[344] **viXra:1602.0377 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-29 23:45:46*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

In this research manuscript, the author presents a 'Primeness Test' using which one can infer if any given number is Prime or Not.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[343] **viXra:1602.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-29 14:07:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[342] **viXra:1602.0375 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-05 16:07:58*

**Authors:** Brian B.K. Min

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A kinetic energy-operated quantum wave equation is used to formulate alternate quantum fields: an alternate Klein-Gordon field, an alternate Dirac field, an alternate Proca field, and an alternate Higgs field.
Unlike the original Dirac field equations, the alternate Dirac field equations are shown to include a vacuum state solution apart from the particle and anti-particle solutions, lending support to the alternate formulation. The alternate Klein-Gordon field shows scalar bosons transforming between a massive state and a massless, charged state whenever the vector potential vanishes. A local U(1) gauge transformation of the alternate Klein-Gordon Lagrangian directly leads to both the alternate Proca field and the alternate Higgs field. These fields show vector bosons transforming between a massive state and a massless, charged state by a spontaneous breakdown of symmetry at a minimum potential trough similar to that of a Mexican hat or wine bottle potential in the Brout, Englert, and Higgs (BEH) mechanism, but more generally leaving open a possible presence of entirely different or many alternate Higgs bosons.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[341] **viXra:1602.0374 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-09 01:06:01*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Robitaille and Crothers wrote an article [1] with the same purpose: to present the mistakes in Planck’s Theory of Heat Radiation and in Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission. In this article an alternative approach is taken, leading to a support of the conclusion of Robitaille and Crothers. In my own words: Planck, indeed, made a scientific mess of it! Not only Planck's theory makes no sense, the current presentation of this theory turns out to be of this low level too.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[340] **viXra:1602.0373 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-29 08:09:15*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We present some relationships that involve a polynomial of sixth grade

**Category:** General Mathematics

[339] **viXra:1602.0372 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-29 04:58:16*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Contact the Author - ratunek.nauki(at)onet.pl

In the article, the author explains how the phenomenon of cavitation works and how in the course of this phenomenon a large surplus of energy is created. This phenomenon is explained in the framework of classical physics, but in its expanded version. When Newton formulated the third law of motion, assumed the tacit assumption that the accelerations, which two bodies give each other, run by the same mathematical function of acceleration. Pinopa discovered that in nature two particles of matter can accelerate each also according to differing mathematical functions of interaction. And the result of such way of mutual acceleration of particles that are components of the molecules, is manifested in the phenomenon of cavitation. // В статье автор выясняет, как работает явление кавитации и каким способом во время течения этого явления возникает большой избыток энергии. Это явление выясняется в рамках классической физики, но в рамках её расширенной версии. Ньютон, когда он формулировал третий закон динамики, принимал молчаливое предположение, что ускорения, которые два тела прибавляют друг другу, протекают в соответствии с одной и той же математической функцией ускорения. Пинопа открыл, что в природе две частицы материи могут взаимно ускорять друг друга также в соответствии с различными математическими функциями воздействия. И именно результат такого способа взаимного ускорения частиц, которые являются компонентами молекул, проявляет себя в явлении кавитации.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[338] **viXra:1602.0371 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-29 05:12:53*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Contact the Author - ratunek.nauki(at)onet.pl

In the article the author presents a recently discovered phenomena, which involve changes to the weight of the battery and capacitor under the influence of charging or discharging. The author presents in detail the causes and mechanism of the phenomena. // В статье автор представляет недавно открытые явления, которых суть заключается в изменении массы аккумулятора и конденсатора при их
загрузке и разрядке. Автор подробно описывае причины и механизм происходящих явлений.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[337] **viXra:1602.0370 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-29 05:11:40*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Robert Yusupov 29.02.2016 © Secret of the Time

"The physical" idealism has established his absolute power in physics and over the consciousness of all physicists. It is shown in all. First of all it is shown in matter negation. But after all same the fact established by natural sciences that the nature, the world surrounding us is the material in the basis. The matter is a universe basis, a nature substance. In the nature there is nothing that would not be a moving matter. Thus the time inseparably linked with a matter means also. It is necessary to establish this connection only. It is necessary to show particularly how natural universal time is connected directly with a matter. Dear physicists could not make it. Here that Lee Smolin the modern theoretical physicist writes in his book "Time Reborn": "Many (physicists and philosophers) believed that time is an illusion". It is a sample of top of degradation and the triumph of the obscurantism. A very long time it is known that any power corrupts, and the absolute power corrupts absolutely. Here and the overwhelming part of physicists of last century has appeared "corrupted" with "physical" idealism. Physicists have turned away from materialism and nature, and have waved away from true. About the "physical" idealism writes and gives him a complete characterization V. I. Lenin in his book "Materialism and Empirio-criticism. Critical Comments on a Reactionary Philosophy", published more than a hundred years ago in Russia. I am not a physicist. But I incur responsibility to show in this short article as time is connected with a matter.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[336] **viXra:1602.0369 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-29 05:32:49*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Robert Yusupov 29.02.2016 © Results of the Scientific Research of the Problem of Time

В настоящей статье автор представляет краткий отчет и свои размышления о том, как он решал проблему времени, проблему, имеющую тысячелетнюю историю. Решение проблемы времени тесно связано с проблемой материи. Материя является основой природы, её субстанцией. Материя находится в постоянном движении. Это диалектико-материалистическое понимание природы и материалистический взгляд на природу. Это единственно правильный и верный взгляд. Автор в своих исследованиях приходит к выводу, что время не иллюзорно, как считает подавляющее большинство современных физиков, а материально. Время и материя в природе неразрывно связаны между собой.===========In this article the author presents a brief report and his thoughts on how he solved the problem of time, the problem of having a thousand-year history. The problem of time is closely connected with the problem of matter. Matter is the basis of the nature, its substance. Matter is in constant motion. This is a dialectical-materialist conception of nature and the materialist view of nature. It is only right and true view. The author in his research came to the conclusion that time is not illusion, according to the vast majority of modern physicists, time is material. Time and matter in the nature are inextricably linked among themselves.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[335] **viXra:1602.0368 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-29 06:09:46*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 8 Pages. In Russian Robert Yusupov 29.02.2016 © Open letter to Mr. Lee Smolin

Открытое письмо мистеру Ли Смолину по поводу его книги «Возвращение времени. От античной космогонии к космологии будущего»
Open letter to Mr.Lee Smolin about his book "Time Reborn: From the Crisis in Physics to the Future of the Universe"

**Category:** Classical Physics

[334] **viXra:1602.0367 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-28 22:45:17*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a 'Primeness Test' which can be used to test if any number is Prime or not.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[333] **viXra:1602.0366 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-28 23:42:28*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

[1]. The duality of particles and waves.
[2] .Solve the mystery of the double-slit experiment.
[3]... may be gravity wave detection experiments double-slit experiment?
[4]... contemporary version ether experiments.
[5]... candidates for dark matter and dark energy.
[6]... interpretation of the double-slit experiment matter waves.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[332] **viXra:1602.0365 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-29 00:12:02*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Theory of the condensates produced due to the confinement of the Einstein-spacetime components (i.e. of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs), described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), shows that some of the spectral lines in the diphoton mass spectrum with invariant mass larger than 200 GeV up to 2000 GeV for proton-proton collisions obtained in the LHC experiments are not due to statistical fluctuation but due to strictly defined phenomena - a new phenomenon needs more than 2-standard deviations and the width/invariant-mass ratio about 0.0265 for two-sigma. Here we described such phenomena within a coherent model for lines with invariant mass about 209 GeV, 742 GeV and 1579 GeV (in previous papers we showed that such model leads to the Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV). To explain the spectrum, most important are the atom-like structure of baryons, density of the Einstein spacetime, the quadrupole symmetry and masses of nucleons, pions and the two lightest quarks.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[331] **viXra:1602.0364 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-03 19:27:14*

**Authors:** Wei Lu

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

We propose a Clifford algebra based model, which includes local gauge symmetries SO(1,3)*SU_L(2)*U_R(1)*U(1)*SU(3). There are two sectors of bosonic fields as electroweak and Majorana bosons. The electroweak boson sector is composed of scalar Higgs, pseudoscalar Higgs, and antisymmetric tensor components. The Majorana boson sector is responsible for flavor mixing and neutrino Majorana masses. The LHC 750 GeV diphoton resonance is identified as a Majorana sector quadruon, which is the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson of $\bar{u}_Rs_R\bar{c}_Rd_R$ four-quark condensation. The quadruon results from spontaneous symmetry breaking of a flavor-related global U(1) symmetry involving right-handed up, down, charm, and strange quarks. In addition to $\bar{u}_Rs_R\bar{c}_Rd_R$, four-fermion condensations can also involve three other right-handed configurations $\bar{u}_R\tau_R\bar{\nu}_{\tau R}d_R$, $\bar{c}_R\mu_R\bar{\nu}_{\mu R}s_R$, and $\bar{\nu}_{\mu R}\tau_R\bar{\nu}_{\tau R}\mu_R$. Free from gauge interactions, these four-fermion condensations are potential dark matter candidates.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[330] **viXra:1602.0363 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-29 00:40:14*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The Michelson-Morley experiment was flawed in that it was meant to detect something that never existed: the ether. The ether hypothesis should have been subjected to a thorough conceptual test even before doing a physical experiment. The Michelson-Morley experiment was capable to detect the ether, but was/is incapable to detect absolute motion. The terms ‘absolute motion’ and ‘motion relative to ether’ were always wrongly presumed to be the same. Despite the failure of Michelson-Morley experiment, absolute motion was detected with several other kinds of experiments, such as the Sagnac, the Michelson-Gale, the Marinov, the Silvertooth, the Roland De Witte experiments. A new interpretation of absolute motion and the speed of light is proposed in this paper: the speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source. The effect of absolute motion is to create an apparent change in the position (distance and direction) of a light source relative to the observer, for absolutely co-moving source and observer. For absolutely co-moving source and observer, the effect of absolute motion is to create a change in the path length, and not the speed, of light. Apparent Source Theory ( AST) consistently explains the Michelson- Morley experiment, Sagnac effect and moving source experiments. Any true theory of the speed of light should convincingly explain both the Michelson-Morley and Sagnac experiments before making any other claims. AST hints on the fundamental nature of light itself. Light is a dual phenomenon : local and non-local.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[329] **viXra:1602.0362 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-28 11:03:36*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A simple relation of youth to mass is given concerning stellar evolution according to stellar metamorphosis. Youth and mass are directly proportional for young stars, and become less proportional as they age depending on how much matter was accreted during the star’s evolution.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[328] **viXra:1602.0361 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-28 11:05:38*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Since Wikipedia will revert edits to their pages to account for incorrect theories simply because they are status quo, it is suggested a simple edit so that future scientists can see where they made grave mistakes in theory, preventing our understanding of the stars. This paper also serves as a warning to future scientists to always be aware of how powerful group think and the perception of scientific authority can be. Think for yourself! Do not trust authority! Authorities have led us astray multiple times in history, it is up to us to correct them!

**Category:** Astrophysics

[327] **viXra:1602.0359 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-28 07:19:45*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 5 pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2016. All rights reserved.

The law of non-contradiction (LNC) is still one of the foremost among the principles of science and equally a fundamental principle of scientific inquiry too. Without the principle of non-contradiction we could not be able to distinguish between something true and something false. There are arguably many versions of the principle of non-contradiction which can be found in literature. The method of reductio ad absurdum itself is grounded on the validity of the principle of non-contradiction. To be consistent, a claim / a theorem / a proposition / a statement et cetera accepted as correct, cannot lead to a logical contradiction. In general, a claim / a theorem / a proposition / a statement et cetera which leads to the conclusion that +1 = +0 is refuted.

**Category:** Number Theory

[326] **viXra:1602.0358 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-28 08:49:32*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Procedural Protocol.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[325] **viXra:1602.0357 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-28 08:41:27*

**Authors:** Herbert Weidner

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The time dependent analysis of the normal mode 10S2 near 4040 µHz allows a precise determination of the frequencies of the five singlets and reveals a frequency modulation by 23 µHz, probably generated by the moon. The results of the data from 18 stations distributed worldwide deliver very good matching results and may help to figure out some properties of the isotropic layer at the top of the inner core.

**Category:** Geophysics

[324] **viXra:1602.0354 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-27 23:02:51*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

In this research investigation the author presents a Scheme of ‘Constructing The Primality Tree Of Any Given Set’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[323] **viXra:1602.0353 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-28 00:41:14*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Passion averaging led to what was rejected the possibility of considering different velocities of light in opposite directions relative to the observer. Homogenization is obtained automatically when you set the clock for the introduction of Einstein. But without a direct calculation of the velocity and consideration of different speeds obtained by the gravitational force of attraction on the strength of the electric field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[322] **viXra:1602.0352 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-28 01:07:32*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Installation Method hours Einstein always gives the result as the mean speed of light in any experiment. But in the real physical world not measured speed of light. Therefore, there may arise the forces due to the different speeds of light in one direction. Change the way to set the clock to the speed of light in one direction. We estimate the results in different directions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[321] **viXra:1602.0351 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-27 13:04:54*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper we want to show some aspects of quantum entanglement in the space-time geometry .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[320] **viXra:1602.0350 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-27 13:38:58*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 4 Pages. 3 references

To form identity requires that people experience conflict so that their boundaries and ideas can be significantly clarified. The beginnings of forming identity via conflict are with the mother/father to child roles during the child’s upbringing. Adolescence marks the beginning for forming identity. As the child grows into their new identity, they begin to form their own interests based on this identity. So it begins with conflict styles, then forms identity, then forms interests and desires on this newly created identity. This has enormous impact on what specific professions a person will undertake as well, as their identities must match their profession so they can streamline who they are with what their goals will be. As well, many conflicts in the professional world are not as reliant on interests and scarce resources as they are perceived to be, but are based almost entirely on individuals’ and groups’ collective identities.

**Category:** Social Science

[319] **viXra:1602.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-27 10:52:47*

**Authors:** A. A. Salama, M.M.Eisa, S.A.EL-Hafeez, M.M. Lotfy

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

e-Learning has turned to be a necessity for everyone, as it enables continuous and life-long education.
Learners are social by nature. They want to connect to othersand share the same interests. Online
communities are important to help and encourage learners to continue education. Learners through social
capabilities can share different experiences.Social networks are cornerstone for e-Learning. However,
alternatives are many. Learners might get lost in the tremendous learning resources that are available. It is
the role of recommender systems to help learners find their own way through e-Learning. We present a
review of different recommender system algorithms that are utilized in social networks based e-Learning
systems. Future research will include our proposed our e-Learning system that utilizes Recommender
System and Social Network

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[318] **viXra:1602.0348 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-27 13:29:31*

**Authors:** Raji Heyrovska

**Comments:** Pages. In Introduction, line 6: "methane [4,5]" should be "ethane [4]"

The structure of benzene and the stacking distances in its dimers have long been of interest for scientists. As the various rigorous approaches over the years to understand these have been complicated, the author presents here a new and simple interpretation through the additivity of atomic covalent radii in bond lengths. Considered here are the distances in pi-pi stacking and T-stacking dimers. The latter appears to be a hydrogen bond between a C atom of one benzene ring and the pi-system of the other.

**Category:** Chemistry

[317] **viXra:1602.0347 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-27 12:23:05*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Dark energy pulsating principle.
Photon has a mass by the pulsation of the 4-dimensional space.
Photon's mass is zero in 3-dimensional space.
Photon is a particle of Carter, Klein States.
Chapter 5. The discovery of dark matter.
[1] Pulsation principle of particle hypothesis and dark matter.
[2] A perfect candidate for dark matter.
[3] Have discovered dark matter equivalent to a perfect candidate.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[316] **viXra:1602.0346 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-27 09:04:31*

**Authors:** Zhang Tianshu

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

If every positive integer is able to be operated to 1 by the set operational rule of the Collatz conjecture, then begin with 1, we can get all positive integers after make infinitely many operations on the contrary of the set operational rule. In this article, we shall prove that the Collatz conjecture by the mathematical induction via the two-way operations is tenable.
Keywords: mathematical induction; the two-way operational rules; classify positive integers; the bunch of integers’ chains; operational routes

**Category:** Number Theory

[315] **viXra:1602.0345 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-27 04:26:26*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A study published this week in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences reports a new parallel-computing approach based on a combination of nanotechnology and biology that can solve combinatorial problems. [9] The substance that provides energy to all the cells in our bodies, Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), may also be able to power the next generation of supercomputers. The discovery opens doors to the creation of biological supercomputers that are about the size of a book. [8] The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[314] **viXra:1602.0343 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-27 06:48:52*

**Authors:** Prashanth R. Rao

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Dirichlet’s theorem establishes that every arithmetic progression of the
form a+nb where gcd(a,b)=1 contains infinitely many primes for positive integers a
and b and n=1,2,3,4,………. . We show a simple proof for the existence of such an
arithmetic progression for every large prime. This also reveals a method to identify
arithmetic progressions on which a particular prime will appear.

**Category:** Number Theory

[313] **viXra:1602.0342 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-27 07:04:13*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas for the constant pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[312] **viXra:1602.0338 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-27 02:11:05*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The substance that provides energy to all the cells in our bodies, Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), may also be able to power the next generation of supercomputers. The discovery opens doors to the creation of biological supercomputers that are about the size of a book. [8] The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[311] **viXra:1602.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-26 12:10:52*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Contact the Author - ratunek.nauki(at)onet.pl

In the article is presented mechanism of physical phenomena, which became the basis for the formulation of the law insignificant action. This phenomenon manifests itself as lesser and lesser interaction between constituents of matter, and decrease in the impact occurs with increasing of relative speeds. The occurrence of this phenomenon contributed to erroneous interpretations in physics. Because of the ignorance of this phenomenon there appeared in physics descriptions of the different types of phenomena that do not actually exist. There appeared interpretations that describe apparent phenomena in the form of mass changes and tempo changes over time. Proponents of these interpretations say that the change in mass and change of pace of passage of time is the result of a high relative speed of motion.
In the article have been used simple mathematical dependencies to explain the phenomenon.
В статье представлен механизм физического явления, которое стало основой для формулировки закона ничтожного действия. Это явление проявляет себя в виде уменьшающегося воздействия между компонентами материи, а уменьшение воздействия происходит при увеличивающейся относительной скорости. Существование этого явления стало причиной возникновения в физике ошибочных интерпретаций. По причине незнакомства с этим явлением в физике появились описания других явлений, которые в действительности не существуют. Возникли интерпретации, которые описывают мнимые явления в виде изменения массы и изменения скорости течения времени. Сторонники этих интерпретаций говорят, что изменение массы и скорости течения времени это происходят из-за высокой скорости движения.
В статье для выяснения хода явления были использованы простые физические зависимости.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[310] **viXra:1602.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-26 13:51:14*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Since Wikipedia will revert edits to account for status quo, regardless if status quo is incorrect, it is presented a correction to the exoplanet page to account for superior theory. The main purpose is to provide a timestamp of the events which are transpiring, as well provide an alternative to the dogma. The new theory is called stellar metamorphosis.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[309] **viXra:1602.0334 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-05 05:10:42*

**Authors:** Petr E. Pushkarev

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the article we provides an response to the problem of equality of P and NP classes, which is also called the Millennium problem. As a result, given the complete result of equality. For theory of refutation we use method of "reductio ad absurdum". We use tensor analysis which for define objects, such considered relatively to the Turing machine computation. The goal was to give an answer to a proble that has affected to degree of the proof calculation's details. The result can be obtained relative to the current problems of equality P and NP classes, but other than that give an opportunity to explore the computational process more.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[308] **viXra:1602.0333 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-07 04:06:37*

**Authors:** L. Martino, V. Elvira, F. Louzada

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Sequential Importance Resampling (SIR) method is the core of the Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) algorithms (a.k.a., particle filters). In this work, we point out a suitable choice for weighting properly a resampled particle. This observation entails several theoretical and practical consequences, allowing also the design of novel sampling schemes. Specifically, we describe one theoretical result about the sequential estimation of the marginal likelihood. Moreover, we suggest a novel resampling procedure for SMC algorithms called partial resampling, involving only a subset of the current cloud of particles. Clearly, this scheme attenuates the additional variance in the Monte Carlo estimators generated by the use of the resampling.

**Category:** Statistics

[307] **viXra:1602.0332 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-26 01:52:44*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

dimensional space.
Particle is pulsating in the 4-dimensional space.
[1]. May be found in 4-dimensional space.
[2]. Elementary pulsation principle found the four-dimensional space
[3]. Discover kept looking for Einstein's four-dimensional space.
[4]. Diagram of the 4-dimensional space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[306] **viXra:1602.0331 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-16 03:16:59*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The speed of light was and still is a great puzzle that remains unsolved to date, despite all claims made by mainstream physics. The blunder in the conception of the Michelson-Morley experiment was that they considered light as ordinary, material waves. This led to Lorentz and Fitzgerald length-contraction, which was another mistake. Einstein tried to correct all mistakes, by introducing one of the biggest mistakes in science: Special Relativity. A series of mistakes building on one another. The Michelson-Morley experiment was flawed in that it was conceived to detect something that never existed: the ether. The ether hypothesis should have been subjected to a thorough conceptual test even before doing a physical experiment. The Michelson-Morley experiment was/is incapable to detect absolute motion. The terms ‘absolute motion’ and ‘motion relative to ether’ were always wrongly presumed to be the same. The argument in this paper is that absolute motion exists, but the ether does not exist. Despite the failure of Michelson-Morley experiment, absolute motion was detected with several other kinds of experiments, such as the Sagnac, the Michelson-Gale, the Marinov, the Silvertooth, the Roland De Witte experiments. In this paper a new interpretation of absolute motion and the speed of light is proposed that can be stated in a few words: the speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source. The effect of absolute motion is to create an apparent change in the position (distance and direction) of a light source relative to the observer. For co-moving source and observer, the effect of absolute motion is to create a change in the path length, and not the speed, of light. Thus an apparent change in the position of the light source ( relative to the detector) in the Michelson-Morley experiment will not create any significant fringe shift for the same reason that a real/physical change of the source position will not create any significant fringe shift. This is the subtle trick of nature that has eluded physicists for one hundred years. Apparent Source Theory (AST) consistently explains the Michelson- Morley experiment, Sagnac effect and moving source experiments. Any true theory of the speed of light should convincingly explain both the Michelson-Morley and Sagnac experiments before making any other claims. AST hints on the fundamental nature of light itself. Light is a dual phenomenon : local and non-local.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[305] **viXra:1602.0330 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-25 13:58:30*

**Authors:** Wolfgang Westenberger

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

SUMMARY: Heavy asteroid impacts can explain the perihelion shift of Mercury. As the kinetic energy of both Mercury and any asteroid is known, vector analysis of the deviation may be carried out. Pendulum experiments are bearing out vector analysis.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[304] **viXra:1602.0328 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-25 11:11:53*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Scientists on the DZero collaboration at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermilab have discovered a new particle—the latest member to be added to the exotic species of particle known as tetraquarks.
Exotic Mesons and Hadrons are high energy states of Quark oscillations. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[303] **viXra:1602.0327 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-06 06:36:02*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Version 2 in English

In special relativity, this article presents kinematic quantities that are invariant under Lorentz transformations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[302] **viXra:1602.0326 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-25 08:08:44*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In this note we show some formulas for omega constant

**Category:** General Mathematics

[301] **viXra:1602.0325 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-25 08:47:28*

**Authors:** A. Laidlaw

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

De Broglie waves were originally derived from the Lorentz Transformation of a standing wave, $e^{-i \omega t}$, that has no space dependence. It is shown here that a suitable, physically reasonable, standing wave can be constructed from physical waves that propagate at c, subject to the condition that any field line of the wave vector exists on the surface of a sphere at rest in the comoving frame. This result contradicts the classical picture of a point particle emitting a far field that propagates radially away from it, and it is argued that, while the present construction of de Broglie waves is both local and realistic, Bell Inequalities cannot be derived in de Broglie's context.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[300] **viXra:1602.0324 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-22 09:05:12*

**Authors:** Alphonus J. Fagan

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Contains edits and corrections to original paper.

Unexplained gravitational potentials in deep space have been generally attributed to dark matter. This paper explores an alternative that unites the concepts of dark matter and dark energy. The concept of congenital gravitational structure ('structural gravity') is introduced and the possibility that antimatter experiences anti-gravity is discussed. Among other things, the conjectures predict the phenomenon of 'inverse gravitational lensing' and possible examples are identified — in particular as associated with the peculiar galaxy known as Hoag's Object. The conjectures also offer possible explanations for a number of poorly understood phenomena, including: the antimatter cloud; the dark matter halo; the vacuum catastrophe; counter-rotating galaxies; the distance to the cosmic horizon; and, large scale cosmic features. Although the ideas are mainly discussed at a conceptual level, the proposed model makes a number of testable predictions.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[299] **viXra:1602.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-25 09:42:45*

**Authors:** Andrzej Lechowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A brief explanation of the notion of time

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[298] **viXra:1602.0322 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-08 07:15:12*

**Authors:** Amir H. Fatollahi

**Comments:** 12 Pages. The interpretation of result is corrected and is based on first order phase transition.

The site reduction of U(1) lattice gauge theory is used to model the 0-branes in the dual theory. The reduced theory is the 1D plane-rotator model of the angle-valued coordinates on discrete world-line. The energy spectrum is obtained exactly via the transfer-matrix method, with a minimum in the lowest energy as a direct consequence of compact nature of coordinates. Below the critical coupling $g_c=1.125$ and temperature $T_c=0.335$ the system undergoes a first order phase transition between coexistent phases with lower and higher gauge couplings. The possible relation between the model and the proposed role for magnetic monopoles in confinement mechanism based on dual Meissner effect is pointed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[297] **viXra:1602.0321 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-24 18:51:58*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 11 Pages. In Russian Robert Yusupov © Space and matter YRA-hypothesis

Настоящая статья была написана в 2011 году, это было 5 лет назад. Это была первая очень наивная попытка автора найти решение проблемы мироздания. Это был ошибочный подход. Но это было только начало. Дальнейшие исследования автора основ природы и мироздания привели его к созданию революционной Теории Природы (материалистическая физика и космология) (http://vixra.org/pdf/1509.0038v1.pdf, http://vixra.org/pdf/1509.0216v1.pdf, http://vixra.org/pdf/1510.0523v1.pdf).

**Category:** Classical Physics

[296] **viXra:1602.0320 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-24 18:54:00*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Robert Yusupov © Space and matter YRA-hypothesis

This article was written in 2011, it was 5 years ago. It was the first and very naive initial attempt of the author to find a solution of the problem of the universe. It was the wrong approach. But that was only the beginning. The further researches of the author of bases of the nature and universe have led to creation of the revolutionary Theory of the Nature (the materialistic physics and cosmology) (In Russian only: http://vixra.org/pdf/1509.0038v1.pdf, http://vixra.org/pdf/1509.0216v1.pdf, http://vixra.org/pdf/1510.0523v1.pdf).

**Category:** Classical Physics

[295] **viXra:1602.0319 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-30 13:39:17*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 383 Pages.

This paper describes a research program based on the 240 E8 Root Vectors encoding the basic structure of a Unified Theory of Fundamental Physics by forming a local classical Lagrangian for the Standard Model plus Gravity and Dark Energy. The Root Vectors know where they belong in the Lagrangian because of their place in the geometric structure of E8 and its related symmetric spaces such as: E8 / D8 = 128-dim (OxO)P2 E8 / E7 x SU(2) = 112-dim set of (QxO)P2 in (OxO)P2 D8 / D4 x D4 = 64-dim Gr(8,16) Embedding E8 local classical Lagrangian into Cl(0,16) Clifford Algebra and taking the completion of the union of all tensor products of all the Cl(0,16)s produces a generalization of hyperfinite II1 von Neumann factor fermionic Fock space forming a global AQFT describing spacetime, the Standard Model, and Gravity with Dark Energy. The structure is related to unconventional 26D String Theory by Cl(0,16) -> Cl(0,16)xCl(0,8) = Cl(0,24) -> M(2,Cl(0,24)) = Cl(1,25) Completion of Union of All Tensor Products of Cl(1,25) = 2x2 matrices of Cl(0,24) is the String Theory formulation of the hyperfinite AQFT. The Physics model described herein may be called the Cl(1,25) E8 Physics Model, since the Cl(1,25) of 26D String Theory contains Cl(0,16) which contains E8 whose root vectors describe a Lagrangian for the Standard Model and Gravity + Dark Energy. The main body of the paper describes physical interpretations of the 240 Root Vectors with a rough qualitative description of how they are used in setting up calculations of force strengths, particle masses, Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter ratios, Kobayashi-Maskawa parameters, etc. The main body of the paper (46 pages) concludes with a summary of the results of those calculations. Details of the calculations, some related experimental results, etc, are given in a more lengthy set of appendices (337 pages). This latest (October 2016) version includes LHC results of about 13 /fb of 2016 run, including Higgs -> ZZ -> 4l channel events relevant to the existence of two Higgs mass states predicted by E8 Physics beyond the conventional 125 GeV state.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[294] **viXra:1602.0318 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-25 01:21:46*

**Authors:** Wilfried Wunderlich

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Keeping the balance between two extremes in social dilemmas is essential for maintaining the progress of any society. While severe quality management and mistrust have destroyed grown overcapacities but also necessary resources in many research institutions in the last two decades, now the call for humanity and ethical principles are gaining popularity, such as work-life-balance, clear long-term perspectives for researchers, and society-driven ethical research and development. In this study the factors for creativity in science are discussed by studying the biography of physic Nobel laureates. The conclusion is that the income plays a minor role for engaged scientist, which main driving force is social acceptance.

**Category:** Social Science

[293] **viXra:1602.0317 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-24 16:47:43*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Black holes have a thermodynamic description, the entropy is proportional to the area of the event horizon . Numerical results in the LIGO data provides the basis for the definitive conclusion of thermodynamics of black holes . When there is a merger of two black holes , gravitational wave carries a large part of the entropy in the cosmos .

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[292] **viXra:1602.0314 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-15 09:08:32*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Evidences of a giant planet orbiting our sun, in an orbit whose period would last approximately of 15 thousand years it seems to have been found. The orbit of the new planet is gigantic, never coming closer to the Sun than 30.5 billion kilometers. The discovery of planets whose orbits go beyond Pluto is not new. We know Sedna, Haumea and Makemake, and also Eris, which is more massive than Pluto. But all these planets have much less mass than the giant planet that was recently found orbiting our sun. Here we show how massive planets like these can affect the human consciousnesses, when they approach the Sun, and pass nearby the Earth.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[291] **viXra:1602.0313 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-24 13:47:12*

**Authors:** Andrzej Lechowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The article shows a simple way in explaining gravity and magnetism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[290] **viXra:1602.0312 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-24 13:51:28*

**Authors:** D.Mastoridis, K.Kalogirou

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Abstract
The current paper presents the theoretical formulas for the W, Z, e, µ, ν masses’ val-
ues.The formulas lead to values for Z = 91.17239(8)Gev/c^2
.W = 80.37268(3)Gev/c^2
,e =
0.51096(8)Mev/c^2
,µ = 105.65263(6)Mev/c^2
,τ = 1776.48(7)Mev/c^2
.Possible answers to
EPR problem were given.The singularity problem in Big Bang problem is examined.This
paper is the extension of the ”About the Geometry of Cosmos”

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[289] **viXra:1602.0311 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-24 14:18:25*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

An international team of scientists using a combination of radio and optical telescopes has for the first time managed to identify the location of a fast radio burst, allowing them to confirm the current cosmological model of the distribution of matter in the universe. [11] Invisibility — like time travel, teleportation, flying, and super-speed — has been a fixture in science fiction ever since science fiction has existed. The most well-known examples range from the one used by the Romulans in Star Trek, Harry Potter's deathly hallows cloaking device, and the eleven cloak Frodo and Sam used to evade Sauron's army at the gates of Mordor. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of other mentions in books, movies and television. Over the years, many scientists have come up with inventive ways to hide objects from sight (one includes a 3D printer); only the process is certainly much more complex than science fiction makes it look. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[288] **viXra:1602.0310 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-24 15:20:23*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Contemplation of wild strength.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[287] **viXra:1602.0309 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-24 10:08:21*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is presented a rule of thumb or principle with regards to astrochemical understanding in explaining planet formation and stellar evolution.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[286] **viXra:1602.0306 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-24 11:52:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A team of quantum physicists managed to tame a so-called "dark state", created in a superconducting qubit. A superconducting qubit is an artificial atom fabricated on a silicon chip as an electrical circuit made of capacitors and tunnel junctions. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[285] **viXra:1602.0305 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-24 05:02:16*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Bekenstein-Hawking entropy takes discrete values proportional to 2 to the power n in a holographic model. Horizon numbers n are calculated for specific black holes and for subatomic particles, which have been shown to be the analogues of black holes.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[284] **viXra:1602.0304 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-24 05:17:37*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Contact the Author - ratunek.nauki(at)onet.pl

The article is dedicated to improving the big mistake in theoretical physics. In the article is presented actually existing phenomenon, consisting in a reduction of interactions between particles of matter with their high relative speed. In physics this phenomenon for over a hundred years is erroneously regarded as the growing mass, and the mass came to be called relativistic mass. To present the course of this phenomenon there is used a modeling computer program showing how models of the fundamental particles accelerate each other in the image of what is happening in nature. Thanks to the work of this program there has been discovered a unique phenomenon - in the constructive field theory, it took the shape of a physical law - the law of insignificant action.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[283] **viXra:1602.0303 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-23 05:34:34*

**Authors:** Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Revised version

In the present paper we consider the massless fields described by two types of potentials with different
space-time properties and different Lorentz transformations. In particular, we discuss the consequences of such approach in application to the electromagnetic field and weak gravity. The possible application for the description of dark matter and dark energy is discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[282] **viXra:1602.0302 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-21 22:48:15*

**Authors:** Valery B. Smolensky

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The article presents a theoretical method of determination of fundamental physical constants. The results of analytical calculations, including: the fine structure constant, the wave length of Compton, the electron mass, elementary charge, Planck constant, Planck mass, length and time, Planck, Newton's gravitational constant, the lifetime of the neutron.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[281] **viXra:1602.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-24 08:03:56*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

IBM today announced new and expanded cognitive APIs for developers that enhance Watson's emotional and visual senses, further extending the capabilities of the industry's largest and most diverse set of cognitive technologies and tools. [8] The pursuit of an understanding of the base machinery of the mind led early researchers to anatomical exhaustion. With neuroscience now in the throes of molecular mayhem and a waning biochemical bliss, physics is spicing things up with a host of eclectic quantum, spin, and isotopic novelties. While increases in electron spin content have been linked to anesthetic effects, nuclear spins have recently been implicated in a more rarefied and subtle phenomenon— neural quantum processing. [7] The hypothesis that there may be something quantum-like about the human mental function was put forward with " Spooky Activation at Distance " formula which attempted to model the effect that when a word's associative network is activated during study in memory experiment; it behaves like a quantum-entangled system. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[280] **viXra:1602.0298 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-24 08:03:52*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas for the constant pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[279] **viXra:1602.0297 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-24 10:24:30*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 63 Pages. Spanish

In 1945 Einstein returns to theory of field unified asymmetric that had investigated in 1925. A theory with metric tensor and affine connection both asymmetrics, with what he wanted to achieve the unification of gravitation and electromagnetism. The procedure used by Einstein was to find equations that generalize the relativistic equations of gravitation. Until his death in 1955, Einstein published fourteen deductions of the equations of field unified asymmetric, which are gathered and studied in this article.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[278] **viXra:1602.0296 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-23 04:34:48*

**Authors:** Jose P Koshy

**Comments:** 9 Pages. The fifteenth and the final paper based on reality.

For the first time in the history of physics, a complete 'Theory of Everything” is proposed. This paper is the last in a series of papers based on reality, and gives a complete description of the theory, and refers to the earlier papers for details. Whether it is the right theory or not, I leave it to the community of physicists to decide.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[277] **viXra:1602.0295 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-23 04:41:01*

**Authors:** Mădălina Giorgiana Mangra, Elena Antoanela Cotoc, Aurelia Trăistaru

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Environmental Management protects valuable environmental assets, manages local areas on the most suitable way and develops relationships between people and the natural environment. Organizations are increasingly concerned to achieve and demonstrate environmental performance, controlling their activities, products or services on the environment. These issues are enrolled in the legislation context more and more stringent, of the development of economic policies and other measures designed to encourage environmental protection, increase business concern on environmental issues, including sustainable economic development.
Thus, the complex systems of the integrated management (environmental, quality, security, energy) provide the circumstance for continuous improvement of industrial performance, including product quality and prevention and reducing environmental pollution.
EMS implementation requires a thorough regard of some phases (stages) characteristic of the environmental analysis performed by an organization. The 19 stages of EMS implementation outline the steps that the organization follows to develop an effective environmental policy.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[276] **viXra:1602.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-23 05:22:46*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

A small team of researchers with Australian National University Canberra, has found evidence that suggests that plants are able to reset a memory that has not been proven to be useful, in essence, forgetting things after they have been stored. [12] An international team of researchers from the Duke-NUS Medical School (Duke-NUS), the University of Bristol, Monash University and RIKEN have developed an algorithm that can predict the factors required to convert one human cell type to another. These game-changing findings, recently published online on 18 January 2016 in the journal Nature Genetics, have significant implications for regenerative medicine and lay the groundwork for further research into cell reprogramming. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Mind Science

[275] **viXra:1602.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-23 07:43:07*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is provided a simple principle of planet formation in light of needing refractory material to melt iron and nickel into alloy in any amount. These alloys are called taenite and kamacite.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[274] **viXra:1602.0292 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-22 21:33:48*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 7 Pages. In Russian Robert Yusupov © About one Sight at the Coulomb's Law (YRA-sight)

В настоящей статье представлены результаты исследования по вопросу о смысле и значении коэффициента пропорциональности в законе Кулона о взаимодействии двух точечных электрических зарядов. Как известно коэффициент пропорциональности в законе Кулона в одной из своих форм представляет собой произведение квадрата скорости света на постоянный множитель k*c^2. Не совсем понятно, почему природа должна была выбрать этот постоянный множитель для своего закона. Речь идет о множителе k=10^(-7). Нет рациональных объяснений этому. Представляется вполне логичным отнести этот множитель к значению величины электрического заряда. Это потребует соответствующего переопределения величины электрического заряда. Числовое значение заряда уменьшится в 10^(3,5) раз. В этом случае коэффициент пропорциональности упростится. Он станет равным квадрату скорости света c^2. Он перестанет быть подгоночным. Физическая величина электрический заряд примет свое естественное значение. Это изменение потребует уточнения системы планковских величин. В приложении приводится уточненная система планковских величин.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[273] **viXra:1602.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-22 21:36:49*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Robert Yusupov © About one Sight at the Coulomb's Law (YRA-sight)

In this article presents the results of a study on the meaning and significance of the coefficient of proportionality in Coulomb's law of interaction of two point electric charges. As you know the proportionality factor in Coulomb's law in one of its forms is the product of the square of the speed of light by a constant factor k*c^2. It is not clear why nature had to choose the constant factor for his law. This is a factor k=10^(-7). There is no rational explanation for this value. It seems quite logical to include this factor into the value of the electric charge. This will require a redefinition of the corresponding value of the electric charge. The numerical value of the charge is reduced to 10^(3,5) times. The proportionality coefficient is simplified. It will be equal to the square of the speed of light c^2. He ceases to be a far-fetching. In this case the physical quantity electrical charge will take its natural value. This change will require adjustment system Planck units. The author proposes a refined system of Planck units.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[272] **viXra:1602.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-22 22:42:43*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a Novel Scheme to construct the
‘Primality Tree Of Any Given Set’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[271] **viXra:1602.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-23 01:09:01*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[270] **viXra:1602.0288 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-28 06:41:28*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The object of this (exceedingly) brief note is to point out that the recent discovery of gravitational waves may further constrain brane-worlds models and alternative theories of gravitation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[269] **viXra:1602.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-22 16:34:29*

**Authors:** Marian Siminică, Aurelia Trăistaru

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This study falls within economic oriented pedagogy and aims to make a classification of
features specific for self-directed learning in economics. The methods used are meta-analytical,
argumentative, logical, psychological, educational and economic. It can be concluded that selfdirected
learning in economic education is a process in which initiative belongs to the individuals
who are able to determine their own learning needs, identify both the skills available and the ones
they should have and are required by situation, understand their own motivational and emotional
mechanism and deliberate on strategies to support the aims pursued. Self-directed learning is strictly
oriented towards the learner: he makes it by own initiative; the time devoted to learning is flexible
and timelines are variable; autonomy is very important in stabilizing self-learning goals; thematic
contents are usually freely chosen (decision belongs to the man who learns); learning outcomes are
established by self-assessment. So, the essential element is accountability.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[268] **viXra:1602.0286 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-22 07:29:00*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Contact the Author - ratunek.nauki(at)onet.pl

The article contains an example of the fact that even today some physicists, wanting to explain by "my way" physical phenomena, make glaring errors. They offer their explanations and interpretations, which are just as ridiculous as those interpretations that they would like to eliminate from physics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[267] **viXra:1602.0285 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-22 07:42:38*

**Authors:** Miroslav Barnev

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A theory, that gives new assumption to what energy, mass, motion, space-time and gravity could be

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[266] **viXra:1602.0284 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-22 07:41:13*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this note we give one formula for the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[265] **viXra:1602.0283 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-29 06:43:00*

**Authors:** Domenico Oricchio

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A simple method to obtain the Hamiltonian from each unidimensional dynamical system.
Each unidimensional system is so quantizable.
It is probable that each multidimensional system is quantizable, because of the generalization of the idea.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[264] **viXra:1602.0282 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-22 09:04:47*

**Authors:** Mourici Shachter

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In this paper, I try to combine Electromagnetic and Gravitation into one theory, using hidden parameters of Special Relativity.
Assumption
The electron charge cannot be separated from the electron mass. Both are "connected "to the same particle. This is true for all other "elementary particles". In electricity and electronic we can accumulate charge only on capacitors, so I assume that particle mass is the capacitor mass that hold the particle charge.
Of course, such an assumption must agree with all other theories like Relativity Gravitation Electromagnetic etc
I paid attention that "Transmission lines" behave mathematically according to Special Relativity, (3D electromagnetic cavity also) , hence I used the Transmission line to explain why "Space Time" is the "capacitor" of particle charge. The final conclusion was that the entire universe is an electromagnetic cavity. The electromagnetic waves create AC currents in the "mass capacitance" and the mass move according to professor Einstein equations. But Gravitation waves does not exists.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[263] **viXra:1602.0281 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-19 09:39:42*

**Authors:** Edward G. Lake

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Albert Einstein’s explanation of Time Dilation [1], along with “The Twin Paradox” explained by Paul Langevin [2], pose two scientific questions: (1) ”What IS Time if it can be dilated?” and (2) “HOW is Time dilated by velocity and gravity?” The answers in this paper may be only a revisualization of what has been known for over a century, but it appears the topic has never before been explained by a layman in layman’s terms. This paper is an expansion of an observation about Time Dilation described in my previous paper: “Time Dilation Re-Visualized.[3]”

**Category:** Astrophysics

[262] **viXra:1602.0280 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-22 09:29:23*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

[1]. dark energy in 1998, validated by the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe.
[2] Elementary particles pulsating principle and dark energy pulsating principle.
[3] dark energy information.
[4]... present a strong candidate for dark energy.
[5]... dark energy exist in 4-dimensional space.
[6]. mechanism of particle mass due to pulsation of the dark energy.
[7] dark energy pulsating show Supersymmetry.
[8] dark energy and the energy of the vacuum space equivalent mechanism.
[9] dark energy and the Higgs field.
[10] Elementary particles mass generation mechanism.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[261] **viXra:1602.0279 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-22 04:50:56*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following observation: let P be a 3-Poulet number, d its least prime factor and q one of the other two prime factors; then the length of the period of the rational number P/d + d/P is for almost any P equal to q – 1 or equal to (q – 1)/n or equal to (q – 1)*n, where n positive integer.

**Category:** Number Theory

[260] **viXra:1602.0278 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-22 05:06:58*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The strong coupling alpha_s for energy equal to the mass of the Z boson is one of the fundamental parameters of the Standard Model (SM). By 2014 this value was 0.1185 +- 0.0006. But the recent LHC experiments (paper was submitted on December 16, 2015) changed this value to a new world average: 0.1177 +- 0.0013 (arXiv:1512.05194). The new value is consistent with the value predicted within the Scale-Symmetric (SST) already 3 years ago: 0.1176 +- 0.0005. This result was published in vixra on December 16, 2012 (vixra:1212.0105). Moreover, the interval +- 0.0005 predicted by SST does not follow from uncertainties but from natural processes so uncertainties defined in LHC experiments cannot be lower than this interval. Notice that the SST result as a whole lies inside the interval defined by the new LHC experiments and that the central values differ by 0.0001 only. We can say that at high energies, the SM mimics the SST results but at low energies, contrary to SST, the SM does not lead to precise values, for example, within SM we cannot calculate the exact mass and spin of proton.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[259] **viXra:1602.0277 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-22 05:37:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[258] **viXra:1602.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-22 05:51:50*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I state the following conjecture: let P be a 2-Poulet number, d its least prime factor and q the other one; then the length of the period of the rational number P/d + d/P is equal to (q – 1)/n, where n positive integer.

**Category:** Number Theory

[257] **viXra:1602.0275 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-22 07:20:27*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Contact the Author - ratunek.nauki(at)onet.pl

Changes in action of atoms can occur in people's minds, in their consciousness. After reading this article they may occur in these people, who highly regard the cause-and-effect relationships and logical thinking. Because of the article, you can find out that the properties of atoms result in a logical way from the properties of the fundamental particles of matter.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[256] **viXra:1602.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-22 07:23:31*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Contact the Author - ratunek.nauki(at)onet.pl

In the article is presented the view that the creators of today's physics went far beyond the area of classical physics. They created and developed two theories of relativity and quantum mechanics, and their work was based on the principle: the more complex are the physical ideas and difficult to understand, the better; the more ideas will be introduced to the physics and they will be beyond the reach of human imagination and experience, the better. In short, they created a physics based on chutzpah principles, in which the less logic and cause-effect dependences, the better. Article aims to raise awareness of logically minded physicists that it is time to eliminate chutzpah ideas from physics and replace them by logically associated ones along with experimental facts.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[255] **viXra:1602.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-22 07:26:14*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Contact the Author - ratunek.nauki(at)onet.pl

In the article are presented the properties of neutrons and protons, and the principles of interaction between them that enable them to create nuclear bonds, which are the basis of structure of atoms of all chemical elements. For an explanation of the processes, the author uses a computer modeling program, in which models of protons and neutrons interact with each other and mutually accelerate in the likeness of what happens to these particles in reality, when they form nuclei of atoms.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[254] **viXra:1602.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-21 19:25:48*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Equivalent pulse hypothesis empty dead space and micro black holes.
Photon micro-black hole is in the graviton.
Black hole-photon in graviton.
Equivalent to the black holes in the universe-wide.
Micro-black hole
Empty depletion pulse hypothesis space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[253] **viXra:1602.0271 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-25 22:42:15*

**Authors:** Wei Lu

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

We propose a Clifford algebra based model, which includes local gauge symmetries SO(1,3)*SU_L(2)*U_R(1)*U(1)*SU(3). There are two sectors of bosonic fields as electroweak and Majorana bosons. The electroweak boson sector is composed of scalar Higgs, pseudoscalar Higgs, and antisymmetric tensor components. The Majorana boson sector is responsible for flavor mixing and neutrino Majorana masses. The LHC 750 GeV diphoton resonance is explained by a Majorana sector quadruon, which is the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson of uscd four-quark condensation. The quadruon results from spontaneous symmetry breaking of a family-related global U(1) symmetry involving up, down, charm, and strange quarks. Being standard model singlets, four-fermion condensations are potential dark matter candidates.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[252] **viXra:1602.0270 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-21 13:29:33*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 1 Page. Contact the Author - ratunek.nauki(at)onet.pl

The article comprises equation even more beautiful than Euler's identity, which is considered the most beautiful math equation. The equation is even more beautiful, because from it is derived Euler's identity. Besides, there can be derived from it many other no less beautiful mathematical identities as Euler's.

**Category:** Geometry

[251] **viXra:1602.0269 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-21 13:31:46*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 1 Page. Contact the Author - ratunek.nauki(at)onet.pl

Novelty which earlier - before it appears - no one saw; the beautiful equation.

**Category:** Geometry

[250] **viXra:1602.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-21 13:54:10*

**Authors:** DT Froedge

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

On Thursday Feb. 2016 the Ligo team announced the detection of gravitational waves from a collapsing black hole on Sept 14 2015. This definitively answers the question of the existence of gravitational radiation, and confirms the pulsar radiation energy Measured by Hulse, R. A. & Taylor [1], [2], but it has not yet answered definitively the question of the nature of gravitational radiation. That question is whether the radiation is a ripple in spacetime, or an electromagnetic wave, clearly the most important issue since the theory’s origination in 1915. GR theorists would consider the question already answered, but there have been a number of theorists that have postulated an electromagnetic origin of gravitation, and even now the experimental evidence is not certain.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[249] **viXra:1602.0267 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-27 10:00:18*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Eight pages

Look at a space as a simple volume and approximate void[2] with ordinary scalar dimensions of x, y, and z. It has the property of conducting light, radio, X, Gamma, Delta, etc., at the speed of light, which can be calculated as c = 1/square root of (permeability)(permittivity). Energy is “shoved” into and “retrieved” from such a space when light, etc. travels. Space thus has a “springiness” property which controls the indeed constant speed of light c. A gravity field through this volume of space affects both permeability, an inductance, and permittivity, a capacitance. No surprise here since light seems to have both electric and magnetic components.
Dr. Einstein’s General Relativity incorrectly models space as an entity he called space-time that is somehow warped by the prese, 10:54Ance of mass. The time thing of his space-time comes out of incorrect Special Relativity time dilation: t = t’[square root of (1 – v^2/c^2)].
LIGO is a giant interferometer that has light going in two different arms at right angles with each other. The tiny gravity force coming from a system of black holes and moving down one of these arms will affect the speed of the laser light in that arm. A “blip” in this black hole gravity strength caused by the collision of these black holes is what the current LIGO data allegedly measured. www.k1man.com/LIGO160213A.pdf This has nothing whatsoever to do with alleged Dr. Einstein “gravity waves” through his incorrectly postulated space-time fabric.
The gravity “blip” measured at LIGO was about 0.45 seconds in duration. Since gravity travels 20 billion times faster than the speed of light[3], the “blip” at the black hole system would have been (0.45)(20 billion) seconds duration, = 3.8 years.
The gravity “blip” measured at LIGO was about 0.45 seconds in duration. Since gravity travels 20 billion times faster than the speed of light[3], the “blip” at the black hole system would have been (0.45)(20 billion) seconds duration, = 3.8 years. This gravity “blip,” 1.3 billion light years distant, taking [1.3 billion light years]/40 billion = [.035][365] = 11.86 days to reach the earth from the black hole system. Thus the black hole crash happened at a distance of 11.86 gravity days.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[248] **viXra:1602.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-21 15:46:41*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 9 Pages. YRA © Reality, Nature, Universe, Planck’s constants, YRA-conception

In the present article the unique, universal, cosmological constant of the Universe is determined. On the basis of this constant the problem of build-up of unique, natural, universal, axiomatic system of the Planck’s constants is solved.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[247] **viXra:1602.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-21 15:59:47*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 9 Pages. In Russian ЮРА YRA © Реальность. Природа. Вселенная. Планковские константы. YRA-концепция.

В настоящей статье представлена концепция автора по некоторым вопросам и проблемам современного физического знания о Природе и Вселенной. В статье определена уникальная, универсальная космологическая константа Вселенной. На базе этой константы решена проблема построения естественной аксиоматической теории планковских констант. В этой статье представлены взгляды автора 2011-2012 годов.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[246] **viXra:1602.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-21 09:53:35*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Contact the Author - ratunek.nauki(at)onet.pl

In the article is presented in detail the question of mutual permeation of particles of matter. This phenomenon is not dependent on the position of particles in space, or the size of the structural arrangements which form one with another. The article discusses several types of trajectories along which can move two fundamental particles or two cosmic bodies when they form the binary system. There are presented conditions in which there is a change in the nature of trajectory of bodies relative to each other.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[245] **viXra:1602.0263 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-21 10:06:01*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Single-page Note

Through my write-ups I have been trying, most politely, to convince the influential readers, that Big-Bang Model of Cosmology needs reconsideration, because, there are many possibilities, some of them pointed out by me, that the intergalactic photon can loose its energy. Now, I declare my final words:
1. The Big Bang Model of Cosmology is an illusion, arisen from the mathematical model, of space-time-continuum. Because, time is not a physical entity.
2. Big banger's belief that time too began with the big bang, and there was no time before the bang, is an incorrect out-come of the mathematical model. Time is actually a dimension of our consciousness, our mind, that we use for perceiving and understanding.
3. Correct theory is that in which the photon looses its energy, and gets red shifted.
4. Similarly, the anthropic-principle is also not correct, nor the many-world interpretation of the quantum mechanics.
5. There was a reason why Einstein was not awarded the Nobel Prize for any of his Relativity Theory. Physics is not mathematics. A model may predict some thing, but it does not mean that it describes the real physical process.
Scientific community should choose, whether they are ready to consider Hasmukh K. Tanks views, or want to remain deluded for centuries to come.
Yours faithfully,
Hasmukh K. Tank

**Category:** Astrophysics

[244] **viXra:1602.0262 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-02 07:42:12*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is outlined a basic principle to stellar evolution/planet formation regarding
gravitational collapse.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[243] **viXra:1602.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-21 11:41:11*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Contact the Author - ratunek.nauki(at)onet.pl

This article contains presentation of mathematical function, whereby gravitational effects can be described in a similar manner, as Newton did, but it can be done more accurately. In the article are presented (in the form of computer models) changes in orbit shapes, which performs one of two bodies in a binary system, when the second body is of incomparably greater mass. Shown are changes in shape of the orbit of the light body depending on parameters of its motion - depending on the initial distance from the heavy body and initial orbital speed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[242] **viXra:1602.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-21 07:17:21*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Contact the Author - ratunek.nauki(at)onet.pl

In the article is presented the essence of energy and its dependence on matter. Association of energy with matter is inseparable, because energy without matter can not exist. There are also presented two physical laws - the law of equal vibrations frequency and the law of equal angular speed of orbital motion.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[241] **viXra:1602.0259 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-21 03:55:08*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

We show that the classical random pinning model, if simulated numerically using a phase evolution scheme pioneered by Littlewood, gives dispersion relationships that are inconsistent with experimental values near threshold. These results suggest the need for a revision of contemporary classical models of charge density wave transport phenomena. Classical phase evolution equations have the same form as driven harmonic oscillators. We provide a different formulation of charge density transport using a tunneling Hamiltonian, motivated by Sidney Colemans’s false vacuum hypothesis, to model solition anti-soliton pair transport through a pinning gap. We thereby derive an analytical expression for charge density wave transport that agrees with experimental data both above and below the threshold field.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[240] **viXra:1602.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-21 04:17:30*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Contact the Author - ratunek.nauki(at)onet.pl

This is an open letter to Academics and professors of natural sciences in the world. In the letter the author explains that the dynamics developed by Newton describes only part of the dynamic phenomena that occur in the material world. Another part of the dynamic phenomena that Newton could not see, was described by Pinopa in constructive field theory.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[239] **viXra:1602.0257 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-21 00:36:57*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Contact the Author - ratunek.nauki(at)onet.pl

In the article there is presented a newly discovered natural phenomenon, which consists in the fact that when material bodies are affected by magnetic field, they change their mass.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[238] **viXra:1602.0256 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-21 02:11:17*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

[1] elementary pulsation principle concepts
[2] elementary pulsation principle existing facts and concepts
Rationale conceived hypothesis [3] elementary pulsation principle and its history
The first step to [4] elementary pulsation principle of birth
Geometric model of pulsating particles [5]
[6] elementary pulsation principle summary
[7] the principles of particle oscillation hypothesis. (Original 1980 release)
Grounds to assume that energy [8] particles pulsates at high speed.
[9] elementary pulsation principle applied to concepts concept basis
Stage characteristics table [10] elementary pulsation principle
Diagram of the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics [11]
[12] elementary pulsation principle applied, and conceptual thinking
Concepts of theoretical physics [13] elementary pulsation principle to solve (1-33)

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[237] **viXra:1602.0254 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-20 10:55:25*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 16 Pages. In French.

The papier presents an essay of the resolution of Navier-Stokes equations under the hypothesis (A) of the open problem cited by Clay Institute (C.L. Fefferman, 2006).

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[236] **viXra:1602.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-20 11:28:34*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Contact the Author - ratunek.nauki(at)onet.pl

In the article are presented three similar to each other mathematical functions. By means of these functions, you can describe the properties of the material field and the movement of material bodies relative to each other. One of these functions is a dependency that describes the gravitational effects in accordance with the concept of Newton. Another function, one of the other two mathematical functions, suits better to present gravitational effects than Newton's function. Using this function, you can describe the motion of the perihelion of planets, for example, the motion of the perihelion of Mercury.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[235] **viXra:1602.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-20 11:33:33*

**Authors:** Robert B. Easter

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper gives an overview of two different, but closely related, double conformal geometric algebras. The first is the G(8,2) Double Conformal / Darboux Cyclide Geometric Algebra (DCGA), and the second is the G(4,8) Double Conformal Space-Time Algebra (DCSTA). DCSTA is a straightforward extension of DCGA. The double conformal geometric algebras that are presented in this paper have a large set of operations that are valid on general quadric surface entities. These operations include rotation, translation, isotropic dilation, spacetime boost, anisotropic dilation, differentiation, reflection in standard entities, projection onto standard entities, and intersection with standard entities. However, the quadric surface entities and other "non-standard entities" cannot be intersected with each other.

**Category:** Geometry

[234] **viXra:1602.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-20 08:22:18*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Contact the Author - ratunek.nauki(at)onet.pl

In the article there is presented law of insignificant action. A chance to show, how works this law in physical phenomena, is discovery made by prof. Louis Rancourt, a physicist at College Boreal, Canada. The author of the article based on the law of insignificant action, which is an important part of constructive field theory interprets the course of events, which discovered prof. Louis Rancourt. Until now these phenomena by means of other theories couldn't be logically explained. In order to present the law of insignificant action the author also uses illustrations made by a computer program in which models of the fundamental particles by their mutual accelerations interact with each other in a similar way as it happens in nature.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[233] **viXra:1602.0250 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-20 09:00:12*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Modular programming is a very efficient way of system creation. By reducing the number of relevant relations the method diminishes the complexity of configuring and supporting modular systems. The method uses the available resources in an optimal way.
The current way of software generation uses an object oriented way of system construction that does not encapsulate the objects, such that their internals are effectively hidden and guarded against obstructive access by external objects. This paper introduces a new way of notation that enforces this encapsulation. Many programming languages already implement part of the required methodology. An example is the razor language. This paper extends these ideas to a modular way of programming.
The approach makes from every relational database a modular database and from every file system a modular file system. It makes from every communication service a modular communication service and it standardizes programming such that reuse can be optimized in a global way. It will improve the robustness and reliability of software and enables to a large extent automated system configuration.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[232] **viXra:1602.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-20 04:32:07*

**Authors:** Orgest ZAKA, Kristaq FILIPI

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, based on several meanings and statements discussed in the literature, we intend
constuction a affine plane about a of whatsoever corps (K,+,*). His points conceive as
ordered pairs (α,β), where α and β are elements of corps (K,+,*). Whereas straight-line in
corps, the conceptualize by equations of the type x*a+y*b=c, where a≠0K or b≠0K the
variables and coefficients are elements of that body. To achieve this construction we prove
some theorems which show that the incidence structure A=(P, L, I) connected to the corps
K satisfies axioms A1, A2, A3 definition of affine plane. In all proofs rely on the sense of the
corps as his ring and properties derived from that definition.

**Category:** Geometry

[231] **viXra:1602.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-20 04:37:45*

**Authors:** V.S.Mitin

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Biotonic law is a physical act with more specific constants M. Feigenbaum.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[230] **viXra:1602.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-20 04:51:43*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Contact the Author - ratunek.nauki(at)onet.pl

In the article there is presented, what is most important in the structure of the fundamental particles of matter and what is the cause of interactions between them, and there are also presented in it the fundamentals of material structures. In the article are presented two faces of two most important particles, which are the basis of the structure of matter - protons and neutrons. There is also presented a third fundamental particle of matter - protoelectron. From a very large number of such protoelectrons when they end up in areas of other centrally symmetric fields (ie, in the areas of protons and neutrons, near the centers of these fields) there are forming complex structural systems, which have a certain durability. These structural clusters of protoelectrons are precipitated from protons and neutrons in the process of collisions between them and they are known as electrons and other particles of matter that occur during collisions.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[229] **viXra:1602.0246 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-03 06:23:46*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 53 Pages. Article (english version) published in J. Phys. Math (2016) 7: 196. The digitation or conversion of this paper in J. Phys. Math. need revision and many typographical corrections. I'm sorry.

A solution to the 6th millenium problem, respect to breakdown of Navier-Stokes solutions and the bounded energy. We have proved that there are initial velocities u^0(x) and forces f(x,t) such that there is no physically reasonable solution to the Navier-Stokes equations for t>0, which corresponds to the case (C) of the problem relating to Navier-Stokes equations available on the website of the Clay Institute.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[228] **viXra:1602.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-20 06:17:11*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Last week's announcement that Gravitational Waves (GW) have been detected for the first time—as a result of the merger of two black holes—is huge news. But now a Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) originating from the same place, and that arrived at Earth 0.4 seconds after the GW, is making news. Isolated black holes aren't supposed to create GRB's; they need to be near a large amount of matter to do that. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[227] **viXra:1602.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-20 07:13:34*

**Authors:** Ranjeet Dalal

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The nuclear physics area is plagued by variety of sophisticated models based upon initial ideas of liquid drop model or independent particle shell model. One set of models are used to understand binding energy and fission mechanism while the others are used to understand the nuclear shell structure
and its implications. Further, some of the basic assumptions required for these models are apparently contradictory to each other. These models have their limited application area and can be used to account certain nuclear properties only. In present work, an unified approach for nuclear structure is proposed
which can account the nuclear binding energy along with the nuclear shell structure for all ranges of nuclei. This model is based upon recent observations and do not use arbitrary assumptions like spin-orbit coupling term. It can be used to calculate various nuclear properties like binding energy, nuclear magnetic moments, quadrupole moments, similar excitation levels for mirror nuclei, emergence of new magic numbers for neutron rich nuclei or correlated two proton/neutron emission. Interestingly, it provides an
straightforward explanation for asymmetric/symmetric fission fragment distribution in spontaneous/lowenergy
fission events for heavy nuclei. Although, the proposed model is supported by many experimental evidences, further suggestions are given for verification of the approach.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[226] **viXra:1602.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-19 20:44:15*

**Authors:** Mihai Grumazescu

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Spacetime distortion by matter is a purely abstract concept. Consequently, spacetime elusive ripples are unlikely to have been detected in the natural world.
In a proposed gravitational model, it is assumed that a net linear momentum is constantly generated in the direction of each nucleon's spin due to an asymmetric vibration of the quarks and gluons. The atomic nucleus is a kinetic dipole and a neutrino transceiver. Nucleons generate the whole package contributing to the phenomenon of gravity: the self-propelling force through the kinetic dipole and the information on their instant position in space through neutrinos carrying it. Gravitational lensing could be just a neutrino-photon interaction. Instead of gravitational waves, the LIGO experiment may have detected a form of gravitational lensing due to an increased flux of high energy neutrinos produced by the alleged gravitational event.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[225] **viXra:1602.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-20 00:34:37*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Contact the Author - ratunek.nauki@onet.pl

In the article there is presented an erroneous use of the concepts of electrostatic charges. This wrong way contributed to the fact that many people of the world of science, instead of logical thinking, began to interpret physical phenomena based on mathematical symbols "+" and "-". The worst, however, is that in this way was limited logical thinking and theoretical physics introduced nonsense, stupidity, by which you cannot explain how actually physical phenomena run.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[224] **viXra:1602.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-20 01:44:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch - the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8]
Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7]
A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[223] **viXra:1602.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-19 13:23:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[222] **viXra:1602.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-19 10:37:29*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

An article presents in a new way a phenomenon that seemingly belies known magnetic interactions. Rendered phenomenon occurs under specific conditions and consists in that the like magnetic poles instead of repelling, attract each other . Familiarization with this new phenomenon of attracting the like poles of magnets - or more precisely, looking at already widely known physical phenomena from a new point of view - allows to recognize what actually magnetism is.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[221] **viXra:1602.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-19 08:01:58*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The article presents fundamental principle of matter. It manifests itself in all physical phenomena. But the easiest way it can be seen are gravitational interactions. Therefore, the fundamental principle of matter is presented in the article as derived from gravitational interactions.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[220] **viXra:1602.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-19 08:39:37*

**Authors:** Antonio A. Colella

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

A Two-Step Integrated Theory of Everything (TOE) – Revision A consisted of a fundamental physics step followed by a mathematics step. Via a single string theory solution, a Two-Step Integrated TOE unified all known physical phenomena from the Planck cube to the Super Universe (multiverse). Each of 129 fundamental matter and force particle types was defined by its unique closed string in a Planck cube. Any object in the Super Universe was defined by a volume of contiguous Planck cubes containing fundamental matter or force particle strings. Super force string doughnut physical singularities existed at the center of Planck cubes at the start of the Super Universe, all precursor universes, and all universes including our universe. String theory’s six extra dimensions were the dynamic point particle’s position and velocity coordinates in a Planck cube. Two reasons for replacing inadequate existing matter and force particle symbols were explicit Higgs particle representation and elimination of ambiguities. Our universe’s 128 matter and force particle types were created from the super force. Matter creation was time synchronous with both inflation start time and the one to seven Planck cubes energy to energy/matter expansion. Super force particles were God particles because they constituted 100% of our universe’s energy/mass. Higgs particles were associate God particles because they constituted approximately 82% of our universe’s total energy/mass. The sum of eight Higgs force energies associated with eight permanent matter particles was dark energy. Extremely high temperatures caused spontaneous symmetry breaking. The latter occurred for eight permanent matter particles and three permanent Higgsino types. Decays were a series of evaporations/condensations of matter particles/Higgs forces to and from the super force. Neutrinos oscillated between three flavors via the seesaw model using a neutral heavy lepton. Dark matter consisted of zinos, photinos, and three permanent Higgsino types. There were four types of sequential universe expansions. The product of the non-uniform distribution of matter expansion rate and the graviton’s intergalactic propagation time was string theory’s seventh extra dimension. By the end of matter creation, our universe consisted of atomic/subatomic matter (5%), cold dark matter (26%), and dark energy (69%), and those percentages remained constant for 13.8 billion years (Lamda cold dark matter ΛCDM cosmological model). Messenger particles contained embedded clocks/computers. The relative strengths of gravitational and electromagnetic forces were due to gravitational propagation factor dilution. All 128 matter and force particle types complied with conservation of energy/mass accountability. The single vacuum Super Universe consisted of nested parallel precursor and nested parallel universes. Stellar black holes included quark stars (matter) and black holes (energy). The Friedmann metric had three scenarios. The proposed entropy formula for a quark star (matter) was proportional to the quark star’s volume and inversely proportional to a Planck cube’s volume. In our precursor universe, a super supermassive quark star (matter) instantaneously evaporated, deflated, and gravitationally collapsed to its associated super supermassive black hole’s (energy) which created our universe. The prevailing cosmology theory “The Ultimate Free Lunch” satisfied only the third of three laws of physics and should be replaced by “A Two-Step Integrated TOE” which satisfied all three. Our universe was nested in our older precursor universe which was nested in the still older Super Universe. The cosmological constant problem existed because the Super Universe’s volume was 10exp120 larger than our universe. Proof of the Super Universe’s parallel universes was via an existing multi-wavelength and advanced gravitational observatory technique. Intrinsic or structural information was lost in a super supermassive quark star (matter)/black hole (energy) formation and none was emitted as Hawking radiation. Charge, parity, and time violation caused baryogenesis. String theory and an Integrated TOE were identical to quantum gravity theory. A Two-Step Integrated TOE had a fundamental physics step and a two part mathematics step. Twenty independent existing theories were replaced by twenty interrelated amplified theories and summarized in Table V. Six Integrated TOE advanced validation techniques and independent analyses/validations by physicists were proposed.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[219] **viXra:1602.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-19 04:06:56*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[218] **viXra:1602.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-19 06:00:15*

**Authors:** Oleh Kyrhan

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The article discusses the representation of discrete functions defined in an analytic form without the use of approximations, namely the Heaviside function, identity function, the Dirac delta function and the prime-counting function.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[217] **viXra:1602.0234 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-08 16:32:26*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Squaring the Circle is a famous geometry problem going all the way back to the ancient Greeks. It is the great quest of constructing a square with the same area as a circle using a compass and straightedge in a finite number of steps. Since it was proved that pi was a transcendental number in 1882, the task of Squaring the Circle has been considered impossible. Here, we will show it is possible to Square the Circle in Euclidean space-time. It is not possible to Square the Circle in Euclidean space alone, but it is fully possible in Euclidean space-time, and after all we live in a world with not only space, but also time. By drawing the circle from one reference frame and drawing the square from another reference frame, we can indeed Square the Circle. By taking into account space-time rather than just space the Impossible is possible! However, it is not enough simply to understand math in order to Square the Circle, one must understand some “basic” space-time physics as well. As a bonus we have added a solution to the impossibility of Doubling the Cube. As a double bonus we also have also boxed the sphere! As one will see one can claim we simply have bent the rules and moved a problem from one place to another. One of the main essences of this paper is that we can move challenging space problems out from space and into time, and vice versa.

**Category:** Geometry

[216] **viXra:1602.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-18 19:28:27*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

A QRN simulating human decision making process is introduced. It consists of quantum recurrent nets generating stochastic processes which represent the motor dynamics, and of classical neural nets describing evolution of probabilities of these processes which represent the mental dynamics. The autonomy of the decision making process is achieved by a feedback from mental to motor dynamics which changes the stochastic matrix based upon the probability distributions. This feedback replaces an unavailable external information by an internal knowledgebase stored in the mental model in the form of probability distributions. As a result, the coupled motor-mental dynamics is described by a nonlinear version of Markov chains which can decrease entropy without an external source of information. Applications to common sense based decisions as well as to evolutionary games are discussed.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[215] **viXra:1602.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-18 21:11:43*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A special class of quantum recurrent nets (QRNs) simulating Markov chains with absorbing states is introduced. The absorbing states are exploited for pattern recognition: each class of patterns is attracted to a unique absorbing state. Due to quantum interference of patterns, each combination of patterns acquires its own meaning: it is attracted to a certain combination of absorbing states which is dierent from those of individual attractions. This fundamentally new eect can be interpreted as formation of a grammar, i.e., a set of rules assigning certain meaning to dierent combinations of patterns. It appears that there exists a class of unitary operators in which each member gives rise to a dierent arti®cial language with associated grammar.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[214] **viXra:1602.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-18 21:56:54*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 286 Pages.

Popasuri scriitoriceşti este o serie antologică dedicată scriitorilor care s-au născut în spațiul geographic al Oltului, sunt sau au fost trăitori în acest areal ori au alte legături cu râurile Olt și Olteț, plaiuri natale ale antologatorului.
E un mai vechi gând al meu - de a reuni într-o carte scriitori din aceeaşi arie geografică (spaţiul
însemnând, poate, un nucleu de inspiraţie) -, gând devenit proiect de suflet, urmărind parcursul unor oameni conspațiali mie (chiar dacă nu toți și contemporani!), care-şi agăţară sau îți agaţă ispitele sufleteşti de vaierul vorbelor purtate pe aripi de timp.
După un prim volum de aproape 300 de pagini, cu peste 20 de autori antologați și biografiați, plus notițe succinte despre o serie de alți scriitori, volum apărut în 2013, acest al II-lea tom cuprinde biografii și texte ilustrative din 50 de scriitori, ordonați cronologic.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[213] **viXra:1602.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-18 22:38:51*

**Authors:** Michail.Zak

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Based upon quantum-inspired entanglement in quantum-classical hybrids, a simple algorithm for instantaneous transmissions of non-intentional messages (chosen at random) to remote distances is proposed. A special class of situations when such transmissions are useful is outlined. Application of such a quantum-inspired teleportation, i.e. instantaneous transmission of conditional information on remote distances for security of communications is discussed. Similarities and differences between quantum systems and quantum-classical hybrids are emphasized.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[212] **viXra:1602.0228 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-06 11:56:12*

**Authors:** Jason cole

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

Traditionally when we think of waves we think of 2d sine waves. For example, light waves, sound waves and the recently discovered gravity waves by LIGO. However, there exist a new form of waves called sphere-hyperboloid waves that has all the wave properties of 2d but in a 3d sphere and hyperboloid form. The new wave form is revolutionary because it has huge implications in physics. If these new type of waves exist, then spherical particles are part of a sphere-hyperboloid propagation wave. This solves the particle wave-duality because it shows that the spherical electron is actually part of a newly discovered sphere-hyperboloid wave. The new wave theory will serve as basis for reconciling Q.M. with Relativity. This new wave discovery will revolutionize physics!

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[211] **viXra:1602.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-18 07:36:01*

**Authors:** Aurelia Trăistaru

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This study approaches issues of economic evidence and
radiographs the three concepts through which can be
defined the accounting object: juridical conception,
economic conception, financial conception. At the same time, it
researches the principles and specific procedures accounting
method, ascertaining that besides specific procedures only
accounting also it is appealed to general procedures for all
disciplines, as well common procedures also other economic
disciplines. The used method for this research is a metaanalytic
one.
The conclusion is that, for increasing the confidence in
unalterable image (registered data in time, concrete and
complete information, accounting according with juridical
base, applying with honest-minded of the economic-accounting
rules and procedures), has to work according with principles
and procedures.

**Category:** Social Science

[210] **viXra:1602.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-18 07:37:46*

**Authors:** Aurelia Trăistaru

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

First of all, the study radiographs Marketing status of 1980s and ascertains at
that moment appeared Green Marketing through a real spiritual – material
revolution. To clarify the revolutionary leap of Green Marketing is appealed to
theoretic circumstance of emergence. The phenomenon through which from the
elements of a low level are woken a composite of an inexplicable high level is
called emergence. Through descriptive reconstruction of economical, financial,
politics and technological factors evolution of 1970s is configured the idea that
Green Marketing constitutes an emergence phenomenon.
Second, it is catagraphied the acceptance, promotion and developing of Green
Marketing in Romania. At the same time, is ascertained practically that
Romanian are sensible and responsible regarding to integration in intercessions
that impose by Green Marketing.

**Category:** Social Science

[209] **viXra:1602.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-18 07:40:12*

**Authors:** Elena Antoanela Cotoc, Aurelia Trăistaru, Adriana Stoica

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The advantages of adopting a system of environmental management imply that through its
implementation a perfect monitoring of the environmental legislation can be achieved, having a higher
juridical certainty and supplying proofs of following the laws and regulations in force.
The most important advantages of an environmental system are: an appropriate care for the
clients, responsibility and diligence in managing environmental issues; saving raw materials and energy;
the effect of the environmental certification which does not necessarily lead to a growth in sales but
which contributes anyway to the improvement of the image.
Therefore the aim of the EMAS rule is promoting the continuous improvement of the
environmental performances through:
· development and implementation of the environmental management system,
· evaluation of the environmental performances through audit,
· giving to the customers the information related to the environmental performances.

**Category:** Social Science

[208] **viXra:1602.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-18 08:16:42*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Thoughts on vacuum energy, with questions of feasibility admitted into the deliberations

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[207] **viXra:1602.0223 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-11 09:44:27*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Due to the sensitive nature of clean unlimited energy sources from gravitational radiation, the full paper is available only upon request.

As an epitaph of the project for so-called GW astronomy, I suggest the famous saying by Confucius: "The hardest thing of all is to find a black cat in a dark room, especially if there is no cat". Specific examples are drawn from GW150914 and LISA Pathfinder, to explain why GW astronomy was born dead from the outset. Since the issue of energy transport by gravity is crucial to General Relativity, in the second part of the paper I offer a hypothesis about the origin of gravitational radiation in Relative Scale (RS) spacetime, and outline hypothetical applications of spacetime engineering for producing ecologically clean and unlimited energy by polarization of the so-called light vacuum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[206] **viXra:1602.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-18 04:36:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In the field of neuromorphic engineering, researchers study computing techniques that could someday mimic human cognition. Electrical engineers at the Georgia Institute of Technology recently published a "roadmap" that details innovative analog-based techniques that could make it possible to build a practical neuromorphic computer. [9] How does the brain-a lump of 'pinkish gray meat'-produce the richness of conscious experience, or any subjective experience at all? Scientists and philosophers have historically likened the brain to contemporary information technology, from the ancient Greeks comparing memory to a 'seal ring in wax,' to the 19th century brain as a 'telegraph switching circuit,' to Freud's subconscious desires 'boiling over like a steam engine,' to a hologram, and finally, the computer. [8] Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[205] **viXra:1602.0221 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-31 05:46:47*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 22 Pages. This paper was submitted to the Electronic Journal of Theoretical Physics on 18 February 2016; the journal that published Corda's paper. Accepted for publication: Hadronic Journal Vol. 39, 2016.

A paper by C. Corda (A Clarification on the Debate on ''the Original Schwarzschild Solution'', EJTP 8, No. 25 (2011) 65-82) purports equivalence of Schwarzschild's original solution (1916) and Hilbert's subsequent solution (1917), the latter commonly but incorrectly called 'Schwarzschild's solution’. The derivation of Schwarzschild's actual solution by Corda is, in fact, a copy of Schwarzschild's original derivation with only changes in notation and equation numbering. It adds nothing new to the problem. Corda's subsequent arguments on gravitational collapse follow those advanced by Misner, Thorne, and Wheeler for Hilbert's solution, in their book 'Gravitation', and suffer thereby from the very same shortfalls. Consequently, Corda has failed to prove his alleged equivalence of the Schwarzschild and Hilbert solutions. Moreover, it is not difficult to prove that these are not equivalent. Furthermore, all methods employed to otherwise 'extend' Droste's solution into Hilbert’s solution thus producing a black hole constitute a violation of the rules of pure mathematics and are invalid.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[204] **viXra:1602.0220 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-29 06:51:36*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

On a previous paper (see http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0040) it is described the structure of the isotropic space of infinite dimensions by the electrically opposite elementary units (in short: units) and, also, it is described the spherical deformation of this isotropic space as a dynamic space of finite dimensions, the Universe. Τhis first space deformation creates the cohesive forces, which cause the chaotic (huge) cohesive pressure. The allocation of these forces in the Universe, as a function of distance from the Universe center, will be developed in this paper.
The explanation of Michelson-Morley experiment is based on actual and apparent equal reduction of light speed. The actual reduction of light speed happens only when light is transmitted on material moving systems, on which the cohesive pressure P0 of the proximal space is reduced. The aberration of light can be used as a detection criterion of the absolute motion. Lorentz factor is the result of a mathematical settlement of the problem encountered with the Michelson-Morley experiment. This same reduction factor (Lorentz factor) appears also in the Theory of Dynamic Space at the Galilean transformations, by calculating the actual reduction of the light speed on material moving systems, without the second postulate of Relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[203] **viXra:1602.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-17 17:23:12*

**Authors:** Gene H. Barbee

**Comments:** 31 Pages. Please contact genebarbee@msn.com with comments

This document explores the possibility that reality is embedded in a medium that allows information to create physical nature. The laws of nature are rules discovered from data but better understood as information. One basic information operation was identified that separates zero into particles with kinetic energy from field energy. A second operation creates space. Another information relationship is related to the probability of particles and defines the number of neutrons. It is thought that a medium must support these operations and we will explore the character of the medium. One clue regarding the nature of the medium is that perception of energy is fundamental. The result is an evolved brain that operates within the medium and participates in enhancing reality. Part 2 of this document presents the relationship between information and energy in enough detail to support the part 1 concepts.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[202] **viXra:1602.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-17 17:27:56*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Robert Yusupov © Planck's constants, YRA-concept

In the present article the unique, universal, cosmological constant of the Universe is determined. On the basis of this constant the problem of build-up of unique, natural, universal, axiomatic system of the Planck's constants is solved. According to the concept of the author the Universe space is considered as a three-dimensional, discrete, Euclidean spatial lattice with knots and a motion of the material carriers (elementary particles or the particles transmitting interaction) is considered as a transferring between the neighbouring knots of a lattice on the loopback trajectories. The author in article presents the solution of a question on sense of a ne-structure constant. The solution of a problem of a dark matter and dark energy is presented.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[201] **viXra:1602.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-18 03:21:21*

**Authors:** Carles R Paul, Albert Serra

**Comments:** 2 pages

There are theories related to the time dependence of the speed of light that predict that the speed of light is not constant but depends on the time. But they are not verifiable or demonstrable physically or mathematically with concrete results. In this study, based on simple assumptions on the microwave background and thermal electrons, a model of the time varying speed of light is presented, which is fully compatible with currently accepted results for the speed of light and the Hubble constant theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[200] **viXra:1602.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-17 13:48:33*

**Authors:** Vasja Detox

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This article find a very interesting result that are somehow missed by scientists. It simply shows that Computer Science is a pseudoscience. We call a science pseudoscience if it it is inconsistent. In other words there exists a true statement that it can not prove or disprove. We prove this by utilizing Gödel incompleteness theorem and the fact that Computer Science main study topic is study of computers that are built processor and processors are based on arithmetics. We show alo that there is an exponential errors propogation initilized by errors in communication process between computers and between computers and humans.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[199] **viXra:1602.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-17 14:52:20*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[198] **viXra:1602.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-17 12:04:25*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I observe that many numbers of the form 4*p^2 + 2*p + 1, where p and 2*p – 1 are odd primes, meet one of the following three conditions: (i) they are primes; (ii) they are equal to d*Q, where d is the least prime factor and Q the product of the others, and Q = (n*d – n + m)/m; (iii) they are equal to d*Q, where d is the least prime factor and Q the product of the others, and Q = (n*d + n - m)/m, and I make few related notes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[197] **viXra:1602.0211 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-17 14:01:09*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Earlier we proved that the virtual electromagnetic interactions in Quantum Physics (QP) mimic the electroweak interactions described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). Here we show that General Theory of Relativity (GR) mimics the inspiral of the luminal Einstein spacetime near masses that is described within SST. This phenomenon leads to value about 1.75 arc seconds for the deflection of light by Sun for distance equal to its radius. Superiority of SST over QP and GR follows from the fact that described phase transitions during the inflation lead to the internal structure and interactions of the two-component spacetime and of bare particles. Knowing this part of Nature, we can significantly simplify the mathematical descriptions of fundamental phenomena.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[196] **viXra:1602.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-17 08:47:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In what may provide a potential path to processing information in a quantum computer, researchers have switched an intrinsic property of electrons from an excited state to a relaxed state on demand using a device that served as a microwave "tuning fork." [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[195] **viXra:1602.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-17 04:42:28*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory uniquely capable of measuring how a proton's internal building blocks — quarks and gluons — contribute to its overall intrinsic angular momentum, or "spin." [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[194] **viXra:1602.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-17 04:58:01*

**Authors:** Purnachandra Dash

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Steady current circuits are not closed in all cases if we continue to define current in its usual sense.In high frequency current oscillations , current changes along its path even if there is no net charge oscillations.To bring these into mathematical frame work,Maxwell's equations of electrodynamics are generalized extending the equation of continuity.This generalization led to prediction of electro-magnetic scalar radiations to be emitted along with the usual electromagnetic radiations.Calculation for these radiation was undertaken for dipole antennas under no assumed charge distributions. Substantial amount of electro-magnetic scalar radiations are shown to be emitted at high frequency current oscillations revealing the directional property like electromagnetic radiation with maximum intensity not along the perpendicular bisector of the antenna but along the direction of its alignment.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[193] **viXra:1602.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-17 05:07:25*

**Authors:** Jose Carlos Tiago de Oliveira

**Comments:** 3 Pages. jose.carlos.tiago.oliveira@gmail.com

Gilles-Gaston Granger defined style as way personal way for mathematics. A double way to interact in research is presented from the standpoint of Mekong river.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[192] **viXra:1602.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-17 05:11:25*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I observe that many numbers of the form 4*p^2 – 2*p – 1, where p and 2*p – 1 are odd primes, meet one of the following three conditions: (i) they are primes; (ii) they are equal to d*Q, where d is the least prime factor and Q the product of the others, and Q = n*d – n + 1; (iii) they are equal to d*Q, where d is the least prime factor and Q the product of the others, and Q = n*d + n – 1, and I make few related notes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[191] **viXra:1602.0204 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-18 14:33:04*

**Authors:** Jason cole

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Traditionally when we think of waves we think of 2d sine waves. For example, light waves, sound waves and the recently discovered gravity waves by LIGO. However, there exist a new form of waves called sphere-hyperboloid waves that has all the wave properties of 2d but in a 3d sphere and hyperboloid form. The new wave form is revolutionary because it has huge implications in physics. If these new type of waves exist, then spherical particles are part of a sphere-hyperboloid propagation wave. This solves the particle wave-duality because it shows that the spherical electron is actually part of a newly discovered sphere-hyperboloid wave. This new wave discovery will revolutionize physics!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[190] **viXra:1602.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-17 06:56:20*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas related to the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[189] **viXra:1602.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-17 07:05:41*

**Authors:** StephenJehucal@web.de

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A remedy for the Sisyphean economy is introduced.

**Category:** Social Science

[188] **viXra:1602.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-17 07:07:09*

**Authors:** Zhang Tianshu

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

In this article, we first classify A, B and C according to their respective odevity, and thereby get rid of two kinds from AX+BY=CZ. Then, affirmed the existence of AX+BY=CZ in which case A, B and C have at least a common prime factor by certain of concrete equalities. After that, proved AX+BY≠CZ in which case A, B and C have not any common prime factor by the mathematical induction with the aid of the symmetric law of positive odd numbers after divide the inequality in four. Finally, reached a conclusion that the Beal’s conjecture holds water via the comparison between AX+BY=CZ and AX+BY≠CZ under the given requirements.

**Category:** Number Theory

[187] **viXra:1602.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-17 07:15:37*

**Authors:** Zhang Tianshu

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

If every positive integer is able to be operated to 1 by the set operational rule of the Collatz conjecture, then begin with 1, we can get all positive integers after make infinitely many operations on the contrary of the set operational rule. In this article, we shall prove that the Collatz conjecture by the mathematical induction via the two-way operations is tenable.

**Category:** Number Theory

[186] **viXra:1602.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-16 21:36:28*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 66 Pages.

Un álbum de fotos (fotolog) de un viaje en el sur de Sudamérica, entre glaciares, lagos y montañas en Argentina y Chile, después de regresar de una expedición en la Antártida.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[185] **viXra:1602.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-16 21:38:55*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 107 Pages.

Welcome into my scientific lab!
My lab[oratory] is a virtual facility with non-controlled conditions in which I mostly perform scientific chats.
I called the jottings herein scilogs (truncations of the words scientific, and gr. Λόγος – appealing rather to its original meanings "ground", "opinion", "expectation"), combining the welly of both science and informal (via internet) talks.
In this book, one may find new and old questions and ideas, some of them already put at work, others dead or waiting, referring to various fields of research (e.g. from neutrosophic algebraic structures to Zhang's degree of intersection, or from Heisenberg uncertainty principle to neutrosophic statistics) – email messages to research colleagues, or replies, notes about authors, articles or books, so on.
Feel free to budge in the lab or use the scilogs as open source for your own ideas.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[184] **viXra:1602.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-16 21:41:05*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 166 Pages.

Aventurile unui oltean in sudul Americii de Sud: singur printre ghetari, lacuri si munti in Argentina si Chile, dupa intoarcerea dintr-o expeditie din Antarctica.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[183] **viXra:1602.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-16 23:19:59*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented ‘A Locally Parameter
Element Wise Linear Transformations Based Forecasting Model For Dynamic
State Systems With Large Number Of Parameters’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[182] **viXra:1602.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-16 23:22:52*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a Scheme for Deriving
‘The Universal Constraint’ which can be used especially for Prediction of any
aspect of concern to Holisticness.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[181] **viXra:1602.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-16 23:30:30*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented ‘A Locally Non-Linear
Transformations Based Forecasting Model For Dynamic State Systems’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[180] **viXra:1602.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-17 03:12:23*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Einstein's theory of general relativity predicts that accelerating masses emit gravitational waves. And last week, a century after this prediction was made, the LIGO collaboration announced their first direct detection of gravitational waves. But this was only the beginning – we expect many more events, and these will put Einstein's theory to the test with unprecedented accuracy. What, if anything, does this mean for physicists' efforts to find a theory of quantum gravity – the still missing combination of general relativity with quantum mechanics? [11] Physicists have searched for a theory of quantum gravity for 80 years. Though gravitons are individually too weak to detect, most physicists believe the particles roam the quantum realm in droves, and that their behavior somehow collectively gives rise to the macroscopic force of gravity, just as light is a macroscopic effect of particles called photons. But every proposed theory of how gravity particles might behave faces the same problem: upon close inspection, it doesn't make mathematical sense. Calculations of graviton interactions might seem to work at first, but when physicists attempt to make them more exact, they yield gibberish — an answer of " infinity. " " This is the disease of quantized gravity, " Stelle said. [8] Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[179] **viXra:1602.0192 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-19 18:51:06*

**Authors:** Wei Lu

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

We propose a Clifford algebra based model, which includes local gauge symmetries SO(1,3)*SU_L(2)*U_R(1)*U(1)*SU(3). There are two sectors of Higgs fields as Majorana and electroweak Higgs bosons. The Majorana Higgs sector, is responsible for the 750 GeV diphoton resonance, flavor mixing, and right-handed neutrino Majorana masses. The electroweak Higgs sector, which induces Dirac masses, is composed of scalar, pseudoscalar, and antisymmetric tensor components.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[178] **viXra:1602.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-16 12:51:04*

**Authors:** Mark Krinker

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The paper deals with a phenomenon, observed by the author. Employing Electric Double Layers for registering subtle phenomena like Torsion Fields is known since 90's of the past Century due to works of A.V. Bobrov of Russia. The energetic water-metal barrier is a receiver of such class of the phenomena. Such the systems employ different types of electrodes in water for generating EMF.
However, in the experiments of January 2014 it was noted that identical electrodes in water also produce EMF. The author explains it due to developing asymmetry by different colors of insulation on the electrodes as well as different chemical composition, related to the color and even influence of the shape-effect. Such the simple system proved to be a sensitive sensor of different kind of events, including the astronomical ones.
Published in Russian.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[177] **viXra:1602.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-16 14:19:26*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Fundamentals of constructive field theory (CFT) are the result of synthetic developent of many physical phenomena. In these phenomena the author of CFT saw simplest physical properties of matter, thanks to which there are so very different characteristics of different physical phenomena. Based on the results of many experiments that were previously carried out by many researchers, the author came to the conclusion that the world of nature and the phenomena occurring in it can logically be described using the properties of the three types of fundamental particles. CFT changes the action of atoms. But these changes are occurring in the minds of people who know and understand what CFT represents. There follows an understanding that all physical phenomena have their origin from parameters of the fundamental constituents of matter - centrally symmetric fields - called briefly particles. These centrally symmetric fields is a distribution of potentials in space - they are just constituents of matter. In the distribution of fields potentials - particles, can be distinguished gravitational component and structural component. This second component occurs in the form of a plurality of spherical formations that have different radii and concentrically surround the central point of the fundamental particle. These spherical formations have been named the potential shells and with their participation there are created stable structures of matter, and with their participation occur any changes in matter.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[176] **viXra:1602.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-16 14:22:00*

**Authors:** L.F. Escamilla-Herrera, E. Mena-Barboza, J. Torres-Arenas

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Thermodynamic formalism for rotating black holes, characterized by noncommutative
and quantum corrections, is constructed. From a fundamental thermodynamic relation,
equations of state and thermodynamic response functions are explicitly given and the
effect of noncommutativity and quantum correction is discussed. It is shown that the
well known divergence exhibited in specific heat is not removed by any of these
corrections. However, regions of thermodynamic stability are affected by
noncommutativity, increasing the available states for which the system is
thermodynamically stable.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[175] **viXra:1602.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-16 07:57:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Theoretical physicists at MIT recently reported a quantum computer design featuring an array of superconducting islands on the surface of a topological insulator. They propose basing both quantum computation and error correction on the peculiar behavior of electrons at neighboring corners of these islands and their ability to interact across islands at a distance. [8] An international team led by Princeton University scientists has discovered an elusive massless particle theorized 85 years ago. The particle could give rise to faster and more efficient electronics because of its unusual ability to behave as matter and antimatter inside a crystal, according to new research. The researchers report in the journal Science July 16 the first observation of Weyl fermions, which, if applied to next-generation electronics, could allow for a nearly free and efficient flow of electricity in electronics, and thus greater power, especially for computers, the researchers suggest. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[174] **viXra:1602.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-16 09:25:13*

**Authors:** Jason cole

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

There exist a new type of wave that is the key to quantizing relativity. Traditionally when we think of waves we think of 2d sine waves. There exist a higher form of waves called sphere-hyperboloid waves that has all the wave properties of 2d but in a 3d form. This new waveform is the key to quantizing Relativity, give insight into quantum gravity, expansion of our universe and the flat rotational curve of galaxies. In which Relativity and cosmology is dominated by this new form of sphere-hyperboloid wave mechanics like the quantum world is dominated by wave mechanics. MOED (Modified Einsteinian Dynamics) is expressing Einstein’s Special and General Relativity based on this new type of wave mechanics that is compatible with the wave physics of quantum mechanics. MOED is essentially Quantum Relativity wave mechanics. An experiment is proposed in this paper to test this theory. The applied applications of MOED is condense matter physics because it will allow you to explore different wave pattern phases of matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[173] **viXra:1602.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-16 11:59:36*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Cosmological constant.
Λ is dark energy. Its Λ set to zero.
Universal gravitation constant is zero when all things become vacuum.
In the equation above all things, to assume G sin ω t variable g gravity equation. This G is zero when everything vacuum State; It is equivalent to the horizon of dark energy pulsating principle energy waveform diagram, showing the 3-d film universe. Photons and other subatomic particles, and all objects on the Earth, and human nature, Earth, stars, galaxies and space, man and flashes at the Planck time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[172] **viXra:1602.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-16 06:54:59*

**Authors:** R. Wayte

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Accepted for publication in J. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science 18 (2016) p36

A technique is described for making nuclear fusion at room temperature by compressing a powder mixture comprising a deuteride and catalytic material. The result is explosive beyond known chemical reaction for the materials.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[171] **viXra:1602.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-16 02:53:25*

**Authors:** H.H. Masjuki, M. Varman, M.Y. Cheah, Y.H. Cheng, M.A. Kalam, A.M. Liaquat, M. Shahabuddin, M. Mofijur

**Comments:** 13 pages. Paper presented at 2012 International Symposium on Energy Technology and Strategy, Tainan, Taiwan.

Biofuel is one of the prime candidates to take over the role played by fossil fuel as the main
source of energy in the future. Numerous studies have been done on the potential of biofuel to
produce similar power output generated by the current petrol and diesel which are depleting
without any drawbacks. The objective of this particular study is to investigate 4 of the more
established vegetable oil in the energy industry namely jatropha, palm, coconut and canola oil in
terms of storage stability of biofuel at room temperature and 80ºC. The biofuels were tested in
terms of density, kinematic viscosity, Total Acid Number (TAN), flash point and oxidation stability every 2 weeks for 10-12 weeks or 3 months at 2 different temperatures to obtain a conspicuous result. At the end of the experiment and test, it is found that palm oil is the biofuel with the best storage stability. The next biofuel that followed is jatropha oil, canola oil and finally coconut oil. Although palm oil showed poor kinematic viscosity, however it has good
stability in terms of density, Total Acid Number (TAN) and also relatively stable oxidation and
flash point in comparison with the 4 samples tested. The experiment result and data also showed
that effect of continuous heating at 80ºC promotes oxidation process, higher Total Acid Number (TAN), lower flash point as well as increase in density and kinematic viscosity.
Next, experimental investigations were carried out to evaluate the storage stabilities of various
biodiesel fuels. The biodiesel fuels were palm methyl ester (PME), jatropha methyl ester (JME),
coconut methyl ester (COME), 20% blends of PME with diesel fuel and 20% blends of JME with diesel fuel. The ordinary diesel fuel was used for comparison purposes. The biodiesel were
tested in terms of density, kinematic viscosity, Total Acid Number (TAN), flash point and oxidation stability every week for 3 months. The results show that almost all fuel samples met
the standard specifications regarding oxidation stability. The trends for density, viscosity and
TAN increased due to oxidation. For the flash point, the trend also decreased, but the rate was
very low. In overall consideration, among the biodiesel, COME was found to be better with
respect to storage stabilities. The results of this investigation will be used for sustainable
development of biodiesel fuel from various feedstocks

**Category:** Chemistry

[170] **viXra:1602.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-15 10:35:29*

**Authors:** Dhananjay P. Mehendale

**Comments:** 12 Pages

We propose two novel techniques for assuredly detecting Gravitational Waves through enhancement techniques proposed to make these ridiculously tiny waves detectable. Suppose that the Gravitational Waves are passing through the spacetime fabric, say, through a region bounded by two planes parallel to say X-Y plane, i.e. through a slab parallel to the X-Y plane. The first technique that we propose consists of continuously photographing the Standing Wave Pattern that we create in this slab which is bounded by two planes parallel to say X-Y plane, and through this slab these incredibly feeble waves are passing and causing stretching and squeezing in this region parallel to X-Y plane. We create Standing Wave Pattern in this slab parallel to the X-Y plane, which has extent simultaneously along X as well as Y axis, and we video shoot this region by fixing camera at a suitable height on say Z axis while Gravitational Waves are passing through it. Through this camera we video shoot the region of X-Y plane, to capture as large region as possible, where we have created the Standing Wave Pattern, which is present simultaneously along X as well as Y axis due to our special experimental arrangement. In the second technique we propose to create 2-dimensional Fraunhofer Diffraction Pattern due to a square shaped aperture, and also due to circular shaped aperture, kept parallel to X-Y plane in the slab through which Gravitational Waves will be passing causing stretching and squeezing of this region parallel to X-Y plane. Below this slab bounded by two planes parallel to X-Y plane we keep the screen on which 2-dimensional Fraunhofer Diffraction Pattern will be produced. As previous by fixing camera at a suitable height on Z axis we carry out photographing (video-shooting) of this 2-dimensional Fraunhofer Diffraction Pattern. Is there any simple way to enhance the extremely tiny local effects of stretching and squeezing of spacetime fabric when these waves pass through it? We suggest in this paper two novel techniques which propose to enhance the locally occurring effects on spacetime when Gravitational Waves pass through it through the technique of cumulative additions of such several tiny effects occurred locally into a big assuredly detectable and measurable effect!!

**Category:** Astrophysics

[169] **viXra:1602.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-15 10:56:08*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[168] **viXra:1602.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-15 11:09:50*

Темная материя Млечного Пути – парадокс создателя

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 5 Pages. rus

The article analyzes the galaxy rotation curve of the Milky Way, which is believed to be formed under the influence of dark matter. The sleeves of the galaxy with the observed rotation curve have the form that does not correspond to the natural evolution of the curve.<br.
Приведён анализ кривой вращения галактики Млечный Путь, которая как принято считать, сформировалась под влиянием темной материи. Рукава галактики с наблюдаемой кривой вращения имеют вид, не соответствующей естественной эволюции с этой кривой.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[167] **viXra:1602.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-15 11:15:43*

**Authors:** Lukas A. Saul

**Comments:** 6 Pages. EJTP 12, No. IYL15-34 (2015) 205–210

The propagation of light is well described by Maxwell’s field equations of electromagnetism in relativistic space; its emission and absorption by quantum mechanics. However, some open questions remain. For example, is there a means to break gauge symmetry? Do any surprises await us at high energies or unexplored scales? Are there further interactions between fundamental forces? Many authors have suggested that a deeper understanding can be achieved through a statistical model of the continuous electromagnetic media in which light can propagate. In such an approach the electromagnetic fields are of the same nature as more familiar force fields: statistical averages of underlying physical quantities. The goals of this approach are not only to explain why Maxwell’s equations of propagation and the quantum
theory of emission and absorption apply, but also to explore new predictions as well. Here we
briefly review the approach, and demonstrate its utility in allowing a derivation of the Lorentz
boost factors of Special Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[166] **viXra:1602.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-15 12:04:07*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Equation of the universe (quantum gravity equation).
[1] quantum gravity equation
[2] Grounds zero cosmological constant of quantum gravity equation.
[3] The challenge of quantum gravity equation.
[4] The challenge quantum gravity equation, part 2
[5] The challenge of quantum gravity equation (3)
[6] Gravity equations apply to particle physics.
[7] universal gravitation constant is zero when all things become the vacuum.
[8] all things equation diagram
[9] Cover of quantum gravity equation.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[165] **viXra:1602.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-15 12:23:52*

**Authors:** Antip Poletaev

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

For those who are still in "tanks" we summarize the way of Redemption from Economics Crisis Loop.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[164] **viXra:1602.0177 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-16 17:23:06*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

There are at least three unsolved basic problems concerning the interpretation of the LIGO data. They are as follows: the total-angular-momentum problem for final black hole as a result of inspiralling binary black holes (the final spin is lower than expected), instability of the gravitational waves (the transverse motions lead to superluminal speeds in the luminal Einstein spacetime), and the low-frequency problem (very low accuracy for frequencies lower than 35 Hz causes that a part of LIGO spectrum is untrustworthy). The unsolved problems cause that the predictions of the General Theory of Relativity (GR) concerning the LIGO data mimic the true phenomena described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). SST shows that there is the shortest distance between inspiralling black holes so their merger is impossible, shows that instead the gravitational waves there are the ordered motions/flows in the luminal Einstein spacetime that lead to the dark-matter mechanism, and that the LIGO strain-time spectrum is a result of the quantized orbits which are obligatory for binary systems of black holes. SST shows that there is the lower limit for mass of gravitational black holes (24.81 solar masses). Here we calculated the mass emitted during the distinguished transitions (about 3.93 solar masses). We present the frequency-time function, we calculated the time distances between the successive crests of the strain-time wave. To obtain the observed maximum frequency about 250 Hz, we must assume that the binary system is in time distance about 1.2 Gyr. Obtained results within SST are close to the LIGO data except the low-frequency data that are outside the operating range of LIGO - a future more precise measurements should show whether presented here the SST model is correct.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[163] **viXra:1602.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-15 09:09:05*

**Authors:** Aaron Chau

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Due to the Law 1: the numbers of the odds (subtractor) are more, and Law 2: the numbers of the odd integer (difference) are less; it is stressed in this article that the odd spaces which are located at the bottom line of the prime-odd pairs will never be filled in by the numbers of the odd integer, they have to be filled in by the primes (minuend) as well. Therefore, The Differences of More and Less in Number that Proves 1+1（P+2）.

**Category:** Number Theory

[162] **viXra:1602.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-15 05:07:50*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented ‘A Locally Linear Transformations Based Forecasting Model For Dynamic State Systems’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[161] **viXra:1602.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-15 05:59:50*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 08 Pages. Text in Portuguese, 02 references, 01 figure.

WE describe equal masses black holes merging, in a very simple way.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[160] **viXra:1602.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-14 17:11:37*

**Authors:** Funkenstein the Dwarf

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Previously published on frass.woodcoin.org

This article began with the title "Fiat economics". This however seemed like too much of an oxymoron to leave in place. "Fiat dynamics" was briefly the title as well. The subject is the diffusion of monetary tokens amongst participants in a monetary system. For etymology of the title see [1,2]. Here we derive fundamental equations for a diffusive monetary system but are stopped short of further progress or conclusions due to the nature of the monetary system in question.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[159] **viXra:1602.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-14 17:26:39*

**Authors:** Funkenstein the Dwarf, Kilian Kunst

**Comments:** 5 Pages. thank you!

Wir beschreiben hier die Überlegungen zum Design von Woodcoin, sowie dessen Implementierung, mit Fokus auf den Eigenschaften, welche Woodcoin von anderen Kryptowährungen abgrenzen. Ähnlich wie Bitcoin ist Woodcoin eine Kryptowährung. Jedoch ist Bitcoin so entworfen, dass es einer nicht erneuerbaren Ressource gleicht: Gold. Woodcoin hingegen gleicht eher einer nachhaltigen Ressource. Insbesondere verhindert Woodcoin zeitliche Asymmetrien welche bei Bitcoin durch seinen Schöpfungsmechanismus auftreten. Dadurch wird ein Anreiz zur Partizipation, geschaffen, sowie die Langlebigkeit von Woodcoin gewährleistet. Unsere Lösung basiert auf einem logarithmischen Wachstum der Geldmenge. Zusätzlich skizzieren wir die Gestaltungsüberlegungen hinter den beiden anderen Änderungen des Kernprotokolls: Mining mit der Skein-Hash-Funktion, sowie die Absicherung von digitalem Besitz mithilfe der X9_prime256v1 Kurve durch ECDSA.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[158] **viXra:1602.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-14 18:50:25*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The concepts of equations and solutions are constantly developed and expanded. With Neutrosophy and Quad-stage method, this paper attempts to expand the concepts of equations and solutions in the way of referring to the concepts of domain of function, the geometry elements included in domain of function, and the like; and discusses point equation, line equation, plane equation, solid equation, sub-domain equation, whole-domain equation, and the like; as well as point solution, line solution, plane solution, solid solution, sub-domain solution, whole-domain solution, and the like. Where: the point solutions may be the solutions of point equation, line equation, plane equation, and the like; similarly, the line solutions may be the solutions of point equation, line equation, plane equation, and the like; and so on. This paper focuses on discussing the single point method to determine "point solution".
Key words: Neutrosophy, Quad-stage, point equation, line equation, plane equation, point solution, line solution, plane solution, single point method

**Category:** General Mathematics

[157] **viXra:1602.0170 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-08 13:51:23*

**Authors:** Jerry L. Decker

**Comments:** 4 Pages. LIGO Uncertainties Updated On Figure 1

LIGO published data of mass energy conversion to momentum energy at high speed was found to be in agreement with modified Polarizable Vacuum Theory in deep space at high speed. The observed conversion of mass energy to momentum energy was in agreement with predictions of modified PV theory for high speed interactions of massive objects with the vacuum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[156] **viXra:1602.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-14 23:24:38*

**Authors:** Brian Shuster

**Comments:** 56 Pages.

This paper deconstructs Special and General Relativity and re-presents a new view of Relativity - that the speed of light is better represented as "perpendicular movement away from mass in four-dimensional spacetime" or motion only in Spatial dimensions. The speed of light should be infinite if it were not for an inherent uncertainty that applies to geometric angles at the spacetime point where they originate. Because of the uncertainty at their origin point, the "perpendicular" direction light travels away from mass is imperfect. This uncertainty is always constant, and thus, the angle of light away from mass is always a constant, rendering the speed of light a constant for all observers with any mass. The paper explores the implications of this notion and finds the nature of gravity in the process.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[155] **viXra:1602.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-15 02:21:57*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Double slit experiment interpretation by gravity waves.
Elementary pulsation principle predict the particle mass flickering.
Due to relativistic mass flickering raises the gravity waves.
Career change in the interference of gravity waves.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[154] **viXra:1602.0167 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-28 11:19:59*

**Authors:** Robert Watson

**Comments:** 39 Pages. Some important corrections made in v2 using dimensional analysis

Kaluza's 1921 theory of gravity and electromagnetism using a fifth wrapped-up spatial dimension is inspiration for many modern attempts to develop new physical theories. The original theory has problems which may well be overcome, and thus Kaluza theory should be looked at again: it is a natural, if not necessary, geometric unification of gravity and electromagnetism. Here a general demonstration that the Lorentz force law can be derived from a range of Kaluza theories is presented. This is investigated via non-Maxwellian kinetic definitions of charge that are divergence-free and relate Maxwellian charge to 5D components of momentum. The possible role of torsion is considered as an extension. It is shown, however, that symmetric torsion components are likely not admissible in any prospective theory. As a result Kaluza's original theory is rehabilitated and a call for deeper analysis made.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[153] **viXra:1602.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-14 13:35:14*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This is simply a collection of sharp numerical relations among physical constants of the Universe, which need to be explained in all possible ways.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[152] **viXra:1602.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-14 14:09:51*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Five-page letter

We first recall here that (i) the ratio of: (loss in energy of cosmologically red-shifting photon) and (loss in electrostatic potential-energy of an electron at the same distance D) remains equal to the famous ratio (G me mp) / e2 (ii) Also the ratio h H0 / me c2 = (G me mp) / e2 [1] These findings lead us towards a possibility that ‘cosmological red-shift’ may be caused by some mechanism in which the photon itself may be radiating out gravitational waves, and loosing its energy. It is well known [2-3-4] that a ‘photon’ can have ‘spin angular momentum (SAM) as well as ‘orbital angular momentum (OAM), which is comparable with a particle orbiting around its axis of motion. So, it is proposed here that OAM of the photon is expected to radiate gravitational waves, and cause continuous loss in its energy, which we seem to have been observing as the ‘cosmological red shift’.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[151] **viXra:1602.0164 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-06 07:21:07*

**Authors:** Bogdan Szenkaryk "Pinopa"

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In the article the author shows that the motion of the perihelion of Mercury can easily be explained within the framework of classical physics. To present this phenomenon, you can use a computer program in which models of celestial bodies give each other accelerations. This mutual acceleration takes place quite similar to that happening in nature.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[150] **viXra:1602.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-14 08:25:20*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Technological advances are ushering in a new era of understanding in the search for fundamental physical particles-including dark matter-scientists will tell a public event. [13] The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) dark matter experiment, which operates nearly a mile underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in the Black Hills of South Dakota, has already proven itself to be the most sensitive detector in the hunt for dark matter, the unseen stuff believed to account for most of the matter in the universe. Now, a new set of calibration techniques employed by LUX scientists has again dramatically improved the detector's sensitivity. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[149] **viXra:1602.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-13 16:36:01*

**Authors:** Jose Carlos Tiago de Oliveira

**Comments:** 5 Pages. jose,carlos.tiago.oliveira@gmail.com

(see paper)

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[148] **viXra:1602.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-13 23:50:58*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

In this research investigation the author presents a Scheme of ‘Constructing The Primality Tree Of Any Given Set’.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[147] **viXra:1602.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-13 13:31:28*

**Authors:** Sergej Plotkin

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We prove that a person has no any free choice as one might think. Everything what a person does at the moment is a consequence of a person past deeds and thoughts.

**Category:** Social Science

[146] **viXra:1602.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-13 10:39:13*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Four-page letter

This letter points out some interesting correlations among cosmological parameters, like Hubble’s constant H0, radius of the universe R0 and total-mass of the universe M0 which may prove to be a clue to deeper understanding of physics.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[145] **viXra:1602.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-13 10:47:27*

**Authors:** Ulrich Berger

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

An alternative cosmological concept of space and matter (Net Charged Universe – NCU) is presented. The concept aims to give an alternative explanation of the phenomena that have forced scientists to assume Dark Energy (DE) and Dark Matter (DM). This means that the DM and DE concepts should be avoided.
The basic idea of the NCU is the existence of electrical charge asymmetry in the entire universe bringing about the effects that are currently attributed to DE and DM respectively.
Some calculations show the plausibility of the NCU. The calculations were used to estimate the rates of electrical charge asymmetry required by the NCU concept in galactic systems (Xnp_S(r)) as well as extragalactic regions (Xnp_U). These calculations have revealed that the required net charge rates (Xnp_S(r) and Xnp_U) are both of a very small magnitude. This means that the current physical observations do not appear to be able to prove or to disprove the NCU theory explained here.
For this reason, the NCU concept can be regarded as possible and plausible – until it can be verified by observations that could possibly rule it out. This is very similar to the current situation regarding the concepts of DM and DE.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[144] **viXra:1602.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-13 11:02:28*

**Authors:** Mohamed Eleiche

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The minimum-travel-cost algorithm is a dynamic programming algorithm to compute an exact and deterministic lower bound for the general case of the traveling salesman problem (TSP). The algorithm is presented with its mathematical proof and asymptotic analysis. It has a (n2) complexity. A program is developed for the implementation of the algorithm and successfully tested among well known TSP problems.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[143] **viXra:1602.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-13 12:47:26*

**Authors:** Jose Carlos Tiago de Oliveira

**Comments:** 311 Pages. jose,carlos.tiago.oliveira@gmail.com

A doctoral thesis is always contaminated by positivism.
The study of a scientist ignored his contacts with arts. Talking with the son of his great Friend Jose Pires Goncalves, medical doctor and archeologist, revealed his contacts with Alberto Magnelli and Francois Leger, founders of futuristic painting. As well as Amelia Mendoza, dance Professor and daughter of his Mother, living far from his life, revealed the contact with Jean Cocteau, the smoking of opium together, the possibility of divorce. This artistic contacts have been mediated by Sophie Spira. Giao house, kept in the center of Reguengos de Monsaraz, by the care of Sociedade Portuguesa de Autores, keeps the collection of Art possibly second only to Gulbenkian. Surprises exist in the house- a Art Nouveau bed designed by the scientist, and the room for spiritism- a local and discrete religious tradition, where Sophie and Dr. Talhante, member of the Communist Party (P.C.P.) , Professor of Mathematics at Liceu (high school) invocated with Giao consent. The mysteries of his years in Paris, as well as the hidden or forgotten truths witnessed in the rich house where the loved art contemplated science creativity, are matters for present research for those who can do it.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[142] **viXra:1602.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-13 13:04:51*

**Authors:** Fermin Jesus Menendez, Ze Carlos

**Comments:** Pages.

La vie est ailleurs
The titles for the book and the stories come from elsewhere-Jose Marti in Cuba, Fernando Pessoa heteronym in Opiarium, and from the language of Luis de Camoes
A Busca de lbn-Arabi......................................................9
Cegos em Marrakech....................................................21
O Princípio das vitaminas.............................................25
Sul.....................................................................................31
Tíndalos..........................................................................33
Bala Flamejante.............................................................39
Nul n’est prophète en son pays.....................................43
Paramaribo.....................................................................47
Flowers for Algernon....................................................49
Tegucigalpa....................................................................53
Índia.................................................................................57
Chamamento..................................................................59
O Duelo dos Magos.......................................................67
Assunción.......................................................................75
Universidades..................................................................77
Amigos de Alex.............................................................79
O Comboio dos Malditos..............................................83
Traje de Luces................................................................89
Fama Fraternitatis..........................................................93
as well as
Tertúlias há mais de meio século..................................99
O Dia dos Dinossauros................................................105
Violações Causais........................................................109
Da Arte, Dimensionalidade e Tempo..........................113
Con Los Pobres de la Tierra........................................123
20 Anos Depois...........................................................125
De Profundis.................................................................131
Rosalba/Simferopol.....................................................135
Rozabal/Srinagar.........................................................139
O Outro Lado................................................................145
Thanksgiving...............................................................149
Aquipélago...................................................................153
Sal............................................................................153
São Nicolau.............................................................154
Santo Antão............................................................154
Santiago....................................................................155
Brava........................................................................155
Fogo.........................................................................156
Neiges D’Antan............................................................159
McCabe and Mrs. Miller.......................................160
Floresta Negra........................................................160
Sonhos de outro velho.............................................161
Numerologias.............................................................167
There is, however, a slight distotion
Asuncion is in India because of the song
Índia, levarei saudade
Da felicidade que você me deu.
Índia, a sua imagem
Sempre comigo vai
Dentro do meu coração,
Flor do meu Paraguai.
(Roberto Carlos)

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[141] **viXra:1602.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-13 09:00:10*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The science's function is realizing the natural world, developing our society in coordination with natural laws and mathematics provides the quantitative tool and method for solving problems helping with that understanding. Generally, understanding a natural thing by mathematical ways or means to other sciences are respectively establishing mathematical model on typical characters of it with analysis first, and then forecasting its behaviors, and finally, directing human beings for hold on its essence by that model.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[140] **viXra:1602.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-13 09:39:54*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Omnibus : the physics of dark energy.
I predicted the existence of dark energy in 1980.
The presence of dark energy observed in 1998.
I presented my hypothesis, in 1980.
I announced at the physical society of Japan of Fukushima University.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[139] **viXra:1602.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-13 05:35:01*

**Authors:** V.S.Mitin

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Worldview and an example from nuclear physics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[138] **viXra:1602.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-13 02:30:46*

**Authors:** Pierre A. Mandrin

**Comments:** 4 pages.

A variety of quantum gravity models (including spin foams) can be described using a path integral formulation. A path integral has a well-known statistical mechanical interpretation in connection with a canonical ensemble. In this sense, a path integral describes the thermodynamic equilibrium of a local system in a thermal bath. This interpretation is in contrast to solutions of Einstein's Equations which depart from local thermodynamical equilibrium (one example is shown explicitly). For this reason, we examine an extension of the path integral model to a (locally) non-equilibrium description. As a non-equilibrium description, we propose to use a global microcanonical ensemble with constraints. The constraints reduce the set of admissible microscopic states to be consistent with the macroscopic geometry. We also analyse the relation between the microcanonical description and a statistical approach not based on dynamical assumptions which has been proposed recently. This analysis is of interest for the test of consistency of the non-equilibrium description with general relativity and quantum field theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[137] **viXra:1602.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-13 04:10:00*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This article very shortly criticises the phenomenon “gravitational waves” and shows why this concept is only fantasy, just like the concepts: space-time, black holes and matter waves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[136] **viXra:1602.0145 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-01 18:13:26*

**Authors:** Leonardo Pedro

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Major update

One common way to define spontaneous symmetry breaking involves necessarily explicit symmetry breaking.
We add explicit symmetry breaking terms to the Higgs potential, so that the spontaneous breaking of a global symmetry in multi-Higgs-doublet models is a particular case of explicit symmetry breaking.
Then we show that it is possible to study the Higgs potential without assuming that the local gauge $SU(2)_L$ symmetry is spontaneously broken or not (it is known that gauge symmetries may not be possible to break spontaneously). We also discuss the physical spectrum of multi-Higgs-doublet models and the related custodial symmetry.
We review background symmetries: these are symmetries that despite already explicitly broken, can still be spontaneously broken.
We show that the CP background symmetry is not spontaneously broken, based on this fact: we explain in part a recent conjecture relating spontaneous and explicit breaking of the
charge-parity (CP) symmetry; we also relate explicit and spontaneous geometric CP-violation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[135] **viXra:1602.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-12 22:09:57*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We introduce a new concept of truth in empirical theories based on the experience in the study of quantum mechanics. In this concept a statement can be true, false or undecidable.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[134] **viXra:1602.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-13 00:27:20*

**Authors:** Valentin Danci

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A recent 3D computer simulation demonstrated that two inertial reference frames (IRFs) show the same count of time units by employing various methods of time sharing. This article explains those methods, the underlying concepts, and the conclusions on the common nature of time across IRFs. Multiple clocks of two different IRFs can be made to mark and count the same time units, concluding that measuring time across different IRFs is technically possible and it proves that Einstein’s Special Relativity theory is wrong in its claims about a dilation of time in frames which are equivalent to each other. The Einsteinian relativistic application of the Lorentz time transformations is hence proved wrong and useless.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[133] **viXra:1602.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-12 12:07:56*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

I presented my hypothesis, in 1980.
I announced at the physical society of Japan of Fukushima University.
Dark energy discovery 18 years ago, I announced the pulsation principle of particle hypothesis JPs annual meeting was held in Fukushima University in 1980, no dark energy term,. The concept of rarefied energy rallied and even to each other, was named energy atmospheric in the hypothesis space to meet the equivalent as the dark energy was named after.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[132] **viXra:1602.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-12 12:36:14*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[131] **viXra:1602.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-12 07:43:05*

**Authors:** Sudhanva Joshi

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

For many centuries now, scientists have been trying to find the origin of time.Perhaps,on more deeper thoughts what is TIME itself? Some think it as some sort of cymatic matter,some think that it is the result of uniform flow of space-time continuum while others think it as quantitative term for ‘existence’. But nobody knows till now what exactly is time?what does it stand for?will it ever end? Etc.In this paper,I have simply tried some tricks with Einsteins field equations to get an exact low energy solution for possible physical properties of TIME.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[130] **viXra:1602.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-12 08:58:32*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It is claimed that the LIGO and LISA projects will detect Einstein's gravitational waves. The existence of these waves is entirely theoretical. Over the past forty years or so no Einstein gravitational waves have been detected. How long must the search go on, at great expense to the public purse, before the astrophysical scientists admit that their search is fruitless and a waste of vast sums of public money? The fact is, from day one, the search for these elusive waves has been destined to detect nothing. Here are some reasons why.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[129] **viXra:1602.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-12 04:52:12*

**Authors:** Valery B. Smolensky

**Comments:** Pages.

В статье представлены теоретическое обоснование и экспериментальные подтверждения обнаруженного автором свойства нейтрона – наличие у него двух разных времён жизни. Приведено аналитическое выражение для определения времени жизни нейтрона находящегося в долгоживущем nL и короткоживущем nS состояниях. Приведено сравнение результатов теоретических расчётов с данными, представленными в открытом доступе во всемирной сети Интернет.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[128] **viXra:1602.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-12 05:41:47*

**Authors:** Antonio A. Colella

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Two opposing Theory of Everything (TOE) visions are, a Two-Step Integrated TOE consisting of a fundamental physics step followed by a mathematics step, and the prevailing Stephen Hawking’s single mathematics step. The essence of the Two-Step Integrated TOE’s fundamental physics step is the intimate relationships between 20 existing theories. Currently, these 20 theories are independent of each other because physicists in one theory worked independently of physicists in the 19 other theories. Intimate relationships between 7 of the 20 theories (e.g., string, particle creation, inflation, Higgs forces, spontaneous symmetry breaking, dark energy, and dark matter) follow.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[127] **viXra:1602.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-12 06:09:50*

**Authors:** Sergej Plotkin

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the paper we propose another way in contacting other civilizations. We give an explanation why Fermi paradox exists ie we explain the Great Silence.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[126] **viXra:1602.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-12 06:32:08*

**Authors:** Reuven Tint

**Comments:** 30 Pages. Original written Russian

Received and given the unique invariant identity on a set of arbitrary numerical systems,super concise proof of Fermat's Last Theorem, another version of the Beal Conjecture solution.

**Category:** Number Theory

[125] **viXra:1602.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-11 21:56:29*

**Authors:** G.L.W.A Jayathilaka

**Comments:** 1 Page. This is the first real proof for beal conjecture.K can be there for any right angle triangle due to proportionality.

This is the proof of beal conjecture done by G.L.W.A Jayathilaka from Srilanka. See that K should be there for any right angle triangle due to proportionality.

**Category:** Number Theory

[124] **viXra:1602.0132 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-14 19:16:28*

**Authors:** Jonathan Tooker

**Comments:** 13 Pages. 3 figures, 2 tables, less typos

The purpose of this report is to debunk Darwin's theory of evolution and any variant theory that relies on the natural rate of mutation to explain the origin of new genes. We construct a model of DNA and show that the minimum rate of mutation needed to produce humans within the geological age of the Earth is too high. It is much higher than any realistic model of random mutations. The calculation presented here should end the evolution debate, at least in its Darwinian limit. Other problems with evolution are discussed.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[123] **viXra:1602.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-11 10:03:59*

**Authors:** Imrich Krištof

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This article says about new perspective of Modern Physics of Elementary Particles, called
neutrinos. This omnipresent particles probably could be have eminent role in birth of new
technical and theoretical branches of new physical science called NEUTRINIC΄S or
NEUTRINICA. This new established science discipline will be touched many human
activities from noninvasive medicinal diagnostics and operations to neutrino pulse-canal
communication. About importance of this phenomenon is evident many large Projects all
over the world and last Nobel Prize for Physics 2015, which was awarded to Takaaki Kajita
from Super-Kamiokande Collaboration, University of Tokyo, Japan and Arthur B. McDonald
from Sudbury Neutrino Observatory Collaboration, Queen΄s University, Kingston, Canada,
“for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows, that neutrinos have mass”. These
realities can prove new horizons to our view of the whole Universe.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[122] **viXra:1602.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-11 11:26:19*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[121] **viXra:1602.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-11 11:56:16*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 04 pages, 09 references, short note

The holographic principle is applied to the weak interactions as a means of estimating the zero-point energy of a gas of degenerate neutrinos filling the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[120] **viXra:1602.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-10 18:25:02*

**Authors:** Jerry L. Decker

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Continuation Of Series On Polarizable Vacuum At High Speed

Lorentz Transformations of flat space were found to be inappropriate at high speed in deep space transport. Curvature of vacuum stress energy was predicted to accumulate from prolonged acceleration boosting of a space vehicle. Support was found for previous work on modifications of Polarizable Vacuum theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[119] **viXra:1602.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-11 01:31:25*

**Authors:** Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Mercury – a comet nucleus

**Category:** Astrophysics

[118] **viXra:1602.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-10 13:32:50*

**Authors:** Ivan Gudkov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We give the explanation how modern economics works in the reality. It is a circular economics that is rotating counter clock-wise direction pumping money-goods in order to squeeze more money. It is rotating because there is a delta in information known to someone who rotates it.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[117] **viXra:1602.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-10 14:22:49*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Pulsating hypothesis reveals Higgs mechanism.
* Photons are pulsating and getting forward. In the 4-dimensional space
* Zigzag progress of photons is same as the Higgs mechanism. Particle acquires mass.
* Dark energy is equivalent to the Higgs field and the mass of small amplitude of the zig-zag.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[116] **viXra:1602.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-10 14:23:03*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is apparent that assumptions were falsely applied to the stars and their evolutionary paths. A simplified step by step realization is outlined concerning the downfall of common sense in the astrophysical sciences.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[115] **viXra:1602.0122 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-19 15:17:16*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A simple mathematical proof reveals that time-inversion symmetry and reversibility are different concepts, which also resolves the Loschmidt paradox.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[114] **viXra:1602.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-10 11:59:09*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Mohamed Talea, Assia Bakali, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 33 pages

The notion of interval valued neutrosophic sets is a generalization of fuzzy sets, intuitionistic fuzzy sets, interval valued fuzzy sets, interval valued intuitionstic fuzzy sets and single valued neutrosophic sets. We apply for the first time the concept of interval valued neutrosophic sets, an instance of neutrosophic sets, to graph theory. We introduce certain types of interval valued neutrosophc graphs (IVNG) and investigate some of their properties with proofs and examples.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[113] **viXra:1602.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-10 12:02:44*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Mohamed Talea, Assia Bakali, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 21 pages

In this paper, we discuss a subclass of interval valued neutrosophic graphs called strong interval valued neutrosophic graphs which were introduced by Broumi et al [41]. The operations of Cartesian product, composition, union and join of two strong interval valued neutrosophic graphs are defined. Some propositions involving strong interval valued neutrosophic graphs are stated and proved.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[112] **viXra:1602.0119 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-20 06:09:17*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

I give my opinion on the relativity, cosmological redshift, Big Bang, gravity, quantum mechanics and field theory.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[111] **viXra:1602.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-10 04:52:26*

**Authors:** Nikolai V. Volkov

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

If we introduce a virtual proper time in the space-time metric, then any physical field is complemented by its own virtual field. This virtual field has an energy-momentum and a massive in the presence of field sources. In this article we consider the above phenomenon for the electromagnetic (Maxwell`s) field whose own virtual field is scalar-electric. This virtual scalar-electric field is massive in the presence of electric charges and currents. In the case of gravitational field its massive virtual field has an energy-momentum and manifests itself in gravitational interactions. Such massive virtual field could explain the origin of dark matter and dark energy.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[110] **viXra:1602.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-10 06:26:54*

**Authors:** Said Broumi, Mohamed Talea, Assia Bakali, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 16 pages

The notion of single valued neutrosophic sets is a generalization of fuzzy sets, intuitionistic fuzzy sets. We apply the concept of single valued neutrosophic sets, an instance of neutrosophic sets, to graphs. We introduce certain types of single valued neutrosophic graphs (SVNG) and investigate some of their properties with proofs and examples.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[109] **viXra:1602.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-10 08:44:03*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Researchers have recreated the universe's primordial soup in miniature format by colliding lead atoms with extremely high energy in the 27 km long particle accelerator, the LHC at CERN in Geneva. The primordial soup is a so-called quark-gluon plasma and researchers from the Niels Bohr Institute, among others, have measured its liquid properties with great accuracy at the LHC's top energy. [7] The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[108] **viXra:1602.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-10 01:21:40*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

To address this problem, physicists are working on developing ever more sensitive dark matter detectors. In a new paper, researchers have proposed a new type of dark matter detector made of superconductors—materials that conduct electricity with zero resistance at ultracold temperatures—that may offer the highest sensitivity yet for detecting "superlight" dark matter. Superlight dark matter has a mass at the low end of the range of 1 keV (1000 electron volts) to 10 GeV, or in other words, up to a million times lighter than the proton. [17] Physicists believe that such dark matter is composed of (as yet undefined) elementary particles that stick together thanks to gravitational force. In a study recently published in EPJ C, scientists from the CRESST-II research project use the so-called phonon-light technique to detect dark matter. [16] A team of researchers at MIT has succeeded in creating a double film coating that is able to convert infrared light at modest intensities into visible light. In their paper published in the journal Nature Photonics, the team describes their film, how well it works and the possible uses for it. [15] Before the Hawaii-bound storm Julio strengthened into a hurricane, a NASA satellite spotted a high-energy flash of "dark lightning" coming from the swirling clouds. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[107] **viXra:1602.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-04 04:52:04*

**Authors:** Robert B. Easter

**Comments:** 184 Pages.

This paper introduces the G(4,8) Double Conformal Space-Time Algebra (DCSTA). G(4,8) DCSTA is a straightforward extension of the G(2,8) Double Conformal Space Algebra (DCSA), which is a different form of the G(8,2) Double Conformal / Darboux Cyclide Geometric Algebra (DCGA). G(4,8) DCSTA extends G(2,8) DCSA with spacetime boost operations and differential operators for differentiation with respect to the pseudospatial time w=ct direction and time t. The spacetime boost operation can implement anisotropic dilation (directed non-uniform scaling) of quadric surface entities. DCSTA is a high-dimensional 12D embedding of the G(1,3) Space-Time Algebra (STA) and is a doubling of the G(2,4) Conformal Space-Time Algebra (CSTA). The 2-vector quadric surface entities of the DCSA subalgebra appear in DCSTA as quadric surfaces at zero velocity that can be boosted into moving surfaces with constant velocities that display the length contraction effect of special relativity. DCSTA inherits doubled forms of all CSTA entities and versors. The doubled CSTA entities (standard DCSTA entities) include points, hypercones, hyperplanes, hyperpseudospheres, and other entities formed as their intersections, such as planes, lines, spatial spheres and circles, and spacetime hyperboloids (pseudospheres) and hyperbolas (pseudocircles). The doubled CSTA versors (DCSTA versors) include rotor, hyperbolic rotor (boost), translator, dilator, and their compositions such as the translated-rotor, translated-boost, and translated-dilator. The DCSTA versors provide a complete set of spacetime transformation operators on all DCSTA entities. DCSTA inherits the DCSA 2-vector spatial entities for Darboux cyclides (incl. parabolic and Dupin cyclides, general quadrics, and ring torus) and gains Darboux pseudocyclides formed in spacetime with the pseudospatial time dimension. All DCSTA entities can be reflected in, and intersected with, the standard DCSTA entities. To demonstrate G(4,8) DCSTA as concrete mathematics with possible applications, this paper includes sample code and example calculations using the symbolic computer algebra system SymPy.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[106] **viXra:1602.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 14:39:35*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In quantum entanglement, two particles are correlated in such a way that any action on one of them affects the other even when they are far apart. The traditional methods of measuring the degree of quantum entanglement were originally developed for nonidentical particles, such as between an electron and a proton, or two atoms of different types. [7] For the first time, scientists have entangled four photons in their orbital angular momentum. Leiden physicists sent a laser through a crystal, thereby creating four photons with coupled 'rotation'. So far this has only been achieved with two photons. The discovery makes uncrackable secret communication of complex information possible between multiple parties. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[105] **viXra:1602.0112 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-23 03:15:35*

**Authors:** L. Martino, V. Elvira, F. Louzada

**Comments:** Signal Processing, Volume 131, Pages: 386-401, 2017

The Effective Sample Size (ESS) is an important measure of efficiency of Monte Carlo methods such as Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and Importance Sampling (IS) techniques. In the IS context, an approximation $\widehat{ESS}$ of the theoretical ESS definition is widely applied, involving the inverse of the sum of the squares of the normalized importance weights. This formula, $\widehat{ESS}$, has become an essential piece within Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) methods, to assess the convenience of a resampling step. From another perspective, the expression $\widehat{ESS}$ is related to the Euclidean distance between the probability mass described by the normalized weights and the discrete uniform probability mass function (pmf). In this work, we derive other possible ESS functions based on different discrepancy measures between these two pmfs. Several examples are provided involving, for instance, the geometric mean of the weights, the discrete entropy (including the {\it perplexity} measure, already proposed in literature) and the Gini coefficient among others. We list five theoretical requirements which a generic ESS function should satisfy, allowing us to classify different ESS measures. We also compare the most promising ones by means of numerical simulations.

**Category:** Statistics

[104] **viXra:1602.0111 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-10 15:33:30*

**Authors:** Jason cole

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

One of the biggest mysteries in cosmology is why do we see only matter and no antimatter. This paper solves the mystery of missing antimatter, and doing so explains the flat rotational curve of galaxies. Staying with Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity this paper explores other pair productions models beside matter-antimatter to explains why we see no antimatter. Different pair productions explains the flat rotational curve of galaxies. The type of energy that made the matter universe is unknown and there is no scientific explanation as why we only see matter and no antimatter. Rather than proposing a symmetry breaking between matter and antimatter the other solution is that Einstein’s mass-energy equation can produce different pair productions outside of matter-antimatter when imaginary mass is introduced into his equations. By modeling the big bang as a slower than light matter and FTL Tachyon matter pair production (for example) rather than matter-antimatter doesn't violate Special Relativity as long as the Tachyons created never slow down to the speed of light. The principle idea is that Einstein’s mass-energy equation can come in 3 different flavors coinciding to the three different space curve geometries. In which pair production is not limited to matter-antimatter pairs but can also be expressed as Tachyon-anti tachyon pairs and a hybrid pair of slower than light matter-Tachyon pairs. In doing so it will allow Einstein’s mass-energy equation to produce different pair production partners. The reason why we have no antimatter is that the pair production was matter-antimatter but Tardon matter-Tachyon matter based on one of the 3 flavors of Einstein's mass-energy equation. This expansion of pair productions also expands the pressure states of General Relativity. Based on this new cosmological model, positive, negative and neutral pressure work together to explain the flat rotational curve of galaxies and the expansion/acceleration of our universe. This new cosmological model that explains the missing antimatter and explain the flat rotational curve of galaxies and the expansion/acceleration of our universe is called Modified Einsteinian Dynamics (MOED) Cosmology. It is a unique theory that explains the missing the missing antimatter and explain Dark Matter without needing Dark Matter or MOND(Modified Newtonian Dynamics).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[103] **viXra:1602.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 12:07:16*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Four-page letter

Until the perfect connection between gravitational and electric forces in known, it is advisable to pay attention to various coincidences and clues. With this philosophy in mind this letter points out some interesting correlations among cosmological parameters, like Hubble’s constant H0, radius of the universe R0 and total-mass of the universe M0 which may be a clue to deeper understanding of the gravitational and electric forces. Earlier, this writer had presented some expressions of gravity without the gravitational constant big G [1]. This letter reports some further thinking in this direction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[102] **viXra:1602.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 12:15:09*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas related to the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[101] **viXra:1602.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 12:18:08*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas related to the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[100] **viXra:1602.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 04:41:29*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Scientists are set to make a major announcement Thursday on efforts to pinpoint the existence of gravitational waves, or ripples of space and time that transport energy across the universe. [6] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[99] **viXra:1602.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 06:13:48*

**Authors:** Ahab bahlool

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

answer for the question: what is dark matter?

**Category:** Astrophysics

[98] **viXra:1602.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 07:25:32*

**Authors:** Antonio A. Colella

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

An integrated Higgs force theory was primarily based on Higgs force requirements amplifications. Two key amplifications were a matter particle/Higgs force were one and inseparable and a matter particle/Higgs force bidirectionally condensed and evaporated from and to the super force. These amplifications were the basis of matter creation, baryogenesis, superpartner and Standard Model (SM) decays, spontaneous symmetry breaking, and stellar black hole evaporation. Additional Higgs amplifications included: our universe’s 129 matter and force particles contained 64 supersymmetric Higgs particles; nine transient matter particles/Higgs forces decayed to eight permanent matter particles/Higgs forces; the Higgs force was a residual super force; and mass was given to a matter particle by its Higgs force and gravitons. The sum of eight Higgs forces associated with eight permanent matter particles was dark energy.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[97] **viXra:1602.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 07:45:55*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

An alternative worldview of Earth's history is presented to replace outdated uniformitarianism philosophy.

**Category:** Geophysics

[96] **viXra:1602.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 08:28:11*

**Authors:** Jason cole

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

MOED (Modified Einsteinian Dynamics) is the first theory to only use General Relativity to explain the flat rotational curve of galaxies. Rather than adding Dark matter or changing gravity as in MOND (Modified Newtonian Dynamics) this paper only use General Relativity to explain the flat rotational curve of galaxies. MOED is based on the concept of using all 3 pressures states of General Relativity while staying consist with the Special Theory of Relativity. Extending GR rather than trying add different theories to it can fully explain the flat rotational curve and expansion/acceleration of our universe. The paper first explores different big bang pair production models within the Special theory of Relativity. No one can explain the missing antimatter in the universe. It leads to the idea that Einstein’s mass energy equation can produce different pair productions rather than matter-antimatter. It was discovered that Einstein’s E-mc2 can produce 3 different types of pair productions coinciding with the 3 basic space curve geometries (-,0.+). Based on this expansion of the mass-energy equation (3 different type of possible pair productions) the pressure states of GR can also be expanded to coincide with the 3 possible pair production configuration of Einstein’s mass energy equation. All 3 pressure states of GR work together to explain the flat rotational curve of galaxies and the expansion and acceleration of the universe. This expanded or Modified Einsteinian Dynamics (MOED) can be tested in particle accelerators, observations and computer experiments. The paper gives methods to prove the MOED theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[95] **viXra:1602.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-08 17:56:09*

**Authors:** Deniz Akdemir, Julio Isidro Sanchez

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Many breeders use selection as a first step for improvement of complex traits. The theory of selection is well studied in the genetics literature. In this article, we propose a new approach to breeding which focuses on mating instead of selection, we refer it to as genomic mating. We believe breeding by genomic mating uses the genomic information better than a recently proposed method of breeding methodologies like genomic selection. We used concepts of risk and diversification from the economics for formulating the optimum mating theory. The results from our simulations point to the efficiency of our method to selection based breeding.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[94] **viXra:1602.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 02:55:37*

**Authors:** Nikolaj Sporysh

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This paper shows another way in analyzing economical crisis utilizing existing theory from physics.
The economics consists of number of players (people), environment (media, personal contacts, resources, money, land and etc) and some mechanisms (government, business, organizations and etc).
Black hole is a player or mechanism that consumes more energy than gives and smashes players by increasing the environmental pressure P.
White hole is a player or mechanism that gives more energy than consumes and never smashes any player.
We prove that any Computer Company is a Black hole.
We show why Economical crisis exists – there are Black holes and the number of rules in any organization grows.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[93] **viXra:1602.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 03:46:24*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Catalogue
Theoretical physics.
Chapter1. Current conditionsand issues.
Chapter 2 principle of particle oscillation
Chapter 3 principle of pulsating for dark energy
Chapter 4 4-dimensional space found
Chapter 5. Solve the mystery of the dark matter discovered
Chapter 6. Solve the mystery of the double slit experiment

**Category:** Number Theory

[92] **viXra:1602.0099 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-18 23:43:00*

**Authors:** Frank H. Makinson

**Comments:** 6 Pages. The effects created by the electromagnetic signatures produced by earthquakes need extensive additional study.

For centuries, there was no reliable way to know whether an earthquake was eminent, even though strange animal behavior and odd lights in the sky had been observed before earthquakes. It was noted that long range radio skip was interrupted before the 1960 Valdavia, Chile earthquake and the same interruption occurred before the 1964 Alaska earthquake. Scientists took notice, primarily outside of the seismology community, and began inquiring what mechanism could cause such an interruption. In the 1960s, it was already known that certain types of sunspot activity could cause the same type of radio skip alteration. It is now known there is a prodigious amount of electromagnetic activity proceeding and during an earthquake. It has been demonstrated in the laboratory that certain types of rock act like semiconductors when subjected to stress and produce an electric current that fluctuates. It is not known how many other earthquake related issues remain outside of our knowledge, especially the odd coincidence of human health problems just before and coincident to an earthquake.

**Category:** Geophysics

[91] **viXra:1602.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-08 14:36:14*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Scientists have created a crystal structure that boosts the interaction between tiny bursts of light and individual electrons, an advance that could be a significant step toward establishing quantum networks in the future. [10] Researchers from Stanford have advanced a long-standing problem in quantum physics – how to send "entangled" particles over long distances. [9] Scientists at the University of York's Centre for Quantum Technology have made an important step in establishing scalable and secure high rate quantum networks. [8] As do all advancing technologies, they will also create new nightmares. The most worrisome development will be in cryptography. Developing new standards for protecting data won't be easy. The RSA standards that are in common use each took five years to develop. Ralph Merkle, a pioneer of public-key cryptography, points out that the technology of public-key systems, because it is less well-known, will take longer to update than these — optimistically, ten years. And then there is a matter of implementation so that computer systems worldwide are protected. Without a particular sense of urgency or shortcuts, Merkle says, it could easily be 20 years before we've replaced all of the Internet's present security-critical infrastructure. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[90] **viXra:1602.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-08 11:06:40*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Brook University have discovered a new way to generate very low-resistance electric current in a new class of materials. The discovery, which relies on the separation of right-and left-"handed" particles, points to a range of potential applications in energy, quantum computing, and medical imaging, and possibly even a new mechanism for inducing superconductivity—the ability of some materials to carry current with no energy loss. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[89] **viXra:1602.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-08 12:01:30*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Dark energy hypothesis proves the Riemann hypothesis.
[1]. And math's biggest challenge, prove the Riemann hypothesis.
[2]. Tackle the difficult Riemann hypothesis have been rejecting geniuses challenge for 150 years.
[3]. The biggest challenge Prime mystery, history of mathematics, Riemann proved challenging.
[4]. A new interpretation of the Riemann hypothesis. Zero point is all crosses the line.
[5]. Elementary pulsation principle opens the doors of Lehman expected certification.

**Category:** Number Theory

[88] **viXra:1602.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-08 12:08:17*

**Authors:** Branko Zivlak

**Comments:** 4 Pages. 12 formulas

After examining the relationships in the universe, is determined a hypothetical quantum temperature and then obtained temperature of cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB). It is rejected an explanation of that temperature as a result of the relic radiation from the Big Bang.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[87] **viXra:1602.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-14 13:18:24*

**Authors:** Fernando Sánchez-Escribano

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Distinction is made between those concepts the confusion of which has lead official theories to postulate against the dictates of intuition

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[86] **viXra:1602.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-08 06:39:29*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The gravitational force would be transmitted through a polarization of the vacuum.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[85] **viXra:1602.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-08 06:44:42*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this note, it is shown that the black holes can exist but also can lose mass and stop being it.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[84] **viXra:1602.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-08 08:26:14*

**Authors:** Raji Heyrovska

**Comments:** 5 pages, 3 Figures

Diborane is an unusual molecule with two boron atoms bonded to four terminal hydrogen atoms and two bridging hydrogen atoms. This has puzzled many scientists and gave rise to many theories, with no final definitive explanation. This article brings a simple explanation of the bond lengths and angles in diborane, based on the additivity of atomic and Golden ratio based ionic radii, which was found applicable for many other bonds in small as well as small molecules.

**Category:** Chemistry

[83] **viXra:1602.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-08 02:36:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A team of physicists suggested that the fundamental building unit proton can alter its structure under certain circumstances. Scientists are now performing experiments to show that the structure of protons can change inside the nucleus under certain conditions. [10] Exotic Mesons and Hadrons are high energy states of Quark oscillations. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[82] **viXra:1602.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-07 14:53:01*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[81] **viXra:1602.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-07 07:48:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Does entanglement have a weight? A positive answer to this question would have far reaching consequences, since entanglement is the core resource of some of the most exciting applications of the field of quantum information. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[80] **viXra:1602.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 16:42:53*

**Authors:** Bernardo Sotomayor Valdivia

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This monograph reexamines the basics on the motional properties of light and of material particles in an attempt to resolve as many of the questions and paradoxes posed by the different interpretational scenarios of Special Relativity (SR). The observational process is clarified and defined in terms of measurements by the use of standard rulers. Motion invariant rulers vs. motion variant rulers are considered under different interpretational scenarios of SR. The isotropy of the speed of light and particle trajectories in general are then considered under the different interpretational scenarios of SR to clarify their implications together with the behavior of de Broglie matter-waves, in reference to their motional geometry. In conclusion, a 3D spherical manifold (S3 hypersurface) is proposed for the motional geometry of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[79] **viXra:1602.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-15 10:27:31*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A new solution of Maxwell equations for vacuum is presented. First it must be noted that the proof of the solution's uniqueness is based on the Law of energy conservation which is not observed (for instantaneous values) in the known solution. The presented solution does not violate the Law of energy conservation. Besides, in this solution the electrical and magnetic components of intensity are shifted in phase. A detailed proof is given for interested readers.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[78] **viXra:1602.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-07 05:06:13*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[77] **viXra:1602.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-07 06:24:26*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Published by Journal of Modern Physics, Vol.7 No.6, Pub. Date: March 28, 2016. http://www.scirp.org/Journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=65063

Newton's gravitational constant Big G, appearing in both Newton's law of gravity and Einstein's general relativity, is essential for our todays understanding of gravity. Thus far, despite of the very long history of measurements of Newton's gravitational constant Big G, a definite value is still not in sight. Surprisingly, the results of different experiments have varied by much more than would be expected due to systematic or random errors. Why do measurements of Newton's gravitational constant Big G vary so much? It is the purpose of this publication is to provide a logically and mathematically self-consistent theoretical proof that Newton's gravitational constant Big G is not a constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[76] **viXra:1602.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 14:06:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Although in theory it may seem possible to divide time up into infinitely tiny intervals, the smallest physically meaningful interval of time is widely considered to be the Planck time, which is approximately 10-43 seconds. This ultimate limit means that it is not possible for two events to be separated by a time smaller than this. [14] A team of researchers working at Stanford University has extended the record for quantum superposition at the macroscopic level, from 1 to 54 centimeters. [13] Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12] A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11] Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[75] **viXra:1602.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 10:04:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Bright Light on Dark Matter Physicists believe that such dark matter is composed of (as yet undefined) elementary particles that stick together thanks to gravitational force. In a study recently published in EPJ C, scientists from the CRESST-II research project use the so-called phonon-light technique to detect dark matter. [18] The XENON1T Experiment hopes to finally detect and prove the existence of dark matter particles with the help of much, much more sensitive equipment. [17] Dark matter has never been seen directly, but scientists know that something massive is out there due to its gravitational effects on visible matter. One explanation for how such a large amount of mass appears to be right in front of our eyes yet completely invisible by conventional means is that the dark matter is hiding in the centers of stars. [16] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Preliminary evidence of solar axions in XMM-Newton observations has quite recently been published by Fraser et al. These authors also estimate the axion mass to be m = 2.3 * 10-6 eV. Since an axion with this mass behaves as a cold dark matter particle, the considered preliminary detection directly concerns cold dark matter as well. So, it would be a revolutionary discovery if confirmed. Unfortunately, we have identified three distinct flaws in the analysis by Fraser et al. which ultimately make it totally irrelevant both for axions and for cold dark matter. [15] Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[74] **viXra:1602.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 10:52:52*

**Authors:** Sami Drăghici, Constantin Coandă, Ionuț Ivănescu, Gheorghe Duță, Florentin Smarandache, Gheorghe Drăgan, Lucian Tuțescu, Jean Ilie

**Comments:** 340 Pages.

The present book tries to offer students and teachers knowledge evaluation tools for all the chapters from the current Romanian mathematics syllabi for grades V-VIII students.
In the evolution of teenagers, the phase of admission in high schools mobilizes particular efforts and emotions. The present workbook aims to be a permanent advisor in the agitated period starting with the capacity examination and leading to the admittance to high school.
The tests included in this workbook have a complementary character as opposed to the many materials written with the purpose to support all those who prepare for such examinations and they refer to the entire subject matter included in the analytical mathematics syllabus of arithmetic in Romania, algebra and geometry from the lower secondary grades.
These tests have been elaborated with the intention to offer proper support to those who use the workbook, assuring them the success and extra preparation for future exams.
Translated From Romanian into English by Florentin Smarandache, 2016.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[73] **viXra:1602.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 10:55:41*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 134 Pages.

Photo album of antarctic images.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[72] **viXra:1602.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 10:58:18*

**Authors:** Many Authors

**Comments:** 141 Pages.

Papers on neutrosophic set and logic

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[71] **viXra:1602.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 11:00:18*

**Authors:** Many Authors

**Comments:** 145 Pages.

Collection of papers on combinatorics.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[70] **viXra:1602.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 11:02:58*

**Authors:** Many Authors

**Comments:** 107 Pages.

Collection of papers on neutrosophics.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[69] **viXra:1602.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 11:14:56*

**Authors:** editor Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 156 Pages.

In the new Techno-Art of Selariu SuperMathematics Functions ALBUM (the second book of Selariu SuperMathematics Functions), one contemplates a unique COMPOSITION, INTER-, INTRA- and TRANS-DISCIPLINARY. A comprehensive and savant INTRODUCTION explains the genesis of the inserted "figures", the addressees being, without discriminating criteria, equally engineers, mathematicians, artists, graphic designers, architects, and all lovers of beauty – as the love of beauty is the supreme form of love. If I should put a label on the "content" of this ALBUM, I would concoct the word NEO-BEAUTY!
The new complements of mathematics, reunited under the name of ex-centric mathematics (EM), extend (theoretically, endless) their scope; in this respect, Selariu SuperMathematics Functions are undeniable arguments! The author has labored (especially in the last three decades) extensively and fruitfully in the elitist field of the domain.
To mention some 'milestones' in this ALBUM, I choose specific mathematical elements, supermatematically hybridated: quadrilobic cubes, sphericubes, conopyramids, ex-centric spirals, severed toroids. There are also those that would qualify as "utilitarian": clepsydras, vases, baskets, lampions, or those suggestively “baptized” (by the author): butterflies, octopuses, flying saucers, jellies, roundabouts, ribands, and so on – all superlatively designed in shapes and colors! Striking phrases, such as “staggering multiplication of the dimensions of the Universe”, “integration through differential division” etc., become plausible (and explained) by replacing the time (of Einstein's four-dimensional space) with ex-centricity. Consequently, classical geometrical bodies (for e=0): the sphere, the cylinder, the cone, undergo metamorphosis (for e = +/-1), respectively into a cube, a prism, a pyramid. Inevitably and invariably, it is confirmed again that science is a finite space that grows in the infinite space; each new "expansion" does include a new area of unknown, but the unknown is inexhaustible...
Just browsing the ALBUM pages, you feel induced by the sensation of pleasure, of love at first sight; the variety of "exhibits", most of them unusual, the elegance, the symmetry of the layout, the chromatic, and so one, delight the eye, but equally incites to catchy intellectual exploration.

**Category:** Geometry

[68] **viXra:1602.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 12:01:59*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Catalogue。
Introduction。
Theoretical physics, Chapter 1: current conditionsand issues
[1] modern physics in the challenge
[2] elementary pulsation principle and dark energy pulsating principle
[3] Einstein kept looking for 4-dimensional space
[4]The geometry of the universe
[5] all equations, quantum gravity theory

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[67] **viXra:1602.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 06:53:37*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas related to the number Pi and the Lerch transcendent function

**Category:** General Mathematics

[66] **viXra:1602.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 06:57:02*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas related to the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[65] **viXra:1602.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 06:42:34*

**Authors:** Mahdie Rezvani

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Fear of crime in public places is a social issue that reduces access to the public places and limits the interactions with these places. Fear has significantly affected the city appearance, civil design and spatial distribution of the residences. The conception of security in urban spaces is on one hand related to the crime and on the other hand to the concept of facing the crime (victimization) and fear of crime encountering. The research method is surveying and the information collection technique is through questionnaire. Probable span sampling (PPS) method is used. Sample population was 200 household which were selected randomly in five categorical clusters from Mashhad city. In addition to investigating structural factors, the purpose of the research is studying reactive components affecting fear of crime among people in public places inside and outside the neighborhood.
Independent variable of the research includes two general classes of reactive and structural factors and the interaction between them which reactive factors consist of:
Vulnerability, victimization, gender ratio of the place, age ratio of the place, mental image of the place, activity in the place, cumulative effectiveness, and residency duration in the place and perceiving the risk of the crime. Structural factors include: visual penetration of the place, variation of place usage, non-defensed areas and place rank. The interaction between subjective and structural factors is considered as independent variable which includes: disorder and effectiveness, gender ratio and vulnerability, age ratio and vulnerability, place rank and vulnerability.
Place rank among all other structural factors has the greatest effect on the fear of crime in public places outside the neighborhood. It means that by increasing place's rank of people residential area their fear of crime is decreased. The presence of non-defended areas (as one of the structural characteristics of the place), the sense of the place (one of the mental images of the people from the place) and activity and participation of the individuals in the place are three basic factors forming the concept of a place which have significant effect on the fear of crime within the neighborhoods. The effect of social capital (trust and support) as another effective structural factor on fear of crime in public area within the neighborhoods is approved. Victimization experience is also recognized as a predictor of fear of crime in multi variable analysis of public places inside and outside the neighborhood. Spatial factor's effects on fear of crime in public places inside and outside the neighborhoods show that structural and spatial characteristics of the residence area also affect fear of crime significantly. There is a relation between fear of crime and spatial view and fear of crime is also affected by spatial configuration. Variable of spatial legibility has reductive effect on fear of crime in public places within the neighborhood. Visual accessibility and public place lighting for the people also reduce fear of crime among the people within the neighborhoods. The relation between the movement and the presence of people in the place with the fear of crime outside the neighborhoods is approved. Among social factors, economic-social position of the people has reverse relation with fear of crime. Among reactive factors, the more is the understanding of the people from the crime occurrence in their neighborhoods, the more is the fear of crime in public places outside the neighborhood.
Variables of victimization, local legibility, social capital of the neighborhood, informal social control and gender ratio of the place among other reactive factors and variables of usage variation of the place, visual penetration of the place among other structural factors in the model of fear of crime in public places within the neighborhood have significant relation with fear of cri, in public places within the neighborhoods. Also the interaction between variables of vulnerability and gender ration of the place, of disorder and informal social control and of disorder and social capital of the neighborhood has no effect on fear of crime in public places within the neighborhoods.
Finally, those variables of structural and reactive classes which are effective and significant are supported to reduce fear of crime.

**Category:** Social Science

[64] **viXra:1602.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 22:00:34*

**Authors:** Jose P Koshy

**Comments:** 13 Pages. The fourteenth paper based on Reality.

The galaxy-clusters move outwards in a synchronous manner, their speeds increasing at the expense of their internal energies; the process is self-limiting and reversible, and this puts the universe in an infinite-loop of pulsations. The model is based on the hypothesis that motion at speed 'c' is the fundamental property of matter, and hence the clusters can move at very high speeds. The model is complete in all respects, is in agreement with observational evidences, does not require any dark matter or dark energy, and predicts the Earth-moon distance correctly. Based on these, I claim that the proposed model is better than the existing LCDM model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[63] **viXra:1602.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 22:49:33*

**Authors:** Temur Z. Kalanov

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The biographical sketch describes the creative development of the theoretical physicist, mathematician, logician, and philosopher Temur Z. Kalanov. It is shown that scientific creativity is a manifestation of congenital quality of personality, a manifestation of loss of faith in scientific authorities, a manifestation of one's “Ego”. The found “Ego” and faith in oneself are the impossible without awareness and recognition of the existence of the Supreme Intellect and of God. Faith in oneself and in the existence of the Absolute Truth are starting point of correct cognition. It is proved within the correct methodological basis – the unity of formal logic and of rational dialectics – that works of classics of sciences contain errors. The errors are an inalienable and essential part of modern sciences and characterize the inductive method of cognition.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[62] **viXra:1602.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 02:37:55*

**Authors:** Pierre-Yves Gaillard

**Comments:** 191 Pages.

The purpose of this text is to make a few comments about the book "Categories and Sheaves" by Kashiwara and Schapira, Springer 2006.

**Category:** Algebra

[61] **viXra:1602.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 13:54:42*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Give formal definition of SUPREME and explain it's implications.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[60] **viXra:1602.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 14:44:44*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In my previous paper “Bold conjecture on Fermat pseudoprimes” I stated that there exist a method to place almost any Fermat pseudoprime to base two (Poulet number) in an infinite subsequence of such numbers, defined by a quadratic polynomial, as a further term or as a starting term of such a sequence. In this paper I conjecture that there is yet another way to place a Poulet number in such a sequence defined by a polynomial, this time not necessarily quadratic.

**Category:** Number Theory

[59] **viXra:1602.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 10:58:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Physicists in England claim they have discovered how to create matter from light, by smashing together individual massless photons– a feat that was first theorized back in 1934, and has been considered practically impossible until now. If this new discovery pans out, the final piece of the physics jigsaw puzzle that describes how light and matter interact would be complete. No one's quite sure of the repercussions if matter can indeed be produced from photon-photon collision, but I'm sure something awesomely scientific will emerge before long. [4] This paper explains the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[58] **viXra:1602.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 12:07:58*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this note we give some formulas related to the number Pi and the Riemann zeta function

**Category:** General Mathematics

[57] **viXra:1602.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 12:31:12*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

[1] modern physics goals, Super grand unified theory hypothesis
[2] in 1980, elementary pulsation principle announced in Japan physical society
an announcement in the Japan physical society in 1980 [3] cinii National Institute of Infomatics to be stored.
[4] on the Internet Encyclopaedia Wikipedia articles
An illustrated guide [5] nuclear forces, gravity, electromagnetic force
[6] elementary pulsation principle forces, gravity, electromagnetic force of unity
[7] pulsation principle model for finite nuclei structure.
Front and back of the same photon's [8] photons and quantum gravity

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[56] **viXra:1602.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 07:11:57*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[55] **viXra:1602.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 07:11:51*

**Authors:** Han Geurdes

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Na

Inthis paper, random dynamic systems theory is applied to time series ($\Delta t=5$ minutes) of measurement of water level, $W$, temperature, $T$, and barometric pressure, $P$, in sea dikes. The time series were obtained from DDSC and are part of DMC systems dike maintenance program of the Ommelanderzeedijk in northern Netherlands. The result of numerical analysis of dike $(W,T,P)$ time series is that after the onset of a more or less monotone increase in barometric pressure, an unexpected relatively sharp increase or decrease in water level can occur. The direction of change is related to random factors shortly before the onset of the increase. From numerical study of the time series, we found that $\Delta W_{max}\approx \pm 0.5$ mNAP\footnote{NAP indicates New Amsterdam water level which is a zero determining water level well known in the Netherlands.}. The randomness in the direction of change is most likely explained by the random outcome of two competitive processes shortly before the onset of a continuous barometric pressure increase. The two processes are pore pressure compaction and expulsion of water by air molecules. An important cause of growing barometric pressure increase can be found in pressure subsidence following a decrease in atmospheric temperature. In addition, there is a diurnal atmospheric tide caused by UV radiation fluctuations. This can give an additional $\Delta P_{tide}\approx\pm 0.1$ kPa barometric fluctuation\footnote{1Pa=1Pascal=$1Nm^{-2} \approx 10kg s^{-2}m^{-1}$.} in the mid latitudes ($30^{\circ}N-60^{\circ}N$).

**Category:** Geophysics

[54] **viXra:1602.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 08:34:28*

**Authors:** Kirana Kumara P

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Accepted for presentation at National Conference on "Advances in Mechanical Engineering and Applied Sciences (AMEAS-2016)", to be held on 19th - 20th February 2016, at Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Bengaluru, India.

The simple beam theory can predict the deflection of beams that are fixed at both the ends, with a high level of accuracy if the length-to-diameter ratios for the beams are high. Hence the readily available formula (which is based on the simple beam theory) for beams may be used with confidence when the length-to-diameter ratios are high. However, studies on the accuracy of the results predicted by the simple beam theory are not common when the length-to-diameter ratios are small. Hence the present work compares the results obtained through the use of the well- known formula (based on the simple bending theory) with the results obtained by making use of the well-known commercial finite element software ANSYS, for beams of different length-to-diameter ratios and circular and square cross section, in order to get an idea of the accuracy of the results that are obtained by making use of the well-known formula. All these results are tabulated. The present study is restricted to beams that are fixed at both the ends and only those cases where a single concentrated load is applied at the midpoint between the two ends. The present study would be of use to designers who are concerned over the accuracy of the results that are obtained through the use of the well-known analytical formula. The present study is a continuation of the work presented in the author's earlier work "Kirana Kumara P, Studies on the Accuracy of the Results Predicted by the Simple Beam Theory in the case of Short Cantilever Beams, National Conference on: Role of Mechanical Engineering and Computational Science for a Sustainable Future (NCAME-2015), September 25th & 26th, 2015, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering,
Bengaluru, India", and hence the present work -- wherever useful -- borrows ideas and sentences from the said reference.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[53] **viXra:1602.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 08:43:58*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In many of my previous papers I showed various methods, formulas and polynomials designed to generate sequences, possible infinite, of Poulet numbers or Carmichael numbers. In this paper I state that there exist a method to place almost any Fermat pseudoprime to base two (Poulet number) in such a sequence, as a further term or as a starting term.

**Category:** Number Theory

[52] **viXra:1602.0057 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-11 18:00:09*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We prove that the Bell’s theorem and the nonlocality of quantum mechanics are scientifically unfounded statements.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[51] **viXra:1602.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-04 19:46:01*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

E8 Physics AQFT is constructed from an E8 Physics Lagrangian (viXra 1508.0157) by embedding E8 into the Real Clifford Algebra Cl(16) = Cl(8)xCl(8) and taking the completion of the union of all tensor products of copies of Cl(16) which forms a generalized hyperfinite II1 von Neumann factor algebra AQFT
(Algebraic Quantum Field Theory) that by Periodicity retains underlying E8 symmetry. The World-Line of a Particle in E8 Physics is a String connecting the Cl(16) copies that make up points / events in the History of the Particle. Interaction among those History World-Line Strings by String Theory produces a Force / Potential that is similar to Gravity but the Local Lagrangian of E8 Physics in each copy of Cl(16) in the AQFT
already contains Gravity (as well as the Standard Model).
The purpose of this paper is to describe the Physical Interpretation of the E8 AQFT String Gravity-like Force / Potential as the Sarfatti-Bohm Quantum Potential with Back-Reaction that permits Free Will and is the fundamental Force of Quantum Consciousness that is described as Gravity by Penrose and Hameroff (Physics of Life Reviews 11 (March 2014) 39-78).
The Quantum Potential of this paper is a Bohm internal energy of a quantum system whose total force does not fall off with distance since it depends on the form of the quantum state rather than its magnitude. The form is described in terms of Cl(16) which is related (see viXra 1512.0300) to the Tensor Product Quantum Reed-Muller code [[ 256 , 0 , 24 ]] x [[ 256 , 0 , 24 ]] and which contains not only 248-dim E8 but a total of 65,536 elements.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[50] **viXra:1602.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-04 21:28:46*

**Authors:** Marcelo Carvalho

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

We give a categorical interpretation for a model we have previously developed,
which combines aspects of the Galilei and the special relativity and that is based
on a broad class of transformations - the Generalized
Lorentz transformation. Particularly, we show how the standard Lorentz
transformation of the special relativity satisfies a kind of universal property
factoring out the Generalized Lorentz transformation through a certain redefinition
of velocity. We also show how the Galilei transformation and the Generalized Lorentz
transformation are related in terms of a multi-valued natural transformation that
in some sense unify both relativities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[49] **viXra:1602.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 02:15:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

New findings from an international collaboration led by Canadian scientists may eventually lead to a theory of how superconductivity initiates at the atomic level, a key step in understanding how to harness the potential of materials that could provide lossless energy storage, levitating trains and ultra-fast supercomputers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[48] **viXra:1602.0053 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-05 08:42:31*

**Authors:** Jason Lind

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Added preliminary calculations for correcting non-normal distribution

Defines a rated set and uses it to calculated a weight directly from the statistics that enabled broad unified interpretation of data.

**Category:** Statistics

[47] **viXra:1602.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-04 13:11:35*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Hypothesis.
Pulsating waves of dark energy "Super cord" is.
1) line on energy waveform pulsation principle hypothesis in Super string of geometric models and hypotheses.
2) ultra thong has a large intermittent intermittent point, corresponding to quantum field theory.
3), reducing the size of the extra dimensions in micro space, not a fine time.
4) pimp 振eru traditional, almost no correspondence with various physics concepts in the low temperature.
5) pulsations in the four-dimensional space of string is any observation in the present world of low temperature and experimental facts
Be explained naturally. And unity of all the forces of the natural world, to unite in one place of all.
6) of new geometric model of superstring theory, dark energy, dark matter, nuclear forces, gravity and
To illustrate the mechanism of electromagnetic force, as a function of the same photon to illustrated the gravity and electromagnetic forces.
7) third primary revolution by Schwartz et al, the second revolution by Witten. No. 3: leather shown here
Life by elementary pulsation principle extra dimensions in ultra fine time compact will be.
8) particle processes the waves stroke the film universe in which we live during a time of waves of negative particles
Are trapped. Three types of 3-dimensional space (9 d) and time 1 d in total ten-dimensional.
9) electromagnetic force acts in the film universe, gravity acts in the negative particle processes to function intermittently.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[46] **viXra:1602.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-04 15:34:08*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In previous papers, I presented few applications of the multiples of the number 30 in the study of Carmichael numbers, i.e. in finding possible infinite sequences of such numbers; in this paper I shall list 15 probably infinite sequences of Poulet numbers that I discovered based on the multiples of the number 6.

**Category:** Number Theory

[45] **viXra:1602.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-04 10:02:29*

**Authors:** Jean Claude Dutailly

**Comments:** 380 Pages. New on QM, RG, gravitation

This book proposes a review and, on some important points, a new interpretation of the main concepts of Theoretical Physics. Rather than offering an interpretation based on exotic physical assumptions (additional dimension, new particle, cosmological phenomenon,…) or a brand new abstract mathematical formalism, it proceeds to a systematic review of the main concepts of Physics, as Physicists have always understood them : space, time, material body, force fields, momentum, energy… and propose the right mathematical tools to deal with them, chosen among well known mathematical theories.
After a short introduction about the place of Mathematics in Physics, a new interpretation of the main axioms of Quantum Mechanics is proposed. It is proven that these axioms come actually from the way mathematical models are expressed, and this leads to theorems which validate most of the usual computations and provide safe and clear conditions for their use, as it is shown in the rest of the book.
Relativity is introduced through the construct of the Geometry of General Relativity, based on 5 propositions and the use of tetrads and fiber bundles, which provide tools to deal with practical problems, such as deformable solids.
A review of the concept of momenta leads to the introduction of spinors in the framework of Clifford algebras. It gives a clear understanding of spin and antiparticles.
The force fields are introduced through connections, in the, now well known, framework of gauge theories, which is here extended to the gravitational field. It shows that this field has actually a rotational and a transversal component, which are masked under the usual treatment by the metric and the Levy-Civita connection. A thorough attention is given to the topic of the propagation of fields with interesting results, notably to explore gravitation.
The general theory of lagrangians in the application of the Principle of Least Action is reviewed, and two general models, incorporating all particles and fields are explored, and used for the introduction of the concepts of currents and energy-momentum tensor. Precise guidelines are given to find operational solutions of the equations of the gravitational field in the most general case.
The last chapter shows that bosons can be understood as discontinuities in the fields.
In this 4th version of this book, changes have been made :
- in Relativist Geometry : the ideas are the same, but the chapter has been rewritten, notably to introduce the causal structure and explain the link with the practical measures of time and space;
- in Spinors : the relation with momenta has been introduced explicitly
- in Force fields : the section dedicated to the propagation of fields is new, and is an important addition.
- in Continuous Models : the section about currents and energy-momentum tensor are new.
- in Discontinuous Processes : the section about bosons has been rewritten and the model improved.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[44] **viXra:1602.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-04 10:11:31*

**Authors:** Domenico Oricchio

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

I open a dusty old drawer, and I found this article, rejected by every journal, with a complete, total loss of time; a thing that I'll never make; and I change only the bibliography, that is to initially conceived .
The old idea sounds interesting, and here, on vixra, there is not rejection.
I don't remember the whole theory, and the whole programs, but it can be useful to others; so I share it with you.
It seem that without the complication of the least common divisor, the calculation is more simple, and elegant.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[43] **viXra:1602.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-04 12:09:29*

**Authors:** Manuel Abarca Hernandez

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The main target this paper is to check a theory about dark matter nature, which was published by the author in previous papers. It was postulated it that dark matter density is a function which depend on E, gravitational field.
In this work has been calculated a new function for DM density for Milky Way. Reader could think, why disturb me with a new DM density profile, called Bernoulli profile in this paper, whose values have relative differences with NFW ones below 15%?
The reason is clear. This DM profile has been got starting from hypothesis that DM is generated by the own gravitational field. Therefore if DM Bernoulli profile fits perfectly to NFW DM profile then it is possible conclude that observational data supports author´s hypothesis about DM nature.
To find reasons that author has to do so daring statement, reader can consult [1] Abarca,M.2014. Dark matter model by quantum vacuum. [2] Abarca,M.2015. Dark matter density function depending on gravitational field as Universal law. [3] Abarca,M.2015. A new dark matter density profile for NGC 3198 galaxy to demonstrate that dark matter is generated by gravitational field. [4] Abarca, M.2016.A New Dark Matter Density Profile for M33 Galaxy to Demonstrate that Dark Matter is Generated by Gravitational Field. [5] Abarca, M.2016.A New Dark Matter Density Profile for M31 Galaxy to Demonstrate that Dark Matter is Generated by Gravitational Field.
Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Firstly are presented rotation curve and table with data about rotational velocity depending on radius inside Milky Way galaxy. These data come from [6] Sofue,Y.2015.
In fourth epigraph, velocity data has been fitted as power function depending on radius. In fifth chapter, it has been calculated and tabulated gravitational field through Virial theorem, which it is got as a direct calculus having velocity data depending on radius. In this paper, dominion of gravitational E extends from 30 kpc to 200 kpc.
In sixth epigraphs it has been tabulated data of NFW DM density profile published by [6] Sofue, Y.2015. for Milky Way.
In seventh epigraph has been fitted data of NFW DM density profile as power of gravitational field, E, with a correlation coefficient bigger than 0,999. Particularly formula found is Density of D.M = A•E^B .Where A = 7.310686 •10-7 B= 1,59883364 and correlation coefficient r = 0,9997776774 into I.S. of units.
In eighth epigraph it has been compared DM density as power of E and NFW profiles. Tables and plots show clearly that relative differences between both profiles are almost everywhere below 6%.
In ninth epigraph it is considered derivative of gravitational field in halo region (30 to 200 kpc) where density of baryonic matter is negligible regarding DM density. As consequence M´(r)= 4Pi•r^2•D.M Density and considering that Density of D.M = A•E^B then. M´(r) = 4Pi • r^2 •A•E^B. If M´(r) is replaced on derivative of E (r) then it is got a Bernoulli differential equation whose solution allows to get a new DM density profile through formula Density of D.M = A•E^B.
In tenth epigraph Bernoulli and NFW DM density profiles have been compared. Its relative differences are below 16% for radius bigger than 60 kpc, and below 18% in the whole dominion, from 30 kpc to 200 kpc. This is a superb result, specially if it is considered that Do parameter of NFW profile has 40 % as relative error and velocity measures of rotation curve have error bigger than 15% in the whole dominion.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[42] **viXra:1602.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-04 12:20:52*

**Authors:** Gennady Brazhnik Gennadiy Braznik

**Comments:** 256 Pages.

Современная концепция мироздания основана на теории Большого взрыва, которая, в совокупности с общей и специальной теорией относительности А. Эйнштейна, определяет
материалистическую научную парадигму знаний. Идеалистическое направление отождествляется с эзотерикой и теософским научным наследием предыдущих поколений. В книге представлена философская версия природных импульсных взаимодействий на основании физических законов классической механики И. Ньютона, объединяющая материалистическое и идеалистическое мировоззрение в единую эфиродинамическую картину мира окружающего нас Бытия. Предназначена для читателей, следующих наставлению древнегреческих философов: «Смотря на Мир — открой глаза!».

**Category:** Classical Physics

[41] **viXra:1602.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-04 12:37:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

For the first time, scientists have entangled four photons in their orbital angular momentum. Leiden physicists sent a laser through a crystal, thereby creating four photons with coupled 'rotation'. So far this has only been achieved with two photons. The discovery makes uncrackable secret communication of complex information possible between multiple parties. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[40] **viXra:1602.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-04 07:36:02*

**Authors:** Eckhard Hitzer

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Submitted to Adv. in Appl. Cliff. Algs., 1 figure.

In this paper we use the general steerable two-sided Clifford Fourier transform (CFT), and relate the classical convolution of Clifford algebra-valued signals over $\R^{p,q}$ with the (equally steerable) Mustard convolution. A Mustard convolution can be expressed in the spectral domain as the point wise product of the CFTs of the factor functions. In full generality do we express the classical convolution of Clifford algebra signals in terms of finite linear combinations of Mustard convolutions, and vice versa the Mustard convolution of Clifford algebra signals in terms of finite linear combinations of classical convolutions.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[39] **viXra:1602.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-04 08:18:36*

**Authors:** Tibor Endre Nagy

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

When applying the formula of light propagation in moving systems to the motion of the Earth (as a component of the Milky Way Galaxy), the radius of the universe and the time period required for the development of the cosmos can be estimated. With the rate of this expansion and the alterations in surface gravity, tilt, and motion of the Earth, a ‘short evolving distance’ can be determined. Knowledge of the entire plane angle (2π) and the deviating angle of a light beam (α) passing through different value of Earth’s surface gravity renders it possible to determine large distances by utilizing the rules of trigonometry. This ‘long evolving distance’ can be converted into ‘evolving time’ by dividing it by the speed of light. Based upon this dating method, at a figure of 3.1415 redshift, the universe may have been formed 13.6879 to 13.8498 billion years ago, with a mean value of around 13.7536 billion years. In this model the alterations in the parameters of the Earth affects the radius of cosmos, modifying its size and shape.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1602.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-03 16:01:33*

**Authors:** Alexey Stakhov

**Comments:** 739 Pages.

It is clear to me that “Mathematics of Harmony,” created by Professor
Stakhov, has huge interdisciplinary importance as this mathematical disci
pline touches the bases of many sciences, including: mathematics, theoretical
physics, and computer science. Stakhov suggested mathematical education
reform based on the ideas of Harmony and the Golden Section. This reform
opens the doors for the development of mathematical and general education
curriculum. It would greatly contribute to the development of the new scien
tific outlook based on the principles of Harmony and the Golden Section.
Yuri Mitropolsky

**Category:** General Mathematics

[37] **viXra:1602.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-20 16:42:36*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A seven-level hierarchy of creative effects and activity is presented, beginning with the multiverse and ending with humanity. The creative energy of the cosmos operates in two modes, one thermodynamic (conserving energy and symmetry), the other building an information domain.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[36] **viXra:1602.0040 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-04 16:11:16*

**Authors:** Steven Sesselmann

**Comments:** 1 Page. Revision

The anomalous galaxy rotation curve is a well known problem in physics today and has given rise to speculation that some form of gravitating dark matter might exist within galaxies, thereby providing the additional force required to explain a flat non Keplerian rotation curve. In this paper an alternative explanation for a flat rotation curve is proposed, where the anomaly is caused by comparing incompatible measurement techniques.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1602.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-04 03:03:22*

**Authors:** L.saidani

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

It is a new theory based on an algorithmic approach. Its only element is called nokton. These rules are precise. The infinities are completely absent whatever the system studied. It is a theory with discrete space and time. The theory is only at these beginnings.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[34] **viXra:1602.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-03 13:25:01*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Bursts of gamma rays from the center of our galaxy (shown above) are not likely to be signals of dark matter but rather other astrophysical phenomena such as fast-rotating stars called millisecond pulsars, according to two new studies, one from a team based at Princeton University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and another based in the Netherlands. [16] Recent research conducted by scientists from the University of Granada can contribute to determine the nature of dark matter, one of the most important mysteries in physics. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[33] **viXra:1602.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-03 08:09:44*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this note we show some integrals to the constant Pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[32] **viXra:1602.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-03 08:21:30*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 30 Pages. Completely re done document. May be accepted by JHEPGC, which has Christian Corda as head editor

Could a causal discontinuity lead to an explanation of fluctuations in the CMBR radiation spectrum? Is this argument valid if there is some third choice of set structure (for instance do self referential sets fall into one category or another?). The answer to this question may lie in (entangled?)
vortex structure of space time, along the lines of structure similar to that generate in the laboratory by Ruutu. Self-referential sets may be part of the generated vortex structure, and we will endeavor to find if this can be experimentally investigated. If the causal set argument and its violation via this procedure holds, we have the view that what we see a space time ‘drum’ effect with the causal discontinuity forming the head of a ‘drum’ for a region of about 10 10 bits of ‘information’ before our present universe up to the instant of the big bang itself for a time region less than ~ 10 to the minus 44 seconds in duration, with a region of increasing bits of ‘information’ going up to 120 10 due to vortex filament condensed matter style forming
through a symmetry breaking phase transition. We address the issue of what this has to do with Bicep 2, the question of scalar-tensor gravity versus general relativity, how to avoid the detection of dust generated Gravity wave signals as what ruined the Bicep 2 experiment and some issues information flow and causal
structure has for our CMBR data as seen in an overall summary of these issues in Appendix X, of this document. Appendix XI mentions how to differentiate between scalar-Tensor gravity, and General relativity whereas Appendix XII, discusses how to avoid the Bicep 2 mistake again. While Appendix VIII gives us a simple data for a graviton power burst which we found instructive. We stress again, the importance of obtaining clean data sets so as to help us in the eventual detection of gravitational waves
which we regard as decisively important and which we think by 2025 or so which will be an
important test to discriminate in a full experimental sense the choice of general relativity and other gravity theories, for the evolution of cosmology. Which is one of the foundational issue we hope to answer. Finally, Appendix VII brings up a model for production for gravitons, which is extremely simple.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[31] **viXra:1602.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-05 00:46:51*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: giving the cause and process of small galaxies merger.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[30] **viXra:1602.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-02 18:19:36*

**Authors:** Funkenstein the Dwarf

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Published Oct. 2014

We outline here the design considerations and implementation of woodcoin, in particular those
which separate it from other cryptocurrencies. Woodcoin is a cryptocurrency very much like
bitcoin. However the design of bitcoin explicitly models a non-renewable resource: gold. For woodcoin we more closely model a sustainable resource. In particular woodcoin avoids the time asymmetries of the bitcoin release model, maximizing the incentive to participate and the longevity of the coin at the same time. Our solution is logarithmic growth of the money supply. In addition, we outline the design considerations behind two other changes to the core protocol: mining with the Skein hash function and securing digital ownership with the X9_prime256v1 curve using ECDSA.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[29] **viXra:1602.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-03 00:49:45*

**Authors:** Sosale Chandrasekhar

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The Hansch equation is a key mathematical relationship and a conceptual guiding principle (QSAR) in the practice of modern medicinal chemistry. Recent years have apparently witnessed a debate on the utility of QSAR, hence it seems opportune to explore its fundamental origins. The Hansch equation leads to a parabolic relationship between drug activity and hydrophobicity. Currently, this is explained on the basis of more efficient drug-receptor interaction at low to moderate hydrophobicity, and decreasing aqueous solubility of the drug at moderate to high hydrophobicity. Herein is presented an alternative kinetic model, essentially based on the rate of the drug-receptor interaction; thus, binding is rate determining up to moderate levels of hydrophobicity, beyond which drug release is rate determining. The overall model is based on the idea that the release of the drug occurs concurrently with a physiological response, although alternative variants are also discussed. Overall, it is argued that QSAR essentially indicates the primacy of electronic over steric effects. This has fundamental implications for the classical theory of drug-receptor binding, which may need to be appropriately reassessed. Thus, the observed structure-activity relationships possibly apply to the kinetics of drug-receptor binding, likely involving substrate-induced conformational changes within the receptor, prior to the binding event. Recent developments in receptor-based drug design methodology apparently support these views.

**Category:** Chemistry

[28] **viXra:1602.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-03 01:21:22*

**Authors:** Hilmi Yanar, Mustafa Salti, Oktay Aydogdu, Irfan Acikgoz, Erol Yasar

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Mod. Phys. Lett. A 31(6), 2016, 1650038

We use a Kaluza-Klein model with variable cosmological and gravitational terms to
discuss the nature of galactic entropy function. For this purpose, we assume a universe filled with dark fluid and consider five-dimensional field equations using the Gamma law equation. We mainly discuss the validity of the first and generalized second laws of galactic thermodynamics for viable Kaluza-Klein models.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1602.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-02 13:45:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Research conducted by the Quantum Dynamics Unit at Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology graduate University (OIST) could represent an important step in understanding two-dimensional semiconductors. The Unit's latest paper, published in Physical Review Letters, describes anomalies in the behaviour of electrons in electrons on liquid helium two-dimensional system. [28]
The work in correlated electrons looks at a subset of electrons. Metals, as an example, have an unfilled outermost orbital and electrons are free to move from atom to atom. Thus, metals are good electrical conductors. When metal atoms are tightly packed into lattices (or crystals) these electrons mingle together into a "sea" of electrons. The metallic element mercury is liquid at room temperature, in part due to its electron configuration, and shows very little resistance to electric current due to its electron configuration. At 4 degrees above absolute zero (just barely above -460 degrees Fahrenheit), mercury's electron arrangement and other properties create communal electrons that show no resistance to electric current, a state known as superconductivity. [27]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[26] **viXra:1602.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-02 15:11:13*

**Authors:** João António Pequito Minga, Maria Isabel Nobre Santos, José Carlos Tiago de Oliveira

**Comments:** 49 Pages.

NOMENFInício EGUA/ULSaída EGUA/ULCategoriaEspecialidade
António Aniceto Monteiro19071980---------------------Emérito
Univ. Nac.
del SurMatemático
Délio N. Santos1912197709/19631968CatedráticoFilósofo
José L. R. Martins1914199409/19631974CatedráticoFísico
David L. Gagean1916199409/19631974ExtraordinárioMatemático/
Engenheiro
Sérgio D. Fonseca1913199410/19631974AssistenteMatemático/
Engenheiro
Carlos Dinis da Gama1941-----04/196809/1974CatedráticoEngenheiro Minas
José N. Marat Mendes1939----19681975AssociadoFísico
Pedro Braumann19192003196908/1974CatedráticoMatemático
Manuel F. Laranjeira1928200319691974CatedráticoFísico
Gerberto C Dias1940----10/19691974AssociadoMatemático
José M. Sena Neves1936----10/196908/1974AssistenteMatemático
Manuel N. Murta1919199204/197010/1973CatedráticoMatemático
Carlos Alberto Medeiros1942----10/19701974CatedráticoGeógrafo
José Frederico D Ludovice1919200710/19701975AssistenteArquitecto
Nair L. Santos1942----10/19701975AssistenteMatemática
João C. M. Raposo Beirão1929200619711976AssistenteMatemático
Hélder F. Coelho1944----19711973CatedráticoMatemático/
Informático
Carlos Braumann1951----10/19711974CatedráticoMatemático
José Marques Henriques1941----02/197205/1975AssociadoMatemático/
Informático
Augusto Damas Mora C. Moutinho1942----10/197208/1974AssistenteMatemático/
Engenheiro
José Tiago F. Oliveira1928199219721973CatedráticoMatemático
Augusto Mesquitela Lima1929200703/19731974CatedráticoAntropólogo
Abílio Alves Fernandes1934----10/19732009TitularEngenheiro Geógrafo
Álvaro D. Nunes1939----10/197308/1975AssociadoMatemático
José Carlos B. Tiago de Oliveira 1954----19741975AuxiliarMatemático
Carlos Bettencourt Faria192419761956
Obs. Mulemba07/1976Director Centro Espacial. MulembaAstrónomo Autodidacta
Ilídio Peres do Amaral1926----1957
IICACatedráticoGeógrafo
Jerónimo Wanga1934200701/1975 Governo ProvisórioMinistro da EducaçãoMatemático

**Category:** General Mathematics

[25] **viXra:1602.0028 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-18 11:13:19*

**Authors:** Ali Soheilbeigi Bazgir

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The main objective of this article is to derive transformation equations from new assumptions of relativistic. We assume that the Soul is an observer in both Dark Matter (DM) and Baryonic Matter (BM) by inserting imaginary equations in DM (a place of our dreams when we are sleeping) coordinates. By considering the Soul as an observer, the new transformation equations make relationship between space-time coordinates of an event for an observer in BM and space-time coordinates of another event in DM for the same observer. By this method, not only relativistic postulate remains valid but also the speed of the Soul corresponds to c/α^(D-4) would increase so much faster than light in additional dimensions that we are not able to observe them. The DM is assumed to be a place of events of our dreams, moreover, New Imaginary Transformation Equations (NITE) include transmitting the Soul from BM to DM, when we are dreaming in sleep, with a velocity so much faster than light. The Soul moves backward and forward in time in DM area, in fact, DM includes not only the end quantum state of particles of events our Soul have already observed in BM but also the end quantum state of particles of events our Soul have not been able to observe yet. NITE is based on the fact that the Soul is the end quantum state of human’s body that can be only observed in extra dimensions. The Soul can observe backward or forward of events in imaginary motion in DM or even the Soul would have non-local motion in the additional dimensions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1602.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-02 10:43:21*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Physicists believe that such dark matter is composed of (as yet undefined) elementary particles that stick together thanks to gravitational force. In a study recently published in EPJ C, scientists from the CRESST-II research project use the so-called phonon-light technique to detect dark matter. [16]
A team of researchers at MIT has succeeded in creating a double film coating that is able to convert infrared light at modest intensities into visible light. In their paper published in the journal Nature Photonics, the team describes their film, how well it works and the possible uses for it. [15]
Before the Hawaii-bound storm Julio strengthened into a hurricane, a NASA satellite spotted a high-energy flash of "dark lightning" coming from the swirling clouds. [14]
Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13]
Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[23] **viXra:1602.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-02 12:12:26*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Infinite Products,Constants classic,Riemann zeta function,Radicals,...

**Category:** General Mathematics

[22] **viXra:1602.0023 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-04 08:14:26*

**Authors:** Kolosov Petro

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper presents the way to make expansion for the next form function: $y=x^n, \ \forall(x,n) \in {\mathbb{N}}$ to the numerical series. The most widely used methods to solve this problem are Newton’s Binomial Theorem and Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (that is, derivative and integral are inverse operators). The paper provides the other kind of solution, except above described theorems.

**Category:** Number Theory

[21] **viXra:1602.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-02 07:55:39*

**Authors:** Abdullah Shehada, Mohammad Hassan Kharita, Siraj Yousef

**Comments:** 8 Pages

A new method for recycling the glass of Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) is presented in this paper.
The glass from CRTs is suggested to be used as row materials for producing radiation shielding
glass. Cathode ray tubes glass contains considerable amounts of environmentally hazardous toxic waste namely heavy metal oxides such as lead oxide (PbO). This makes CRTs glass a favorable choice to be used as row material for Radiation shielding materials, as heavy metal oxides increases its density, which make the produced glass nearly equivalent to commercially available shielding glass. CRTs glasses have been characterized to determine the heavy oxides content, density, refractive index, and radiation shielding properties for different gamma rays energies empirically by using the source Co-60 and theoretically by using the code XCOM. The measured and the calculated values were in a good compatibility. The effect of irradiation on the transparency for each part of the CRTs glass has been studied. Results showed that some parts of CRTs glass are more resistant to radiation than others. The study has shown that the glass of cathode ray tubes can be recycled as a radiation shielding glass at least in some applications.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[20] **viXra:1602.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-02 08:03:55*

**Authors:** Abdullah Shehada, Mohammad Hassan Kharita, Siraj Yousef

**Comments:** 21 Pages

The purpose of the research in this paper is to produce a radiation shielding glass by recycling
glass of cathode ray tubes (CRTs) which come from used computers and TV sets and adding some heavy metal oxides as lead oxide (PbO) to increase the density, and using some other oxides such as potassium oxide (K2O) as a modifier for the resulted glass. Because of, the glass of cathode ray tubes (CRTs) contains some heavy oxides where the part Funnel contains about 20 % of lead oxide (PbO) while the part Panel contains about 10 % of barium oxide (BaO) and the same percent for strontium oxide (SrO). So, these glass can be used as a radiation shielding glass for nuclear and radiation applications. In this paper, the glass of cathode ray tubes (CRTs) have been used as powdered glass to make new samples with lead oxide (PbO) and potassium oxide (K2O). Then, the optical and radiation properties of these samples have been investigated. The effects of 1 % added of cerium oxide (CeO2) on the radiation resistant and optical spectra differences have been measured. In addition, this research has environmental benefits that appear in reducing the toxic heavy metals that included in CRT glass such as lead, barium, strontium and other metals. This paper discuses a new a approach to recycle the CRT glass. Many samples of glass have been prepared by using the powdered glass of CRT and lead oxide (PbO) as lead material in these mixtures to increase density. Also the potassium oxide (K2O) has been added to some mixtures as a modifier oxide for decreasing melting temperatures and improving optical and technical characteristics of these glass samples. As a result, same samples had high density about
5.38 g.cm3. The glass transition temperatures (Tg) and the structure of these samples have been
investigated by using the differential temperature analysis (DTA) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD) respectively. The optical transmission spectra have been studied, and the transmission studied by using UV-Visible spectrometer and the optical transmission reached to about 85 % in the
visible spectrum range. Then, attenuation coeffcients have been measured for photons emitted
by Co60:After that, the optical transmission before and after irradiation have been investigated.
The results appeared that these spectra varying by radiation doses and related to the type of used
glass in these samples. Where the transmission decreased about 20 % to 50 % in the beginning
of the spectrum range from 400 nm to 600 nm at exposure doses that reached to 5 kGy and high
dose rate 1 kGy/h. These spectra were not varying in some samples that contain the glass panel.
These results agree with similar studies where the density reached to 5.2 g.cm3 and the refractive index equal to 1.8, and the value of transmission closed to 85 %. In addition, the decreases of transmission spectra also the same when it exposure to radiation doses.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[19] **viXra:1602.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-02 08:45:11*

**Authors:** Abdullah Shehada

**Comments:** 6 Pages

When the photon beam is coming on the material , it's will be attenuation in this
material ( the number of the photons will be decreased when it's go out the material )
this attenuation is related with the energy 's photon and also the kind of the material( density ). This attenuation is the result of many kinds of reactions between the photon and the material 's electrons ( mainly ) , one of this kinds is : Compton reaction. In Compton effect : the photon is loses part of it's energy in each reaction with the electrons , and this photon will disappear when it loses all of it's energy .
But in this work the opposite is occurs , wherein the cross-section may takes negative values at some values of the ration between photon energy and electron mass energy. consequently , by using the exponential equation we will find the photons in the beam is increases ( exponential increases ) ( the number of photons is increases and maybe also the photon energy do ) , so we obtained the same effect as the laser effect , and we can use this effect in many applications

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[18] **viXra:1602.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-02 08:52:04*

**Authors:** Abdullah Shehada

**Comments:** 7 Pages

As a result of anticompton effect (inverscompton)effect, we can find in the plasma ( example ) the following two important phenomena :
1- if the plasma was not perfect ionizing ( including some neutral atoms ) we can find
one of the atom's electron exist in energy band which not exist in the natural cases .
2- we can find some of the photons has large energy bigger than the another medium
particle's energy and we can find some of the electrons has large energy bigger than
the another medium particle's energy .
But in the resultant ; the usual Compton effect will cancel most of anti Compton effect
( not all ) in the continuous scattering interactions , so this effect ( anti Compton ) is
not noticed in the usual cases , because the usual Compton effect has ranges bigger
than ( max 3 times ) anti Compton's ranges to occur ( from the figure (3)) .

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[17] **viXra:1602.0018 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-10 06:09:35*

**Authors:** Stefan Mehedinteanu

**Comments:** 18 Pages. a last version

It will be shown how the Micro-black-holes particles produced at the horizon entry into a
number of by quantum fluctuation as virtual micro-black holes pairs like e+ e- creation, stay at the base of: the origin and evolution of Universe, the pure gravity Dark Matter particles, of the free photons creation of near mass-less as by radiation decay that condensate later at Confinement in to the structure of gauge bosons (gluons) . Also, these ex-Micro-black-holes ( ) by merging release gravitons which deform the space-time, and also decay of all free photons as pure gravity Dark Matter particles , or if kipping someone else, as electrons, others leptons (quarks) and uncharged particles (neutrinos). After radiation decay, the heritage of gravitational charge (gravitons) quantized as inside (or on event horizon) into equilibrium with the inner field like electrostatic Coulomb field as being generated by the few photons remained, finally give the mass. Thus, is explained how the gravity (only few gravitons remaining at Confinement in nucleons) is embedded in matter particles, and in the pure gravity Dark Matter particles of gravitational charge only (gravitons), an old waited answer.
Also, in this context it results that an equal part of the ex-Micro-black-holes are generated at horizon entry that correspond to Electroweak period during Universe evolution
(1011 GeV; 10-29 s) .. A proof of the model is done by applying it to light bending due of Earth.
A very stranger result is obtained if we divide the gravitational charge to the Compton length for every particle, or in other words the gravitational energy of the particle distributed in their Compton length is just the particle energy or the “rest of mass”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1602.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-10 06:12:03*

**Authors:** Stefan Mehedinteanu

**Comments:** 17 Pages. a last version

Based on the recently LGO discovery, respectively the merging of two black-holes as the base of the space-time deformation, I will advance another scenario for Universe creation and its evolution, respectively, when are created a huge number of Micro-black-holes (micro virtual black holes ) as generated due of Quantum fluctuations at Reheating (at 1011 GeV ;10-29 s) , and which further, during theirs merging its release gravitons which deform the space-time. Thus, at Confinement the become, firstly, via Quarks Gluons Plasma (QGP), the nucleons, and later, an others fractions becomes electrons (leptons) and, very later dark matter particles. Also, is proposed a new test for the finally proof of the model as the deduction of the lifetime value of the - decay of the free neutron.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1602.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-02 06:40:36*

**Authors:** Abdullah Shehada

**Comments:** 6 Pages

In this paper a new effect have been taken into account which has ever been used before
in physics, this effect related to two different fields, Quantum physics and General Relativity.
This effect takes name: Time Dilatation as an Effect of Approaching Planck Length, this effect is completely different from the gravitational time dilatation in general relativity and time dilatation due to closing to the speed of light in special relativity. The new effect becomes obvious and strong for the particles that have high energies and very small diameters. Experiments in particle physics and astrophysics had got conclusion that the particles may travel faster than the speed of light in vacuum, such as MINOS experiment and Fermilab1979 in particle experiments and supernova SN1987A and Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) in astronomy field. And that seems violating the theory of relativity, but this theory can explain all these unusual observations easily and doesn't violating the theory of relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] **viXra:1602.0015 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-02 08:06:44*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

They used to think light needed a medium to propagate. That is actually correct.

The only mistake they made was thinking the medium was fixed in space and the Earth must be rushing through it (that is what they call an erroneous constraint).

Everyone believes the MM experiment without question and they pass the information on through generation after generation.

It is actually bringing modern physics to a standstill.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1602.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-01 21:55:14*

**Authors:** James A. Tassano

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Observation: Treating the observable universe as the surface volume of a 3-sphere allows us to produce a simple equation for the radius of the observable universe. By taking the ratio of the standard three dimensional volumes for the observable universe to the Hubble volume, and setting it equal to the ratio of the corresponding volumes derived using the equations for the surface volume of a 3-sphere, we can solve for the radius of the observable universe. We find that this radius to be the cube root of 12 pi, times the Hubble radius, or 46.27 billion light years, which matches the accepted figures. The volume of the observable universe is shown to be larger than the Hubble volume by a factor of 12 pi. This gives us a simple expression for the radius and volume of the observable universe, derived from the geometry of a 3-sphere.
Explanation: But the whole universe is vastly larger than the observable, and the observable universe is not a 3-sphere, forcing us to explain how this artificial 3-sphere, clearly smaller than what the true 3-sphere would be, can show such behavior. We use the argument from another hyperverse paper, on quantum time, that the relative increase in the unit of quantum time cancels the rapidly increasing growth rate of the whole hyperverse, resulting in a constant, 2c radial expansion rate. This allows the observable universe to be treated, in many respects, as a stand-alone hyperverse, a time-scaled version of the whole. This time-scaling gives the observable universe many of the properties of a 3-sphere.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1602.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-01 22:17:43*

**Authors:** J. P. Lestone

**Comments:** 4 pages, 2 figures

We consider the possibility that electromagnetism is caused by the exchange of unphysical L=0 photons between fundamental particles with properties that resemble quantum black holes. This force is infinite if the known far-field cross section is assumed. However, the divergence is generated at low energy where the photon wavelengths are large and the far-field limit fails. An estimate of the near-field correction removes the infinity and leads to an estimate of the inverse fine structure constant of alpha^-1~139. A speculative scaling of a term controlling the near-field correction by 1/(1+alpha) gives the result alpha^-1=137.038. A suggested speculative link to the higher-order QED corrections to the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron gives alpha^-1=137.036 and a calculated elementary charge q=1.602177x10^-19 C. These calculations suggest elementary particles are quantum black holes.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1602.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-02 02:31:07*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: an introduction and appreciation of spacetime rainbow

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1602.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-01 10:52:44*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A new kind of dynamics for simulations based upon quantum-classical hybrid is discussed. The model is represented by a modified Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced by different, specially chosen potentials. As a result, the dynamics attains both quantum and classical properties: it preserves superposition and entanglement of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods. Such an optimal combination of characteristics is a perfect match for quantum- inspired information processing. In this paper, the retrieval of stored items from an exponentially large unsorted database is performed by quantum-inspired resonance using polynomial resources due to quantum-like superposition effect.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[9] **viXra:1602.0010 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-05 04:29:56*

**Authors:** Zhang Yunfan

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

The theory of idealiscience is an accurate theoretical model, by the model we can deduce most important laws of Physics, explain a lot of physical mysteries, even a lot of basic and important philosophical questions. we can also get the theoretical values of a lot of physical constants, even some of the constants can not be deduced by traditional physical theories, such as neutron mass and magnetic moment,Avogadro constant and so on.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[8] **viXra:1602.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-01 12:41:43*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Formulas involving metallic numbers shown

**Category:** General Mathematics

[7] **viXra:1602.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-14 10:43:50*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Published in: Open Access Library Journal, 3: e2487 (2016). http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1102487

I propose first a simple model for quantum black holes based on a harmonic oscillator describing the black hole horizon covered by Planck length sized squares carrying soft hair. Secondly, I discuss a more involved statistical model with the partition function sum taken over black hole stretched horizon constituents which are black holes themselves. Attempting a unified quantum structure for spacetime, black holes and matter, I apply the statistical model picture also to matter particles using a composite model for quarks and leptons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1602.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-01 08:17:55*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We investigate a novel method for the retrieval of an arbitrary amplitude-object which is illuminated from the far-field and sampled through a stratified random medium of unknown statistics. The setup includes two observation paths, a CCD-based imaging system and a multi-aperture interferometer placed in a plane conjugate to the entrance pupil of the imaging system. The interferometric baselines are arranged in closed loops to make the closure phase insensitive to random refractive fluctuations. The method may be beneficial to applications such as surveillance, speckle interferometry and biomedical imaging.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[5] **viXra:1602.0006 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-29 12:45:44*

**Authors:** Andrew Banks

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Cantor’s infinity (CI) depends on the capability of completing an infinite collection of successive steps (ICSS). Otherwise, CI does not solve Zeno’s dichotomy paradox and all natural numbers cannot be upward constructed using the successor function. In spite of the fact that no one has ever scientifically witnessed an ICSS nor has anyone ever furnished a direct proof demonstrating its theoretical existence, the assumed capability of completing an ICSS rests at the foundations of theoretical mathematics. As such, this article will introduce a very general type of accelerated Turing machine that can execute instructions in any given time including zero seconds. This device will demonstrate that the assumption that an ICSS can be completed contradicts the assumption that the natural numbers are unbounded (NNU). Hence, CI is not consistent since it contains both. Furthermore, using this computing device and other machinery, it will be proven that space and time are only finitely divisible.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[4] **viXra:1602.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-01 08:30:24*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 4 pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2016, v. 12, no. 1, 85-88.

Recently, gedanken experiments have been proposed in order to examine the validity of Kirchhoff’s Law of Thermal Emission (P.-M. Robitaille, Further Insight Relative to Cavity Radiation: A Thought Experiment Refuting Kirchhoff’s Law, Prog. Phys., 2014, v. 10, no. 1, 38–40; P.-M. Robitaille, Further Insight Relative to Cavity Radiation II: Gedanken Experiments and Kirchhoff’s Law, Prog. Phys., 2014, v. 10, no. 2, 116–120). In the second of these works, real materials (i.e. graphite a nd silver) were utilized in order to construct two separate cavities at the same temperature which are then placed in thermal contact with one another. It was hypothesized that the graphite cavity initially contained blackbody radiation and that the silver cavity was devoid of radiation. In the case of the silver cavity, all of the energy of the system was assigned to the phonons in its walls. When the cavities were brought together and a small hole introduced between the cavities, it was hypothesized that thermal contact between the cavity walls would enable the transformation of phonon energy into photon energy, eventually resulting in filling the silver cavity with black radiation. Energy contained within the wall of the silver cavity was believed to be reversibly trapped. However, in allowing energy to flow reversibly out of the walls of the silver cavity in this context, it has been assumed that the silver conduction bands could be neglected and that only phonon energy need be considered. However, the reflectivity attributed to the silver cavity should be considered uniquely as a result of energy associated with the formation of its conduction bands. Such formation must be considered irreversible. It will be demonstrated that under these conditions Kirchhoff’s law, once again, does not hold. The lack of thermal radiation within the silver cavity does not lead to a violation of the second law of thermodynamics.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[3] **viXra:1602.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-01 08:44:56*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 20 pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2016, v. 12, no. 3, 184-203.

Recently, Robert J. Johnson submitted an analysis of my work, relative to Kirchhoff’s Law of Thermal Emission (R.J. Johnson, A Re-examination of Kirchhoff’s Law of Thermal Radiation in Relation to Recent Criticisms. Prog. Phys., 2016, v. 12, no. 3,175–183) in which he reached the conclusion that “Robitaille’s claims are not sustainable and that Kirchhoff’s Law and Planck’s proof remain valid in the situations for which they were intended to apply, including in cavities with walls of any arbitrary materials in thermal equilibrium”. However, even a cursory review of Johnson’s letter reveals that his conclusions are unjustified. No section constitutes a proper challenge to my writings. Nonetheless, his letter is important, as it serves to underscore the impossibility of defending Kirchhoff’s work. At the onset, Kirchhoff formulated his law, based solely on thought experiments and, without any experimental evidence (G. Kirchhoff, Uber das Verhaltnis zwischen dem Emissionsvermogen und dem Absorptionsvermogen der Korper fur Warme und Licht. Pogg. Ann. Phys. Chem., 1860,v. 109, 275–301). Thought experiments, not laboratory confirmation, remain the basis on which Kirchhoff’s law is defended, despite the passage of 150 years. For his part, Max Planck tried to derive Kirchhoff’s Law by redefining the nature of a blackbody and relying on the use of polarized radiation, even though he realized that heat radiation is never polarized (Planck M. The Theory of Heat radiation. P. Blakiston’s Son & Co., Philadelphia, PA, 1914). In advancing his proof of Kirchhoff’s Law, Max Planck concluded that the reflectivities of any two arbitrary materials must be equal, though he argued otherwise (see P.-M. Robitaille and S.J. Crothers, “The Theory of Heat Radiation” Revisited: A Commentary on the Validity of Kirchhoff’s Law of Thermal Emission and Max Planck’s Claim of Universality. Prog. Phys., 2015, v. 11, no. 2, 120–132). Planck’s Eq. 40 (ρ=ρ’), as presented in his textbook, constituted a violation of known optics. Planck reached this conclusion, because he did not properly treat absorption and invoked polarized light in his derivation. Planck also made use of a carbon particle, which he characterized as a simple catalyst. This conjecture can be shown to result in a violation of the First Law of thermodynamics, if indeed, all cavities must contain black radiation. In the end, while Johnson attempts to defend Planck’s proof, his arguments fall short. Though the author has argued that Kirchhoff’s law lacks both proper theoretical and experimental proof, Johnson avoids advancing any experimental evidence from the literature for his position. It remains the case that experimental data does not support Kirchhoff’s claims and no valid theoretical proof exists.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[2] **viXra:1602.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-01 09:22:47*

**Authors:** Mirosław J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Submitted for publication

In this paper was presented a description of the gravitational phenomena in the new medium, different than the curved spacetime, which merges the Minkowski spacetime and the mass density into the single idea. The new description of the gravitational phenomena is kept in the spirit of Mach, in opposite to the Newtonian gravity and GR. All phenomena of gravity are expressed in terms of the relationship between a bodies and not between the body and surrounding the spacetime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1602.0001 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-02 04:15:34*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Six page full paper

We first find here that the ratio of: (loss in energy of cosmologically red-shifting photon) and (loss in electrostatic potential-energy of an electron at the same distance D) remains equal to the famous ratio (G me mp) / e2 leading us towards a possibility that ‘cosmological red-shift’ may be due to gravitational effect. Also the ratio h H0 / me c^2 = (G me mp) / e^2. Starting with Mach’s principle, that ‘mass’ of an object is because of its ‘cosmic gravitational potential energy’, we arrive at a possibility that every chunk of matter and energy should experience a fixed value of acceleration H0 c. For the purpose of comparison we express the ‘cosmological red shift’ as deceleration of the photon, and find that the deceleration experienced by the photon matches perfectly with the expected value H0 c. Then it is argued that if such a deceleration is true for a chunk of energy called photon, then it must be true for every particle of matter too. Strikingly, the decelerations experienced by the space-probes Pioneer-10, Pioneer-11, Galileo and Ulysses, as carefully measured by Anderson J.D. ET. Al. match perfectly with the deceleration of the ‘cosmologically red-shifting photons’; thus providing supportive evidence for the explanation proposed here.

**Category:** Astrophysics