fragments and ejected towards all around, but due to the constraint of a hierarchical two-body gravitation (non-Newton’s gravitation), the barycenter of initial binary system is survived in the collision, and the fragments are still organized in a series of hierarchical two-body systems. As inferred from Galileo’s experiment of projectile, the fragments run some parabolic trajectories around the collisional origin, but at the same time the survived barycenter continues to orbit and drag the fragments to move by means of the barycenters of a series of two-body systems, by which nearby fragments are confined to gradually fall on a circular belt (ring). Some of the falling fragments are further shattered into very small fragments to form independent belts (rings). The collision of the two bodies of a binary planetary system gives birth to asteroid belt, while the collision between the two bodies of a binary satellite system gives birth to a planetary ring system. Further fragments (relative to the collisional origin) in travel bombard the objects they encounter and leave craters on the surfaces. Due to the motions of the survived barycenter around the Sun (giant planet) and giant planet around the Sun, these further fragments are being brought to run through the solar system back and forth, this results in the advent of comets when close enough to the Sun (if they hold icy materials), and appearance of meteors when close enough to the Earth, some of the fragments occasionally landed on the surfaces of planets and satellites and become meteorites.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[95] **viXra:1101.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 30 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 72 pages. What was to be delivered at GRACO, Luxor, Egypt, and which will be
delivered ~ 1 to 2 weeks later. At the same conference.

Octonium gravity, its break down, speculations as to semi classical
nature of gravitons, plus re capitulation of how gravitons could be an effective
Dark Energy candidate
a billion years ago presented. Plus much more.; Many optional slides included

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[94] **viXra:1101.0096 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-09 17:02:56*

**Authors:** Dan Visser

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper postulates a theoretical structure within entangled photons. The postulate is introduced within the framework of the cosmological Twin-Tori Model (TTM). Related papers are to be found in viXra[1,2,3,4,5,6]. After generally having derived equations and interpretations, a mass (mt) per 2 [rad] is calculated on 2.6 x 10^-34 [(J.s) m^2 / s]. This is a tiny (sub-quantum) spin, which moves forward in a surface-stream of the torus geometry that connects the entangled photons. The equivalent relativistic energy of (mt) has an energy much smaller than the equivalent energy of the Planck-mass (in Joule), which suggests a subdivision of approximately 0.73 x10^43 surfaces within (which means below) the Planck-scale. If a photon changes spin than the entangled photon could follow this change by means of that surface-structure within the torus geometry (per 2 rad]), while being an sub-quantum information-flux for the establishment of the entanglement in general. This refines time in the TTM and relates it to time in Einstein’s energy-tensor-equation.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[93] **viXra:1101.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Yilun Shang

**Comments:** 5 pages

An edge-colored graph G is rainbow edge-connected if any two vertices are connected
by a path whose edges have distinct colors. The rainbow connection of a connected
graph G, denoted by rc(G), is the smallest number of colors that are needed in
order to make G rainbow connected. Similarly, a vertex-colored graph G is rainbow
vertex-connected if any two vertices are connected by a path whose internal vertices
have distinct colors. The rainbow vertex-connection of a connected graph G, denoted
by rvc(G), is the smallest number of colors that are needed in order to make G rainbow
vertex-connected. We prove that both rc(G) and rvc(G) have sharp concentration in
classical random graph model G(n, p).

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[92] **viXra:1101.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** J. Dunning-Davies

**Comments:** 2 pages

This note draws attention to recent work by Nobel Prize Winner Luc Montagnier
which seems to offer experimental support for the theoretical work reviewed in an earlier
posting on this site. Once again, electromagnetic effects are introduced in an attempt to
offer an acceptable explanation for some initially surprising experimental results.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[91] **viXra:1101.0093 [pdf]**
*replaced on 31 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Jongsoo Park

**Comments:** 18 pages, In Korean

Fast Approximation of *π* Using Regular Polyon

**Category:** Geometry

[90] **viXra:1101.0092 [pdf]**
*replaced on 4 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Marco Ripà

**Comments:** This paper is 17 pages long and the Italian version has already been published
here: (http://www.rudimathematici.com/bookshelf/bookshelfdb.php).

The paper shows that the only possible prime terms of the “consecutive sequence”
(1,12,123,1234...) represent of the total, and their structure is explicited. This outcome is
then extended to every permutation of their figures. The previous result is applied to a
consistent subset of elements belonging to the circular sequence (resulting from the consecutive
one), identifying moreover the 31 first primes. Therefore, a criterion is illustrated (further
extendible) that progressively reduces the numerousness of the “candidate prime numbers”.
Section 3.3 is devoted to the solution of a similar problem. The last section introduces a
new sequence which, although much larger, has the same properties as the previous ones, and
it also proposes a few open problems.

**Category:** Number Theory

[89] **viXra:1101.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 18 pages

1637 Fermat wrote: “It is impossible to separate a cube into two cubes, or a biquadrate
into two biquadrates, or in general any power higher than the second into powers of like degree: I
have discovered a truly marvelous proof, which this margin is too small to contain.” (6)

**Category:** Number Theory

[88] **viXra:1101.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 18 pages

1637 Fermat wrote: “It is impossible to separate a cube into two cubes, or a biquadrate
into two biquadrates, or in general any power higher than the second into powers of like degree: I
have discovered a truly marvelous proof, which this margin is too small to contain.” (5)

**Category:** Number Theory

[87] **viXra:1101.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 20 pages

1637 Fermat wrote: “It is impossible to separate a cube into two cubes, or a biquadrate
into two biquadrates, or in general any power higher than the second into powers of like degree: I
have discovered a truly marvelous proof, which this margin is too small to contain.” (4)

**Category:** Number Theory

[86] **viXra:1101.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Vladimir F. Tamari

**Comments:** 11 pages

In Section 1 the three words comprising the question “Is Reality Digital or
Analog” <D/A?> are defined further. In Section 2 Key aspects of physics are probed
using <D/A?> and contradictions pointed out. The incompatibility of an analog Gravity
and an analog-digital Quantum Mechanics are traced back to Einstein’s point-photon and
his flexible spacetime. Without a unified theory it is fruitless to decide about the basic
makeup of the universe. Space and Time, Electromagnetic Radiation, Matter and Gravity, and
Quantum Mechanics in general are examined with <D/A?>. In Section 3 <D/A?> is answered
within a new Beautiful Universe model ToE ‘Theory of Everything’ proposed from first
principles. A universal lattice of identical spherically-symmetrical interacting dielectric
nodes exchanging angular momentum through magnetic induction, in units of Planck’s
constant (h) is proposed. The 3 space dimensions and time, vacuum, matter, radiation,
dark energy and dark matter are derived from the causal, local self-assembly and
Hamiltonian evolution through interactions between neighboring nodes. Each node represents
a miniature Bloch sphere, at a variable rate depending on node rates of rotation, and the
orientation of their axis. The model explains matter as nested polyhedral patterns of nodes
locked by tensegrity yet capable of soliton-like translation. Quantum effects are the result
of the diffusion of momentum in a wave pattern through the lattice. Gravitational potential
equals node rotation, but its force is due to the spring-like twisting geometry of the node
axes in the regions of space between matter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[85] **viXra:1101.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Huping Hu, Maoxin Wu

**Comments:** 6 pages

In this short paper, the authors briefly discuss their preliminary thoughts on the
coding of DNA and the hexagrams of I Ching based on the principle of existence. It is shown
that one may mathematically generate the DNA codes from the principle of existence. It is
further shown that one may also mathematically generate the hexagrams of Chinese I Ching from
the principle of existence.

**Category:** Number Theory

[84] **viXra:1101.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 21 pages

In 1637 Fermat wrote: “It is impossible to separate a cube into two cubes, or a biquadrate
into two biquadrates, or in general any power higher than the second into powers of like degree: I
have discovered a truly marvelous proof, which this margin is too small to contain.”

**Category:** Number Theory

[83] **viXra:1101.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 50 pages

Although both Alcubierre and Natario Spacetimes belongs to the same family of Einstein Field
Equations of General Relativity and both have many resemblances between each other ,the Energy
Density distribution in the Alcubierre Warp Drive is different than the one found in the Natario Warp
Drive.The Horizons will arise in both Spacetimes when approaching Superluminal(Warp) speeds however
due to a different distribution of Energy Density the Natario Warp Drive behaves slightly different when
compared to the Alcubierre one. The major differences between the Natario and Alcubierre Warp Drive
Spacetimes occurs when we study the Infinite Doppler Blueshifts that affect the Alcubierre Spacetime
but not affect the Natario one because while in Alcubierre Spacetime the Negative Energy is distributed
in a toroidal region above and below the ship perpendicular to the direction of the motion while in front
of the ship.the space is empty having nothing to prevent a photon to reach the Horizon because in this
case the Horizon lies on empty space,in the Natario Spacetime the Energy Density is distributed in a
spherical shell that covers the entire ship and a photon sent to the front will be deflected by this shell
of Negative Energy before reaching the Horizon because the Horizon also lies inside this shell and not
on ”empty” space.This shell avoids the occurrence of Infinite Doppler Blueshifts in the Natario Warp
Drive Spacetime.We examine in this work the major differences between both Natario and Alcubierre
Spacetimes outlining the repulsive character of the Negative Energy Density.The creation of a Warp
Bubble in Alcubierre or Natario Spacetimes is beyond the scope of Classical General Relativity and will
have to wait until the arrival of a real Quantum Gravity theory that must encompass Superluminal
Non-Local Quantum Entanglement Effects in order to deal with the Horizon problem added to the
Geometrical features of Classical General Relativity plus it must also provide a way to generate large
outputs of Negative Energy Densities.Since this theory is ahead of our scientific capabilities,we discuss
in the end of this work an approach that could be performed by our science in a short period of term.to
increase our knowledge about the Warp Drive as a Dynamical Spacetime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[82] **viXra:1101.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Charles B. Leffert

**Comments:** 8 pages 3 figures

In 1998-1999 two teams of astronomers, measuring the radiation from exploding
supernova Ia (SNIa) stars, found that their predicted curves fell short of the measured
values of magnitude m, or distance modulus m-M, for redshift z ~0.5 – 1.0. Instead of
announcing incomplete theoretical models, and searching for an increase in the
luminosity distance dL, they used their free parameters and added more physical content
to our universe of either Einstein’s rejected lambda or dark energy, to better fit the data.
Such added contents also added acceleration to the expansion rate of our universe. The
unwise acceptance of this added acceleration by the scientific community, now known as
the acceleration paradigm shift, will become one of the greatest, and more costly,
blunders of science.
It so happened in 1993, that this author had started the development of a new nonrelativistic
model of the universe and by 1998 could check his new model for its
prediction of the magnitude of the SNIA data near redshift z ~ 1. Using the new
computer model, a check on the first reported data, indicated the new model could predict
the data with no addition of either lambda or dark energy. As the development of the
author’s model continued, a long 20 year effort began to try to halt and reverse the
acceleration paradigm. This paper describes the record of those efforts, and it adds
another face of experience to most all of the major points of the “Why viXra?”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[81] **viXra:1101.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 136 pages, translated from French to English

This book is addressed to College honor students, researchers, and professors.
It contains 136 original problems published by the author in various scientific journals around the world.
The problems could be used to preparing for courses, exams, and Olympiads in mathematics.
Many of these have a generalized form.
For each problem we provide a detailed solution.
I was a professeur coopérant between 1982-1984, teaching mathematics in French language at Lycée Sidi EL Hassan Lyoussi in Sefrou, Province de Fès, Morocco.
I used many of these problems for selecting and training, together with other Moroccan professors, in Rabat city, of the Moroccan student team for the International Olympiad of Mathematics in Paris, France, 1983.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[80] **viXra:1101.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Ir J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 3 pages

A C# class library is described that offers an efficient and secure way of
object oriented data transfer and data storage. The classes convert a relational database
in an effective object
oriented database and a file system in an object oriented data storage and transfer system.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[79] **viXra:1101.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** J. Dunning-Davies

**Comments:** 5 pages

Attention is drawn to a recent article, which appeared in the International Journal
of Quantum Chemistry, discussing the amount of largely unrecognised structure present in water.
This theoretical article supports and amplifies experimental work published by Benveniste in
the journal Nature in 1988. The possible consequences for a solid scientific foundation for
homeopathy are immediately obvious, although a great deal more work is necessary in order to be
able to present a totally watertight justification for homeopathic remedies.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[78] **viXra:1101.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 35 pages

In 1637 Fermat wrote: “It is impossible to separate a cube into two cubes, or a biquadrate
into two biquadrates, or in general any power higher than the second into powers of like degree: I
have discovered a truly marvelous proof, which this margin is too small to contain.”
This means: (3)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[77] **viXra:1101.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 40 pages

In 1637 Fermat wrote: “It is impossible to separate a cube into two cubes, or a biquadrate
into two biquadrates, or in general any power higher than the second into powers of like degree: I
have discovered a truly marvelous proof, which this margin is too small to contain.”
This means: (2)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[76] **viXra:1101.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 48 pages

In 1637 Fermat wrote: “It is impossible to separate a cube into two cubes, or a biquadrate
into two biquadrates, or in general any power higher than the second into powers of like degree: I
have discovered a truly marvelous proof, which this margin is too small to contain.”
This means:

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[75] **viXra:1101.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Jin He

**Comments:** 9 pages

Mach Principle presents the absolute universe. For example, when you stand on the ground
and relaxed, your arms fall down naturally. However, if you rotate your body then your arms
are lifted up as the rotation is faster and faster. Mach principle is that the matter of the whole
universe can affect local dynamic systems. That is, the matter of the whole universe sets up
the local absolute reference frames. However, both the theories of general relativity and Big
Bang are against the absolute reference frames of Mach Principle. Here I present a simple
model of flat universe which is consistent to most cosmic laws, and Mach Principle is recovered
amazingly.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[74] **viXra:1101.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Jin He

**Comments:** 21 pages

The starting point of quantum mechanics is the classical algebraic formula connecting
energy to momentum: energy is proportional to the squared momentum. As a result,
energy and momentum do not be treated equally. The wave equation of quantum mechanics
(a differential equation) results from the replacement of the classical energy quantity with the
derivative with time and the replacement of the momentum quantity with the derivative with
space. Both replacements have a scale factor that is the Planck constant. Similar to the classical
formula, the wave equation does not treat time and space equally, and the Planck constant
is not canceled out from both sides of the equation. That is, Planck constant remains which
describes the microscopic world. My theory of gravity is the local bending of background spacetime
based on Mach principle which, as suggested by Einstein, is described by a classical form
of second order treating time and space equally. Therefore, the Planck constant is completely
canceled out in the wave equation. In other words, the quantization of gravity does not need the
Planck constant. This is because gravity obeys Equivalence Principle. But I keep the scale factor
which describes the hierarchical structure of local universe as suggested by Laurent Nottale.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[73] **viXra:1101.0074 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-01-07 13:20:12*

**Authors:** Adam G. Freeman

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

If matter has a spherical or elliptical time-like spacetime, through geometrical symmetry it makes sense that anti-matter, the converse of matter, has a hyberbolic space-like spacetime. The author theorizes that such a space-like spacetime is the spacetime for anti-matter and for the natural phenomena referred to as black holes. Also such a spacetime shortens spacetime distances and could eventually lead to feasible space travel.
To support the theory here is presented an extension to the Schwarzschild derivation for the Einstein vacuum field equations corresponding to the gravitational field surrounding a pseudo-spherical point mass. The same restrictions employed by Schwarzschild are used here but an interesting property of the space-time is elicited in that it is revealed to be gravitationally repulsive to matter as opposed to gravitationally attractive. The pseudo-sphere point mass solution complements the spherical Schwarzschild solution and provides an elegant symmetry to the original Schwarzschild solution. Also via Occam’s razor, this theory could potentially reduce the notion of dark or exotic matter to familiar anti-matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[72] **viXra:1101.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Nassim Abbas

**Comments:** 89 pages

La multiplication des satellites de télédétection et l’utilisation de plusieurs capteurs
pour l’observation de la terre ont permis l’acquisition d’une multitude d’images
présentant des caractéristiques spatiale, spectrale et temporelle différentes.
L’extraction des informations utiles, liées à la nature physique des surfaces
observées, fait appel à différentes techniques, approches et méthodes de traitement
d’images numériques. Parmi ces procédures figure la fusion de données. Cette
méthode permet d’exploiter le caractère redondant et complémentaire contenu dans
les données satellitaires et doit prendre en compte des sources d’information de plus
en plus nombreuses et variées.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[71] **viXra:1101.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Jaedoek Kim, Youngmi Kim, Eun Hwan Roh

**Comments:** 7 pages

We introduce the notion of Smarandache GT-algebras,
and the notion of Smarandache GT-Filters of the Smarandache
GT-algebra related to the Tarski algebra, and related some properties
are investigated.

**Category:** Algebra

[70] **viXra:1101.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Petru Minut

**Comments:** 4 pages

In 1980, F.SMARANDACHE introduced (see [5]) the function ...

**Category:** Number Theory

[69] **viXra:1101.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Guo Xiaoyan, Yuan Xia

**Comments:** 147 pages, in Chinese

New Progress on
Smarandache Problems Research

**Category:** Number Theory

[68] **viXra:1101.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Smita Rajpal, Pariza Kamboj

**Comments:** 5 pages

In this paper authors have presented a method of
normalizing a relational schema with Neutrosophic attributes into
1NF.This Method is called as Neutrosophic-First Normal
Form(1NF(N)) a revision of First normal Form in Relational
database. Authors are taking the Neutrosophic Relational database
[3, 1] which is the extension of Fuzzy and Vague database to define
the Neutrosophic- First Normal form.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[67] **viXra:1101.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Don Jojan

**Comments:** 4 pages

Here I am presenting the construction of an angle of 50^{o}
without using a compass or a protractor.

**Category:** Geometry

[66] **viXra:1101.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Don Jojan

**Comments:** 4 pages

Here I am presenting the construction of an angle of 120^{o}
without using a compass or a protractor.

**Category:** Geometry

[65] **viXra:1101.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Charles B. Leffert

**Comments:** 9 pages, 4 figures

There are no such entities as dark matter or dark energy and, indeed, there can be no
future for our universe with an accelerated rate of expansion. A new closed model for the
expansion of our universe predicts correctly all astronomical measurements so far
presented with no free parameters for adjustments to fit the data. Our universe is more
complex than anticipated by Einstein. This has already been made clear by the inability
to unify quantum physics with classical physics, The many problems encountered by
general relativity (GR) in trying to account for the expansion also attest to that
complexity and in particular, the collapse of the universe with the third (k = 1) option of
the Friedmann equations. There can be only one correct model, so the vision of the new
expansion model began with the complete abandonment of GR and a search for what
makes our universe expand. The reality of space and its production rate takes center
stage in the new model. New concepts of geometry and higher-dimensional spaces with
a new arrow of time came into being which solved many other long-standing
fundamental problems. Only algebra and beginning calculus were needed to develop the
new model. The new model is described in detail in a new self-published Book 3 just
coming off the press and the highlights are described in the following paper. Normally
cosmology papers are written about incomplete models with free parameters and the
authors minimize the number of equations. The opposite approach was used for the
closed model in this Book 3. In 112 pages, nine present fixed data are presented with 50
equations and 58 figures so the reader could reproduce any, or all, of the predictions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[64] **viXra:1101.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Ir J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 7 pages

This paper analyses the associative capabilities of the brain and takes the consequences of that capability.

**Category:** Mind Science

[63] **viXra:1101.0064 [pdf]**
*replaced on 31 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Ir J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 7 pages

Complexity plays an important role in all kinds of human activity as well as in nature.
Complexity can be defined in terms of the number of relations that must be handled accounted
relative to the number of potential relations. Modularization is an efficient methodology that
helps reducing the number of relevant relations. It has the property that it becomes more
efficient when the availability and the diversity of modules that can be coupled increase.
Its efficiency can grow exponentially when modules can be generated out of simpler modules.
In nature this effect leads to the generation of very complex creatures, such as intelligent
species. In fact it is possible to interpret this tendency as a new law of nature.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[62] **viXra:1101.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 167 pages

In this book we introduce the notion of interval semigroups
using intervals of the form [0, a], a is real. Several types of
interval semigroups like fuzzy interval semigroups, interval
symmetric semigroups, special symmetric interval semigroups,
interval matrix semigroups and interval polynomial semigroups
are defined and discussed. This book has eight chapters.
The main feature of this book is that we suggest 241
problems in the eighth chapter. In this book the authors have
defined 29 new concepts and illustrates them with 231
examples. Certainly this will find several applications.
The authors deeply acknowledge Dr. Kandasamy for the
proof reading and Meena and Kama for the formatting and
designing of the book.

**Category:** Algebra

[61] **viXra:1101.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Ir J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 20 pages

The current software generation process is rotten.
This paper analyses why that is the case and what can be done about it.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[60] **viXra:1101.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Ir J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 6 pages

This is the account of the course of a project that had the aim to improve
the efficiency of embedded software generation with several orders of magnitude. All
factors that determined the success of the project are treated honestly and in detail.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[59] **viXra:1101.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Elemér E Rosinger

**Comments:** 4 pages

It is suggested that, unlike the long practiced traditional superficial
approaches to human issues, like those pursued by Krugman among
many others, one should give serious consideration to the frequent fact
that individuals coming from the same family background, thus with
the same racial, ethnic, cultural, economic and social initial conditions,
often diverge immensely in their adult lives across ranges between
honest work and crime, extremist and moderate politics, or atheism and
religion, among others. Presently, no social, political or economics
science deals in the least with that issue.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[58] **viXra:1101.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Xianzhao Zhong

**Comments:** 8 pages

When a charged particle couples through its field with another
particle, and based on the dissimilar coupling strengths,it produces the 3
different potential functions ', namely, the Coulomb potential, weak coupling
potential and Yukawa potential. The 3 potentials show the common characteristics:
They are all periodic functions in time-space. Under the influence
of those potentials, a particle takes periodic motions in space. The author
notes that the electric field strength of an isolated charged particle would not
show the divergent phenomenon.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[57] **viXra:1101.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Xianzhao Zhong

**Comments:** 8 pages

When discussing the free electromagnetic field, the author takes
the electric field and magnetic field as two physical events on the time-space
coordinate system. In line with the restricted theory of relativity, the author
discusses the particle characteristics of the free electromagnetic field, and
deems that the electromagnetic particle and the form of particle-captured
energy are in perfect conformity with the Planck quantum assumption. In
the ending part of the paper, the author has discussed the value of action
exerted by dissimilar particles.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[56] **viXra:1101.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Xianzhao Zhong

**Comments:** 8 pages

Starting from the Gauss field equation, the author of this paper
sets up a group of electromagnetic field functions and a continuity equation
which depicts the electric and magnetic fields. This group of equations is
in perfect conformity with the Maxwell equation. By using these function
groups we derived another group of wave equation of the free electromagnetic
field, in which the wave amplitude is the function of frequency ! and wave
number k.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[55] **viXra:1101.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 2 pages

In 1923 Louis de Broglie introduced the notion of matter waves, the particle-wave duality of matter which is
the reciprocal extension of the notion of the particle-wave duality of light. The wave nature of matter is
evidently a "memory" of its origin in light, much as the particle aspect of light suggests its capacity to create
matter. Such dualities are part of the connective tissue of the Cosmos and its two principle energy forms,
light and matter (free and bound electromagnetic energy). The less massive the particle, the more strongly is
its wave nature expressed. The wave nature of the tiny electron is very pronounced, as is famously
demonstrated by the interference phenomena of the canonical 2-slit experiment of quantum mechanics. In
the extreme case of neutrinos, which apparently have almost no mass, their wave nature completely
dominates their particle nature. However, as particles become heavier and more massive, their wave nature
becomes rapidly overwhelmed, until for ordinary macroscopic masses to which we are sensible it is
completely obscured.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[54] **viXra:1101.0055 [pdf]**
*replaced on 18 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Ir J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 268 pages

When physics must be based on an axiomatic foundation then the law set of traditional
quantum logic is a valid candidate. However, at first sight, these axioms do not treat physical
fields and they do not treat dynamics. It only prescribes the static relations that exist between
quantum logical propositions that treat static subjects. These subjects are considered to be physical
subjects or their properties. Amongst these propositions statements exist that describe everything
that can be said about the static condition of a given physical item. Such propositions represent that item.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[53] **viXra:1101.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-23 03:31:47*

**Authors:** G. G. Nyambuya

**Comments:** 16 Pages. This paper solves the Lambda-Parameter problem of the the theory laid MNRAS, 403, 1381-1391

In Newtonian gravitational physics, as currently understood, the spin of a gravitating body has no effect on the nature of the gravitational field emergent from this gravitating body. This position has been questioned by the Azimuthally Symmetric Theory of Gravitation (ASTG-model; in Nyambuya $2010$). From the ASTG-model -- which is a theory resulting from the consideration of the azimuthally symmetric solutions of the well known and well accepted Poisson-Laplace equation for gravitation, it has been argued that it is possible to explain the unexpected perihelion shift of Solar planetary orbits. However, as it stands in the present, the ASTG-model suffers from the apparent diabolic defect that there are unknown parameters ($\lambda$'s) in the theory that up to now have not been able to be adequately deduced from theory. If this defect is not taken care of, it would consume the theory altogether, bringing it to a complete standstill, to nothing but an obsolete theory. Effort in resolving this defect has been made in the genesis reading of the theory \textit{i.e.} in \cite{nyambuya10a}. This initial effort in trying to resolve this problem is not complete. In this short reading, we present what we believe is a significant improvement to the resolution of this problem. If this effort proves itself correct, then the ASTG-model is set on a sure pedal to make predictions without having to relay on observations to deduce these unknown parameters. Other than resolving the $\lambda$-parameter problem, this reading is designed to serve as an exposition of the ASTG-model as it currently stands.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[52] **viXra:1101.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Jin He

**Comments:** 24 pages

What is human life? From the material sense, it is a material structure composed of
oxygen, carbon and other atoms. From the biological point of view, it is a kind of advanced animal
that understands the natural world, recognizes and creates products. In the last tens of thousands of
years, human beings created languages and tools, and achieved a near-perfect understanding of the
microscopic world of elementary particles. However, in the 21st century, mankind has experienced
irreversible crises such as environmental pollution, erratic weather, food shortage, and population
explosion. However, the crisis is also an opportunity. In the complexity of this world, a Chinese
scientist opened a window for the understanding of human beings ourselves as well as the universe.
The Earth is the direct environment for the survival of human life, but the root cause of human
creation is Milky Way. Surprisingly enough, the life of galaxies is determined by a cubic algebraic
equation. Therefore, the general public all have the potential to understand the lives of galaxies.
Coincidentally, with human invention of computers, the general public has the potential to run the
simple computer program (See Appendix of this paper) to generate and study galaxy snowflake chart
(a simple graph expressing the internal structure of galaxies). Therefore, we see the hope of mankind:
A harmonic general-public administrated society of new civilization rather than controlled by a few
elites, will inevitably be born!

**Category:** Astrophysics

[51] **viXra:1101.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Giuliano Bettini

**Comments:** 10 pages

In a preceding paper we introduced a conjecture: the classification of the 32 crystal classes with 5
bits. In the present paper we will review our preceding result, and continue showing some further
interesting issues. In the paper, it is argued that bits should be identified with five basic unknown
symmetries generating these 32 groups. Probably it is not merely a coincidence that 32 means 5
bits. And probably is it not merely a coincidence that each complete subset of bits (properties)
means the holohedry of a crystal system; and each new bit means a new crystal system.
The purpose of this article was of course not to draw a conclusive theory, but to suggest ideas that,
we hope, will be useful for researchers in mathematics, group theory and crystallography.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[50] **viXra:1101.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Tong Xin Ping

**Comments:** 3 pages

1-Number Sieve: It is the Eratosthenes’-Number Sieve and the da Silva-Sylvester
formula. 2-Number Sieve: We can obtain result of Goldbach’ conjecture and the number of
solutions of Goldbach problem. 3-Number Sieve: We can obtain result p_{3} in N= p_{3}+p_{i} P_{1}
and 3-Inclusion-exclusion formula.

**Category:** Number Theory

[49] **viXra:1101.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 15 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** V. Christianto

**Comments:** 13 pages

Despite the use of Bohr radius formula to predict celestial
quantization has led to numerous verified observations, the cosmological
origin of this macroquantization remains an open question. In this article
various plausible approaches are discussed. Further observation to verify or
refute this proposition is recommended, in particular for exoplanets.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[48] **viXra:1101.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 15 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** John L. Haller Jr.

**Comments:** 4 pages

We explore the random motion of a quantum free particle and re-introduce an
additional term to the textbook solution for the variance. Prior experiments could have
missed this term yet it should be possible to test the hypothesis. A quadratic potential
energy derived from the self gravitational potential of the particle is hypothesized
resulting in the well known quantum harmonic oscillator in the special condition that
the particle rests exactly in the ground state, i.e. hω_{0} = k_{B}T Radiation is found trapped in
this gravitational potential and when the particle carries the reduced Planck mass the
density of radiation is exactly that of the black body. We argue this “dark” particle is
responsible for the open question of dark energy and has a relic density of only 17% more
than the commonly accepted value.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[47] **viXra:1101.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** R. Wayte

**Comments:** 19 pages

The observed periodicity of intrinsic-redshift in galaxies and associated QSOs
has been explained by using the previous theory of a gravito-cordic field for galaxies. The
quantisation period is a function of the atomic fine structure constant and it depends upon
an action principle operating around galactic orbits and QSOs, or between field galaxies.
The calculated separations of many QSO-galaxy pairs have been found to fit a diffusion
law distribution, which suggests that associated QSOs were ejected from parent galaxies.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[46] **viXra:1101.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 117 pages

Using Jiang function we are able to prove almost all prime problems in prime distribution. This
is the Book proof. No great mathematicians study prime problems and prove Riemann
hypothesis in AIM, CLAYMI, IAS, THES, MPIM, MSRI. In this paper using Jiang function
J_{2} (ω) we prove that the new prime theorems (1041)-(1090) contain infinitely many prime
solutions and no prime solutions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[45] **viXra:1101.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Don Jojan

**Comments:** 4 pages

Here I am presenting the construction of an angle of 60^{o} without using a compass or a protractor.

**Category:** Geometry

[44] **viXra:1101.0045 [pdf]**
*replaced on 13 May 2011*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 17 pages

Logical foundation for quantum theory is considered. I claim that
quantum theory correctly represents Nature when mathematical physics embraces
and indeed features, logical anomalies inherent in pure mathematics.
This approach links undecidability in arithmetic with the logic of quantum
experiments. The undecidablity occupies an algebraic environment which is
the missing foundation for the 3-valued logic predicted by Hans Reichenbach,
shown by him to resolve `causal anomalies' of quantum mechanics, such as:
inconsistency between prepared and measured states, complementarity between
pairs of observables, and the EPR-paradox of action at a distance.
Arithmetic basic to mathematical physics, is presented formally as a logical
system consisting of axioms and propositions. Of special interest are all
propositions asserting the existence of particular numbers. All numbers satisfying
the axioms permeate the arithmetic indistinguishably, but these logically partition
into two distinct sets: numbers whose existence the axioms determine by proof,
and numbers whose existence axioms cannot determine, being neither provable
nor negatable.
Failure of mathematical physics to incorporate this logical distinction is seen
as reason for quantum theory being logically at odds with quantum experiments.
Nature is interpreted as having rules isomorphic to the abovementioned axioms
with these governing arithmetical combinations of necessary and possible values or
effects in experiments. Soundness and Completeness theorems from mathematical
logic emerge as profoundly fundamental principles for quantum theory, making
good intuitive sense of the subject.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[43] **viXra:1101.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Richard D. Ruquist

**Comments:** 9 pages, Retired physicist, Grafton, Massachusetts, USA

A consequence of 10d supersymmetric string theory is the existence of a
universal subspace called the Calabi-Yau Compact Manifold (CYCM) which is composed
of a 3D array of discrete units of 6d compactified space. The recent astronomical
evidence that Sommerfeld's fine-structure constant varies slightly across the visible
universe (from north to south in an Earth perspective) suggests that the flux windings
in the discrete 10^-30 cm diameter CYCM units may vary similarly across the universe.
String theorists estimate that the flux has 10 quantum states while winding through the
500 or so holes in each CYCM unit, so that there are about 10^500 possible windings,
the so-called string landscape. Such a large number is more than enough possible windings
to fill many good size universes with distinct CYCM units. If the discrete and distinct
CYCM units are also numerable, they may have the properties of a Peano arithmetic and
possibly manifest an invisible emergent collective cosmic consciousness that permeates
the entire universe, separate from human physical consciousness.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[42] **viXra:1101.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Janko Kokosar

**Comments:** Pages.

Sergio Rojas wrote an article about derivation of classical harmonic
oscillator. This derivation is more clear for students. Some sentences are added here
which still more visualize his derivation. A derivation of the Pythagorean theorem from
kinetic energy law is added. Such derivations are a way, how to improve visualization
of fundamental theories of physics, and to visualize their derivations and problems.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[41] **viXra:1101.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Roald C. Maximo

**Comments:** 7 pages

What many people do not realize is that in the root of all motion detection by means of sound or
electromagnetic waves, be it by interferometry or direct wave length measurements, there is, invariably, the
all important Doppler effect. Experimenters who conducted experiments in interferometry, which involve
phase comparisons, resorted frequently to a naive analogy with boats in river flows to substantiate their
calculations.That analogy does not take into account that the source and observer are moving together in the
same direction. And that makes all the difference! Apparently, the prime importance of the Doppler effect
has been consistently neglected. Thinking in terms of Doppler makes things easier!. So, let's, firstly, try to
bring it back to its rightful stand.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1101.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 22 pages, submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras (AACA).

A Clifford Cl(5,C) Unified Gauge Field Theory of Conformal Gravity,
Maxwell and U(4)xU(4) Yang-Mills in 4D is rigorously presented extending
our results in prior work. The Cl(5,C) = Cl(4,C)⊕Cl(4,C) algebraic
structure of the Conformal Gravity, Maxwell and U(4)xU(4) Yang-Mills
unification program advanced in this work is that the group structure
given by the direct products U(2, 2)xU(4)xU(4) = [SU(2, 2)]_{spacetime}x
[U(1) x U(4) x U(4)]_{internal} is ultimately tied down to four-dimensions
and does not violate the Coleman-Mandula theorem because the spacetime
symmetries (conformal group SU(2, 2) in the absence of a mass gap,
Poincare group when there is mass gap) do not mix with the internal symmetries.
Similar considerations apply to the supersymmetric case when
the symmetry group structure is given by the direct product of the superconformal
group (in the absence of a mass gap) with an internal symmetry
group so that the Haag-Lopuszanski-Sohnius theorem is not violated. A
generalization of the de Sitter and Anti de Sitter gravitational theories
based on the gauging of the Cl(4, 1,R),Cl(3, 2,R) algebras follows. We
conclude with a few remarks about the complex extensions of the Metric
Affine theories of Gravity (MAG) based on GL(4,C) x_{s} C^{4}, the realizations
of twistors and the N = 1 superconformal su(2, 2|1) algebra purely in
terms of Clifford algebras and their plausible role in Witten’s formulation
of perturbative N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory in terms of twistor-string
variables.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[39] **viXra:1101.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** R. Wayte

**Comments:** 19 pages

A quantisation-field model has been developed to explain the
general dependence of angular momentum on mass squared of astronomical
bodies. The gravito-cordic field is proposed as a real controlling force acting
azimuthally, in harmony with normal gravity acting radially, to encourage
long-term stability of astronomical systems. The quantisation of the field
involves a gravitational de Broglie wavelength and associated force, which
organises material into stable orbits. Optimum coupling between the field and
orbiting material occurs for a specific velocity and spatial dimensions, as
derived by way of electromagnetic theory. For every system, the atomic fine
structure constant (α ~ 1/137) has appeared as the major factor.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[38] **viXra:1101.0039 [pdf]**
*replaced on 13 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Ron Bourgoin

**Comments:** 3 pages

With a little help from the wave equation, we show that
the square of the first derivative of the psi-function with
respect to time is an energy density. We then use potential
and electromagnetic theories to develop special relativity’s
mass-energy relation.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[37] **viXra:1101.0038 [pdf]**
*replaced on 24 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** A. Beckwith, F.Y. Li, N. Yang, J. Dickau, G. Stephenson, L. Glinka, R. Baker

**Comments:** 18 pages, 2 figures. Meant as a companion piece to the following vixra document, namely
http://vixra.org/abs/1101.0017 which has been submitted for possible
inclusion as to a book chapter by nova book company of a cosmology volume

In the inaugural ICG meeting, on August 11, 2007 at Penn State, Roger Penrose[1] gave a
presentation about an alternative to cyclic cosmological models, which needs experimental tests for
falsifiabity. As discussed by Beckwith, in EJTP [2], Penrose brought up how a De Albertain wave equation,
as simplified in flat space could lead to a rising vacuum nucleation field which would engender the pop up
behavior as sought in most emergent field models of gravity. The scalar field pop up with certain
qualifications is not so startling in itself. Now for the radical extension Penrose brought to bear. Penrose
asserted in his ICG lecture that there was a good chance that there was no collapse in future events, but that
matter would be eventually sucked up by ‘millions’ of black holes, creating a clean up of most interstellar
matter. The issue to be brought up is how to come up with a mapping for re combination of the black hole
collected material, for a big bang. A topic which was not solved by Penrose. We also discuss a criteria for a
first order phase transition which would be a feed into a new universe, which awaits experimental
confirmation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1101.0037 [pdf]**
*replaced on 12 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Ke Xiao

**Comments:** 5 pages

The fine structure constant α = e^{2}/hc ~ 1/137.036 and the blackbody
radiation constant α_{R} = e^{2}(a_{R}/k^{4}_{B})^{1/3} ~ 1/157.555
are linked by prime numbers. The blackbody radiation constant is a new method to measure
the fine structure constant. It also links the fine structure constant to the
Boltzmann constant.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[35] **viXra:1101.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Elemér E Rosinger

**Comments:** 4 pages

It is suggested that psychological aspects of the behaviour of the
general population with respect to economics - advocated by
Krugman, following the economic crises of 2008 - should be extended to
economists as well, in order to avoid the excessive and mostly senseless
polarization of economists in opposing ideological camps, a
polarization still so dominant nowadays.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[34] **viXra:1101.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Subhajit Ganguly

**Comments:** 15 pages

Considering transport or tendency ... (see paper)

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[33] **viXra:1101.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** A. Beckwith

**Comments:** 22 pages, 2 figures, to be heavily edited with co authors added by those expressing an interest.
To be submitted to a journal after enough edits

Could a causal discontinuity lead to an explanation of fluctuations in the CMBR radiation
spectrum? Is this argument valid if there is some third choice of set structure (for instance do self
referential sets fall into one category or another?). The answer to this question may lie in (entangled?)
vortex structure of space time, along the lines of structure similar to that generate in the laboratory by
Ruutu [1] (1996). Self referential sets may be part of the generated vortex structure, and we will endeavor
to find if this can be experimentally investigated. If the causal set argument and its violation via this
procedure holds, we have the view that what we see a space time ‘drum’ effect with the causal
discontinuity forming the head of a ‘drum’ for a region of about 10^{10} bits of ‘information’ before our
present universe up to the instant of the big bang itself for a time region less than t ~ 10^{-44} seconds in
duration, with a region of increasing bits of ‘information’ going up to 10^{120} due to vortex filament
condensed matter style forming through a symmetry breaking phase transition.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1101.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 9 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 4 pages

On a summer morning in 1981 I sat at my kitchen table in upstate New York and drew a
space-time map of the cosmos, such as we see in Fig. 1. It has remained unchanged in all
essential details since that time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1101.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 122 pages

Using Jiang function we are able to prove almost all prime problems in prime distribution. This
is the Book proof. No great mathematicians study prime problems and prove Riemann
hypothesis in AIM, CLAYMI, IAS, THES, MPIM, MSRI. In this paper using Jiang function
J_{2} (ω) we prove that the new prime theorems (991)-(1040) contain infinitely many prime
solutions and no prime solutions...

**Category:** Number Theory

[30] **viXra:1101.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** H. Ron Harrison

**Comments:** 4 pages

Measurement of the precession and orbital decay of binary pulsars is said to support the
General Theory of Relativity. This is true for the rate of precession but the rate of decay
is said to be due to energy loss. The loss of energy alone cannot account for the decay. In
some cases it is attributed to gravitational energy loss and in others it is due to tidal drag.
The quoted theory for the decay is based on Newtonian dynamics but it is not applicable
in these cases because the equations used are derived assuming that the energy is constant
and the orbits are conical. This article gives justification to this comment, however this
does not mean that gravitational radiation is not the cause of binary decay.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1101.0030 [pdf]**
*replaced on 10 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Jorma Jormakka

**Comments:** 12 pages

This article is a case study investigating the following issues:
how well general purpose problem solving methods work on hard mathematical
problems, how much time is required in order to learn enough from the
fields in order to attack such hard problems,
are there easy formulations and treatments of the Clay millennium
prize problems, and what is the sociological response from the
mathemacical community and media to proposed solutions to
hard mathematical problems.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[28] **viXra:1101.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Ron Bourgoin

**Comments:** 2 pages

It is obvious that the principle directing the expansion
of the universe works in a way completely opposite to
what we expect. We therefore come up with a law that
says a nearby universe is tugging at ours on the basis
of an inverse cube relationship, not inverse square.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1101.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Tim Jones

**Comments:** 5 pages

A geometric proof of the irrationality of π is given. It uses an
evaluation of the area given by the product of two symmetric functions,
together with bounds on the integral. The symmetric functions embed
the assumption of rational π; one function is dependent on n; as the
evaluation of the integral exceeds the upper bound for large n for any
given rational π, a contradiction is obtained. This proof has been
criticized, but here some counters to the criticism are offered.

**Category:** Number Theory

[26] **viXra:1101.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Lawrence B. Crowell

**Comments:** 11 pages

The interplay between continuous and discrete structures results in a duality between the moduli space for
black hole types and AdS_{7} spacetime. The 3 and 4 Q-bit structures of quantum black holes is equivalent to
the conformal completion of AdS.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[25] **viXra:1101.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Charles B. Leffert

**Comments:** 5 pages, 5 figures

In this introduction to the new SC-expansion model of our universe, the new
physical concepts will be quickly reviewed to explain the source of gravity and a
failure of the big bang consensus cosmology to account for a fundamental
photon feature in an expanding universe.. This photon delay effect is not
accounted for using present relativistic concepts of co-moving distance and
standard candles. It is shown that following the photons by integration of the
photon delay equation produces a larger luminosity distance and greater
apparent magnitude sufficient to fit the supernovae SNIa data with no need of
dark energy. It is shown that without this photon delay effect, the cosmic
microwave radiation would not produce a clear first-pass pattern, but a smeared
background of multi-orbit passes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1101.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 pages, 2 figures, submitted to DICE 2010 as part of their conference

We make explicit an idea by Padmanabhan in DICE 2010 [1], as to finding "atoms
of space{time" permitting a thermodynamic treatment of emergent structure similar to Gibbs
treatment of statistical physics. That is, an ensemble of gravitons is used to give an "atom" of
space-time congruent with relic GW. The idea is to reduce the number of independent variables
to get a simple emergent space-time structure of entropy. An electric field, based upon the
cosmological Schwinger principle, is linked to relic heat
flux, with entropy production tied in
with candidates as to infl
aton potentials. The effective electric field links with the Schwinger
1951s result of an E field leading to pairs of e+e- charges nucleated in space-time volume V.t.
Note that in most in
flationary models, the assumption is for a magnetic field, not an electric
field. An electric field permits a kink-anti-kink construction of an emergent structure, which
includes Glinka's recent pioneering approach to a Multiverse. Also an E field allows for an
emergent relic particle frequency range between one and 100 GHz. The novel contribution is a
relic E field, instead of a B field, in relic space-time "atom" formation and vacuum nucleation
of the same.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1101.0023 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-02-10 11:22:32*

**Authors:** Frédéric Lassiaille

**Comments:** 135 Pages.

The study of this article suggests an explanation for the “Pioneer anomaly”. This explanation
is based on a modification of Newton’s law. This modification is conducted from an Euclidean
vision of relativity. This modification is thoroughly explained in [12].
Along with this explanation, in this document the results of this Newton’s law modification
are calculated, for the following issues: Pioneer anomaly before the location of Saturn, the
earth flyby anomalies, the predicted Saturn flyby anomaly of the Pioneer11 probe trajectory,
the “missing asteroids” mystery in solar system, the advance or precession of the perihelion of
Mercury and Saturn, the PPN formalism, Tully-Ficher relation, and the disparity of the
measurements of the gravitational constant

**Category:** Astrophysics

[22] **viXra:1101.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 98 pages

Using Jiang function we are able to prove almost all prime problems in prime distribution. This
is the Book proof. No great mathematicians study prime problems and prove Riemann
hypothesis in AIM, CLAYMI, IAS, THES, MPIM, MSRI. In this paper using Jiang function
J_{2} (ω) we prove that the new prime theorems (941)-(990) contain infinitely many prime
solutions and no prime solutions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[21] **viXra:1101.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Akindele J. Adekugbe

**Comments:** 18 pages, Submitted to Progess in Physics.

The flat two-dimensional proper intrinsic spacetime... (see paper)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1101.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Akindele J. Adekugbe

**Comments:** 20 pages, Submitted to Progess in Physics.

A curved ‘two-dimensional’ absolute intrinsic metric spacetime... (see paper)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1101.0019 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2011-11-27 12:03:14*

**Authors:** Gocho V. Sharlanov

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The change of the units second and metre and the constant speed of light between two “time-spatial domains” with different gravitational potentials is considered in the article. It is analyzed as a consequence of the nature of space and time which are mutually connected with each other in the warped space-time of the Universe.
The main topic of the article is:
The postulate “Invariance of the speed of light” is proposed to be changed with “Uncertainty principle of the macro-world”.
Some consequences of the approach used in this article could be simple solutions of problems such as “the accelerated expansion of the Universe”, as well as “the dark matter and the dark energy in the Universe”, which have been under research for a long time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1101.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Peter C. Chindove

**Comments:** 3 pages

In my first paper, Quantum Gravity and Superconductivity, I made two
significant proposals. One, rather tongue in cheek, I proposed a method in
which the extent to which an individual is deluded defines whether or not that
individual is a crackpot. I termed this the Delusion Index. Two, I proposed the
Painleve type III equation as the background for developing a quantum theory
of magnetic induction and of gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17] **viXra:1101.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** A. Beckwith, F.Y. Li, N. Yang, J. Dickau, G. Stephenson, L. Glinka

**Comments:** 25 pages, seven figures, FIRST draft of a chapter to go to Nova book publishers in
February 2011 for a book in cosmology. Expect extensive revisions to be made to this document.

We ask if Octonionic quantum gravity [1] is a relevant consideration near the Planck scale.
Furthermore, we examine whether gravitational waves would be generated during the initial
phase,and how to detect their effects during alterations of an initial phase factor
which may be detected in a GW detector . Doing this will enable the development of realistic
cosmology models

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1101.0016 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-15 08:35:38*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Discovery of gravitational attraction necessitated a cause for even distribution of macro bodies throughout universe. Assumed mutual attraction due to gravitation defies their even distribution unless it is counteracted by repulsion between them, at least in case of large-scale groups of macro bodies. None of current concepts supplies a rational theory. Alternative concept, presented in book ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’, proposes a logical explanation that describes how neighbouring galaxies overcome gravitational attraction, to settle at a stable distance from each other, during major part of their life. Halo at outer periphery of a spinning galaxy is formed by independent primary matter-particles. Their primary electric fields are mechanically oriented to create sufficient electromagnetic repulsion between neighbouring galaxies. Additionally, outward expansions of universal medium from central regions of galaxies or from novae in them cause gravitational repulsion between them. These are natural processes originated in universal medium, which encompasses entire universe. Since galaxies are able to maintain their relative positions in space, universe (as a whole) is able to have perpetual steady state of existence, except for local recycling of matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[15] **viXra:1101.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 7 pages.

Relativistic motion in the gravitational field of a massive body is governed by the
external metric of a spherically symmetric extended object. Consequently, any solution
for the point-mass is inadequate for the treatment of such motions since it pertains to a
fictitious object. I therefore develop herein the physics of the standard tests of General
Relativity by means of the generalised solution for the field external to a sphere of
incompressible homogeneous fluid.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1101.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 12 pages.

It is generally alleged that Einstein’s theory leads to a finite but unbounded universe.
This allegation stems from an incorrect analysis of the metric for the point-mass when
λ ≠ 0. The standard analysis has incorrectly assumed that the variable r denotes a
radius in the gravitational field. Since r is in fact nothing more than a real-valued
parameter for the actual radial quantities in the gravitational field, the standard
interpretation is erroneous. Moreover, the true radial quantities lead inescapably to
λ = 0 so that, cosmologically, Einstein’s theory predicts an infinite, static, empty
universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1101.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 5 pages.

The Kruskal-Szekeres “coordinates” are said to “extend” the so-called “Schwarzschild
solution”, to remove an alleged “coordinate singularity” at the event horizon of a black
hole at r = 2m, leaving an infinitely dense point-mass singularity at “the origin” r = 0.
However, the assumption that the point at the centre of spherical symmetry of the
“Schwarzschild solution” is at “the origin” r = 0 is erroneous, and so the
Kruskal-Szekeres “extension” is invalid; demonstrated herein by simple counter-examples.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1101.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 5 pages.

The Regge-Wheeler tortoise “coordinate” and the the Kruskal-Szekeres “extension”
are built upon a latent set of invalid assumptions. Consequently, they have led to
fallacious conclusions about Einstein’s gravitational field. The persistent unjustified
claims made for the aforesaid alleged coordinates are not sustained by mathematical
rigour. They must therefore be discarded.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1101.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 6 pages.

The vacuum field of the point-mass is an unrealistic idealization which does not occur
in Nature - Nature does not make material points. A more realistic model must therefore
encompass the extended nature of a real object. This problem has also been solved for
a particular case by K. Schwarzschild in his neglected paper on the gravitational field
of a sphere of incompressible fluid. I revive Schwarzschild’s solution and generalise it.
The black hole is necessarily precluded. A body cannot undergo gravitational collapse
to a material point.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1101.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 6 pages.

I derive herein a general form of Kepler’s 3rd Law for the general solution to Einstein’s
vacuum field. I also obtain stable orbits for photons in all the configurations of the
point-mass. Contrary to the accepted theory, Kepler’s 3rd Law is modified by General
Relativity and leads to a finite angular velocity as the proper radius of the orbit goes
down to zero, without the formation of a black hole. Finally, I generalise the expression
for the potential function of the general solution for the point-mass in the weak field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1101.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 8 pages, This paper was published in the international magazine "Electronics World" in 2010.

Pierre-Marie Robitaille, a Professor of Radiology at Ohio State University, is an expert when
it comes to instrumentation and signal analysis. It was Robitaille who conceived and directed
the construction of the world's first 8 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanner
[1,2]. In doing so, he nearly doubled the maximum field strength in MRI and gave birth to
Ultra High Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (UHFMRI). Robitaille’s scanner
immediately revealed anatomical structures within the human brain that were previously
never seen on human scans [3]. In recent years, Robitaille has applied his skills to
astrophysics, and his findings are very significant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1101.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 6 pages

It is proved herein that the metric in the so-called “isotropic coordinates” for Einstein’s
gravitational field is a particular case of an infinite class of equivalent metrics.
Furthermore, the usual interpretation of the coordinates is erroneous, because in the
usual form given in the literature, the alleged coordinate length
(see paper) is
not a coordinate length. This arises from the fact that the geometrical relations between
the components of the metric tensor are invariant and therefore bear the same relations
in the isotropic system as those of the metric in standard Schwarzschild coordinates.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1101.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 9 pages

The notion of black holes voraciously gobbling up matter, twisting spacetime into contortions
that trap light, stretching the unwary into long spaghetti-like strands as they fall
inward to ultimately collide and merge with an infinitely dense point-mass singularity,
has become a mantra of the astrophysical community, so much so that even primaryschool
children know about the sinister black hole. There are almost daily reports of
scientists claiming that they have again found black holes here and there. It is asserted
that black holes range in size from micro to mini, to intermediate and on up through to
supermassive behemoths. Black holes are spoken of as scientific facts and it is routinely
claimed that they have been detected at the centres of galaxies. Images of black holes
having their wicked ways with surrounding matter are routinely included with reports
of them. Some physicists even claim that black holes will be created in particle accelerators,
such as the Large Hadron Collider, potentially able to swallow the Earth. Despite
the assertions of the astronomers and astrophysicists, nobody has ever found a black
hole, anywhere, let alone “imaged” one. The pictures adduced to convince are actually
either artistic impressions (i.e. drawings) or photos of otherwise unidentified objects
imaged by telescopes and merely asserted to be due to black holes, ad hoc.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1101.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 6 pages

There are a number of conceptual anomalies occurring in the Standard exposition of
Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. These anomalies relate to issues in both mathematics
and in physics and penetrate to the very heart of Einstein’s theory. This paper reveals
and amplifies a few such anomalies, including the fact that Einstein’s field equations for
the so-called static vacuum configuration, R_{μν} =0, violates his Principle of Equivalence,
and is therefore erroneous. This has a direct bearing on the usual concept
of conservation of energy for the gravitational field and the conventional formulation
for localisation of energy using Einstein’s pseudo-tensor. Misconceptions as to the
relationship between Minkowski spacetime and Special Relativity are also discussed,
along with their relationships to the pseudo-Riemannian metric manifold of Einstein’s
gravitational field, and their fundamental geometric structures pertaining to spherical
symmetry.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1101.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 7 pages

The usual interpretations of solutions for Einstein’s gravitational field satisfying
the spherically symmetric condition contain anomalies that are not mathematically
permissible. It is shown herein that the usual solutions must be modified to account
for the intrinsic geometry associated with the relevant line elements.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1101.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 4 pages

Neither the layman nor the specialist, in general, have any knowledge of the historical
circumstances underlying the genesis of the idea of the Black Hole. Essentially,
almost all and sundry simply take for granted the unsubstantiated allegations of
some ostentatious minority of the relativists. Unfortunately, that minority has been
rather careless with the truth and is quite averse to having its claims corrected,
notwithstanding the documentary evidence on the historical record. Furthermore, not a
few of that vainglorious and disingenuous coterie, particularly amongst those of some
notoriety, attempt to dismiss the testimony of the literature with contempt, and even
deliberate falsehoods, claiming that history is of no importance. The historical record
clearly demonstrates that the Black Hole has been conjured up by combination of
confusion, superstition and ineptitude, and is sustained by widespread suppression
of facts, both physical and theoretical. The following essay provides a brief but
accurate account of events, verifiable by reference to the original papers, by which the
scandalous manipulation of both scientific and public opinion is revealed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1101.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 12 pages

The black hole, which arises solely from an incorrect analysis of the Hilbert solution,
is based upon a misunderstanding of the significance of the coordinate radius r. This
quantity is neither a coordinate nor a radius in the gravitational field and cannot of
itself be used directly to determine features of the field from its metric. The appropriate
quantities on the metric for the gravitational field are the proper radius and the curvature
radius, both of which are functions of r. The variable r is actually a Euclidean
parameter which is mapped to non-Euclidean quantities describing the gravitational
field, namely, the proper radius and the curvature radius.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1101.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 7 pages

In a previous paper I derived the general solution for the simple point-mass in a true
Schwarzschild space. I extend that solution to the point-charge, the rotating pointmass,
and the rotating point-charge, culminating in a single expression for the general
solution for the point-mass in all its configurations when Λ = 0. The general exact
solution is proved regular everywhere except at the arbitrary location of the source
of the gravitational field. In no case does the black hole manifest. The conventional
solutions giving rise to various black holes are shown to be inconsistent with General
Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1101.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** Michael Harney

**Comments:** 3 pages

It is shown that the atomic number Z is prime at the beginning of the each s^{1}, p^{1}, d^{1},
and f^{1} energy levels of electrons, with some fluctuation in the actinide and lanthanide
series. The periodic prime number boundary of s^{1}, p^{1}, d^{1}, and f^{1} is postulated to occur
because of stability of Schrodinger’s wave equation due to a fundamental relationship
with the Riemann-Zeta function.

**Category:** Quantum Physics