[151] **viXra:1307.0171 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-23 08:12:32*

**Authors:** Patrick S. Walters

**Comments:** 24 Pages. 5 Figures. Major revision from previous version.

A brief background to the problem of relativistic compatibility is given. A concept for unified relativistic treatment of space, time, and gravity is put forward. A set of transformation matrices are proposed to handle the relativistic Special and General Theories simultaneously, with consequences for space-time, fundamental particles, and fundamental forces following from the mathematical structure of the solution.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[150] **viXra:1307.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-30 16:29:15*

**Authors:** Michael Emerson

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Presented here is a new relation between particle mass and decay products.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[149] **viXra:1307.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-30 20:15:08*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 309 Pages.

In recent years of the 21st Century the author of this book and other scientists as well, have instigated and described many new ideas, researches, theories, macro-projects, USA and other countries patented concepts, speculative macro-engineering ideas, projects and other general innovations in technology and environment change. These all hold the enticing promise for a true revolution in the lives of humans everywhere in the Solar System.
In aerospace these include air catapult transportation, hypersonic ground electric AB engine, protection of the Earth from asteroids and delivery of asteroids to the Earth, re-entry space apparatus to Earth, airborne wind turbines, electronic wind generator and propulsion, long distance shells, new self-propelled penetration bomb, inexpensive mini thermonuclear reactor, etc.
In technology these include new ideas and innovation in space sciences and Earth technologies:
Relations between time, matter, volume, distance, and energy in the Universe; Rolling of Space (volume, distance), time, and matter into a point; Underground explosion nuclear energy; Protection of environment from damaged nuclear station; Electron hydro electric generator; Electron super speed hydro propulsion; Electric theory of tornado; Protection from tornado; and so on.
Author succinctly summarizes some of these revolutionary macro-projects, concepts, ideas, innovations, and methods for scientists, engineers, technical students, and the world public. Every Chapter has three main sections: At first section the author describes the new idea in an easily comprehensible way acceptable for the general public (no equations), the second section contains the scientific proof of the innovation acceptable for technical students, engineers and scientists, and the third section contains the applications of innovation. And, naturally, he fervently hopes the popular news media, various governments and the large international aerospace and other engineering-focused corporations will, as well, increase their respective observation, R&D activity in the technologies for living and the surrounding human environment.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[148] **viXra:1307.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-30 20:49:13*

**Authors:** Chun-xuan jiang

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

in 1991 jiang proved Fermat last theorem;in 1994 Wiles proved Fermat last theorem

**Category:** Number Theory

[147] **viXra:1307.0167 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-08-07 16:04:09*

**Authors:** Marco Ripà

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

An original result about prime numbers and unproved conjectures. In this paper I will show that, if the Goldbach conjecture is true, any prime number greater than 5 can be expressed as the sum of a prime and the double of another (different) prime. A computational analysis shows that the conjecture is true for every prime below 7465626013.

**Category:** Number Theory

[146] **viXra:1307.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-30 09:17:48*

**Authors:** Michael A. Ivanov

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Some important consequences of the model of low-energy quantum gravity by the author are described, which give a possibility to
re-interpret such cosmological observations as redshifts of remote objects and the dimming of Suprnovae 1a without any expansion of
the Universe and without dark energy, but as manifestations of quantum gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[145] **viXra:1307.0164 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-30 20:06:27*

**Authors:** editor Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 611 Pages.

Folclor umoristic internetist (Vol. IV).

**Category:** Linguistics

[144] **viXra:1307.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-29 19:03:00*

**Authors:** Raymond Cote

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We prove the Laurendeau Conjecture.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[143] **viXra:1307.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-29 07:51:18*

**Authors:** Acharya Sennimalai Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Come & experience

If one wants oneness with God, enlightenment and bliss in spiritual practices, then he/ she must carry out the daily practices mentioned in this work.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[142] **viXra:1307.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-29 03:34:53*

**Authors:** Julien Laurendeau

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper I will announce a conjecture invented by myself,hoping that the great mathematiciens will have the pleasure to try to prove it.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[141] **viXra:1307.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-28 13:10:33*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 1 diagram, 3 references

The establishment and all the geologists and astrophysicists on the Earth can not answer the basic question, “why is lava hot”. The author will provide explanation.

**Category:** Geophysics

[140] **viXra:1307.0157 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-28 23:27:24*

**Authors:** A. Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages. fixed 3 small typos , which are to adhere to the flow of logic of the paper

Padmanabhan [1] elucidated the concept of super radiance in black hole physics which would lead to loss mass of a black hole, and loss of angular momentum due to infall of material into a black hole. As Padmanabhan explained it, to avoid super radiance, and probable break down of black holes, from infall, one would need infall material frequency, divided by mass of particles undergoing infall in the black hole to be greater than the angular velocity of the black hole event horizon in question. We should keep in mind we bring this model up to improve the chance that Penrose’s conformal cyclic cosmology will allow for retention of enough information for preservation of Planck’s constant from cycle to cycle, as a counterpart to what we view as unacceptable reliance upon the LQG quantum bounce and its tetrad structure to preserve memory . In addition we are presuming that at the time of z=20 in red shift that there would be roughly about the same order of magnitude of entropy as number of operations in the electro weak era, and that the number of operations in the z=20 case is close to the entropy at redshift z=0

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[139] **viXra:1307.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-28 04:44:28*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

The Fifth Stone of the Sun, or the Aztec Calendar, bears similarities to the Qi Men Dun Jia Cosmic Board. In addition, the stone contains the natural logarithm e or Euler logarithm, as well as a series of related logarithms. The author has noted that matter begins with the natural logarithm e in a previous paper. The similarities and the high level mathematics lead towards the Clifford Algebra Cl (8) and the Exceptional Lie Algebra E8, which imply that Meso - American civilization enjoyed high - level mathematics.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[138] **viXra:1307.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-27 11:20:41*

**Authors:** O.E. Yaremko

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Русский язык

Фурье формула для 2π-периодических функций с точки сопряжения изучаются. В случае периодической функции , точки сопряжения преобразование Фурье может быть упрощена для вычисления дискретного множества комплексных амплитуд, называемых Фурье-коэффициентов. Исследование основные свойства рядов Фурье.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[137] **viXra:1307.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-27 11:16:58*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page. 1 picture

Since the establishment cannot provide a picture of why low carbon steel is strong the author of this paper will. Just saying “strengthing the crystal lattice” and then showing math equations is not an explanation.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[136] **viXra:1307.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-27 07:00:48*

**Authors:** Acharya Sennimalai Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Till this second, this Lemurian yoga is a hidden spiritual treasure.

Yoga is a commonly known generic term for the physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India with a view to attain a state of permanent peace. According to Sage Patanjali, yoga is the stilling of the changing states of the mind. Yoga has also been popularly defined as "union with the divine" in other contexts and traditions. In this work, an easiest technique to activate has been proposed.

**Category:** Mind Science

[135] **viXra:1307.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-26 10:00:45*

**Authors:** Wenliang Jin

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

For an initial uniform superposition over all possible computational basis states, we explore the performance of Grover's search algorithm geometrically when imposing a perturbation on the Walsh-Hadamard transformation contained in the Grover iteration. We give the geometric picture to visualize the quantum search process in the three-dimensional space and show that Grover's search
algorithm can work well with an appropriately chosen perturbation. Thereby we corroborate Grover's conclusion that if such perturbation is small, then this will not create much of an
impact on the implementation of this algorithm. We also prove that Grover's path cannot achieve a geodesic in the presence of a perturbation of the Fubini-Study metric.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[134] **viXra:1307.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-26 05:22:28*

**Authors:** Etkin V.A.

**Comments:** 12 Pages. In Russian

Показано, что неоднородное распределение в пространстве момента импульса порождает новые виды взаимодействия, не сводимые к известным его четырем видам. Дано объяснение ряда проявлений этих взаимодействий с позиций энергодинамики
(It is shown, that the impulse moment generates at non-uniform distribution in space new kinds the interactions which are not reduced to its known four kinds. The explanation of some displays of these interactions from energodynamic positions is given)

**Category:** Classical Physics

[133] **viXra:1307.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-25 17:22:01*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes, Raja Rama Gandhi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Appeared in Bulletin of Mathematical Sciences & Applications

The main objective of this paper is to develop upper and lower bound for the Andrica
conjecture, gaps between primes, using Jacobi elliptic functions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[132] **viXra:1307.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-25 17:25:06*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes, Raja Rama Gandhi

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Appeared in Bulletin of Mathematical Sciences & Applications

We proved the asymptotic for Andrica’s conjecture.

**Category:** Number Theory

[131] **viXra:1307.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-25 17:28:05*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes, Raja Rama Gandhi

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Appeared in Bulletin of Mathematical Sciences & Applications

We proved the Andrica’s conjecture.

**Category:** Number Theory

[130] **viXra:1307.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-25 17:30:13*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes, Raja Rama Gandhi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Appeared in Bulletin of Mathematical Sciences & Applications

We prove the Cramér's conjecture.

**Category:** Number Theory

[129] **viXra:1307.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-25 17:41:37*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes, Raja Rama Gandhi

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Appeared in Asian Journal of Mathematics and Physics

We prove the 12.10 Theorem of Ivic’s Book for Difference between Consecutive Primes without Riemann’s Hypothesis.

**Category:** Number Theory

[128] **viXra:1307.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-25 17:44:39*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes, Raja Rama Gandhi

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Appeared in Asian Journal of Mathematics and Physics

We prove a lower bound for differences between consecutive primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[127] **viXra:1307.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-25 17:50:12*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes, Raja Rama Gandhi

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Appeared in Asian Journal of Mathematics and Physics

We prove the Legendre's conjecture.

**Category:** Number Theory

[126] **viXra:1307.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-25 17:52:14*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes, Raja Rama Gandhi

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Appeared in Asian Journal of Mathematics and Physics

We prove the Oppermann's conjecture.

**Category:** Number Theory

[125] **viXra:1307.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-25 18:00:05*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes, Raja Rama Gandhi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We developed a new functional equation and a new integral representation for the Riemann zeta function.

**Category:** Number Theory

[124] **viXra:1307.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-25 18:02:44*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes, Raja Rama Gandhi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We create new formulas for Riemann-Siegel Integral and Hardy's Z-function.

**Category:** Number Theory

[123] **viXra:1307.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-25 18:09:14*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes, Raja Rama Gandhi

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We use the contradiction method for prove a restricted Lindelöf hypothesis.

**Category:** Number Theory

[122] **viXra:1307.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-25 18:17:34*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes, Raja Rama Gandhi, Srinivas Kishan Anapu

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Appeared in Bulletin of Mathematical Sciences & Applications

We create new formulas for proving Lindelof Hypothesis from Zeta Function.

**Category:** Number Theory

[121] **viXra:1307.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-25 07:37:40*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 47 Pages.

This is the first partial draft of a paper under development to further elaborate the author’s thesis presented in several earlier-published papers, that baryons including protons and neutrons are Yang-Mills magnetic monopoles, and to respond to queries and comments received with respect to these earlier papers. This paper fully develops the non-linear aspects of Yang-Mills gauge theory and applies these to the inverses used to populate the Yang-Mills magnetic monopolies with quarks and turn them into baryons and give rise to QCD. We also show how the perturbations in these inverses, which arise from the non-linear theory, create a pseudo-mass term which is responsible for the short-range of the nuclear interaction, notwithstanding the zero-mass gluon gauge fields.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[120] **viXra:1307.0133 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-22 13:28:32*

**Authors:** Gene H Barbee

**Comments:** 30 Pages. Please comment. genebarbee@msn.com

Experiments at high energy labs have resulted in a large volume of data regarding 197 unstable baryon and meson particles (as of 2014). Experimenters gather this information with the goal of understanding the basic principles that give these particles their masses, decay times and other properties.
This paper extends a theory that accurately matches the neutron and proton mass to the remainder of the baryons and mesons. It is shown that baryons and mesons are composed of quarks and kinetic energy components similar to the proton and neutron. Energy from particle accelerator induced collisions is turned into quarks and kinetic energy inside mesons before they quickly decay into electrons/positrons, neutrinos and kinetic energy. Baryons also decay but neutrons and protons are in their decay products. Three quarks express themselves as a baryon while one quark and one anti-quark express themselves as mesons. The goals of this study are to:
• Calculate the meson and baryon masses using rules that accurately simulate the proton and neutron.
• Explain the basic energies that form mesons and baryons and show that they form a series.
• Show diagrams of the baryons and mesons.
• Explain the process that allows transition to new combinations of mesons and baryons and ultimately to protons, neutrons, electrons, neutrinos and energy.
• Explain the mechanism for decay and correlate all the particle decay times using the approach that accurately simulates neutron decay time.
• Identify the quarks in the mesons and baryons and compare their properties with Particle Data Group iso-spin, spin and charge.
• Suggest a mechanism for decay modes and correlate branching for a few example particles.
Results: All mesons and baryons masses and decay times are matched within measurement limits with the exception of the mu and pi (mass out by 0.003 MeV). In addition, all meson and baryon iso-spins are accurately matched. Most spins are matched except those with spins greater than 1.0. Branching ratio examples are shown.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[119] **viXra:1307.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-25 00:44:59*

**Authors:** Leihua Liu

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This work has shown that a new picture in the particle, which has illustrated a new principle of quark confinement and the micro-oringin of force in the scale of particle.

By the analogy with Special Relativity, it shows that there is a fundamental length in three-dimensional space, in which the dimension of time has been a constant,
and the remaining coordinates are satisfied with the same mathematical structure as the Lorentz transformation. According to the hypothesis,
the energy $\omega_i$ is corresponding to the $x_i$, and the force $\emph{F}$ is analogous with coordinate $\emph{t}$.
After proceeding with this, there is a natural way to explain the quark confinement. Finally, this theory is promoted to the
curved situation, where the origination of cosmological constant $\Lambda$ is connected with three-dimensional curvature.
In addition, it also can construct the relationship between thermodynamics and statistical mechanics(TSM) and three-dimensional Einstein theory.
Under the correspondence of three-dimensional cosmology, the new physical meaning of revolutionary factor R can be found.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[118] **viXra:1307.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-25 01:33:37*

**Authors:** U.V.S.Seshavatharam, S.Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Open letter to the science community

In this letter an attempt is made to emphasize the major short comings of modern or standard cosmology

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[117] **viXra:1307.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-24 16:07:03*

**Authors:** Khrapko R

**Comments:** 1 Page. Am. J. Phys., Vol. 69, No. 4, April 2001, p. 405

Plane wave does carry spin

**Category:** Classical Physics

[116] **viXra:1307.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-24 09:50:55*

**Authors:** Khrapko R

**Comments:** 4 Pages. A translation from Russian http://www.mai.ru/science/trudy/articles/num18/article6/auther.htm (2005)

Roche’s paper “What is mass” advocates a historical predecessor of mass. It impedes teaching because presses on inadequate concept of mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[115] **viXra:1307.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-24 07:16:21*

**Authors:** C. Jyothsna Valli

**Comments:** 78 Pages.

Life comes from life and is again an
absolute entity. In its incorporeal state, life transforms to a different body retaining
its self existence. Thus either an addition or subtraction of life remains unaltered.
The script of His instructions is embedded in its physical manifestation as a single
and total functional unit called Cell formed inside the mother’s womb contributed
by its parents. The single cell multiplies itself into many units by mitosis molding
themselves into a living organism, sheds down the depleted cells by apoptosis but
retains their uniqueness and take birth into this world.
The newborn grows up in terms of its genetic codification in the given
environment and living conditions. Thus life is an ultimate non-material particle
and is distinct from molecules or matter and that the supreme lord is the source of
both life and matter.
Human race among the living organisms is bestowed with a distinctive feature of
intellect to understand this reality. Folks on eastern hemisphere paid their gratitude
for His blessing and moved in His directions to solve their social, economic and
health problems. Many techniques and therapies were developed. Folks on western
hemisphere mistook the bestowed intelligence as their own. They developed a
diagnostic method of solving problems in terms of why, what and how? They
framed a theory of supplementation and started replacing the worn out materials,
altering chemical compositions, reconstruction of organs and their replacements.
In the present scenario east have lost its supreme intellectuals and their works are
not fully understood for lack of complete doctrines and necessary peripherals. The
western methods found to be remedial for the existing irregularities without
correcting the source and sprouting up new problems making the condition worse.
The need of the hour is to synthesize east and west technologies to find a true
solution of any problem. In the spectrum of health concern this integrated
approach is found fruitful by synchronizing the test results of western technologies
with the eastern therapeutic methods. In its simpler version this may be called as
“Integrated Approach of Yoga Therapy”.
In the orbit of health concern, here the study is confined to know the Influence
of Yogic Practices on stimulation of Thyroid Gland and its
Secretion of Hormones in Hypothyroidism.

**Category:** Mind Science

[114] **viXra:1307.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-24 04:25:16*

**Authors:** Wenliang Jin

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

For there to be $M> 1$ target items to be searched in an unsorted database of size $N$, with $M/N\ll 1$ for a sufficiently
large $N$, we explore the performance of Grover's search algorithm when considering some possible situations that may arise in a four-complex-dimensional subspace, for which in the case of identical rotation angles $\phi=\theta$, we give the maximum success probabilities of finding a desired state and their corresponding numbers of Grover iterations in an approximate fashion.
Our analysis reveals that the case of identical rotation angles $\phi=\theta$ is energetically favorable compared to the case
$\left| {\theta - \phi } \right|\gg 0$ for boosting the probability to detect a desired state.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[113] **viXra:1307.0125 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-26 03:48:52*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 10 pages, 6 figures, PDFLaTeX―[v2]: Added discussions to S.4.0

The implication of the Fitzgerald length contraction hypothesis on the time dimension is considered. Originally set as an ad hoc interpretation of the Michelson-Morley experiment null result, the hypothesis is expressed in terms of a space transformation equation inferred from the Galilean transformation, leading to a time conversion exhibiting a contractive property.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[112] **viXra:1307.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-23 18:54:31*

**Authors:** editor Linfan Mao

**Comments:** 135 Pages.

The First International Conference on Smarandache Multispace and Multistructure was organized by Prof. Linfan Mao, and it was held in the Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture of P. R. China on June 28-30, 2013. There were 46 researchers from China, India, Iran, Nigeria, and USA that have taken part in this conference with 14 papers on Smarandache multispace and geometry, birings, neutrosophy,neutrosophic groups, regular maps and topological graphs with applications to non-solvable equation systems.
Definition.
In any domain of knowledge, a Smarandache multispace (or S-multispace) with its multistructure is a finite or infinite (countable or uncountable) union of many spaces that have various
structures. The spaces may overlap. The notions of multispace (also spelt multi-space) and multi-
structure (also spelt multi-structure) were introduced by Smarandache in 1969 under his idea of hybrid science: combining different fields into a unifying field, which is closer to our real life world since we live in a heterogeneous space. Today, this idea is widely accepted by the world of sciences. S-multispace is a qualitative notion, since it is too large and includes both metric and non-metric spaces. It is believed that the smarandache multispace with its multistructure is the best candidate for 21st century Theory of Everything in any domain. It unifies many knowledge fields.
Applications.
A such multispace can be used for example in physics for the Unified Field Theory that tries to unite the gravitational, electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions. Or in the parallel quantum computing and in the mu-bit theory, in multi-entangled states or particles and up to multi-entangles objects. We also mention: the algebraic multispaces (multi-groups, multi-rings, multi-vector spaces, multi-operation systems and multi-manifolds, also multi-voltage graphs, multi-embedding of a graph in an n-manifold, etc.), geometric multispaces (combinations of Euclidean and Non-Euclidean geometries into one space as in Smarandache geometries), theoretical physics, including the relativity theory, the M-theory and the cosmology, then multi-space models for p-branes and cosmology, etc.
- The multispace and multistructure were first used in the Smarandache geometries (1969), which are combinations of different geometric spaces such that at least one geometric axiom behaves differently in each such space.
- In paradoxism (1980), which is a vanguard in literature, arts, and science, based on finding
common things to opposite ideas [i.e. combination of contradictory fields].
- In neutrosophy (1995), which is a generalization of dialectics in philosophy, and takes into con-
sideration not only an entity < A > and its opposite < antiA > as dialectics does, but also the
neutralities < neutA > in between. Neutrosophy combines all these three < A >,< antiA > and
< neutA > together. Neutrosophy is a metaphilosophy.
- Then in neutrosophic logic (1995), neutrosophic set (1995), and neutrosophic probability (1995), which have, behind the classical values of truth and falsehood, a third component called indeterminacy (or neutrality, which is neither true nor false, or is both true and false simultaneously - again a combination of opposites: true and false in indeterminacy).
- Also used in Smarandache algebraic structures (1998), where some algebraic structures are in-
cluded in other algebraic structures.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[111] **viXra:1307.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-23 18:56:39*

**Authors:** editors Rajesh Singh, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 64 Pages.

The purpose of writing this book is to suggest some improved estimators using auxiliary information in sampling schemes like simple random sampling and systematic sampling.
This volume is a collection of five papers, written by eight coauthors (listed in the order of the papers): Manoj K. Chaudhary, Sachin Malik, Rajesh Singh, Florentin Smarandache, Hemant Verma, Prayas Sharma, Olufadi Yunusa, and Viplav Kumar Singh, from India, Nigeria, and USA.
The following problems have been discussed in the book:
In chapter one an estimator in systematic sampling using auxiliary information is studied in the presence of non-response. In second chapter some improved estimators are suggested using auxiliary information. In third chapter some improved ratio-type estimators are suggested and their properties are studied under second order of approximation.
In chapter four and five some estimators are proposed for estimating unknown population parameter(s) and their properties are studied.
This book will be helpful for the researchers and students who are working in the field of finite population estimation.

**Category:** Statistics

[110] **viXra:1307.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-24 03:22:53*

**Authors:** Acharya Sennimalai Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 3 Pages. This is NOT, Not and NOT a fiction.This experiment is for Reality.

The Unmanifested Invisible Supreme Space is the ultimate reality. It is called Brahman in Hindu philosophy. When there is a slight movement / motion in that Brahman, sound begin to originate. This sound creates PHYSICAL spacetime. Then emerges the formation of material objects. The physical spacetime has meaning if and only if there is matter. So, in a sense matter is the prime source for the properties of physical spacetime. Then this invisible Supreme space gives energy for the formation of five fundamental boothas namely soil, water, fire, air and physical space. The combination of these five boothas is the cause for all kinds of life. So, in this universe each and everything is the manifestation of energy only. The lifetron which is spinning in both clock wise and anti clock wise at the center of the bore head between the two eye brows supplies energy to the human body. When the lifetron loses its energy, then natural death occurs. If we go on filling cosmic energy in the bio energy, we can prolong human life for ever, for ever. This is not only philosophy but also science. In this work, getting cosmic energy through eyes control has been introduced.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[109] **viXra:1307.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-23 12:27:27*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 3 pages

We assume that one source of
two uncorrelated spin-carrying particles emits them in a state,
which can be described as a spin-1/2 bipartite pure uncorrelated state.
We consider a
Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (Bell-CHSH)
experiment with two-orthogonal-settings.
We propose an additional condition for the state
to be reproducible by the property of local realistic theories.
We use the proposed measurement theory in order to construct
the additional condition
{[K. Nagata and T. Nakamura, Int. J. Theor. Phys.
{\bf 49}, 162 (2010)]}.
The condition is that
local measurement outcome is $\pm 1/\sqrt{2}$.
Otherwise, such an experiment does not allow for the
existence of local realistic theories even in the situation that
all Bell-CHSH inequalities hold.
Also we derive new set of Bell inequalities when
local measurement outcome is $\pm 1/\sqrt{2}$.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[108] **viXra:1307.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-23 10:38:23*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 9 pages; 2 figures

We discuss projective measurement theory does
not meet easy detector model for Pauli observable.
We propose a solution of the problem
by changing the value of the result of quantum measurements
and
by considering macroscopic system.
We discuss how our solution is used in an implementation of
Deutsch's algorithm.
Especially, we systematically
describe our assertion
based on more mathematical analysis using raw data.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[107] **viXra:1307.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-23 10:51:56*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 5 pages

We discuss that a single spin observable
$\sigma_x$ in a quantum state
does not have a counterpart in physical reality.
We consider whether a single spin-1/2 pure state
has a counterpart in physical reality.
It is an eigenvector of Pauli observable $\sigma_z$ or an
eigenvector of Pauli observable $\sigma_x$.
We assume a state $|+_z\rangle$, which can be described
as an eigenvector of Pauli observable $\sigma_z$.
We assume also a state $|+_x\rangle$, which can be described
as an eigenvector of Pauli observable $\sigma_x$.
The value of transition probability $|\langle +_z|+_x\rangle|^2$ is 1/2.
Surprisingly, the existence of a single classical probability space
for the transition probability
within the formalism of von Neumann's
projective measurement does not coexist with the value of
the transition probability
$|\langle +_z|+_x\rangle|^2=1/2$.
We have to give up the existence of such a classical
probability space for the state $|+_z\rangle$ or
for the state $|+_x\rangle$, as they define the transition probability.
It turns out that
the single spin-1/2 pure state $|+_z\rangle$ or
the single spin-1/2 pure state $|+_x\rangle$ does not have
counterparts in physical reality.
A single spin-1/2 pure state (e.g., $|+ \rangle\langle +|$) is a single
one-dimensional projection operator.
In other word,
a single one-dimensional projector does not have
a counterpart in physical reality, in general.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[106] **viXra:1307.0116 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-25 09:22:28*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Open Access Library Journal, Volume 2 (2015), e1805/1--6, http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1101805

Recently, it is shown that there is a crucial
contradiction within von Neumann's theory {[K. Nagata and T. Nakamura,
Int. J. Theor. Phys. {\bf 49}, 162 (2010)]}.
We derive a proposition concerning a quantum expected value
under the assumption of the existence of the
directions in a spin-1/2 system.
The quantum predictions within the formalism of von Neumann's
projective measurement cannot coexist
with the proposition concerning the existence of the
directions.
Therefore, we have to give up
either the existence of the directions or the formalism of von Neumann's
projective measurement.
Hence there is a crucial contradiction
within von Neumann's theory.
We discuss that this crucial contradiction makes the
theoretical formulation of Deutsch's algorithm
questionable.
Especially, we systematically
describe our assertion
based on more mathematical analysis using raw data.
Our discussion, here, improves previously published argumentations very much.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[105] **viXra:1307.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-23 11:32:40*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 3 pages

We improve the no-cloning theorem
that relies on the property of the quantum theory.
Usually, the no-cloning theorem allows for a cloning
two orthogonal quantum states, simultaneously.
Here we take into account specific quantum measurement theory.
We result in the fact that we cannot allow for a cloning
two orthogonal quantum states, simultaneously.
Especially, we systematically describe our assertion
based on more mathematical analysis using raw data.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[104] **viXra:1307.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-23 08:40:13*

**Authors:** Andrej Rehak

**Comments:** 9 Pages. The essay can be rated at FQXi's 2013 Essay Contest at http://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/1876

If the result of the product of zero and infinity is not defined then the system located within dimensions of their ideas has no definition. On a scale between zero and infinity, we establish the system. Universally valid definition of its geometry of motion proves its validity. We prove that the system is. We establish a platform for its unification.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[103] **viXra:1307.0112 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-25 09:16:32*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Open Access Library Journal, Volume 2 (2015), e1806/1--14, http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1101806

As a trial, though thinking of general concepts, of our scientific
challenge,
we consider whether the Charge-Parity-Time (CPT) symmetry can be
almighty even in a photon.
This is the main aim of this paper. In what follows, we discuss our
argumentations
dividing the conjecture into two parts. Rotational invariance of
physical laws is an accepted principle in Newton's theory. We show that
it leads to an additional constraint on local realistic theories with
mixture
of ten-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. This new constraint
rules out such theories even in some situations in which standard Bell
inequalities allow for explicit construction of such theories.
This says new hypothesis to the number of ten.
Next, it turns out Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory
has contradictions. Further, the von
Neumann's theory has a contradiction by using $\pm 1$.
We solve the problem of von Neumann's theory
while escaping from all contradictions made by
Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory, simultaneously.
We assume that the results of measurements are
$\pm 1/\sqrt {2}$.
We assume that only $E=1/\sqrt{2}$ and $E=-1/\sqrt{2}$
are possible.
This situation meets a structure made by
Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory with
the axiom of choice.
We result in the fact that it may be kept to perform the Deutsch-Jozsa
algorithm even in the macroscopic scale because zero
does not exist in this case.
Our analysis agrees with recent experimental report.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[102] **viXra:1307.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-23 00:39:10*

**Authors:** Khrapko R

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Journal of Modern Optics Vol. 55, No. 9, 20 May 2008, 1487–1500

A circularly polarized electromagnetic beam is considered, which is absorbed by a plane, and the mechanical stress produced in the plane by the beam is calculated. It is shown that the central part of the beam produces a torque at the central region of the plane due to the spin of the beam, and the wall of the beam produces an additional torque due to orbital angular momentum of the beam. The total torque acting on the plane equals two power of the beam divided by the frequency. This fact contradicts the standard electrodynamics, which predicts the torque equals power of the beam divided by frequency, and means the electrodynamics, as well as the whole classical field theory, is incomplete. An introducing of the spin tensor corrects the electrodynamics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[101] **viXra:1307.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-23 01:01:15*

**Authors:** Khrapko R

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Quantum Electronics 42 (12) 1133 – 1136 (2012)

It has been known since the 19th century that a circularly polarised electromagnetic wave carries an angular momentum. A
simple experiment (Righi, 1882) apparently indicates that the angular momentum is distributed over the entire cross section of the beam. According to some modern ideas, the angular momentum of the beam with the given polarization is localized near the beam ‘surface’ and represents a spin of photons, while the energy in the beam is distributed throughout its cross section, which is inconsistent with the principle of locality. For the experimental determination of the localisation of the angular momentum, we propose a new scheme, in which we study the interference pattern of two coherent circularly polarized beams. Each beam first passes through a half-wave plate, one of the plates being divided into two coaxial parts. With (manual) rotation of one parts of the plate we change the frequency of the light passing through it: the plate absorbs the momentum and, therefore, work is done. This change in frequency should cause a movement of the interference fringes and show the distribution of the angular momentum over the beam cross section.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[100] **viXra:1307.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-23 02:28:17*

**Authors:** Khrapko R

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Theoretical and Mathematical Physics Volume 65, Issue 3, December 1985 p. 1196

Various path-dependent functions are described in a uniform manner by means of a series expansion of Taylor type. For this, "path integrals" and "path tensors" are introduced. They are systems of multicomponent quantities whose values are defined for an arbitrary path in a coordinated region of space in such a way that they carry sufficient information about the shape of the path. These constructions are regarded as elementary path-dependent functions and are used instead Of the power monomials of an ordinary Taylor series. The coefficients of such expansions are interpreted as partial derivatives, which depend on the order of differentiation, or as nonstandard covariant derivatives, called two-point derivatives. Examples of path-dependent functions are given. We consider the curvature tensor of a space whose geometrical properties are specified by a translator of parallel transport of general type (nontransitive). A covariant operation leading to "extension" of tensor fields is described

**Category:** Geometry

[99] **viXra:1307.0108 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-08-07 14:09:18*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Two gravitational effects related to rotating masses are described. The first is the decreasing of the gravitational mass when the rotational kinetic energy is increased. In the case of ferromagnetic materials, the effect is strongly increased and the gravitational mass can even become negative. The second is the gravitational shielding effect produced by the decreasing of the gravitational mass of the rotating mass.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[98] **viXra:1307.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-22 14:38:23*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The dark energy density of the vacuum, widely regarded as the cause of the cosmological constant, may derive from zero-point energy in the 5-sphere of AdS5 x S5 spacetime. The dark energy density scales inversely as the volume of the 5-sphere and has the value 1.33 x 10-123, in Planck units, at the length scale of the Bohr radius, which seems to be the characteristic length scale of the vacuum. The value of dark energy density calculated in this way is consistent with the value, 1.29 ± 0.07 x 10-123, calculated from the WMAP 9-year six-parameter ΛCDM fit. The Bohr radius, dark energy density and, therefore, cosmological constant derive from the geometry of spacetime and can be written in elegant form in Planck units.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[97] **viXra:1307.0106 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-20 16:06:18*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 372 Pages.

The Hilbert Book Model is the name of a personal project of the author. The model is deduced from a foundation that is based on quantum logic and that is subsequently extended with trustworthy mathematical methods. What is known from conventional physics is used as a guideline, but the model is not based on the methodology of contemporary physics. In this way the model can reach deeper into the basement of physics. The ambition of the model is rather modest. It limits its scope to the lowest levels of the physical hierarchy. Thus fields and elementary particles are treated in fair detail, but composites are treated marginally and only some aspects of cosmology are touched. Still the model dives into the origins of gravitation and inertia and explains the diversity of the elementary particles. It explains what photons are and introduces a lower level of physical objects and a new kind of ultra-high frequency waves that carry information about their emitters. It explains entanglement and the Pauli principle. It offers an alternative to the Higgs mechanism. Above all the HBM introduces a new way of looking at space and time. Where contemporary physics applies the spacetime model, the HBM treats space and progression as a paginated model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[96] **viXra:1307.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-21 02:09:16*

**Authors:** Julien Laurendeau

**Comments:** 1 Page. I will use a method of mine that I call the infinity statments

In my last paper on the Goldbach conjecture,I encountered a problem with the proof.I will here fix it.

**Category:** Number Theory

[95] **viXra:1307.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-20 16:02:23*

**Authors:** Joel M Williams

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Helium provides the simplest, multi-electron, atomic situation. Quantum mechanics addresses the different magnetic and spectral properties of ortho and para helium with “mirrored twin” electrons. This paper addresses that difference with “mirrored rooms” and no electron spin-reversed pairing in the same orbital – a different implementation of parity. Models are provided to illustrate why each form of helium can not be converted to the other in a single photon-induced step. These models also illustrate the vastly greater orbital sizes of the excited states over the ground state. Included is a reference to a paper demonstrating that classical physics provides the physical mechanism that explains why an electron’s energy levels scale with the square of integers. The mirror-room orbitals would also be appropriate for non-classical approaches without requiring spin-reverse pairing of electrons in the same orbital.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[94] **viXra:1307.0102 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-09 17:46:53*

**Authors:** Gene H Barbee

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Comments appreciated genebarbee@msn.coom

A Top-down approach to Fundamental Interactions, viXra:1307.0082 [2] presents the author’s attempt to understand if there is an information code underlying nature. Once the energy components were understood, a model for the neutron and proton was developed. The proton model is presented in Reference 2 and repeated below under the next heading. The proton model shows that there is a 10.15 MeV orbit that losses energy and is responsible for the binding energy curve. The goals of this paper are to verify the value 10.15 MeV and present a simple model of atomic binding energy.
Literature cites “water drop” models for binding energy that are admittedly empirical. Quantum physicists have suggested that there should be “electron like” shells inside atoms but to the author’s knowledge they remain unclear. If there are shells the nucleons should fall into lower energy states releasing the remainder as binding energy. The author explored this possibility. Empirically, the model was successful but no explanation could be found for why a nucleon occupied a given shell.
The first part of the binding energy curve rises quickly and then levels off as saturation occurs. When the author compared the shape of the curve to a probability based model a simple relationship was discovered. The relationship is almost identical to the fundamentals presented in reference 2.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[93] **viXra:1307.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-20 20:40:42*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The concept of the Clifford Clock, which demonstrates the relationships between real, complex, quarternions and octonions, has become established in math physics. Less well-known are the spaces in which the algebras dwell. Space consists of an infinite number of tiny invisible cubes. Under the rubric of the Clifford Clock, these spaces take on significance, since the spaces themselves take on periodic aspects, and are directly related to Supersymmetry and the Super Brauer group of Lie Algebras. In addition, the Clifford Clock of Complex Spaces bears relevance to octagonal cuspid newforms, which are related to the Riemann Zeta Function.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[92] **viXra:1307.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-20 14:31:05*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Most people when thinking of the P vs. NP thinks of it as unsolved or unsolvable although it goes with a simple algorithmic proof in which I have written in my previous paper. Now as you may know, the P vs. NP can lead to some of the greatest breakthroughs in computer science, and mathematical physics. The question however asks you to use a method to figure out the complexity vs. non-complexity of a problem, which I have demonstrated in my last paper as the example of someone removing 100 possible students from a group of 400 and then coming up with the different combinations in which the 300 can’t be picked. This problem can be used in example with probability and solved through the complex equation where there is a solution for P equaling NP and you would then get ((400!)-(100!*3)). I gave this example using set theory and logic as well. This number would then be more than the number of atoms in the known planet in which we live on. However this is just one of the examples. My next example was an example of how some computers show through algorithms and polynomials that P does equal NP.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[91] **viXra:1307.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-20 11:11:13*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It can be shown that magnetism has falsified all atom and particle theories.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[90] **viXra:1307.0098 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-22 05:53:24*

**Authors:** M. E. Hassani

**Comments:** 10 Pages; 17 References. This work is accepted for publication in Galilean Electrodynamics Journal

Since OPERA is a very carefully designed experiment thus the sobering importance of its result, coupled with decades of some successful tests of special relativity theory (SRT) requires certain adjustment in our usual manner of thinking, and seriously prompts us to consider alternatives which should be consistent with both. To this end, we propose an alternative model as an explanation to the observed neutrino superluminality based on the universality of the well-known rest mass energy formula, and the idea that, at superluminal level, the velocity of a particle with real mass may be simultaneously dependent on its energy ratio and the kinematical attainability parameter. By raising this idea to the status of a hypothesis, we show that not only the OPERA result is very realistic but also is perfectly consistent with supernova SN1987a measurement. Consequently, SRT is not violated by the existence of superluminal particles since it is conceptually, physically and exclusively valid at subluminal level for relativistic velocities. As a direct consequence, the Minkowski space-time and Lorentz transformations are coherently extended to superluminal velocities.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[89] **viXra:1307.0095 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-11 12:49:08*

**Authors:** Marco Ripà

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A generalization of Ripà’s square spiral solution for the nXnX…X n points upper bound problem. Additionally, we provide a non-trivial lower bound for the k-dimensional n_1Xn_2X…Xn_k points problem. In this way, we can build a range in which, with certainty, all the best possible solutions to the problem we are considering will fall. Finally, we provide a few characteristic numerical examples in order to appreciate the fineness of the result arising from the particular approach we have chosen.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[88] **viXra:1307.0094 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-11 21:34:14*

**Authors:** Kamal L Rajpal

**Comments:** 4 Pages

The photon has several properties that distinguish it from all other subatomic particles. It is the only elementary particle wherein a high energy photon can split up into two or more low energy photons (down conversion) and vice versa (up conversion). This transformation conforms to the laws of conservation of momentum and of energy. Down conversion implies that as per the law of conservation of mass, a high frequency photon should have more rest mass or invariant mass than a low frequency photon.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[87] **viXra:1307.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-19 02:37:10*

**Authors:** S.V. Akimenko, V.V. Demjanov

**Comments:** 5 Pages. 5 Engl.+5 Russ. version

In the article was found a second solution of the problem about the force acting on a point-like particle moving in a time-dependent potential field, is mathematically equal with early known solution. Is considered the question of the possibility of interpreting of this force, how of force of gravitational field from externals of inert a bodies (in the spirit of Mach's hypothesis about the external induction of the inertial of mass of point-like particles). Here formulated by experimental problem of identifying in studies for the celestial mechanics of this small additional of gravitational of force, which may be are achieved by the use of modern radio-physical of methods.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[86] **viXra:1307.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-18 11:56:01*

**Authors:** Daniel K. Pratt

**Comments:** Final draft of undergraduate thesis in Biotechnology. Includes 8 pages of Wolfram Mathematica copy/paste code to replicate the experiment. contact daniel dot k dot pratt at gmail dot com

It is hypothesized that a mapping of the biochemical properties of genetic nucleotides into the three dimensional ℝ3 Clifford algebra will yield a novel and meaningful evolutionary distance measure. The nucleotides A,T,C,G are mapped according to three biochemical properties (amino/keto, purine/pyrimidine, weak/strong), resulting in four base-vectors. A weighted linear combination of the base-vectors as codon triplets results in a "Tetrahedral Genetic Code" (TGC), where all 64 codons map to 64 unique codon-vectors in the space. Phase distance θ is measured as the angle between sequentially neighboring codon-vectors, and a sequence of codons is measured as the total path length in radians of the vector as it traverses the TGC. Angular difference Δθ is computed as the absolute value of the difference in phase θ between sequences, at homologous loci. The Genetic Phase Angle Distance (GPAD) is computed as the Δθ mean. GPAD is computed on a sample sequence matrix for 11 different species and compared side by side to the Equal-input distance and phylogenetic tree computed on that same species matrix.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[85] **viXra:1307.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-18 07:58:19*

**Authors:** Renato Vieira dos Santos, Linaena Méricy da Silva

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

There is a persistent controversy regarding the frequency of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in solid tumors. Initial studies indicated that these cells had a frequency ranging from 0.0001% to 0.1% of total cells. Recent studies have shown that this does not seem to be always the case. Some of these studies have indicated a frequency of 40%. Through a simple population dynamics model, we studied the effects of stochastic noise and cellular plasticity in the minimal path size of a cancer stem cells population, similar to what is done in what is sometimes called the Kierstead–Skellam–Slobodkin (KISS) Size analysis. We show that the possibility of large variations in the results obtained in the experiments may be a consequence of the different conditions under which the different experiments are submitted, specifically regarding the effective cell niche size where stem cells are transplanted. We also show the possibility of a noise induced transition where the stationary probability distribution of the CSC
population can present bimodality.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[84] **viXra:1307.0090 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-17 10:57:57*

**Authors:** Gene H Barbee

**Comments:** 41 Pages. Comments appreciated genebarbee@msn.coom

Historically, a culture’s cosmology was an explanation of the origin and a justification for its most significant beliefs. Scientists are actively engaged in understanding new observations regarding our universe. There is agreement that achieving a new level of understanding may require an extension to what has been observed to date about fundamental interactions, matter and energy. This paper is a summary of work by the author building on the best measurements made by physicists, astronomers and cosmologists. Of specific interest are the topics of force unification, gravitational theory, definition of space and time, dark energy and cold dark matter. Of course these are technical matters but the author addresses what this means to life and what it is reasonable to believe regarding philosophy’s “enduring questions”. The following documents are summarized:
A Top-Down Approach to Fundamental Interactions [1]
Starting with data from WMAP [11] that allows an estimate of the number of protons in the universe (exp(180), where exp stands for natural number 2.712^(180) the author explored how this number is used by nature to represent fundamental particles. This reference described models for the neutron and proton mass based on Shannon type information theory. In addition, it proposed a way of unifying the electromagnetic, weak, strong and gravitational forces.
On the Source of the Gravitational Constant at the Low Energy Scale [18]
This document summarizes arguments for a low energy gravitational scale and offered an understanding of the weak and long range character of gravitation. Physics has struggled with the reconciliation of general relativity with the other fundamental interactions (strong force, weak force and electromagnetic force). The reason for the difficulty is that general relativity and gravitation is the geometry of space and time and does not appear to originate at a reasonable energy at the quantum level. The accepted gravitational theory had the energy scale far above the energy of a proton. The author proposed a lower energy scale and offered a relationship between the quantum scale and the scale of the universe that appears to resolve this conflict.
On Expansion Energy, Dark Energy and Missing Mass [2]
This document summarizes and extends this theoretical groundwork to the field of cosmology.
Information from the proton mass model is applied to the beginning, expansion of the universe and observables from the field of astronomy. The fundamentals of space and time are described including the relationships that accurately model expansion, temperature, gravitational history and helium abundance. Results from an expansion model are compared to values reported in WMAP analysis and CMAGIC studies [14]. Three models of expansion are compared and a proposal regarding dark matter is discussed. Reference 2 analyzed the kinetic and potential energy changes during expansion and showed that there is no dark energy (dark energy fraction is 0). Furthermore, information is presented that questions the WMAP conclusion that only 0.046 of the universe is normal protons. Based on this document, it appears that the baryon (proton) fraction is 0.5 and the cold dark matter fraction is 0.5.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[83] **viXra:1307.0089 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-07 13:06:56*

**Authors:** Gene H Barbee

**Comments:** 21 Pages. Feedback appreciated genebarbee@msn.com

The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe WMAP [3][7] and similar projects led to expansion curves and cosmological parameters that are becoming generally accepted. The author developed expansion equations that agree with WMAP but are thought to be more fundamental. A unique cellular approach was used that allowed the kinetic energy and potential energy to be calculated. There are two components of expansion. The second component develops later and according to new calculations requires negligible kinetic energy. The concept of critical density (H= (8/3 pi G rhoC)^.5) incorrectly assumes that density characterizes kinetic energy for this component. Critical density (omega total=1) according to year 9 WMAP parameters [7] is composed of density fractions: omega dark=0.718, omega mass=0.235 and omega baryons mass=0.046. The low value for baryons (protons) leads to a problem known as missing mass. One goal of this paper is to reanalyze mass fractions with the new understanding that the energy associated with omega dark may be negligible. Based on a model of the proton [1], the author uses 10.11 MeV/particle as the kinetic energy (KE) of expansion. This energy is adequate to expand one half of all mass to 6.2e25 meters and provides further evidence that mass fractions quoted above might be incorrect. Using the WMAP procedure, equality and decoupling were re-analyzed with omega baryons=0.5. Results indicate that the measured CMB spot radius and temperature anisotropy are consistent with the higher baryon content. The author believes that the correct cosmological density parameters are omega dark energy=0, omega baryons=0.5 and omega dark matter=0.5.
Literature regarding primordial nucleosynthesis shows production of He4, deuterium and trace amounts of other elements without accounting for He4 fusion energy. The author’s expansion model with initial kinetic energy 10.11 MeV/particle has a temperature curve that starts at 7e10 K decreases to temperatures consistent with He4 fusion then increases to account for He4 fusion energy. Subsequent expansion decreases the temperature to 2.73 K indicating that 10.11 MeV correctly anticipates the addition of 1.63 MeV He4 fusion. Implications for deuterium primordial abundance are discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[82] **viXra:1307.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-17 16:12:18*

**Authors:** Daniel K. Pratt

**Comments:** Includes 2 full-page figures. contact daniel dot k dot pratt at gmail dot com

Human consciousness is a causative field that exists both internal and external to the body. Philosopher Ken Wilber's Four-Quadrant Map of Existence is used as a basic framework for understanding the nested and holographic nature of consciousness. The map of consciousness is expanded upon using Rupert Sheldrake's theory of Formative Causation. The action of the Morphogenetic Field is described as "past forward" and "future backward", creating two separate minds which interact in the present moment. These two minds are further defined as the reactive mind and analytical mind as described in "Dianetics" by L. Ron Hubbard. A comparison is made of the resulting conceptual map and the biblical creation narrative.

**Category:** Mind Science

[81] **viXra:1307.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-17 16:13:06*

**Authors:** Germán Paz

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Draft version. // English version of viXra:1307.0051.

In this paper we show the relation that exists between Pascal's Triangle and Legendre's algorithm for calculating the exact amount of prime numbers that are less than a given number.

**Category:** Number Theory

[80] **viXra:1307.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-17 19:25:18*

**Authors:** J.P. Baugher

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Essay submitted to http://www.fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/1900

Imagine for a moment an endless diamond, completely solid and pristine. No flaws or gaps in the structure. Suppose at some point in the density of the material something strange occurs in that a deformation appears out of nowhere which splits into two waves. Should these two waves interact again with each other, the deformation disappears. However should they separate enough then one of the waves, which we shall call the baryon wave, is stable by itself. This wave has the strange property that it is a traveling decrease in density of the diamond. There is no "other" material, only the decrease in something we
shall have to think of as the vacuum (energy) density. The wave apparently has the ability to pass through or combine into structures with other baryon waves but has no ability to disappear back into a pristine diamond if
there is no second deformation wave present, which we do not cover in this essay. Suppose that a certain combination of these first waves were to become sentient. Would they be able to detect that they are a moving wave or
would their perceptions lead them to a misunderstanding of how these waves effect the very substance that they are traveling within and so not realize there exists another class of solutions for tensors (scalars, vectors and
so on)? Is there a way to determine that the actual density is a fairly good model for their universe? If so, what mathematics would be required in order to describe it much better than other models which the sentient waves have based on their physical perceptions? It is due to this question that we present our proposed answer of a modication of calculus. In order to fully describe the
baryon wave, the dimensions they create with their presence, the limited radius distortions they cause and even the substance itself we must re-evaluate our understanding of calculus in order to model them as the derivatives of finite Action area integrals. We propose that in order to understand how the universe stores information, we must have a foundational basis for these areas, and in order to understand how it processes information we must ensure that we have within the literature all classes of its derivatives (directional derivatives, divergence, etc.). We do not go into details in this essay, but our proposed
future path is to accomplish this via a modification of
Gunnar Nordstroem's gravitational theory, an early competing model to General Relativity worked on by Nordstroem, Einstein and Fokker (see [1] for a recent review). This model was discarded by Einstein and others since it did not predict gravitational lensing, a problem which our modication would seem to have the possibility of remedying (see final assertions). Therefore in this essay we introduce our different view point of calculus, named "Area" Calculus in order to distinguish the concept from the mainstream variety which we will refer to as "Single Function" Calculus.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[79] **viXra:1307.0085 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-03 12:02:08*

**Authors:** Gene H Barbee

**Comments:** 22 Pages. contact genebarbee@msn.com

In general relativity, gravity is attributed to the geometry of space-time. Literature states that the gravitational constant (G) originates at the Planck scale. The Compton wavelength (Planck length) L=(\h*G/C^3)^.5 is 1.61e-35 meters and this is associated with the Planck energy 1.2e22 MeV. This energy is far greater than the energy of a proton and the space surrounding each proton is far greater than the Compton wavelength. It is generally accepted that the Compton wavelength is nature’s response to geometry and mass at the quantum scale. In this paper, the author discusses the hierarchy of interactions with a focus on gravity, propose a low energy scale source of the gravitational constant, and identify a more fundamental coupling constant with the value 1/exp(90). A unique cellular approach is used to model expansion. A cell is the space associated with a proton mass and has cosmological properties that allow it to represent the universe geometrically. Each cell has an initial radius of 7.22e-14 meters and, if it expands according to the concordance model with WMAP parameters, its current value is 0.54 meters. WMAP data allows one to estimate the numbers of protons in the universe. By using this approach, it is possible to compare the kinetic energy that expands cells with potential energy. Implications for the fraction of dark energy, baryons and cold dark matter are discussed. Several examples involving the use of the value 1/exp(90) are presented that demonstrate how cellular values predict large scale observations.
Key Words: gravitational constant, cellular approach, cosmology, WMAP.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[78] **viXra:1307.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-23 20:41:45*

**Authors:** Morio Kikuchi

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

We try to modify data of each game with partial normal distribution random numbers(inverse function method).

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[77] **viXra:1307.0083 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-06 02:20:08*

**Authors:** Zhen Liu

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The theorem for equation reconstruction of prime sequence is presented and proved. This theorem is that the prime sequence could have the determined general term formula through diophantine equation reconstruction of prime number. Using the theorem, the Goldbach Conjecture and Twin Primes Conjecture are proved.

**Category:** Number Theory

[76] **viXra:1307.0082 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-20 23:30:45*

**Authors:** Gene H Barbee

**Comments:** 27 Pages. Please contact genebarbee@msn.com feedback welcome

Accurate estimates regarding the number of neutrons in the universe are now available due to the COBE, WMAP [8] and PLANCK projects. There are approximately the natural number e (2.71828) to the power 180 (exp(N)) protons in the universe (Technical endnote 1). The author explored the possibility that this number is fundamental to physics. Probabilities similar to the field of information theory developed by Claude Shannon [16] and others were used as tools to develop an information based approach to energy. Considering the probability of one neutron as 1/exp(180) a “top-down” model lead to information anchored fundamental energy values. A model of the neutron and proton was developed that lead to unification of the fundamental interactions (forces).
A cosmology model the author describes as “cellular cosmology” defines space associated with each proton that geometrically combine into the universe. The relationship between large scale space and proton size space (cells) gives a small factor equal to 1/exp(90) identified as the gravitational coupling constant. A key field energy (2.732 MeV) extracted from the proton model is associated with the radius r=7.22e-14 meters. The source of gravity is the inertial force mv^2/r*(1/exp(90)) on a proton of mass m=1.67e-27 kg where r is the above radius and velocity v is associated with a kinetic energy of 10.11 MeV (v/C=0.145). The author considers this quantum gravity and the proton mass 938.272 MeV the energy scale for gravity. This is much lower than the Planck scale energy 1.2e22 MeV. This approach to gravity reconciles general relativity with the three other fundamental interactions. A “Force Table” is presented for the hierarchy of interactions sourced from the proton model and comparisons to published data are carried out.
Radius r=7.22e-14 meters expands and is the source of space around us.
Time counts forward based on fundamental time 2*pi*r/C*number of cycles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[75] **viXra:1307.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-17 07:10:57*

**Authors:** Reuven Ianconescu

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

Guided TEM waves have been extensively investigated between 2 conductors. The multiconductor case, in spite of some important publications in this direction, did not get into the mainstream of the electromagnetic education, and therefore deserves some more attention. The simple case of lossless multiconductor TEM waves in homogeneous media is a good approximation for
many practical cases and is easily derivable by usage of potentials only. In this work we derive the formalism for lossless multiconductor TEM waves in homogeneous media, and show several examples for the usage of this formalism.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[74] **viXra:1307.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-17 07:27:29*

**Authors:** Acharya Sennimalai Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 3 Pages. This is for Real

From the Holy Bible we have an interesting info. that Adam lived for nine hundred and thirty years , the days of Seth were nine hundred and twelve years, Enoch’s life time was nine hundred and five years, , all the days of Cainan were nine hundred and ten years, and Mahalalel lived for eight hundred and ninety five years, [Genesis,5:5, 5:8, 5:11, 5:14 and 5:17 ] In those period, there were no pollution. In those days, there were no chemicals and fertilizers for farming. The air was pure, the water was clean. The nature was in favor of good health. But, now a days the scene is entirely different. To live for hundreds of years without any disease, a new natural medicine has been introduced.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[73] **viXra:1307.0078 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-13 03:52:54*

**Authors:** Martin Schlueter

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

Some Formulas and Pattern

**Category:** Number Theory

[72] **viXra:1307.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-17 04:34:16*

**Authors:** S.Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This is a new concept.

According to the predictions of Einstein’s general relativity theory, time and space were created only at the big bang. Albert Einstein concluded in his later years that the past, present, and future all exist simultaneously. But according to Hindu philosophical cosmology, space and time are eternal. Modern physics is also exploring pre – big bang era. In this work, the author attempts to show that the present time contains both future and past time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[71] **viXra:1307.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-17 04:41:35*

**Authors:** Acharya Sennimalai Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This is NOT, NOT and NOT a fiction .It is indeed a biocosmic phenomenon.Motivated and devoted people are always welcome to do R & D on this topic.

Maxell unified electricity and magnetism; Abdus Salam and Steven Weinberg unified electromagnetic force with nuclear weak interaction force; Einstein unified mass and energy with his formula E = mc2 , Einstein combined space and time. Presently physicists are facing great challenges on the unification of Einstein’s general relativity with quantum mechanics. The physical interpretation of energy energy states that energy is capacity to do work. The conservation law of energy expresses that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. One form of energy can be converter in to another form. In this work, the author attempts to unify bio-energy with cosmic- energy.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[70] **viXra:1307.0075 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-08-15 04:42:45*

**Authors:** Jonathan Tooker

**Comments:** 7 Pages. minor edits, added content

In May of 2013 a pair of articles appeared on the Guardian newspaper website featuring a new candidate "theory of everything" called Geometric Unity. A cursory reading of each article gives the impression that Geometric Unity was developed by Eric Weinstein, but a closer reading reveals that Weinstein is not credited as such. The truth about Geometric Unity is that it was authored by this writer in several papers beginning in 2009. This article will describe the development and prominent features of the new theory.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[69] **viXra:1307.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-16 18:08:48*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Płotnicki

**Comments:** 71 Pages.

This article contains my Diophantine equations solutions. I am presenting this mathematical work mainly to attract attention to my proof that special relativity is false that you can find on vixra.org under title “Proof that special relativity is false”.

I am presenting this mathematical work mainly to attract attention to my proof that special relativity is false.

I have worked on diophantine solutions for more than two years. I can prove that my work is completely independent from the work of others and that two years ago I had solution to (as I call it) general case for solutions without little Fermat theorem and simple case with little Fermat theorem, which is much more than others achieved, but I didn’t want to publish it until it would be complete. I sent it to the Polish profesors of mathematics and to myself so I really can prove and document that I had it two years ago. I sent it for example on 10/26/2011 to polish full professor PhD. Edmund Puczylowski from Univeristy of Warsaw and I can prove it with my correspondence with him (I gave full content of this document that I sent to him in Appendix 1). I sent also some diophantine solutions (the simplest case with use of little Fermat theorem) to full professor PhD. Jerzy Tiuryn from Univeristy of Warsaw on 02/23/2011 and I can prove it too.

I’ve searched the Internet and found very little work on this matter:

Wolfram – nothing.

Wikipedia: Fermat Last Theorem/Diophantine equations – single special case;

http://cp4space.files.wordpress.com/2012/10/moda-ch12.pdf – that does not define all solutions

But what I’ve seen is that:

There is given really very little solutions in comparison to my solutions,

There are not all solutions of (as I call it) “general” or at least “simple” case of presented equations for the cases like for example: ua^x+wb^y=vc^z

There is not proof that presented solutions are all such (wich I call “complex not derived”) solutions for any case, like for example: ua^x+wb^y=vc^z,

There is not proof when there exist such (complex not derived) solutions,

There are not solutions for simultaneous equations

There are not solutions for rational exponents

As I know work of others contains only case of solution when
SUM_(i=1..n)(c_i/d*a_i^(x_i))=b^z=(SUM_(i=1..n)(c_i/d*l_i^(x_i))^(t*lcm(x)+1)
or even only SUM_(i=1..n)(a_i^(x_i))=b^z=(SUM_(i=1..n)(l_i^(x_i)))^(t*lcm(x)+1)
which is very little. And does not show how to solve equation without solving qz=t*lcm(x)+1, so this algorithm to solve equation has not complexity O(1) while my has O(1).

There is no solution given for any case (especially for general case) to equations that has coefficient not equal to 1 on the right side.

Which all and much more I’ve done in this article.

If my Diophantine equation solutions are not enough I also give a inverse function to Li(n) function. I think it should be enough.

I named this kind of Diophantine equation that I’ve described in this article after my surname, because I need to refere to them in this article.

Finally I can present part of my work. Thanks for reading. I have more and I will publish it in my book that should come out next year.

Please, give me an endorsement on arxiv (on physics, math), if you can. My username on arxiv is at the end of abstract in the document.

(and let me know at my e-mail address which is at first page of the document)

**Category:** Number Theory

[68] **viXra:1307.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-17 02:42:07*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This article begins with the subject of gravitational collapse producing energy in T Tauri stars. It finishes with heating of the Sun’s corona via infrared photons forming charged electrons and protons when they interact with gravity, and all these particles being trapped in magnetic fields which extend to the corona (i.e. heating is due to magnetism plus hot jets). Paragraphs in between deal with E=mc^2 versus E=m/c^2*c^2, matter as “coherent space or coherent gravity”, linearity and nonlinearity in the universe, human intelligence and divine intelligence, a one-paragraph snapshot of the mathematics behind time travel to the past, why hyperspace doesn’t cause the solar system to collapse, photon-graviton oscillation, how space-time ceases to exist physically, a one-paragraph snapshot of the gravitational-electromagnetic equivalence behind time travel to the past, why space-time (and gravitational-electromagnetic equivalence) exist mathematically, why space-time is warped and why DNA is a double helix, General Relativity’s deflection of starlight by the Sun is only half the story, photons and gravitons interact to produce reflection and deflection of light. By the way, it occurs to me that my recent articles possess a “modular” aspect. Often, paragraphs from previous articles can be copied and pasted into new articles. The copied paragraphs are modules that are the basis of new articles. Of course, to make those new articles different, the modules are placed in a different order and new words or paragraphs appropriate to different subjects are inserted.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[67] **viXra:1307.0071 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-21 12:23:52*

**Authors:** Fredrick W. Cotton

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The electromagnetic constitutive tensor can be used to introduce a classical form of spin. For charged particles at rest, with no external forces, the spin does not affect the energy density of the particle. The particle solutions satisfy a non-Riemannian form of the Einstein-Maxwell equations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[66] **viXra:1307.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-15 16:32:35*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$. However as stated by both
Alcubierre and Natario themselves the warp drive violates all the
known energy conditions because the stress energy momentum tensor
is negative implying in a negative energy density. While from a
classical point of view the negative energy is forbidden the
Quantum Field Theory allows the existence of very small amounts of
it being the Casimir effect a good example as stated by Alcubierre
himself.The major drawback concerning negative energies for the
warp drive is the huge amount of negative energy able to sustain
the warp bubble.Ford and Pfenning computed the amount of negative
energy needed to maintain an Alcubierre warp drive and they
arrived at the result of $10$ times the mass of the entire
Universe for a stable warp drive configuration rendering the warp
drive impossible.However Harold White manipulating the parameter
$@$ in the original shape function that defines the Alcubierre
spacetime demonstrated that it is possible to low these energy
density requirements.We repeat here the Harold White analysis for
the Natario spacetime and we arrive at similar conclusions.From
$10$ times the mass of the Universe we also manipulated the
parameter $@$ in the original shape function that defines the
Natario spacetime and we arrived at arbitrary low results.We
demonstrate in this work that both Alcubierre and Natario warp
drives have two warped regions and not only one.We also discuss
Horizons and Doppler Blueshifts.The main reason of this work is to
demonstrate that Harold White point of view is entirely correct.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[65] **viXra:1307.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-15 20:21:08*

**Authors:** Sony Fermino dos Santos

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The behavior of the electrons in crystals exhibits some properties well known from solid state physics, like an upper limit for the particle velocity and an effective mass, which goes to the infinity as the particle velocity goes to that limit. This reminds us the relativistic mass. Indeed, both effective and relativistic masses have the same dependence on the velocity. The result is applicable to a general lattice – quantized space could be one –, which suggests that special relativity can be a consequence of a quantized spacetime. Even that is not the case, a similar approach could be used in the search for the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[64] **viXra:1307.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-16 05:23:54*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 38 Pages. 38

The Quantum FFF Theory is the result of an architectural or geometrical interpretation of the forms and structures we are able to observe nowadays by means of modern observation techniques like CT scanning in the lab up to Satellite observation in space. Besides architecture I am interested in design for sub-quantum imaging and microstructure of elementary particles, forces and the vacuum lattice structure of the ether. The idea is that the different geometry or real FORM aspects of the sub-quantum world could be responsible for the FUNCTIONS and all the physical- and astronomical mysteries around us. This first part is mainly focused at the small scale of the mysteries

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[63] **viXra:1307.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-16 07:33:42*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 45 Pages. 45

The Quantum FFF Theory is the result of an architectural or geometrical interpretation of the forms and structures we are able to observe nowadays by means of modern observation techniques like CT scanning in the lab up to Satellite observation in space. Besides architecture I am interested in design for sub-quantum imaging and microstructure of elementary particles, forces and the vacuum lattice structure of the ether. The idea is that the different geometry or real FORM aspects of the sub-quantum world could be responsible for the FUNCTIONS and all the physical- and astronomical mysteries around us. This second part is mainly focused at the large scale of the mysteries.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[62] **viXra:1307.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-31 10:30:23*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Acest articol este o scurtă trecere în revistă a cărţii “SuperMatematica. Fundamente”, Vol. 1 şi Vol. 2, ediţia a II-a, 2012, care constituie un domeniu nou de cercetare şi cu multe aplicaţii, iniţiat de profesorul universitar Mircea Eugen Şelariu. Lucrarea sa este unică în literatura mondială, deoarece combină matematica centrică cu matematica excentrică.

**Category:** Geometry

[61] **viXra:1307.0065 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-17 08:01:21*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negativeelectric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[60] **viXra:1307.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-13 20:00:23*

**Authors:** John Shim

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This is a brief, informal discussion of what I see as the key problems of Special Relativity, many aspects of which have been touched directly or tangentially, arrived at by different paths and partly expressed in numerous papers on this forum and in other criticisms of it. I provide no formal justification for my views, other than what I have given in other papers on this forum. My purpose is rather to get at what I see as the essence of Einstein’s mistakes, as well as the physical behavior that Special Relativity, ironically, to some extent uncovers, but at the same time completely misrepresents. It seems to me that the question of the more correct nature of this underlying physics is the issue that both critics and defenders of Special Relativity must ultimately face. Einstein’s errors are too numerous and egregious, in my view, to remain much longer generally denied. But until they are recognized, no truer understanding of the underlying physics can be achieved

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[59] **viXra:1307.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-12 09:47:39*

**Authors:** Claude Michael Cassano

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The fact that there are N linearly independent solutions to a N-th order homogeneous linear ordinary differential equation suggests that linear transformations may yield solutions from solutions. This is, indeed, shown to be true by applying the technique to Bessel differential equations.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[58] **viXra:1307.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-12 13:11:44*

**Authors:** Hans-Joerg Hochecker

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

I describe or explain the emergence of the magnetic effect on a new way. To this only the electrical field and the constancy of the speed of light are needed. I show, in which way the electrical field changes when the field producing charge moves with a velocity. The magnetic effect arises from this change in a very simple way. The magnetic effect can be calculated very easily here. In this description, the magnetic effect still remains dependent on the observer. The transformations between inertial systems are carried out just normally with the special relativity.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[57] **viXra:1307.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-12 13:57:20*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The author develops a new theory of tornado stability. He show that it is the high electric voltage between clouds and ground surface which produces the intensive electron/ion flow which creates the air stream which sucks off (pumping) air from the inside tornado channel and makes the tornado stable.
If we want to destroy tornado stability we must decrease the electric intensity into the tornado channel. The simplest method is using conductive wire to connect the top funnel of tornado with ground.
For this method, the top end of wire must have a large conductive area (air balloon or wing dirigible with conductive layer), the lower end of wire must have good contact with wet ground.
The row from these conductive wires having step 150 – 200 m and altitude 200 – 300 m can protect villages, towns and important installations such as the nuclear electric station and military bases from tornados.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[56] **viXra:1307.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-12 08:33:42*

**Authors:** Dragoljub Pilipovic

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Paper will start from the creation of the Cyrillic alphabet, then will immediately move on to the present situation. It will then describe what the electronic devices (not) be used Cyrillic letters and in what form and under what conditions it use. Conditions are defined in a ways of non-hardware concepts: software, databases, web pages, coding, etc. Special attention will be given to short messages on cell phones.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[55] **viXra:1307.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-12 04:33:42*

**Authors:** Stoyan Sarg

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The hypothesis suggests a possibility for existence of information field based on loops of entangled photons with different circular polarization connected in complex compound of loops. Such hypothetical loops are predicted to preserve the quantum energy like the photons, while being localized in a closed volume. They could be possibly generated by the molecules of DNA and proteins possessing long chain structures with distributed atomic rings. According to BSM-SG theory the atomic rings in such bio-molecules are able to store energy as rotating quantum states. When properly triggered, the stored energy of many molecules could be emitted as avalanche of closed loop entangled photons that could carry the code sequence of the DNA or protein. The human brain contains an enormous quantity of proteins with atomic rings so it might be a proper environment for generation of complex field of entangled photons connected in loops. Once generated, such field might exist also outside of the brain. The large variety of the loop interconnections theoretically permits to store a significant amount of information in a closed volume of space. Information field of such kind is massless, so it could be considered as non-material.

**Category:** Mind Science

[54] **viXra:1307.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-11 20:34:49*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

"Eminent Princeton physicist Ed Witten famously conjectured that the true ground state of matter (in the sense of the lowest energy per particle) consists of a mixture of roughly equal numbers of up, down, and strange quarks, with enough electrons thrown in to ensure that this soup is electrically neutral." ("Is it possible for a Quark Star to exist?" by Victoria Kaspi - Astronomy magazine, June 2013) Scientists have never demonstrated this conjecture to be true, and don't have evidence that stars made of such matter ("quark stars") exist. This reminds me of something Stephen Hawking and Leonard Mlodinow wrote on p.49 of “The Grand Design” (Bantam Press, 2010) – “It is certainly possible that some alien beings with seventeen arms, infrared eyes and a habit of blowing clotted cream out their ears would make the same experimental observations that we do (regarding the existence of quarks), but describe them without quarks.” In a similar way, we non-aliens with two arms, eyes that respond to visible light and no clotted cream in our ears could conceive of a quark-electron mixture forming Quark Stars only to find that it actually describes a different mixture (of binary digits) forming black holes instead of quark stars.
E=mc^2 is referred to in the description of the conversion from gravitational energy to the "coherent, organized energy" that is matter; and also in the description of gravitational energy producing mass in black holes. We should remember that E=mc^2 appears to only be partly correct because the highest speed possible is Lightspeed. Physically speaking, it cannot be multiplied. Einstein himself proved this. The equation E=mc^2 can be considered a degenerate form of the mass-energy-momentum relation for vanishing momentum. Einstein was very well aware of this, and in later papers repetitively stressed that his mass-energy equation is strictly limited to observers co-moving with the object under study. The version of the equation applicable here may be E=m/c^2*c^2.
Referring to the paragraph which states “hidden variables called binary digits could ... allow time travel into the past by warping a 5D hyperspace” - With a single extra dimension of astronomical size, gravity is expected to cause the solar system to collapse (“The hierarchy problem and new dimensions at a millimetre” by N. Arkani-Hamed, S. Dimopoulos, G. Dvali - Physics Letters B - Volume 429, Issues 3–4, 18 June 1998, Pages 263–272, and “Gravity in large extra dimensions” by U.S. Department of Energy - http://www.eurekalert.org/features/doe/2001-10/dbnl-gil053102.php
However, collapse never occurs if gravity accounts for repulsion as well as attraction. It does this not only on astronomical scales but on the subatomic, too. It accounts for dark energy and familiar concepts of gravity, as well as repelling aspects of the electroweak force [such as placing two like magnetic poles together] and attracting electroweak aspects like the strong force. “Electroweak” and “strong” force can be united in that sentence because, as we’ll see, gravitation and space-time are united with both the weak and strong nuclear forces.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[53] **viXra:1307.0057 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-12 10:03:23*

**Authors:** Florentino Muñiz Ania

**Comments:** 13 pages

English: (Traslation) It tries to show that what we call here as Energy is usually a change of over
time, or also a Uniformly Accelerated Motion. Both undermine the space-time converted into energy. This
phenomenon, besides being reversible, it can be done very efficiently by an electronic device like a vacuum
tube. Discussed here some possible dimensions such device, but without electron optics, and the influence of
electromagnetic radiation losses and maximum deviation for an electron eccentric.
In one of the appendices also shows how you can extend the phenomenon of time dilation (measured redshift in the
Sun [1]) for electrically charged bodies. And whose values match with calculations based on the
difference over time.
Spanish: (Original) Se trata de mostrar aquí que lo que denominamos habitualmente como Energía es un
cambio de transcurso de tiempo, o, también, un Movimiento Uniformemente Acelerado. Ambos merman el
espacio-tiempo para convertirse en energía. Este fenómeno, aparte de ser reversible, es posible hacerlo muy
eficientemente mediante un dispositivo electrónico similar a un tubo de vacío. Se analizan aquí algunas posibles
dimensiones de tal dispositivo, aunque sin óptica electrónica, y la influencia de pérdidas por radiación
electromagnética así como la desviación máxima para un electrón excéntrico.
En uno de los Apéndices se muestra además como es posible extender el fenómeno de dilatación temporal
(corrimiento al rojo medido en el Sol [1]) para cuerpos con carga eléctrica. Y cuyos valores coinciden
con los cálculos basados en la diferencia del transcurso del tiempo.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[52] **viXra:1307.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-11 11:08:34*

**Authors:** Thomas Neil Neubert

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

This Toy Universe is constructed from geometry, force, dimension, particle and such. Of necessity, it steals liberally from the standard theories of physics. It would be impossible to build a somewhat credible Toy Universe from scratch. This Toy Universe is conceptually sufficient to accommodate many ideas from the standard theories of physics; but ultimately it is an incomplete and an incorrect metatheory. Nevertheless, it gives physical insight into how a more complete metatheory of our universe might be built; and why such an explicit metatheory is desirable.
The current Standard Model of Cosmology has an implicit metatheory. We will not try to explicate that standard metatheory; such a task would be too contentious. Our intent is to sketch this Toy Universe, as a metatheory, that can be built one descriptive Axiom at a time; and held in one’s mind.
Hopefully, this Toy Universe will stimulate discussion on why and how to construct metatheories. As well, this Toy Universe offers insights into how various non-local cosmic phenomenon might emerge simply by reinterpreting current theories’ equations within the framework of a different metatheory.
Finally, every Toy Universe must make predictions that are accountable to the real universe. This Toy Universe is not a flight of fantasy; its Toy Predictions are falsifiable by experiments in the real universe. Because to learn from a Toy Universe; it must be breakable in the real universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[51] **viXra:1307.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-11 11:56:55*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

In Vedic Physics, the combinatorial process by which counts are counted closely resembles the binomial triangle, or Pascal's Triangle, which was known to Ancient India and China as Mount Meru or Zhang's triangle. This is not accidental, but instead reflects the numerical structure of the universe, as the pattern repeats itself in many types of numbers, including Clifford Algebras, Octonions, the Exceptional Lie Algebras, the Magic Triangle, and Barnes - Wall Lattices. Previous papers have discussed details of the counts; this paper focuses on the triangular relationships between numbers, especially those noted by Tony "Frank" Smith.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[50] **viXra:1307.0053 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-02 10:58:06*

**Authors:** Hans van Kessel

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The mass of the sun is expressed in kg, and the sun's gravitational force is proportional to these kg. If we would cool down the sun, these kg would remain unchanged. Yet -per attached theory- this cooling would reduce the sun's gravitational force. In general: the gravitational force is found to depend on temperature. Because Boltzmann's theory plays a key role here, the temperature impact on the gravitational force deserves his name.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[49] **viXra:1307.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-10 04:56:05*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Matter may exist in one of three states in the universe. The interactions between these states of matter add up to fifty types of change. Causes of change include: the spectrum of inter-changed states, due to imbalance, failure to synchronize, balance and coherent synchronization, caused by the interplay of three modes of matter, which sum up to 50 (order of powers). This paper describes the three states of matter and how their interactions combine to create fifty types of change.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[48] **viXra:1307.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-10 00:09:30*

**Authors:** Germán Paz

**Comments:** 3 Pages. In Spanish. Draft version. // En español.

In this paper we show the relation that exists between Pascal's Triangle and Legendre's algorithm to calculate the exact amount of prime numbers that are less than a given number.

///////////////////

En este documento se muestra la relación que existe entre el Triángulo de Pascal y el algoritmo de Legendre para calcular la cantidad exacta de números primos menores que un número dado.[47] **viXra:1307.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-09 11:48:15*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Space, the fundamental reality, can only exist in one state
of Aikantha, the coherent state of three - dimensional, cubic
resonances. The Universe remains in the Aikaantha state, fluctuating between the two values of the e logarithm and π /10. The latter value implies a circle with many trigonometric equations related to the Square Root of Five, or the Golden Section. In addition, this forms the basis for Base 60 Math in the Qi Men Dun Jia Model, and thus the icosahedron with its 60 stellated permutations. The value of π /10 thus limits the bounds of visible matter, and gives rise to Pisano Periodicity of the icosahedron. At the same time, the author dispels the current "comic book" notions of black holes: the Aikantha state is the state of black holes, yet misunderstood by modern science.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[46] **viXra:1307.0049 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-10 07:47:36*

**Authors:** V.V. Demjanov

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Engl. (12) + Russ. (12)

Is given convincing experimental proof of dependence of the sensitivity **M**ichelson **i**nterferometer (MI) to the detection of velocity *υ* "aether wind" from *relativistics structure* of the refractive index *n* of the optical medium. Appeared, that sensitivity of instrument MI to detection *υ* is dependent from "inertial" of part of index (*n*^{2}–1), induced by polarization particles. When in light-carrying medium MI is absent particles (*n*=**1**.), sensitivity to detection *υ* y MI is zero, since (*n*^{2}–1)=0. Neglect of *relativistic nature* of the index (*n*^{2}–1) in the interpretation of experiments on the MI cited (of those, who interpreted these experiments using the formula Michelson) to the underestimate the speed *υ* in **1**./(*n*^{2}–**1**.)^{1/2} times. For air (*n*=1.0003) the value *υ* always was underestimated of a ~ 40–fold. In this nobody noticed error Michelson (including Lorentz, Einstein, and all, who agreed with them in 1927 at a conference in Pasadena) is the essence took place in the 20^{th} century of falsification experiments of Michelson type, as the alleged "negative". The latent of the form of relativistic structure (*n*^{2}–1) still can not find a reasonable of classical of explanation phenomenon of the angular aberration of light rays in the experiment by Bradley.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[45] **viXra:1307.0048 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-18 15:27:59*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated temperature and energy density in radiation of the cosmic neutrino background. Presented here model leads to N(effective) equal to 3.4065 and this result is consistent with the Planck-spacecraft 2013 results and is close to the central value: 3.36. Calculated here the today temperature of the cosmic neutrino background is 2.008 K - we can compare it with the Cosmological-Standard-Model value that is 1.945 K.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[44] **viXra:1307.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-08 17:57:40*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Lockheed Martin Skunk Works Cusp Plasma Fusion project described by Charles Chase at Google "Solve for X" event February 2013 seems likely to be related to development of a Fusion-Powered Rocket engine.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[43] **viXra:1307.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-09 03:17:47*

**Authors:** Emmanuil Manousos

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The law of selfvariations determines quantitatively a slight increase of the masses and electric charges as the common cause of quantum and cosmological phenomena. More specifically, the cosmological data are condensed into one equation, the only unknown being the rest mass of the material particles. This equation predicts and justifies the entirety of the cosmological data. In the present Letter we present the prediction of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. We also predict that the early Universe underwent a phase of atomic ionization.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[42] **viXra:1307.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-08 12:34:00*

**Authors:** Maria de Guadalupe Caldera Cabral

**Comments:** 65 Pages. Thesis in Spanish

In this Thesis the formulae are presented for the relativistic products of
the matrices gamma_{\mu\nu} of Barut,Muzinich and Williams for the spin 1. They
are analogs of the Dirac matrices for the spin 1/2. They are found in the
2(2S+1) relativistic equations of Weinberg, Tucker and Hammer. Moreover, it was
proven that the mapping exists between the Proca vector-tensor formalism and
the 2(2S+1) formalism. The formulae of the relativistic products can be useful
in the calculations of the scattering amplitudes, cross-sections and the energy
spectra of the bound states for bosons.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[41] **viXra:1307.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-08 12:56:29*

**Authors:** Javier Leonardo Quintanar Gonzalez

**Comments:** 82 Pages. Thesis in Spanish.

In this Work it was shown that the bispinors eigenstates imply different physical phenomena
in relativistic quantum mechanics, if they are constructed with the relative phase factor introduced between 2-spinors.
This fact opposes the non-relativistic theory. Thus, the pahse factor has importance. The consequences of the
basis choice are also studied. The basis is understood as the linear independent system of the
field functions which generate the spinor space. I choose this system in such a way that the functions are not
the eigenstates of the S_z, but the eigenstates of the helicity operator. I call this basis as the helicity basis.
The representations (1/2,0)+(0,1/2) and (1,0)+(0,1) are consiidered. As a result, the corresponding state functions
have different behaviour with respect to the parity and the charge conjugation comparing with the usual basis.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[40] **viXra:1307.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-08 13:47:08*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Płotnicki

**Comments:** 107 Pages. Every paragraph of "Proof that special relativity is false" is in two languages: English // Polish

This article contains proofs that theory of special relativity is false and my Diophantine equations solutions.

I am presenting this mathematical work mainly to attract attention to my proof that special relativity is false.

I have worked on diophantine solutions for more than two years. I can prove that my work is completely independent from the work of others and that two years ago I had solution to (as I call it) general case for solutions without little Fermat theorem and simple case with little Fermat theorem, which is much more than others achieved, but I didn’t want to publish it until it would be complete. I sent it to the Polish profesors of mathematics and to myself so I really can prove and document that I had it two years ago. I sent it for example on 10/26/2011 to polish full professor PhD. Edmund Puczylowski from Univeristy of Warsaw and I can prove it with my correspondence with him (I gave full content of this document that I sent to him in Appendix 1). I sent also some diophantine solutions (the simplest case with use of little Fermat theorem) to full professor PhD. Jerzy Tiuryn from Univeristy of Warsaw on 02/23/2011 and I can prove it too.

I’ve searched the Internet and found very little work on this matter:

Wolfram – nothing.

Wikipedia: Fermat Last Theorem/Diophantine equations – single special case;

http://cp4space.files.wordpress.com/2012/10/moda-ch12.pdf – that does not define all solutions

But what I’ve seen is that:

There is given really very little solutions in comparison to my solutions,

There are not all solutions of (as I call it) “general” or at least “simple” case of presented equations for the cases like for example: ua^x+wb^y=vc^z

There is not proof that presented solutions are all such (wich I call “complex not derived”) solutions for any case, like for example: ua^x+wb^y=vc^z,

There is not proof when there exist such (complex not derived) solutions,

There are not solutions for simultaneous equations

There are not solutions for rational exponents

As I know work of others contains only case of solution when
SUM_(i=1..n)(c_i/d*a_i^(x_i))=b^z=(SUM_(i=1..n)(c_i/d*l_i^(x_i))^(t*lcm(x)+1)
or even only SUM_(i=1..n)(a_i^(x_i))=b^z=(SUM_(i=1..n)(l_i^(x_i)))^(t*lcm(x)+1)
which is very little. And does not show how to solve equation without solving qz=t*lcm(x)+1, so this algorithm to solve equation has not complexity O(1) while my has O(1).

There is no solution given for any case (especially for general case) to equations that has coefficient not equal to 1 on the right side.

Which all and much more I’ve done in this article.

If my Diophantine equation solutions are not enough I also give a inverse function to Li(n) function. I think it should be enough.

I named this kind of Diophantine equation that I’ve described in this article after my surname, because I need to refere to them in this article.

Finally I can present part of my work. Thanks for reading. I have more and I will publish it in my book that should come out next year.

Please, give me an endorsement on arxiv (on physics, math), if you can. My username on arxiv is at the end of abstract in the document.

(and let me know at my e-mail address which is at first page of the document)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1307.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-08 10:09:58*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

We report a method for expressing the neutron and proton masses within experimental errors, exclusively as a function of the up and down current quark masses and charges, the Fermi vev, and the CKM quark mixing matrix. In the process, we develop a mass and mixing matrix which may possibly be helpful for characterizing other baryon masses and better pinpointing higher-generational quark masses.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[38] **viXra:1307.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-08 10:59:13*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Decoding of Vedic literature reveals three states of matter, and the basic count of matter as modulated by the Golden Section. Thus, all forms of nature follow the contours of the Golden Section in their growth and development. Provided here is a basic explanation of how the counts occur within the three separate states of matter, and a new formation of Time. These concepts form the basis of the Qi Men Dun Jia Model, with its incorporation of the icosahedron and its 60 stellated permutations.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[37] **viXra:1307.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-07 22:35:48*

**Authors:** Ioannis Haranas, Michael Harney

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In a paper given by Harney (2006), the author derives the equation for calculating the distances to a source of radiation based on the inverse-square law of radiation and the relative coordinates of the source [1]. In this paper we derive the error propagation of the mean-value error for this method.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[36] **viXra:1307.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-08 02:06:02*

**Authors:** Mourici Shachter (Shechter)

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this short paper I will show another procedure to solve Quantum Mechanics with Relativity. This procedure is very simple and can explain what really happens and why in the investigated system

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[35] **viXra:1307.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-07 10:40:05*

**Authors:** J.P. Baugher

**Comments:** 1 Page.

How to Solve Dark Energy, the Cosmological Constant Problems and Unify General Relativity With Quantum Field Theory in 7 Steps

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[34] **viXra:1307.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-17 09:10:45*

**Authors:** Vyacheslav Telnin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper deals with the number line. Usually it is considered as one-dimensional object. But if
to take into account the infinite large and the infinite little numbers, then this line turns out to
be more complex object with infinite self-crossings in some many-dimensional space.

**Category:** Topology

[33] **viXra:1307.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-10-10 07:48:59*

**Authors:** ChiYi Chen

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper we firstly present an explicit dynamical equation which satisfies the general principle of relativity under the framework of classical mechanics. In light of this fact, the necessity of Einstein's equivalence principle for the gravity being geometrized should be reexamined. Especially, Einstein's (strong) equivalence principle claims that the inertial force is equivalent to the gravitational force on physical effect. But in fact the new dynamical equation proves that the essence of the inertial force is the real force exerted on the reference object, which can actually be all kinds of forces such as the gravitational force, electromagnetic force and so on. Therefore, in this context we only retain the numerical equality between the inertial mass and gravitational mass and abandon Einstein's (strong) equivalence principle. Consequently, the candidate for the standard clock should be corrected into the mathematical clock which duplicates the real clock equipped by the observer himself. Then an adjusted physical picture for how to convert the gravitational force into a geometric description on space-time is presented. On the other hand, we point out that all cosmological observations are made by the observer at the present time on the earth, instead of any other observers including the comoving observers in the earlier unverse. On this basis, we introduce an extra factor $b(t)$ in $FRW$ cosmological metric to depict the gravitational time dilation effect since the local proper clock may run in a faster and faster rate with the expanding of the universe. In this way, we may obtain a positive value of $\rho+3p$ and avoid the introduction of dark energy in the current universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1307.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-06 15:38:24*

**Authors:** A. Boudiar

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We derived the energy gap of superconductor close to Tc, without using the usual methods of creation-annulation operators CC+.
our approximations ar in good agreement with the numerical estimates and theoretical results.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[31] **viXra:1307.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-06 15:54:08*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Riemann's R-function is shown to alternately under- and over-estimate the number of primes in the intervals defined by the Fibonacci numbers, specifically from the interval [55,89] to the interval [317811,514229].

**Category:** Number Theory

[30] **viXra:1307.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-06 08:04:32*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page. 4 references

This paper explains how Earth formed its oil.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[29] **viXra:1307.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-06 08:35:33*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This paper explains that gravitation is radiation itself. Gravitation being an independent force separate from thermodynamics is ad hoc mathematical conjecture.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[28] **viXra:1307.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-06 05:17:19*

**Authors:** Klaus Lange

**Comments:** Pages.

Using the Heim-Droescher dimensions formular it will be shown that the number pair {p;n} = {57; 420} exist. With Heim QFT alone no meaning for this number pair is given. But with the delta-extended Ancient-Word-Matrix it is shown that for all number pairs {1;2}, {2;2}, {4;6}, {6;12} and {57;420} topological classification numbers are given.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[27] **viXra:1307.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-05 20:37:55*

**Authors:** editor Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 703 Pages.

Culegere de bancuri, glume, si butade internetiste din ultimii ani.

**Category:** Linguistics

[26] **viXra:1307.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-05 09:39:50*

**Authors:** A.W.Beckwith

**Comments:** 4 Pages. will be heavily amended. A start to an analysis

The following question is asked, how does one get a scaled dimensional value to a non zero graviton mass in the present era, from primordial initial conditions of the universe? Using Valev generated mass of the universe values, as well as a Valev valued radius of the universe in the present era, we derive a massive graviton mass of about 10 to the – 62 grams or nucleongmeVm3829102~102−−××<which puts severe constraints upon the relic graviton wavelength. In doing so, we affirm that the initial gravitons are massively redshift expanded, while also putting severe constraints upon the Hubble parameter. Doing so means using the Visser stress energy tensor for massive gravitons. The results so obtained are consistent with massive redshift stretching of primordial EW (or earlier) GW production. If relic GW and gravitons are not forced to be ultra low frequency, then Lavenda’s questions as to the soundness of inflation have to be revisited

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1307.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-05 05:20:47*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

To find generic formulas for Carmichael numbers (beside, of course, the formula that defines them) was for long time one of my targets; I already found such a formula, based on Korselt’s criterion; I possible found now another such a formula.

**Category:** Number Theory

[24] **viXra:1307.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-05 06:48:25*

**Authors:** Michael Muteru

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper I examine a possible mathematical conjecture that we have always missed or ignored.
The physical universe too also is deeply grounded in maths.Numbers are the purest of ideas to quote the
Pythagoreans. Prime numbers form the basis of the complex structure called maths, through these I
believe we can decode the entire Quantum information that the universe holds and in essence its true
nature and reality

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[23] **viXra:1307.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-05 03:27:55*

**Authors:** Klaus Lange

**Comments:** Pages.

This paper shows that the prime number Apeiron according to Hedwig Cornad-Martius and Burkhard Heim is only a special case of parallel number sets. Based on the Ancient-Word-Matrix from Michael König this leads to a structural supersymmetry and to other exotic particle properties. A calculation of the fine structure constant, the Weinberg angle and the mass of the stop-squark to 688+/-43 GeV/c^2 will be given.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[22] **viXra:1307.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-04 20:19:45*

**Authors:** Jian-zhong Zhao

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Statement of Modified Saint-Venant’s Principle is suggested. The axisymmetrical deformation of the infinite circular cylinder loaded by an equilibrium system of forces on its near end is discussed and its formulation of Modified Saint-Venant’s Principle is established.
It is evident that finding solutions of boundary-value problems is a precise and pertinent approach to establish Saint-Venant type decay of elastic problems.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[21] **viXra:1307.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-04 15:26:01*

**Authors:** Malcolm H. MacGregor

**Comments:** Pages.

The equation for the fine structure constant α~1/137 is expanded to include (1) radii (as αsubr), and (2) Compton constituent masses (as αsubm). It then has the E=mc^2 form of a dynamical Einstein mass generator, wherein a reservoir of electromagnetic energy E=e^2/r undergoes an αsubm-defined phase transition in which it is adiabatically expanded radially by a factor of 137 and transformed into a Compton-sized mechanical (non-electromagnetic) unit mass quantum mc^2. The classical electron (Thomson) radius rsube = e^2/(msube c^2) anchors the mass spectrum. Four phase-transition channels (electron, boson, fermion, gauge boson) accurately create lepton, constituent-quark, ground-state hadron, and average-gauge-boson masses.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[20] **viXra:1307.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-04 09:33:19*

**Authors:** Klaus Lange

**Comments:** Pages.

Based on the Ancient-Word-matrix, developed by Michael König, this paper shows how the entire 12 dimensional strucure according to Burkhard Heim theory is embedded into the G4 space matrix. The strucuture properties of complex relativity by Jean Emile Charon will be revealed using the Heim prime number space. A very good estimation of the fine structure constant will be made.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[19] **viXra:1307.0021 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-05 19:08:16*

**Authors:** Marco Ripà, Pablo Remirez

**Comments:** 11 Pages. This is the second version of the paper in Italian that I already submitted a few months ago. It has been entirely written in English.

The classic thinking problem, the “Nine Dots Puzzle”, is widely used in courses on creativity and appears in a lot of games magazines. One of the earliest appearances is in “Cyclopedia of Puzzles” by Sam Loyd in 1914. Here is a review of the generic solution of the problem of the 9 points spread to n^2 points. Basing it on a specific pattern, we show that any nxn (for n ≥ 5) points puzzle can also be solved ‘Inside the Box’, using only 2∙n − 2 straight lines (connected at their end-points), through the square spiral method. The same pattern is also useful to “bound above” the minimal number of straight lines we need to connect n^k points in a k-dimensional space, while to “bound below” the solution of the nxnx…xn puzzle we start from a very basic consideration.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[18] **viXra:1307.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-03 09:17:46*

**Authors:** philip. Maulion

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

After 'A world in 'Presence'' submitted on 26/11/2012 and 'A world in 'Presence'II' on 26/01/2013, in this science category, this one indicate that space and time are ours in our world. So they are the Sensorium of our 'Presence'.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17] **viXra:1307.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-03 09:19:40*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 149 Pages.

The authors in this book construct a large class of finite subset groupoids as well as a large class of infinite subset groupoids. Here the conditions under which these subset groupoids satisfy special identities like Bol Identity, Moufang Identity, right alternative identity and so on are found.
In fact, it is an open problem to find subset groupoids to satisfy special identities, even if the groupoid over which they are defined do not satisfy the special identities.

**Category:** Algebra

[16] **viXra:1307.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-03 09:21:52*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 267 Pages.

In this book the authors introduce the new notions of subset polynomial semirings and subset matrix semirings. Solving subset polynomial equations is an interesting exercise.
Open problems about the solution set of subset polynomials are proposed.

**Category:** Algebra

[15] **viXra:1307.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-03 07:21:51*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

I was studying recurrences of the form P(n) = P(n - 1) + 2^k – 2, when incidentally I found a chain of 5 primes in arithmetic progression that satisfy this recurrence (8329, 8839, 9349, 9859, 10369). But, interesting, instead of find easily other chains of primes based on this recurrence, I obtained easily such chains (up to AP-6) defining in other way, based on twin primes, the relation between those 5 primes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[14] **viXra:1307.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-03 06:22:57*

**Authors:** Shreyak Chakraborty

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Published in the New Age Journal of Physics (ID-EJ151)

We propose a semi-classical approach to string theoretic techniques in N-dimensional
spacetimes. We name this 'The Spine Model'. This approach enables
us to flexibly model particle dynamics in any given spacetime. We conjecture that
fundamental strings (as described in standard string theories) are produced by more
fundamental objects called "fibers". We also formulate the dynamics of these
"fibers" using relativistic notations. We revisit and refine the overall structure and the
concepts discussed in [1.] and redefine the basic assumptions in the model. Finally
we calculate the total energy of a single fiber and show that under certain conditions,
these fibers can produce particles/strings and using a relativistic formulation also
show the Lorentz Transformations for the fiber equations in 4-manifolds.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] **viXra:1307.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-03 03:58:01*

**Authors:** Klaus Lange

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Main text in german language

On the framework of the Quantum field theory from Burkhard Heim [1], a generating primal set of eight prime numbers (the so called Apeiron according to the work of Hedwig Conrad-Martius [2] – [4]) is found to be the origin of the entire universe. In this paper we will see how this prime number primal set [6] is connected to the set of the super singular prime numbers.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[12] **viXra:1307.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-02 14:20:18*

**Authors:** Sebastián Martín Ruiz

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Un libro para los amantes de los números:
La función de Smarandache aplicada a los números perfectos, congruencias.
También, las funciones prima y coprima de Smarandache
en conexión con expresiones de los números primos.

**Category:** Number Theory

[11] **viXra:1307.0011 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-24 20:43:22*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 10 Pages. correction is made. This paper is not yet submitted to any journal.

Based on ethical, ecological, and economics considerations, the writers conclude that it is not acceptable to consider nuclear energy as part of national’s energy mix, especially for developing countries, because of many reasons, including: radiation risks of radioactive waste, the capital-intensive development cost of a NPP which may cause heavy foreign loan to that nation, and also the risks of contamination of
water and environment during uranium mining and spent fuel storage.
Because of the above mentioned reasons, Christian people and common people should suggest to their governments to push forward the use of renewable energies especially WWS. For the short term, coal and natural gas can be considered as a temporary alternative.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[10] **viXra:1307.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-02 11:23:51*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

Qi Men Dun Jia is based on the Clifford Clock, as well as an icosahedron. The purpose of the icosahedron relates to the Pisano Period, which has a limit of 60, or the periodicity of Fibonacci Numbers and the Fibonacci Spiral, which are related to the Golden Ratio and the Platonic Solids. In addition, the icosahedron forms an isomorphic relationship to the 60 Jia Zi and 60 Na Yin of Chinese metaphysics, which provide the entry point for the Five Elements into the formation of matter. The icosahedron is composed of three Golden Rectangles and is edged in the Golden Ratio. The three Golden Rectangles are directly related to three Fano Planes, which are composed of Octonions. Taken together, the Pisano Period, Fibonacci Numbers and the Golden Section outline the path of growth of matter in the universe. Trigonometric, elliptic and Jacobi functions lend the model additional types of periodicity. By following this natural order, the Qi Men Dun Jia model is capable of making accurate predictions about natural and human phenomena, which can be replicated by other analysts.

**Category:** Topology

[9] **viXra:1307.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-02 09:09:32*

**Authors:** Keith D. Foote

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper describes pair annihilation and pair production with a view towards using pair annihilation as an alternative energy source. To that end, the Ultra-Space Field Theory is used as a functional model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8] **viXra:1307.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-01 13:07:14*

**Authors:** Miroslav Sukenik, Jozef Sima

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In our model of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe it is supposed nonstationary nature of gravitational field. It allows to localize its energy density. An attempt to localize the energy density of a Schwarzschild wormhole leads to a conclusion that its intensity would be inversely proportional to the third power of distance. It thus follows the impossibility of existence of wormholes from our model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1307.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-01 15:28:05*

**Authors:** Salvish Goomanee

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this short paper, a very brief introduction of the quantum harmonic oscillator has been provided. The understanding of the transition from a classically damped oscillator and the quantum mechanical model of the latter is included via a clear mathematics involving simple calculus. Only the one dimensional time dependent Schrodinger’s equation is being studied. This paper is intended to simply provide an analytical description of the subject, there are no advance calculations implying further suggestions in quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[6] **viXra:1307.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-01 15:50:05*

**Authors:** Bogusław Zawadzki

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Explanation of the rules for flight ionocraft.Biefeld–Brown effect.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[5] **viXra:1307.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-01 12:44:22*

**Authors:** Mohit Kumar, Nikhil Panwar

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A process for the production of Gasoline from natural gas (methane) and the reaction of the resulting hydrogen gas with carbon dioxide in a catalyst containing methanol synthesis to produce methanol. The methanol thus formed may be converted to gasoline by the Mobil process. Alternative methods include the gasification with carbon dioxide to produce carbon monoxide, which is then reacted with hydrogen gas to produce. The methods taught reduce the overall amount of carbon dioxide resulting from the methanol production process.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[4] **viXra:1307.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-01 09:37:52*

**Authors:** James G. Gilson

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

There are two types of fundamental quantum gravitational mass amplitude states that are denoted by the subscripts D and P. The D amplitudes lead to Einstein's usual general relativity mass density functions. The P amplitudes lead to Einstein's additional pressure mass densities, 3P/c^{2}. Both of these densities appear in the stress energy momentum tensor of general relativity.
Here they appear as solutions to a non-linear Schrödinger equation and carry three quantising parameters (l_{D},m) and (l_{P},m), The l_{D},l_{P} values are subsets of the usual electronic quantum variable l which is here denoted by l' to avoid confusion. The m parameter is exactly the same as the electronic quantum theory m, there the z component of angular momentum. In this paper, these parametric relations are briefly displayed followed by an account of the connection to the spherical harmonic functions symmetry system that is necessarily involved. Taken together, the two types of mass density can be integrated over configuration space to give quantised general relativity galactic masses in the form of cosmological mass spectra as was shown in previous papers. Here this aspect has been extended to ensure that every galaxy component of the spectra has a quantised black hole core with a consequent quantised surface area. This is achieved by replacing the original free core radius parameter r_{ε} with the appropriate Schwarzschild radius associated with the core mass. Explanations are given for the choices of two further, originally free, parameters, t_{b}, θ_{0}. The main result from this paper is a quantum classification scheme for galaxies determined by the form of their dark matter spherical geometry.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1307.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-01 06:24:17*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The dispersion of the white light by a prism of glass in its constituent colors proves that the light is a wave and not particles.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:1307.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-17 05:26:32*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we show that the quantum entanglement is deterministic but cannot be observed directly by detectors so in Quantum Mechanics (QM) there appear the probabilities and uncertainties. It is the reason that QM is the probabilistic theory. The transition from the classical equation of motion via the Poisson brackets to the commutators and equation of motion in the Heisenberg image suggests that the QM emerges from a classical and deterministic theory and that quantum behaviour is not a fundamental property of Nature. We described as well the Type-General-Relativity (Type-GR) basic arrow of time and the Type-Standard-Model (Type-SM) arrow of time - the difference causes that unification of GR and SM within the same methods is impossible. There are two different arrangements of spins of the Einstein-spacetime components which lead to electric charges and mental solitons. Freewill results from a war for dominance of different parts of the mental solitons - it looks as a few attractors (a few solutions) of a function (to the same problem). Global information is defined by the distribution of the free and bound non-gravitating tachyons all object in our Cosmos consist of and by the infinitesimal changes in their momentums and angular momentums.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[1] **viXra:1307.0001 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-05 01:29:52*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 148 Pages. Written in Romanian. Published by Education Publishing, USA. Copyright 2013 by Marius Coman.

A math encyclopedia of classes of integers, written in Romanian and containing a bilingual summary, Romanian/English.

**Category:** Number Theory