[140] **viXra:1402.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-28 14:42:16*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Unimodular SL(n,R) Gravity in n-dimensional SpaceTime is related to E8 Physics in two ways: to 8-dim SpaceTime and to 4-dim Physical Minkowski M4 SpaceTime. The Unimodular SL(8,R) represents 8-dim SpaceTime as a generalized checkerboard of SpaceTime HyperVolume Elements. The Unimodular SL(4,R) has conformal structure effectively equivalent to that of MacDowell-Mansouri SU(2,2) Conformal Gravity and, further, is useful in resolving the strong CP problem.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[139] **viXra:1402.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-28 05:27:31*

**Authors:** Vyacheslav Telnin

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The application of the (1402.0167, 1402.0170 viXra.org) to our 4 – dimensional vector space
W when M = 1, L = 2. Cobasics are chosen so that V has simple algebraic and metric tensors.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[138] **viXra:1402.0175 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-14 12:52:02*

**Authors:** Hugh Wilkinson

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

A hypothesis of anti-gravity between matter and antimatter is presented that results in an alternative to the conventional Einstein field equations. Using the vacuum metric relationships identified by Schwarzschild in 1916, the radially symmetric vacuum anti-gravity metric is derived for the vacuum between a spherical core of either matter or anti-matter and an enclosing spherical shell of the other type of matter; anti-gravity prevents the shell from collapsing. Candidate black holes are hypothesized to consist of such a shell and core, and the gravitational behaviors of such a composite body are approximated. Observations of kinematics consistent with these behaviors would validate the existence of anti-gravity.
(Version 4: Corrected equations 11 and 18a; added equation 18b, showing that the formulation of gRR is unchanged by the alternate boundary conditions.)
(Version 3: Revised discussion before equation 16.)
(Version 2: Revised 2nd paragraph section II; edits to equations 15a, 16, 18a.)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[137] **viXra:1402.0173 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-14 08:09:26*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

This article presents and grounds the informational concept (“the Information as Absolute” concept) in physics and philosophy. The concept defines the Information as ultimately common, real and fundamental “absolute” concept/phenomenon which exists as infinite set (“Information” Set) of elements (members) and informational (e.g., logical) links between the elements; where any element itself is some informational structure also. Correspondingly, for example, Matter as the substance, radiation, etc., is some development or realization of informational patterns, constituting a specific, and practically infinitesimal comparing to the Set, subset of the “Information” Set. The concept allows for the resolution, or at least for a consideration on a higher level of comprehension, of basic ontological and epistemological problems in philosophy and natural sciences; it clarifies basic meta-physical notions such as space, time, matter, etc.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[136] **viXra:1402.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-27 11:34:36*

**Authors:** Colin Bruce Jack

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A surprisingly high fraction of sunlight is absorbed during transit of the Earth’s lower atmosphere. One third to one half of this absorption may be unexplained, referred to as the ‘atmospheric absorption anomaly’ or ‘cloud absorption paradox’. This quantity is comparable to the total amount of sunlight falling on known photosynthesising organisms.

This paper sets out the hypothesis that the anomalous absorption is a consequence of biological activity within atmospheric aerosol droplets. Bacterial spores and the recently discovered vesicles emitted in huge numbers by marine bacteria are possible candidates for growth and maybe even reproduction within such droplets. Ways in which, within a droplet, a microorganism can harvest energy while avoiding any significant UV dose are described.

While at present hypothetical, the processes described could resolve several current anomalies, including a major puzzle concerning the origin of life. Practical implications could be relevant to anthropogenic global warming, attempted geoengineering, and photosynthetic energy harvesting. The hypothesis could be tested at low cost.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[135] **viXra:1402.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-27 06:57:14*

**Authors:** Anamitra Palit

**Comments:** 14 Pages. This paper is of a Composite nature.I have included it in the Mathematical Physics Category

The article seeks to investigate several issues concerning the topics: Relativity, Quantum Mechanics and classical physics. The following issues have been
investigated:1)Relativity suggesting virtual particles 2) Lorentz Transformations
Suggestive of a Bypass route 3)Space getting Curved 4) On Higg’s Mechanism 5)On Tensor Equations of a Composite Nature 6) General Covariance and Tensor
Equations 7) On rocket motion 8) Newton’s Law of Gravitation in the Light of GR

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[134] **viXra:1402.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-27 07:00:01*

**Authors:** Vyacheslav Telnin

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The definition of the algebraic tensor for vector space by using the vector
product of vectors from it’s basis. And application it to the our 4 –
dimensional space.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[133] **viXra:1402.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-27 07:07:25*

**Authors:** Acharya Sennimalai Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 12 Pages. I welcome comments from viewers

In this first serial of Beyond Science and Technology, some basic spiritual information are presented in a lucid style.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[132] **viXra:1402.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-27 04:41:31*

**Authors:** Vyacheslav Telnin

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

If N - dimensional vector space W can be represented as the tensor
product of L identical n – dimensional vector spaces V, then we can
say, that V is the W raised to the power 1/L. If we take the tensor
product of M vector spaces V, then we get the vector space R. And
we can say that R is the W raised to the power M/L.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[131] **viXra:1402.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-26 19:05:56*

**Authors:** Gary D. Simpson

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The objective of this text is to present a method of using vectors and quaternions to produce Euler's Equation. The method presented uses the cross product of vectors in the j-k plane to produce the isine portion of Euler's Equation. The cosine portion of Euler's Equation is produced by the dot product of the same vectors. The method is then generalized to apply to quaternions.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[130] **viXra:1402.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-26 19:24:20*

**Authors:** Ihsan Raja Muda Nasution

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We just use a certain algorithmic procedure to
eliminate the critical line from the complex plane.
As the result, we obtain a disproof of the Riemann
hypothesis in a simple manner.

**Category:** Number Theory

[129] **viXra:1402.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-26 23:02:38*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 24 pages, 148 equations, 10 references

We review the fundamental rules for constructing the regular and the gauge-invariant quantum field action both in the divergence-free approach and in the cutoff approach. Loop computations in quantum electrodynamics of fermionic spinor matter, and also in quantum gravity of fermionic spinor matter, are presented in both approaches. We explain how the results of the divergence-free method correspond to those of the cutoff method. We argue that in a fundamental theory that contains quantum gravity, the cutoff framework might be necessary, whereby the cutoff parameter and the gravitational coupling could be related to each other quite consistently.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[128] **viXra:1402.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-26 23:29:07*

**Authors:** Vladimir F. Tamari

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Fun easy read about a serious subject, with 2 colorful illustrations by the author.

How Should Humanity Steer the Future? An interview with Einstein in Heaven. (Originally submitted to the FQXI 2014 Essay Contest which asked the question in the essay's title.)

**Category:** Social Science

[127] **viXra:1402.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-27 01:08:35*

**Authors:** Xiaodong Liu, Qichang Liang, Yu Liang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A system of wireless power transmission in near-field range utilizing retardation phase shift is described. The distance between the transmitting coil and the receiving coil gives retardation phase shift when the electromagnetic wave transfer between the two coils. The retardation drags the phase of reflected electro-motive force (EMF) so that its phase angle to the transmitting current is less than 90 degree and the real part of the reflected impedance is negative. To achieve resonance of system, the imaginary part of reflected impedance should be counterbalanced by the imaginary part of transmitting impedance. Such a system can be used as power generator.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[126] **viXra:1402.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-26 12:13:57*

**Authors:** Peter Kohut

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The world looks like disintegrated into many different and independent spheres, but we feel intuitively that a great variety of existing forms should have a common basis. How can we come to the true knowledge about our existence? How does the Universe work? A great desire of man is to find a true meaning of our life and the essence of existence. Many philosophers and scientists have expressed the Unity Principle by saying “everything is connected to everything else”, but its essence has not been detected. On the base of dialectical logic, the Unity Principle is discovered which illustrate not only the exact mechanism how the physical Universe may work, but also the essence of Consciousness.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[125] **viXra:1402.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-25 20:02:48*

**Authors:** Zhang Tianshu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this article, we will prove the Beal’s conjecture by certain usual mathematical fundamentals with the aid of proven Fermat’s last theorem, and finally reach a conclusion that the Beal’s conjecture is tenable.

**Category:** Number Theory

[124] **viXra:1402.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-25 07:59:50*

**Authors:** Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

We present an alternative type of sixteen-component hypercomplex scalar-vector values named "space-time sedenions", generating associative noncommutative space-time Clifford algebra. The generalization of relativistic quantum mechanics and field theory on the basis of sedenionic space-time operators and hypercomplex wave functions is discussed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[123] **viXra:1402.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-24 08:42:38*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

An evolving galactic cloud, depending on its parameters, may attain stable state for brief period. Total matter-content, spin speed and diameter of spinning galactic cloud determine duration of stable period. This article proposes mutual relation, between these factors, required for a galactic cloud during its life as a stable galaxy.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[122] **viXra:1402.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-24 00:25:37*

**Authors:** S.Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 3 Pages. NA

In this work, a new concept for the creation of a new field of topology has been introduced.

**Category:** Topology

[121] **viXra:1402.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-23 10:30:53*

**Authors:** Roger N. Weller

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A proposed modification of the Standard Model, when applied to the Solar Proton-Proton Cycle, provides a more in-depth explanation of the nuclear reactions within each step of the process.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[120] **viXra:1402.0153 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-06 01:52:16*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Seven-page letter

It is well known, that in some experiments, light exhibits ‘wave’ property; like interference and diffraction; whereas in other experiments, like photoelectric effect, it shows ‘particle’ nature. So, the physicists currently think in terms of ‘wave-particle-duality’ of light, their mutual exclusiveness, and complementarily. Here, in this paper, this ‘wave-particle-duality’ is explained; that at the frequencies of light, very narrow-band filtering, and generation of purely monochromatic light, of one Hz bandwidth, are not technically possible; so there is always some bandwidth and ‘line-width’, due to which the waves form wave-packets, localized in space, as ‘particles’.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[119] **viXra:1402.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-23 02:36:55*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Five-page-manuscript

This paper makes use of some astronomical-observations to gain deeper insight into the foundations of physics. Alternative-interpretations of cosmological-red-shift are generally rejected on the ground that ‘tired-light-interpretations’ are inconsistent with the observations of time-dilation of super-nova-light-curves; whereas it is shown here that these curves are time-domain-representations of amplitude of light. So, these curves can be Fourier-transformed into wave-number-domain, and it is this wide band of waves which propagates in inter-galactic-space, and reaches us after millions of years. These Fourier-transformed-components, being electromagnetic-waves, get red-shifted by any mechanism that can cause spectral-shift, and when transformed back into time-domain, show time-dilation. Thus, time-dilation of super-nova light-curves, or the relativistic-time-dilation, means ‘red-shift of light’ due to any mechanism. Similarly, the relativistic-length-contraction is also explained using wave-theory. With this explanation, this letter presents five new possible-mechanisms for the ‘cosmological-red-shift’; which will also give some insight into pure physics. These alternative-interpretations are: (i) Inter-galactic-photons can also get red-shifted due to vacuum-polarization-mechanism; (ii) Spherically-expanding-wave-front of light can be viewed as a spherically-expanding cavity, continuously changing its impedance, causing around -400 dB reflected-power back to the source; (iii) Cumulative-phase-alteration of extra-galactic-photons caused by the cosmic-microwave-background; (iv) Electric-field and magnetic-field of extra-galactic-light in the transverse-directions, causing virtual-electrons to oscillate, and generating gravitational-field in the longitudinal-direction; losing part of their energy in the form of ‘gravitational-waves’; (v) Though the rest-mass of photon is zero, it has a ‘relativistic-mass’ equal to its momentum-divided-by-its-speed (h f / c2); so this ‘relativistic-mass’ of the photon can radiate gravitational-waves, branching-out its energy into gravitational-wave and electromagnetic-wave; and as a supportive-evidence, it is shown here that the energy lost by ‘cosmologically-red-shifting-photons’ is strikingly proportional to the strength-ratio of gravitational and electric forces.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[118] **viXra:1402.0151 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-30 23:23:06*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Fixed typo in Eq. 5.5

In a series of papers written over the period 1944-1948, the great Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger presented his ideas on symmetric and non-symmetric affine connections and their possible application to general relativity. Several of these ideas were subsequently presented in his notable 1950 book "Space-Time Structure," in which Schrödinger outlined the case for both metric and general connections, symmetric and otherwise. In the following discussion we focus on one particular connection presented by Schrödinger in that book and its relationship with the non-metricity tensor. We also discuss how this connection overcomes a problem that Hermann Weyl experienced with the connection he proposed in his failed 1918 theory of the combined gravitational-electromagnetic field. A simple physical argument is then presented demonstrating that Schrödingers’s formalism accommodates electromagnetism in a more natural way than Weyl’s theory.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[117] **viXra:1402.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-05 08:56:46*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This is a rough outline of the minimal math structure needed for my E8 Physics model. It makes clear that a major barrier to understanding it is the amount of not-well-known mathematics of Real Clifford Algebras, Lie Algebras, Bounded Complex Domains, etc. ... No details are given here as they can be found in viXra 1312.0036 and my other viXra papers and my web sites at tony5m17h.net and valdostamuseum.com/hamsmith/ As to why anyone should expend the effort to understand the necessary math, the payoff is the substantially realistic results of E8 Physics calculations set out at the end of this paper. The calculations are mostly tree-level with a few first-order results so further calculation work might bring even closer correspondence with observations. V2 and V3 correct and clarify some typography re gauge groups and spinor fermions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[116] **viXra:1402.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-22 08:27:43*

**Authors:** Valentino Giudice

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Language: Itaian

In questo articolo descrivo un modello pentadimensionale di universo.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[115] **viXra:1402.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-22 01:04:29*

**Authors:** Joel M Williams

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

There is increasing evidence that the hydrogen atom in X—H—X connections is covalently bound to both X atoms in equal to varying degrees. A spherical s-orbital for hydrogen attached to two 2-electron covalent bonds clearly violates the spdf-QM concept of shared electron bonding. A short discussion of the situation is presented along with a simple alternative orbital model for hydrogen that allows hydrogen to have two, diametrically opposite, covalent bonds.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[114] **viXra:1402.0147 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-04 00:32:39*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 27 Pages. Re done title, and also the LIGO example was made the first case study. In addition, the materal was re formatted differently as to aid to easier reading of what was beforehand a squashed document.

In a 2013 paper, Freeman Dyson presented thought experiments challenging the detectability of gravitons via LIGO interferometry and via the Gertsheshtein effect. Dyson assumed a distance of several light years would be required for detection of the interaction between gravitational waves (GWs) and tenuous B fields and photons, making gravitons experimentally unverifiable. In this paper, we present contrary theoretical evidence for detectability of near-field interaction of gravitons, photons, and a magnetic field. Our first example of 100% probability of the Gertshenshtein effect working is due to a GW generated by a Tokamak with a interaction of GW, B field, and photons, in a volume on the order of a few cubic meters. We furthermore outline how Dyson was giving misleading information on the efficiency of LIGO, which is inimical to that research initiative on gravitational wave still very pertinent to essential gravitational physics, via the interferometer arrays, which has been noted and corrected

**Category:** Classical Physics

[113] **viXra:1402.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-21 06:28:07*

**Authors:** Divyendu Priyadarshi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An interpretation of Wheeler-DeWitt Equation on the basis of con-
servation laws has been presented.The static universe implied by WD
equation seems quite obvious once one realizes that time is an emergent
concept rather than the fundamental one.An isolated system is always
static because its observables are bound to conservation laws.Concept of
time needs a dynamics to be defined; for a static system it loses its ex-
istence.I have argued that whole universe as a system is static due to
conservation laws and time-evolution of this system is meaningless.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[112] **viXra:1402.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-21 06:36:26*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 22 pages, 208 equations, 11 references

An SU3 unification theory with the electron, the positron, and the neutrino is reviewed. A 10-spacetime gravidynamic unification of the internal charges and the spin is formulated, with a 16-component Majorana-Weyl fermion that consolidates the foregoing three Weyl particles with the antineutrino, and their Dirac conjugates. Vector bosons and scalar (Higgs) particles are consolidated in an antisymmetric tensor of 3rd rank, being the only tensor, apart from the graviton of 10-spacetime, that can couple to the unifying fermion. We write the Lorentz algebra of 10-spacetime in terms of the 4-spacetime Lorentz algebra and the internal O6 factor, the latter expressed via its U3 subalgebra, and construct the pertinent operator representations. We exhibit the complete structure of the unified gauge-Higgs couplings, indicating the source terms of particle masses. On the basis of this simple unification model, we propose the radical idea that all observed bosonic and fermionic particles, whether leptonic or hadronic, may be composed of just the underlying four fundamental fermions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[111] **viXra:1402.0143 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-24 10:24:49*

**Authors:** Laszlo varadi

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Revised [V2]

Based on the Planck units, we can describe the entire universe as a black hole expanding and rotating with speed of light. In this model, there is no need for dark energy or inflation, and the nature of dark matter is solved as well. We can deduce the Planck-temperature and the average temperature of the universe from the energy density of thermal radiation, and we can determine the Hubble constant from the age of the universe, as well as those basic parameters of the universe which coincide with current measurements. According to the Planck power, all masses of the universe radiate gravitational energy, which will then propagate through space with speed of light. It can be proven that the interaction of gravitational waves with matter is the reason for the attractive force (exerted by) of gravity, that is the boson that mediates gravitational interactions is the graviton. Since the mass of a body also determines the power and frequency of the gravitational wave, the reverse is also true, and the power and frequency of an electromagnetic wave can determine the mass of a given body as well, because of the similarity of gravitational and electromagnetic waves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[110] **viXra:1402.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-21 00:46:53*

**Authors:** Dhananjay P. Mehendale

**Comments:** 11 pages.

We suggest a way to produce any number of clones of an unknown quantum state. We also suggest a way to transmit information from one place to other far away place exactly and almost instantaneously. This paper thus aims to suggest a method to produce “more than one clone” and a method to achieve “instantaneous and exact information transfer”.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[109] **viXra:1402.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-21 02:33:09*

**Authors:** Takahiro Nomoto

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In four-dimensional or higher-dimensional space, spin angular momentum is not known well. For instance, we are not sure how many components it has in four-dimensional space. In this paper, the spin properties are theoretically derived and investigated in general-dimensional space. Before studying spin, we review the orbital angular momentum properties first, because they are theoretically well known even in higher-dimensional space. Then, for the orbital angular momentum, we make a special but natural assumption, and see that it leads a quantity similar to spin or Pauli matrices. It is remarkable that all the spin properties are derived from the one and only one assumption. Consistency of our consideration is checked by calculating the four-dimensional version of spin spherical harmonics and its eigenvalues. This theory may enable us to understand the double degeneracy of spin-1/2 particles without bringing in something called spin.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[108] **viXra:1402.0139 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-21 21:17:13*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Five pages

The center of the universe and an absolute reference frame can be both defined and found by measuring linear accelerations along three mutually perpendicular directions as well radial accelerations with respect to similar directions, whether the physical universe is finite or infinite.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[107] **viXra:1402.0136 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-27 02:39:52*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 8 pages, 1 figure - [v2]: minor editing

The speed of light postulate is closely examined from the perspective of two inertial reference frames―unprimed (‘stationary’) and primed (‘traveling’)―in relative motion, revealing that the speed of light postulate actually requires length contraction with respect to the unprimed reference frame, and length expansion with respect to the primed frame. It is shown that when symmetry is imposed on the inverse length transformation (i.e., to make it exhibit the same length contraction from the perspective of the primed frame), the common length contraction factor becomes nothing but the Lorentz contraction factor "gamma". However, this would necessarily result in "gamma = 1" implying that the frames are being at rest with respect to each other, and thus refuting the special relativity predictions! When the coordinate’s transformation symmetry assumption is applied on the direct transformation resulting from the light speed postulate―which is shown incompatible with this assumption―, the Lorentz transformation and its inverse are erroneously obtained; it is shown to be restricted to certain coordinate relations, resulted in mathematical contradictions, and thus demonstrated to be unviable.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[106] **viXra:1402.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-20 09:29:05*

**Authors:** Basudev Biswal, D. Nagesh Kumar

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Storage of water within a drainage basin is often estimated indirectly by analyzing the recession flow curves as it cannot be directly estimated with the aid of available technologies. However, two major problems with recession analysis are: i) late recession flows, particularly for large basins, are usually not observed ii) and early recession flows indicate that initial storage is infinite, which is not realistic. We address this issue by using the recently proposed geomorphological recession flow model (GRFM), which suggests that storage-discharge relationship for a recession event is exponential for the early recession phase and power-law for the late recession phase, being distinguished from one another by a sharp transition. Then we obtain a simple expression for the 'drainable' storage within a basin in terms of early recession curve characteristics and basin geomorphology. The predicted storage matches well with the observed storage (R^2=0.96), indicating the possibility of reliably estimating storage in river basins for various practical purposes.

**Category:** Geophysics

[105] **viXra:1402.0133 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-20 02:38:22*

**Authors:** V.B. Smolenskiy

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The article presents the results of exact analytical calculations of values of fundamental physical constants. Given the finite formulas and calculations. Presents a table comparing the sample data CODATA 2010 with theoretical calculations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[104] **viXra:1402.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-20 05:54:38*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 31 Pages. 31

Quantum FFF ( Function Follows Form) theory states:
That the vacuum is seeded with fast oscillating massless Preons also called Higgs particles,
oscillating along a complex chiral tetrahedral vacuum lattice, forming a universal reference
frame, which has the ability to transfer Photon and Graviton information in bunches of
oscillations, through the vacuum lattice with the local speed of light adapted to the local mass
carrying objects., reason to design a new Particle-Quantum Wave system.
That Fermions are real stringy particles with a complex propeller shape spinning over two
rotation axes leaving a Calabi Yau manifold behind.
As a consequence there are no attraction forces on propeller shaped Fermions.
Only the sum of the different kinds of vacuum impulses by zero point Casimir effects in
combination with the local vacuum oscillation spectrum (in hedgehog shape) coming from all
directions on Fermions are responsible for all forces and other energetic phenomena around
black holes.
As a consequence New physics will be needed and the introduction of Quantum based
monopole radiation fields like the electric and magnetic fields, reason to design new
Feynman diagrams even for Gravity.
The gravity of Black Holes is assumed to be based on the zero point Casimir oscillation
spectrum only, but without the opposing repulsive gravitons. Black holes don’t emit gravitons
because according to Quantum-FFF theory, they are massless and contain a nucleus of
massless Higgs based Quantum knots only able to absorb the incoming oscillating vacuum
particles, reason to design a new Black Hole principle.
This new black hole is not able to emit gravitons as a consequence Black holes should be
supposed to be massless and the origin of all Dark matter. Secondly black holes are equipped
with an electric potential between horizons, as the origin of so called Birkeland and Alfven
current circuits around stars and galaxies.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[103] **viXra:1402.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-19 16:31:24*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Universe is a sound of a given frequency.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[102] **viXra:1402.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-19 09:37:38*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Obviously, like everyone fond of arithmetic, I always dreamed to discover formulas to generate only primes; unfortunately, during the time, I dropped somewhat to find this Holy Grail. I found out that there are formulas that generate only primes, like Rowland’s formula, but often these formulas haven’t the desired impact, because, for instance, the value of the numbers used as “input” is larger than the one of the primes obtained as “output” and so on. In this paper I present a very simple formula based on Smarandache function, which, using primes of a certain form, conducts often to larger primes and products of very few primes and I also make four conjectures.

**Category:** Number Theory

[101] **viXra:1402.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-19 09:38:22*

**Authors:** Maria Hablicsekne Richter

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Comments are welcome

One of the key issues in our lives: How long will we live? Other of the key issues in our lives:
How long will we get or enjoy our pensions? In this analysis I focus on the mortality of beneficiaries in receipt of old-age pensions and disability pensions in Hungary. My main objective is to demonstrate that the mortality of beneficiaries receiving different types of benefits may be significantly different from the mortality of the population. On the basis of the life tables presented I show the graduated probability of death corresponding to different ages, benefits and genders and also the expected number of future years at the given ages.
Considering all these, I make comparison between the mortality of beneficiaries receiving different types of benefits and the mortality of the population.

**Category:** Statistics

[100] **viXra:1402.0126 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-26 14:10:47*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The non existence of black holes has been predicted by the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity as a consequence of the existence of negative gravitational mass evidenced in the expression of correlation between gravitational mass mg and inertial mass mi, obtained after the quantization of gravity [7]. Here, we review this theoretical discovery, which point to a revolution in fundamental physics.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[99] **viXra:1402.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-18 21:49:15*

**Authors:** V.B. Smolenskiy

**Comments:** Pages.

Within the framework one created of by the author of this article Pi-Theory fundamental physical constants is expounded principally new analytical method high-precision determination of values of fundamental physical constants. Presents the formulae and the results of analytical calculations. Presents selected data CODATA 2010 and the results of their comparison with the calculations. Provides the analysis of the problems of theoretical determination of the numerical values of the fine structure constant.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[98] **viXra:1402.0124 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-20 07:16:41*

**Authors:** Oleg Kupervasser

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Natural Science, 2014, 6, 809-817

In this paper we resolve the grandfather paradox in non-quantum and quantum gravitation theories for time travelling in a time wormhole. For macroscopic bodies, the main solution is alignment of the thermodynamic time arrows, resulting in the time traveller destroying. For microscopic bodies and for small probability cases of macroscopic bodies, the main solution is fracture of the time wormhole. As a result, multi-world system appears. These explanations are similar in non-quantum and quantum gravity. On the contrary, we can clarify some problems of quantum gravity by this consideration. “Indestructible finite gravitation interaction of an observer with an observable system (resulting in the time arrows alignment)” and “instability with respect to even infinitesimally small interaction in the gravitation theory” can resolve the wave function reduction paradox of quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[97] **viXra:1402.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-18 07:32:10*

**Authors:** Ren Yongxue1 ; Ren Yi 2

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

the paper methods of proof goldbach conjecture equations of （a+b）=2√A1， in quadrant I n d space coordinate system, demonstrate the sum of any two real Numbers (a + b) is equal to the NTH power by the sum of the two real Numbers (a + b) for a quarter of a square of side area of the square root of 2 times the NTH power. N scope is: n p 0 n ∈ n (positive integer infinite set)

**Category:** Number Theory

[96] **viXra:1402.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-18 08:22:58*

**Authors:** M. Varman, S. Saka

**Comments:** 24 Pages. M. Varman and S. Saka. "A Comparative Study of Oil Palm and Japanese Beech on Their Fractionation and Characterization as Treated by Supercritical Water" Waste and Biomass Valorization 2(3) (2011): 309-315.

Supercritical water treatment (380°C/100 MPa/ 8 s) was applied to extractive-free oil palm trunk and sapwood portion of Japanese beech and their fractionated products were comparatively characterized, for water-soluble portion and water-insoluble portion composed of methanol-soluble portion and methanol-insoluble residue. As a result, the water-soluble portion was determined to be composed of carbohydrate-derived products such as organic acids, sugar decomposed products and lignin- derived products, etc. for both species. The oil palm, however, shows higher yield of organic acids (12.9%) and lignin-derived products (12.2%) compared to Japanese beech, in which organic acids were 4.7% in yield and lignin-derived products 9.8%. The methanol-soluble portion was, on the other hand, mainly composed of lignin-derived products, and in oil palm, these lignin-derived products consisted of both syringyl and guaiacyl-type similar to Japanese beech. The methanol-insoluble residue, was also mainly composed of lignin to be 99.2% in its content in the oil palm, compared to Japanese beech 93.7%. Moreover, the phenolic hydroxyl content deter- mined by aminolysis method was higher in oil palm (36.5 PhOH/100C9) compared to Japanese beech (16.9 PhOH/100C9). Furthermore, an alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation analysis indicated that, the methanol-insoluble residue of the oil palm was less in oxidation products whereas in Japanese beech nitrobenzene oxidation products completely diminished. These lines of evidence suggest that methanol-insoluble residue is composed of lignin with more condensed-type of linkages with high phenolic hydroxyl groups. In addition, the water-soluble portion could be utilized for organic acid production, whereas the methanol-soluble portion and its insoluble residue for phenolic chemical production, with oil palm showing higher potential compared to Japanese beech.

**Category:** Chemistry

[95] **viXra:1402.0120 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-18 13:55:38*

**Authors:** Piyush M. SInghal

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The constraints of three-dimensional measurement space are discussed. It is postulated that the new states in universe are being created and a macroscopic observer is allowed only three measurements between entropy change. The concept of parallel transport in GTR is used to explain the physical space as measured.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[94] **viXra:1402.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-18 11:52:11*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In one of my previous papers, “An ordered set of certain seven numbers that results constantly from a recurrence formula based on Smarandache function”, combining two of my favorite topics of study, the recurrence relations and the Smarandache function, I discovered that the formula f(n) = S(f(n – 2)) + S(f(n – 1)), where S is the Smarandache function and f(1), f(2) are any given different non-null positive integers, seems to lead every time to a set of seven values (i.e. 11, 17, 28, 24, 11, 15, 16) which is then repeating infinitely. In this paper I show few other interesting patterns based on recurrence and Smarandache function and I define the Smarandache-Coman constants.

**Category:** Number Theory

[93] **viXra:1402.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-17 23:48:02*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 2 Pages. My article results from a discussion at http://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/1971

According to the article "Quark Star Plays Role in New Theory for Brightest Supernovae" by Jeanna Bryner, Senior Writer | June 03, 2008 (http://www.space.com/5450-quark-star-plays-role-theory-brightest-supernovae.html), "Other explanations for the bright supernovae are possible, the researchers say". I think these "other explanations" reveal that the scientists are going in the right direction but have failed to go far enough. As the article says, "Quarks are considered to be the tiniest elementary particles that form the building blocks for protons and neutrons, which in turn form atoms." The term "tiniest elementary particles" appears to mean "the ground state or lowest possible energy level". And according to the next paragraph I've written, "the binary digits of 1 and 0 must surely be the ground state or lowest possible energy level". Admittedly, this explanation probably sounds more unusual than the notion of quark stars. But I believe my explanations answer every question more than satisfactorily. In the end, my explanations lead back to black holes instead of quark stars. And black holes, while as unusual as my ideas, are scientifically accepted while the article points out that quark stars are still just theoretical.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[92] **viXra:1402.0116 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-27 20:55:59*

**Authors:** Felix M Lev

**Comments:** 259 Pages. Major revisions: a) a paradox with the inconsistent definition of the position operator in standard theory has been reconsidered; b) we consider a possibility that the ultimate quantum theory can be based not only on finite fields but even on finite rings

We argue that the main reason of crisis in quantum theory is that nature, which is fundamentally discrete and even finite, is described by continuous mathematics. Moreover, no ultimate physical theory can be based on continuous mathematics because, as follows from G\"{o}del's incompleteness theorems, any mathematics involving the set of all natural numbers has its own foundational problems which cannot be resolved. In the first part of the work we discuss inconsistencies in standard quantum theory and reformulate the theory such that it can be naturally generalized to a formulation based on finite mathematics.
It is shown that: a) as a consequence of inconsistent definition of standard position operator, predictions of the theory contradict
the data on observations of stars; b) the cosmological acceleration and gravity can be treated simply as {\it kinematical} manifestations of de Sitter symmetry on quantum level ({\it i.e. for describing those
phenomena the notions of dark energy, space-time background and gravitational interaction are not needed}). In the second part we consider a quantum theory based on finite mathematics with a large characteristic $p$. In this approach the de Sitter gravitational constant depends on $p$ and disappears in the formal limit $p\to\infty$, i.e. gravity is a
consequence of finiteness of nature. The application to particle theory gives that: a) no neutral elementary particles can exist; b) the electric charge and the baryon and lepton quantum numbers can be only approximately conserved (i.e. the notion of a particle and its antiparticle is only approximate). We also consider a possibility that only Dirac singletons can be true elementary particles.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[91] **viXra:1402.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-17 10:30:52*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is hypothesized that consciousness itself is a genuine singularity.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[90] **viXra:1402.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-17 11:40:45*

**Authors:** Nikolay Dementev

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It was found that a water-based ink in the presence of table salt forms deposits on the surface of polymer substrate. Without the salt, no distinct deposits were formed.

**Category:** Chemistry

[89] **viXra:1402.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-16 19:45:11*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

4-th List of Bolonkin’s publications in 2007-2013 (Loading is free)

**Category:** Classical Physics

[88] **viXra:1402.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-16 13:58:03*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

I propose a simple model for quarks and leptons in order to analyze what could be the building blocks of the Standard Model of particles. I start with the least number of elementary fields and generate using the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model light masses for the subconstituent fermions. The NJL coupling constant turns out to be of the order of the gravitational coupling constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[87] **viXra:1402.0108 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-22 07:28:57*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

We develop in detail, the classical magnetic monopoles of Yang-Mills gauge theory, and show how these classical monopoles, when analyzed using Gauss’ / Stokes’ theorem, appear to confine their gauge fields, and also, appear to be composite objects. Of course, baryons, which include the protons and neutrons at the heart of nuclear physics, also confine their gauge fields and are similarly-composite objects. This raises the question whether the magnetic monopoles of Yang-Mills theory are in some fashion related to the observed physical baryons. Because this exposition is classical, we also discuss the extent to which classical field theory can be used to effectively analyze baryons and confinement, and what would need to also be considered in a complete quantum field development.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[86] **viXra:1402.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-16 09:44:21*

**Authors:** Malcolm H. Mac Gregor

**Comments:** Pages.

Elementary particles can be represented as localized concentrations of energy, which act as Higgs energy spheres S. The sphere radius specifies its energy, and hence its coupling to the scalar Higgs field. Massless photon energy spheres are defined by the Planck equation E = hν. Massive particle energy spheres are defined by the fine structure electrostatic energy equation and the fine structure inertial mass equation, which are derived from the fine structure constant α~1/137. Higgs particle generation occurs in two steps: (1) an electrostatic-energy sphere is created; (2) it adiabatically expands radially by a factor of 137 and transforms into a Compton-sized inertial-mass sphere, which represents a Higgs unit energy quantum. Four Higgs energy channels (electron, boson, fermion and gauge boson) accurately reproduce lepton, constituent-quark, hadron, and average-gauge-boson masses.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[85] **viXra:1402.0106 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-27 04:42:53*

**Authors:** Osvaldo Domann

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Copyright. All rights reserved. The content of the present work, its ideas, axioms, postulates, definitions, derivations, results, findings, etc., can be reproduced only by making clear reference to the author.

Special Relativity derived by Einstein presents time and space distorsions and paradoxes. This paper presents an approach where the Lorenz transformations are build on equations with speed variables instead of space and time variables as done by Einstein. The result are transformation rules between inertial frames that are free of time dilation and length contraction for all relativistiv speeds. Particles move according to Galilei relativity and the transformed speeds (virtual speeds) describe the non linearity of the physical magnitudes relative to the Galilei speeds. All the transformation equations already existent for the electric and magnetic fields, deduced on the base of the invariance of the Maxwell wave equations are still valid. The present work shows the importance of including the characteristics of the measuring equipment in the chain of physical interactions to avoid unnatural conclusions like time dilation and lengthcontraction.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[84] **viXra:1402.0104 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-16 21:14:50*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

On the basis of concentric spherical layer-type model, put forward
a new causes and mechanism of the atomic energy levels due to the quantum

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[83] **viXra:1402.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-16 04:50:25*

**Authors:** Jose P Koshy

**Comments:** 4 Pages. The eighth paper based on Reality

In a previous paper, I have proposed that the forces of nature are manifestations of a basic force that exists as reaction to motion. In this paper, I provide theoretical proof for that proposal by deriving from it (i) The classical radius of electron (ii) The relation between magnetic and electrostatic constants, and (iii) A ‘common constant’ and a ‘common equation’ for all forces. Moreover, the ‘equality of inertial and gravitational masses’ and ‘why a unit pole does not exist’ are explained based on that proposal. Based on these, I claim that the problem of unification of forces stands resolved.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[82] **viXra:1402.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-16 02:30:04*

**Authors:** Vladimir S. Netchitailo

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

World – Universe Model is based on the following primary assumptions:
1) The World is finite and is expanding inside the Universe with speed equal to the electrodynamic constant c . The Universe serves as an unlimited source of energy that continuously enters into the World from the boundary.
2) Medium of the World, consisting of protons, electrons, photons, neutrinos, and dark matter particles, is an active agent in all physical phenomena in the World. All elementary particles are fully characterized by their four-momentum.
3) The Model is based on Maxwell’s equations for electromagnetism and gravitoelectromagnetism which have two measurable characteristics: energy density ρ and energy flux density I . All other notions are used for calculations of these two measurable characteristics.
4) Two Fundamental Parameters in various rational exponents define all macro and micro features of the World: Fine-structure constant α and dimensionless quantity Q . While α is constant, Q increases with time, and is in fact a measure of the Size and the Age of the World.
5) Three Fundamental Units define all physical dimensional parameters of the World: basic unit of momentum p_0 , basic unit of energy density ρ_0 , and basic unit of energy flux density I_0 .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[81] **viXra:1402.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-15 14:42:53*

**Authors:** VT Padmanabhan, R Ramesh, V Pugazhendi, K Sahadevan, Raminder Kaur, Joseph Makkolil

**Comments:** 21 Pages. 21

The proposed India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO), the largest underground science laboratory in the world, with a finished volume of 235,000 m3, will be blasted out in Idukki- Theni mountains of the Western Ghats. The proposed site is in the highly deformed portion of the the Suruli ductile Shear Zone. There are 12 reservoirs within 50 km radius of the complex, storing about 5 billion m3 of water. Idukki is the water capital for five severely water-stressed districts in Tamil Nadu and Kerala. The 'geotechnical' study report (GTR), based on sparse and low quality primary data has been treated as a confidential document. The impacts of blasting 800,000 tons of rock on the aquifer, the rivers and the reservoirs were not among the endpoints of the geotechnical study. Besides responding to the INO scientists and a geo-engineer, here we extend our arguments against the project with a critique of the GTR, a summary of studies on hydro-geology of the region, visible impacts of mountain tunnelling in India and elsewhere and the regulatory regime that is evolving globally. Starting the construction without conducting a proper, scientific impact assessment may be suicidal. We also doubt whether the physics requirement of filtering the cosmic background radiation, essential for a neutrino detector, will be possible at the present site.
Keywords: Mountain tunnelling, neutrino observatory, hardrock aquifer, tunnelling shear zone, environmental impact assessment, geotechnical study, global catastrophic risk

**Category:** Geophysics

[80] **viXra:1402.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-15 15:04:56*

**Authors:** Marcus Arvan

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In my 2013 article in The Philosophical Forum, “A New Theory of Free Will”, I argued that several serious hypotheses in philosophy and modern physics jointly entail that our reality is structurally identical to a peer-to-peer (P2P) networked computer simulation. The present paper shows that quantum phenomena emerge naturally from the computational structure of a P2P simulation. §1 explains the P2P Hypothesis in detail. §2 then shows how it explains quantum superposition and wave-function collapse (§2.1.), quantum indeterminacy (§2.2.), wave-particle duality (§2.3.), and quantum entanglement (§2.4.).

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[79] **viXra:1402.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-14 19:40:59*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This article is not yet submitted to any journal. Comments are welcome

There is a quite recent paper (2011) by Santiago-German which says that the Einstein's general theory of relativity is formally equivalent to the Ginzburg-Landau theory of superconductivity (http://arxiv.org/pdf/1112.1179v1.pdf). He further wrote that this fact lead us to suspect that the superconductivity of gravitation ought to be a real physical process occurring in the outskirts of galaxies. If such a proposition is correct, then perhaps we can view some problems in cosmology from new angle. Not only dark matter but perhaps the solar system and planets can be viewed as superconductors too. Other possible analogy is between cosmology and condensed matter phenomena such as superfluidity. This analogy has been explored for instance by G. Volovik et al.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[78] **viXra:1402.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-14 19:42:43*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 3 Pages. This article is not yet submitted to any journal. Comments are welcome

There are various herbal medicines for cancer treatment in the market nowadays, therefore it seems worth to discuss their safety and effectiveness.

**Category:** Biochemistry

[77] **viXra:1402.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-14 14:41:23*

**Authors:** editor Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 649 Pages.

Bancuri si folclor in general, plus imagini colorate.

**Category:** Linguistics

[76] **viXra:1402.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-14 11:45:25*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 153 Pages.

Prof. univ. dr. Florentin Smarandache, de la Universitatea New Mexico din Statele Unite, descrie în această carte studiile şi cercetările sale ştiinţifice postdoctorale în matematică, precum şi seminariile şi conferinţa internaţională la care a participat în perioada 2012-2014, în Japonia.
La Conferinţa Internaţională de Mecatronică, organizată de Universitatea de Agricultură şi Tehnologie din Tokyo în septembrie 2012, precum şi la seminariile susţinute la Universitatea de Ştiinţe din Okayama şi respectiv la Universitatea din Osaka (2013-2014), autorul a prezentat articole privind Logica neutrosofică şi mulţimea neutrosofică, Teoria Dezert-Smarandache, şi Metoda reducerii–α în luarea de decizii bazate pe multicriterii, împreună cu aplicarea acestora la roboţii mobili.
Pe lângă activitatea sa ştiinţifică, autorul a vizitat şi muzee, temple, castele medievale şi grădini nipone în mai multe oraşe (Tokyo, Okayama, Fukuyama, Hiroshima, Kurashiki, Osaka şi Kyoto), şi a colaborat cu profesori, cercetători şi studenţi japonezi de la aceste trei universităţi în scrierea de articole şi cărţi ştiinţifice.
*
In this book, Professor Florentin Smarandache, Ph D, from the University of New Mexico (United States) describes his postdoctoral scientific studies and researches in mathematics, and several international seminars and a conference attended in 2012-2014, in Japan.
At the International Conference on Mechatronics, organized by the Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology in September 2012, as well as at the seminars held at the Okayama University of Science, respectively at the Osaka University (2013-2014), the author has presented articles on Neutrosophic Logic and Neutrosophic Set, Dezert-Smarandache Theory, and α-Discounting Method in Multi-Criteria Decision-Making, together with their applications to mobile robots.
In addition to his scientific work, the author visited Nippon museums, temples, medieval castles and gardens, in several cities (Tokyo, Okayama, Fukuyama, Hiroshima, Kurashiki, Osaka and Kyoto), and worked with Japanese professors, researchers and students of these three universities in writing scientific articles and books.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[75] **viXra:1402.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-14 11:55:11*

**Authors:** I.E. Bulyzhenkov

**Comments:** 10 Pages. MSC[2010]: 83F05, 83C40; PACS:04.20.Cv; 03.50.-z

Extended carriers of mass-energy with r^{-4} radial densities correspond to observable particles obeying Newtonian attractions in weak fields but repulsions in strong ones. Space interference of such overlapping radial monopoles maintains unobservable r^{-2}\times r^{-2} dipole formations of dark mass-energy which conserves the metric energy integral of the material space continuum. The Newton fall attraction followed by strong field gravitational repulsion in such a continuum can quantitatively explain the Hubble expansion rate rH_o, with calculated acceleration r(H_o)^2, and qualitatively comply with Penrose's cyclic cosmology. Laboratory tests with precise clocks may justify in principle the non-empty, material space paradigm for nonlocal physical reality of everywhere overlapping continuous bodies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[74] **viXra:1402.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-14 05:56:39*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is well known that a quark manifests its current-character and simultaneously its
constituent-character, depending upon what energy scale or length scale one is
interested in for a particular phenomenon. Here we show that there is a fundamental conflict
between these two concepts, when one looks carefully as to how the electric charge
for a quark is defined in these two, current and constituent, structures. This is a crisis for
quantum chromodynamics.
We show then that the topological Skyrme Model comes to the rescue. We prove in this paper as to how unambiguously and uniquely, it is the Skyrme Model which solves this conundrum in
Quantum Chromodynamics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[73] **viXra:1402.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-13 19:58:42*

**Authors:** editor Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** Pages.

In a similar way as passing from Euclidean Geometry to Non-Euclidean Geometry, we can pass from Subluminal Physics to Superluminal Physics, and further to Instantaneous Physics (instantaneous traveling). In the lights of two consecutive successful CERN experiments with superluminal particles in the Fall of 2011, we believe these two new fields of research should begin developing.
A physical law has a form in Newtonian physics, another form in the Relativity Theory, and different form at Superluminal theory, or at Instantaneous (infinite) speeds –according to the S-Denying Theory spectrum.
First, we extend physical laws and formulas to superluminal traveling and to instantaneous traveling. Afterwards, we should extend existing classical physical theories from subluminal to superluminal and instantaneous traveling.
And lately we need to find a general theory that unites all theories at: law speeds, relativistic speeds, superluminal speeds, and instantaneous speeds –as in the S-Multispace Theory.
The First International Conference on Superluminal Physics as New Fields of Research was hold at the University of New Mexico, Gallup Campus, NM 87301, USA, as an electronic conference on 2-4 July 2012.
There were seven papers selected for this volume by the following authors and coauthors: KAIZHE GUO, CHONGWU GUO, CHEN JIANGUO, DONG JINGFENG, MI HAIJIANG, CHANGWEI HU, YANG SHIJIA, GULI, and FU YUHUA.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[72] **viXra:1402.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-13 13:37:37*

**Authors:** John C. Hodge

**Comments:** 14 Pages. presented APS April 2014 session L1.00019

We are at a special moment in our scientific evolution that requires the big of cosmology and the small of light and of particle physics be united by a single model. The Scalar Theory of Everything model (STOE) suggests fundamental assumptions with consideration for the successful parts of current models and for the data inconsistent with current models. The STOE is simpler, corresponds to both General Relativity and quantum mechanics, and solves many current mysteries and inconsistencies. Therefore, the STOE is founded on orthodox science. Data analysis in 2011 confirmed predictions of the STOE made in 2006 that no other model suggested.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[71] **viXra:1402.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-13 14:08:04*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

I treated the 2-Poulet numbers in many papers already but they continue to be a source of inspiration for me; in this paper I make two conjectures on primes inspired by the relation between the prime factors of a 2-Poulet number and I also make a conjecture on Fermat pseudoprimes to base two.

**Category:** Number Theory

[70] **viXra:1402.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-13 07:09:49*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Mathematics books say division by zero is undefined and you should never divide by zero (the special case of 0/0 is termed "indeterminate"). According to "Einstein's Only Mistake: Division by Zero" (http://refully.blogspot.com.au/2012/05/einsteins-only-mistake-division-by-zero.html),
"When Astronomers today say they are following Einsteins theory of relatively” (Einstein’s theory of relativity), “they are actually not. Partially because Einstein said the Big Bang theory made no sense. He never in his lifetime accepted the Big Bang as the way our universe came into being or Black Holes. He always looked for another explanation. (And partly because) Einstein made a school boy error in algebra. What Einstein did was divide by zero during his calculations, a no, no, in math."
"Basic Technical Mathematics with Calculus, SI Version Ninth Edition" by Allyn J. Washington (Pearson Education, 2010) states on p.9, "If 0/0 = b, then 0 = 0 x b, which is true for any value of b. Therefore, no specific value of b can be determined." My aim is to show that Einstein was perfectly correct to divide by zero, that doing so enabled him to introduce his Hidden Variables theory into quantum mechanics, that zero is not nothing but actually something, that it redefines the term infinity, and that there really is another explanation for the Big Bang as well as black holes. By the way, we may have to rebuild all those sophisticated calculators that produce an error message when you try to divide by zero.
When forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence, Einstein said: time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter. I’ll try to follow his example by attempting to summarize this idea of zero-infinity relation in one sentence: infinity is the total elimination of distance in space-time, and zero is the nothing (total elimination) that is something (a “creator” of space-time).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[69] **viXra:1402.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-13 05:53:02*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A four-page proposal

This paper reports result of an experiment performed by this author; and proposes more experiments based on ‘wave’ or ‘particle’ nature of light; so that it can help us to understand the observations of ‘cosmological red-shift’. (i) While considering the propagation of light from a distant galaxy, the astrophysicists currently think that only the intensity of light gets reduced with distance. But as soon as we mathematically-describe the electric-field of light varying with distance, we have to write E ( r, t ) = A sin ( k r ) / r ; and we know that sin x / x is known as sink-function, and its Fourier-transform gives a wide-spectrum, whose spot-frequency is expected to vary with reduction of intensity due to the recession of galaxies; so I experimentally verified this possibility and confirmed that while reducing the amplitude of a wave, its frequency also gets shifted; depending upon the rate of reduction of amplitude; as reported here. (ii) Even if we treat light as a stream of ‘photons’, whose density goes on reducing with distance, then also we do expect a spectral-shift towards zero-frequency; as described here. (iii) The spherically-expanding-wave of light can also be viewed as an expanding-cavity-of-wave-guide; and the photon can travel only at close-to but slightly lesser speed than EM-waves; and the observed increase of wavelength of the extra-galactic-photon can be in accordance to the expression first proposed by Lord Rayleigh (iv) It may not be the hundred-percent correct assumption, that there is no reflected-power during the transmission of light through space, because the wave-impedance of the sphere containing the waves, keeps on changing with distance; expected to cause an input-output mismatch, possibly leading to some reflected power. It is proposed here that the observed ‘cosmological-red-shift’ may be partly due to these new ‘propagation-property’ of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[68] **viXra:1402.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-12 23:03:50*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 11 pages, 8 references, 408 KB

We present the Feynman graphs and the corresponding expressions, up to 4th loop order, for a generic effective quantum field theory action. Whereas there are 2 graphs in the 2-loop order, and 8 graphs in the 3-loop order, we obtain 43 irreducible graphs in the 4-loop order. These results are obtained using Mathematica programming, where the underlying code is capable of generating graphs and expressions to any desired loop order. We explain the associated programming strategy.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[67] **viXra:1402.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-24 09:10:32*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 2 diagrams, 5 references

Two diagrams and an explanation for the public are provided which outline the main differences between establishment dogma and stellar metamorphosis in their predictions of star evolution.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[66] **viXra:1402.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-11 12:29:31*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 03 pages, 04 references

The density of probability associated to the random walk describing a polymer chain is took as the squared wave function of a harmonic oscillator of mass M. The insertion of this wave function in the Schroedinger equation reveals a structure of energy levels, where the quantum of energy depends on the radius of gyration of the polymer. Besides this, we compare this function with another derivate from the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. This comparison suggests that to each lattice edge having the size of the Planck’s length, in a vision of a discrete space-time, we could attach
a continuum chain of infinite length. We call this picture the fabric of space-time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[65] **viXra:1402.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-11 10:31:41*

**Authors:** Jin He

**Comments:** 2 Figures. Computer language program file is include (1 page)

A mother, a father, and their daughter were taking a picture. They were 5, 7, and 2 feet tall respectively. The parents stood in a row, and their daughter stood in front of her mother. My son saw this and ran quickly in front of the father before the picture was taken. I asked my son why. He answered that he was exactly 4 feet tall. I figured out his reasoning, and afterwards I have become an astrophysicist. A pattern is a distribution of differences. In the array pattern of the above-said four people, the height differences between adults and between kids are equal, and the height differences between females and between males are equal too. This simple pattern can be generalized into any array of numbers. Assume the differences of numbers in a row are equal to the corresponding differences in any other row. That is, there exist the common differences in all rows. Similarly assume the common differences in all columns. Then the pattern is called a rational structure. Assume the number at the bottom left corner is zero, C(0,0) = 0, and denote the series of numbers in the bottom row by U(i) and the series of numbers in the first column by V(j). I found the formula for the rational array: C = U(i) + V(j). This is called Skew Law. I generalized the rows and columns to be curved, and required that the curves cross each other at a right angle. This was exactly my idea of galaxy patterns. In this paper I show that the patterns are governed by the Riccati equation with constant coefficients; and the curves are governed by a type of algebraic equations. The cubic equation of the type gives a pattern which resembles the sharp bar of galaxy NGC 1073. Are all barred galaxies governed by the cubic and higher degrees of algebraic equations? The question will be resolved in the near future.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[64] **viXra:1402.0080 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-02 22:11:08*

**Authors:** Kimmo Rouvari

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

Preview of future book

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[63] **viXra:1402.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-10 23:52:08*

**Authors:** Arindam Sinha

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

This paper reconciles General Relativity (GR) and Mach's Principle into a consistent, simple and intuitive alternative theory of gravitation. The background gravitational potential from the Universe's matter distribution plays an important role in relativity. This potential far from massive bodies is c^{2}, and determines *unit* rest mass/energy, which is the essence behind E=mc^{2}. The matter distribution creates a local inertial rest frame at every location, in which the Universe gravitational potential is a minimum. A velocity in this frame increases gravitational potential through net blue shift of Universal gravity, causing velocity time dilation, which is a gravitational effect identical to gravitational time dilation. Time dilation increases with velocity, but does not become boundless in general rectilinear motion. The Lorentz factor is the appropriate metric for time dilation only in certain constrained motions. The low velocity approximation of the Lorentz factor scales for all velocities in general rectilinear motion, and speed of light is not the maximum possible speed in such situations. Gravitational time dilation is derived first, and velocity time dilation is derived from it. The mathematics becomes simpler and more intuitive than GR, while remaining consistent with existing experiments. Some experiments are suggested that will show this theory to be more accurate than GR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[62] **viXra:1402.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-10 16:27:54*

**Authors:** Friedwardt Winterberg

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is proposed that the “apparent horizons” assumed by Hawking to resolve the black hole information paradox, are in reality the regions where in Lorentzian relativity the absolute velocity against a preferred reference system at rest with the zero point vacuum energy reaches the velocity of light, and where an elliptical differential equation holding matter in a stable equilibrium goes over a transluminal Euler-Tricomi equation into a hyperbolic differential equation where such an equilibrium is not more possible, with matter in approaching this region disintegrating into radiation. Hawking’s proposal depends on the AdS/CFT conjecture which in turn depending on string/M theory which in the absence of super -symmetry will not work.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[61] **viXra:1402.0075 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-17 09:55:45*

**Authors:** Peter H. Michalicka

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

With the Planck 'constants' length, time, mass and
acceleration will be shown, that a Quantum Gravity of the cosmos exists.
This paper shows how Planck-Satellite-Data solves Einstein's Field Equations in Friedmann Robertson Walker Metric.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[60] **viXra:1402.0074 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-22 06:59:22*

**Authors:** Colin Bruce Jack

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In principle, many animals could obtain significant metabolic energy direct from their environment, additional to that from food.

Photosynthesis requires a large area of modified skin and imposes behavioural constraints: few animals are photosynthetic.

An alternative is to use the Carnot cycle, exploiting temperature differences. The maximum efficiency with which work can be extracted is ~ΔT/T, where terrestrially T~300 K: comparable to photosynthesis. For a cold blooded animal which moves frequently between environments at significantly different temperatures, this energy harvest could be substantial: its entire body can act as a thermal reservoir. The energy harvesting machinery might however be hard to spot, much as ‘brown fat’ in human adults was overlooked until recently. It could be based on any temperature-sensitive chemical equilibrium.

In the temperate and tropical oceans, animals could gain Carnot cycle energy very easily as they swim up and down through the thermocline during diel vertical migration. In so doing, they would transfer significant heat from near-surface waters to the mid-depths. Such behavior would be increasingly favored as surface waters become warmer, as has recently occurred. This could conceivably have contributed to the recent ‘pause’ in the anthropogenic greenhouse effect.

At the origin of life, diurnal thermal harvesting by non-motile organisms could evolve far more easily than photosynthesis, and might have preceded both photosynthesis and the use of external chemical energy.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[59] **viXra:1402.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-10 07:00:37*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Combining two of my favourite objects of study, the Fermat pseudoprimes and the Smarandache function, I was able to formulate a criterion, inspired by Korselt’s criterion for Carmichael numbers and by Smarandache function, which seems to be necessary (though not sufficient as the Korselt’s criterion for absolute Fermat pseudoprimes) for a composite number (without a set of probably definable exceptions) to be a Fermat pseudoprime to base two.

**Category:** Number Theory

[58] **viXra:1402.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-19 17:29:38*

**Authors:** Ken S. Tucker

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Interdefinition of Length and Time.
Since 1983, the meter, second and speed of light ”c” have been defined by
N meters = c ∗ 1 second with N = 299,792,458.
We find, that’s had a profound effect on Relativity Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[57] **viXra:1402.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-09 22:50:03*

**Authors:** Alejandro A. Torassa

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In classical mechanics, this paper presents a group of equations, which are invariant under transformations between reference frames.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[56] **viXra:1402.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-09 16:19:29*

**Authors:** Suomy Nona

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The following equation was found by a comprehensive search using a GPU, trying every combination of constants that could be equal to the Universal Gravity constant. During the search, roughly 56000 equations were identified that had the correct units and then a handful of those equations where found to have low error rates of roughly one part in a trillion, when compared to the original constants. The simplest equation of the high accuracy set is presented in this paper. [G = (10390/23)*R^73*w^73*e^2/(c^68*h^74*A^2*N^73)]

**Category:** Astrophysics

[55] **viXra:1402.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-09 17:10:52*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Published in General Science Journal

Most physical actions in three-dimensional world are recognized by displacements of 3D matter-bodies in space. In these cases, mechanisms of action and motion are synonymous. As 3D matter is inert, all actions and apparent interactions (attributed to 3D matter-bodies) are by all-encompassing universal medium that fill entire space, outside basic 3D matter-particles. Action of effort invests additional work in universal medium within and surrounding a macro body. Additional work, in universal medium, moves at linear speed corresponding to external effort. As they move all enclosed basic 3D matter-particles (of macro body) are carried with them. Additional work, associated with a macro body, determines its state of motion.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[54] **viXra:1402.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-23 07:10:30*

**Authors:** Koji Kobayashi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This article prove that NC and PH is proper (especially P is not NP) by using reduction difference. We can prove that NC is proper by using AL0 is not NC. This means L is not P. We can prove P is not NP by using reduction difference between L and P. And we can also prove that PH is proper by using P is not NP.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[53] **viXra:1402.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-09 07:01:53*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 22 pages, 216 equations, 8 references

In a 14-dimensional gravidynamic unification model, the spacetime as well as the internal symmetries of 2 lepton-quark generations would be consolidated in a 64-component Weyl fermion. Alternatively, the latter fermionic multiplet can describe 8 charged leptons, with 8 associated neutrinos, and the corresponding antiparticles. In such a framework, the dynamics of vector bosons, as well as of Higgs scalars, would be generated at the quantum level via unified couplings to a vector, an antisymmetric tensor of 3rd rank, and an antisymmetric tensor of 5th rank. We exhibit the complete SU5 structure of the latter couplings. The underlying SU5 would contain a color SU3 symmetry, in the case of the leptons and quarks, or a family SU3 symmetry, in the alternative model of purely leptonic unification. This work begins by writing the Lorentz algebra of 14 dimensional spacetime in terms of its 4-dimensional Lorentz subalgebra, and an internal O10 factor. The latter is expressed via its U5 subalgebra. The fermionic 64-plet is expressed in terms of 32 Weyl fermions in 4 dimensions. Likewise, the pertinent vector and the tensors are expressed in terms of vectors and scalars in 4 dimensions. The emerging picture regarding the fundamental fermions, and their interactions, would lead to aspects that are describable by the O10 and SU5 unification models, whether the grand unified model of leptons and quarks, or the purely leptonic unification model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[52] **viXra:1402.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-09 08:07:59*

**Authors:** A.Veselov

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

В природе существует две разновидности материи, имеющие противоположные свойства. Это материя, имеющая положительный электрический заряд и материя, имеющая отрицательный заряд, которую чисто условно можно считать антиматерией. Или наоборот.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[51] **viXra:1402.0064 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-10 07:16:24*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** Pages.

The chiral potential is inverse square. The family of inverse square potentials includes the vector Lorentz potential of the quantum Hall and Aharonov-Bohm effects, and the centrifugal, Coriolis, and three body potentials. The associated impedances are scale invariant, quantum Hall being the most familiar. Modes associated with scale invariant impedances communicate only quantum phase, not an observable in a single quantum measurement. Modes associated with scale dependent impedances, including among others those of the 1/r monopole and 1/r^3 dipole potentials, communicate both phase and energy. Making this clarifying distinction between phase (relative time) and energy explicit presents a new perspective on the anomaly. This approach is introduced via the Rosetta Stone of modern physics, the hydrogen atom. Precise impedance-based pizero, eta, and eta' branching ratio calculations are presented as ratios of polynomials in powers of the fine structure constant, followed by discussion. Mass generation via chiral symmetry breaking is not addressed in the present paper.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[50] **viXra:1402.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-08 16:09:41*

**Authors:** Christian Corda, Seyed H. Hendi, Reza Katebi, Nathan O. Schmidt

**Comments:** 16 pages, accepted in Advances in High Energy Physics (May 2014 Black Hole Special Issue)

It is known that the nonstrictly thermal character of the Hawking radiation spectrum harmonizes Hawking radiation with black hole (BH) quasi-normal modes (QNM). This paramount issue has been recently analyzed in the framework of both Schwarzschild BHs (SBH) and Kerr BHs (KBH). In this assignment, we generalize the analysis to the framework of nonextremal Reissner-Nordström BHs (RNBH). Such a generalization is important because in both SBHs and KBHs an absorbed (or emitted) particle has only mass. Instead, in RNBHs the particle has charge as well as mass. In doing so, we expose that for the RNBH, QNMs can be naturally interpreted in terms of quantum levels for both particle emission and absorption. Conjointly, we generalize some concepts concerning the RNBH's "effective states".

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[49] **viXra:1402.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-08 12:29:46*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

We place the author’s earlier work from [13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19], [20], [21] into the context of a classical unified field theory of elementary particle physics, nuclear and hadron physics, electrodynamics, and gravitation. This revision contains the unification of classical Maxwell and Yang-Mills electrodynamics with classical gravitation as represented by the field equation Rμν=0 of empty space, and explains how this will be further connected to the physics of nuclear matter as developed in said earlier work.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[48] **viXra:1402.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-08 10:10:16*

**Authors:** Abinash Chakraborty

**Comments:** 16 Pages. The people focuses on some of the mainstream techniques for characterizing a classical physical system

In this paper, we shall study an electromechanical system, which is capable of showing chaos. Our aim would be to identify deterministic chaos, which effectively means finding out the conditions in which the system would show aperiodicity. We shall study a coupled system, consisting of a Bullard Dynamo driving a Faraday Disk. First, we shall give a brief description of the system (by stating the equations describing the system), then we shall identify the fixed points for the system, and identify different dynamical regimes. Our objective here is to elaborate the methods by which a dynamical system is characterized.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[47] **viXra:1402.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-08 05:11:58*

**Authors:** Mende F. F.

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Electrodynamics and the Lagrange function

**Category:** Classical Physics

[46] **viXra:1402.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-08 01:15:58*

**Authors:** Mende F. F.

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In connection with the fact that the law of magnetoelectric and electromagnetic induction
are symmetrical, must exist the symmetrical technical solutions. The article describesa new type
of the transformer, which is used as a core ferroelectric.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[45] **viXra:1402.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-08 02:07:02*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Three-page-letter

According to the inverse square law, the brightness of every source-of-light reduces with distance. And the rate of reduction of brightness at various radial distances keeps on reducing with distance. From our experience of ‘amplitude-modulation’, we know that change of amplitude of a stable, single-frequency-source produces a wide spectrum, depending upon the ‘rate-of-change-of-amplitude’; so the varying ‘rate-of-reduction-of-brightness’ with distance of the galaxies and super-novae, must have contributed ‘additional-red-shift’; in addition to the well known Doppler-shift. It is proposed here, that: since this ‘additional-contribution-to-the-red-shift’ is non-linear, the ‘red-shift-distance-curve’ observed by Perlmutter and Riess shows non-linearity; but this ‘additional-contribution-to-the-red-shift’ does not mean ‘additional-recession-of-galaxies’ and ‘accelerated-expansion-of-the-universe’.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[44] **viXra:1402.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-07 23:40:29*

**Authors:** Mende F. F.

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The paper shows that any point source of light at the observation point gives coherent radiation.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[43] **viXra:1402.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-07 23:50:24*

**Authors:** Temur Z. Kalanov

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Analysis of the foundations of standard trigonometry is proposed. The unity of formal logic and of rational dialectics is methodological basis of the analysis. It is shown that the foundations of trigonometry contradict to the principles of system approach and contain formal-logical errors. The principal logical error is that the definitions of trigonometric functions represent quantitative relationships between the different qualities: between qualitative determinacy of angle and qualitative determinacy of rectilinear segments (legs) in rectangular triangle. These relationships do not satisfy the standard definition of mathematical function because there are no mathematical operations that should be carry out on qualitative determinacy of angle to obtain qualitative determinacy of legs. Therefore, the left-hand and right-hand sides of the standard mathematical definitions have no the identical sense. The logical errors determine the essence of trigonometry: standard trigonometry is a false theory.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[42] **viXra:1402.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-07 10:24:21*

**Authors:** Mende F. F.

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

The Maxwell equationsdo not contain of information about power interaction of the current carrying systems. In the classical electrodynamics for calculating such an interaction it is necessary to calculate magnetic field in the assigned region of space, and then, using a Lorentz force, to find the forces, which act on the moving charges. Obscure a question about that remains with this approach, to what are applied the reacting forces with respect to those forces, which act on the moving charges.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[41] **viXra:1402.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-07 10:38:18*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 06 pages, 12 references

In this study we first evaluate the time between collisions related to the transport properties in liquid water, provided by the protons motion tied to the hydrogen bonds. As water is an essential substance for the establishment of life in the living beings, we take this time as the basic unit to measure some kinds of retention time related to their memory. Besides this, integration is an important feature associated to the operation of the memory. Then we consider two possible ways of doing integration and an average between them. One of these characteristic times, the Darwin time, is given by adding over the N basic units which forms the memory. The other possibility, the recent time, is obtained by considering a kind of time-like random walk running over the N basic units. Finally we perform a geometric average between these two times and call it generations’ time. As a means to estimate these characteristic times, we take the number of protons contained in a volume of water compatible with the dimensions of the portion of the brain responsible by its memory.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[40] **viXra:1402.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-23 02:12:35*

**Authors:** Fredrick W. Cotton

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The addition of a scalar term to the classical, Maxwellian stress-energy tensor is sufficient to describe force-free, spherically symmetric charge distributions in both flat space and curved space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1402.0050 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-23 14:13:30*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A special case of the cubic equation, distinguished by having an unusually economical solution, is shown to relate to both the fine structure constant inverse (approximately 137.036) and the sines squared of the quark and lepton mixing angles.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[38] **viXra:1402.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-07 03:54:15*

**Authors:** Mende F. F.

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This article discusses the law of Faraday

**Category:** Classical Physics

[37] **viXra:1402.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-07 04:21:42*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 143 Pages. in Russian, Book

The book deals with a full theory, as yet not well known, and engineering solutions for the computer arithmetic of functions. Such processors can find application in medicine, meteorology, seismology, astronomy, physics, air-raid defense, etc.
The book covers the functions of one and many arguments coding theory – the codes structure, algorithms of coding and decoding, arithmetical operations. The theory is supplemented by numerous examples. Processor intended for operations with functions considered – data representation, operating blocks, hardware realization of coding, decoding and arithmetic operations algorithms. The processor’s internal performance is appraised. //
В книге описываются малоизвестные методы построения специализированных компьютеров для обработки функций. Такие прцессоры могут найти применение для медицины, метеорологии, сейсмологии, радиоастрономии, физике, противовоздушной обороне и т.п.
В книге описывается теория кодирования функций одного и многих аргументов – структура кодов, алгоритмы кодирования, декодирования, арифметические операции. Теория дополняется многочисленными примерами. Рассматривается устройство функционального процессора – представление данных, операционные блоки, техническая реализация алгоритмов кодирования, декодирования и арифметических операций. Оценивается быстродействие этого процессора.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[36] **viXra:1402.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-07 01:56:50*

**Authors:** A.Veselov

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Как любят писать, в научной литературе, энтропия – это стремление материи к хаосу. Хотя на самом деле, определение это достаточно расплывчато и малопонятно, ведь как-то нелогично назвать хаосом состояние равномерного распределения.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[35] **viXra:1402.0045 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-16 11:48:12*

**Authors:** Theodore J. St. John

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Please contact me at email: stjohntheodore@gmail.com with comments, questions or discussion

The purpose of this paper is to present a relational model that portrays space and time as conformal projections of motion. It is not biased by the presumption that time is 1D, and thus reveals the universality of relationships between space-time (relativistic model) and energy-frequency (quantum model); it accurately depicts the well-known relationship for total relativistic energy of a particle; it includes the Lorentz factor as the magnification that results from projection of the rest-frame units onto the moving reference frame; and provides a reinterpretation of the “event horizon” as an “event reference” that is a perceptual separation between past and future.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1402.0044 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-27 06:56:36*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 35 Pages. 35

Recent turmoil around the foundation of Black hole theory principles by Stephen Hawking and others, is a clear sign of great uncertainty about black holes and adjacent subjects.
As a consequence, it seems a good moment to come up with a Black Hole alternative already prepacked in my Quantum FFF Theory ( Function Follows Form)
Quantum FFF ( Function Follows Form) theory states, that the vacuum is seeded with fast opposite oscillating massless 3-Dimensional torus shaped Preons, responsible for pair production. Two Preons are able to change form into two entangled Fermion propeller strings by an overflow of energetic opposite collision. This energy overflow is supposed to be present at the black hole event horizon ( fig 5).
Thus the FORM of all particles is based on real joints and gears, responsible for the FUNCTION even for composite Quarks and Photons, however all particles are instant entangled and guided in a dual mirror multiversal way.
That dual oscillating Higgs particles are the same as Preons and are responsible for the Casimir Dark Energy of 126 GeV recently observed in the LHC at CERN.
That the oscillating Higgs vacuum system is the messenger medium of all Photon information and Black Holes are equipped with a nucleus of compacted Higgs particles, compressed by the oscillating Higgs vacuum.
The vacuum energy flow around such a Black hole indicates that different sized globular horizons are needed, an event or Photon horizon and two Fermion repulsion horizons, which can explain lots of astronomical unresolved phenomena such as the peculiar shape of dumbbell Comets like Hartley 2 and 67P C-G (Churyumov-Gerasimenko)..

**Category:** Astrophysics

[33] **viXra:1402.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-06 04:09:26*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 7 Pages, 1 Figure - This paper presents a clear, simplified refutation of the Special Relativity.

In this paper the speed of light postulate is closely examined from the perspective of two inertial reference frames―unprimed and primed―in relative motion, revealing that the resulting inverse space-time transformation is in disagreement with the corresponding Lorentz transformation following from the light speed postulate and the coordinate’s transformation assumed symmetry with respect to the reference frames. It is demonstrated that the speed of light postulate actually requires length and time contraction with respect to the unprimed reference frame, length and time dilation with respect to the primed frame, resulting in the frames being at rest with respect to each other! When the coordinate’s transformation symmetry assumption is applied on the direct transformation resulting from the light speed postulate―which is shown incompatible with this assumption―, the Lorentz transformation and its inverse are erroneously obtained; it is shown to be restricted to certain coordinate relations, resulted in mathematical contradictions, and thus demonstrated to be unviable.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1402.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-10 06:20:56*

**Authors:** James Dunn

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A foundation from which non-relativistic artifacts can be modeled in conjunction with relativistic models.
Axiom of Choice is applied to Quantum Entangled Singularities ( QESdunn ) and treats quantum entanglement as two different but similar, vast systems of causality that differ by one or a few causal differences. This potentially provides an experimentally verifiable relationship between non-relativistic causality and relativistic causality through synchronous programming.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1402.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-06 02:52:35*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 5 Pages. To be submitted to a journal. This paper complete the earlier paper Nyambuya 2010, MNRAS 403, pp.1381-1391

The present letter presents an improved version of the Azimuthally Symmetric Theory of Gravitation (ASTG-model) which was presented for the first time four years ago (in Nyambuya 2010). Herein, we propose a solution to the standing problem of the lambda-parameters in which effort we put the ASTG-model on a clear pedestal for falsification. The perihelion precessional data of Solar planetary orbits is used to set the theory into motion. As a way of demonstrating the latent power of the new theory, we show in separate letters that -- one of the most important and outstanding problems in astrophysics today -- the Radiation Problem; which is thought to bedevil massive stars during their formation, may find a plausible solution in the ASTG-model. Further, from within the confines of this new theory, we also demonstrate (in a separate letter) that the Emergence of Bipolar Molecular Outflows may very be an azimuthal gravitational phenomenon. Furthermore, we also show (in a separate letter as-well) that the ASTG-model does, to a reasonable extent explain the tilt of Solar planetary orbits.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[30] **viXra:1402.0039 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-16 02:51:22*

**Authors:** A.V.Veselov

**Comments:** 172 Pages.

"Какие бы открытия не делались в сфере конкретных наук, для их фиксирования требуется язык. Даже изобретаются специальные языки для этого. Но все они, так или иначе, предполагают общеразговорный язык, без которого они вообще непонятны. Все онтологические термины, которые требуются для описания этих явлений и открытий, могут быть определены независимо от этих открытий и пояснены на примерах самого обычного житейского опыта…" (А.Зиновьев. Основы логической теории научных знаний.)

**Category:** Classical Physics

[29] **viXra:1402.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-05 19:53:37*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 14 Pages. To be appeared

'Hubble volume’ can be considered as a key tool in cosmology and microscopic physics. Note that at any given cosmic time, the product of ‘cosmic critical density’ and ‘Hubble volume’ gives a characteristic 'cosmic mass' and can be called as the ‘Hubble mass’. Schwarzschild radius of the ‘Hubble mass’ again matches with the ‘Hubble length’. The authors emphasize the fact that this coincidence is having deep connection with the cosmic geometry and the cosmological and microscopic physical phenomena. At any given cosmic time, ‘Hubble length’ can be considered as the gravitational or electromagnetic interaction range. In a unified approach observed cosmic red shift can be re-interpreted as an index of cosmological galactic atomic light emission phenomenon. In a unified approach and by increasing the number of applications of Hubble mass and Hubble volume in microscopic physics, concepts of ‘Black Hole Cosmology’ can be well confirmed. Clearly speaking, compared to the Big bang model, advantage of Black hole cosmology lies in confirming its validity through the atomic and nuclear experimental results. In this model, forever rotating at light speed, high temperature and high angular velocity small sized primordial cosmic black hole of mass $\sqrt{\frac{e^2}{4 \pi \epsilon_0 G}}$ gradually transforms into a low temperature and low angular velocity large sized massive primordial cosmic black hole. At any time $\H_t$ represents the angular velocity. At its ending stage of expansion, for the whole cosmic black hole as $\H_t$ practically remains constant, its corresponding thermal energy density will be ‘the same’ throughout its volume. This ‘sameness’ may be the reason for the observed ‘isotropic’ nature of the current CMB radiation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[28] **viXra:1402.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-05 20:11:23*

**Authors:** Roger N. Weller

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A simple algebraic derivation using the Planck constant for a photon and the mass/energy of a proton suggests that the new smaller measurement of the proton radius is accurate.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[27] **viXra:1402.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-05 20:30:23*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 3 references, 1 diagram

Some problems with the mentality and use of language in establishment astrophysics/astronomy with the concept of the “Solar System” are presented.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[26] **viXra:1402.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-05 07:28:24*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 3 pages, 2 references, 283 KB

This document demonstrates the use of computer-aided symbolic manipulations in high-energy theory. It includes two Mathematica notebooks that can be safely extracted and viewed. The first notebook shows the manipulations used in a theory dealing with an 18-dimensional unification model, the construction of the associated algebra, and its tensorial and spinorial multiplets, decomposing with respect to 4 dimensions and an internal SU7. The second notebook shows the manipulations used in a theory dealing with E8 unification, the construction of the associated algebra, and its fundamental multiplet, in a decomposition with respect to SU9. We describe the various other comprehensive capabilities of the underlying programming code for symbolic computations in quantum field theory and related manipulations.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[25] **viXra:1402.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-05 05:41:39*

**Authors:** Mende F. F.

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The article considers the self-inductance of reactive elements

**Category:** Classical Physics

[24] **viXra:1402.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-05 06:22:38*

**Authors:** Alexander G. Foigel, Sara A. Ramazanova, Yury G. Kaminsky

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The independence of the unidirectional speed of light upon the velocity of the light source indicates that the luminiferous aether is presented in the physical space. Any particle is some excitation of the rigid aether. The expansion of space and Universe is not possible. The stability of atoms is due to complete overlap of the de Broglie matter waves. The ordinary Euclidean geometry is sufficient for relativistic mechanics. The gravitational field is a pressure in aether created by excitations without any matter inside field. The aether plays the unifying role in physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1402.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-04 05:51:32*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 12 Pages. includes graphics

The Euler e is a natural logarithm from which matter begins. Now, in Vedic Physics, it would appear that matter develops along the range of Phi, or the Golden Section, which forms the border between the 8 x 8 and 9 x 9 states of matter. Therefore, Phi would form the exterior of any object formed completely of one state of matter, and the border between the two states of any object formed of two states of matter. The third state of matter is invisible to us, and known generally in world cultures by the concept of “hell,” which is a misnomer and which represents a serious misunderstanding of Vedic science. We can know its general proportions by reflecting from positive Phi values into the Thaasic zone from the 8 x 8 Satwa or 9 x 9 Raja zones. This paper presents values for all of these zones, and shows how the euler logarithm is built into the Great Pyramid at Giza.

**Category:** Number Theory

[22] **viXra:1402.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-04 06:04:17*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Spanish

We formulate and prove a theorem that allows us to establish the analytical function of an application between integer numbers that is closely linear. The theorem is widely used in Calendarists calculations, especially in converting dates from one calendar to another. In the second part of this research we apply the theorem to several specific cases that appear in the theory of the calendars.

**Category:** Number Theory

[21] **viXra:1402.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-04 07:28:29*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 19 pages, 71 equations, 25 references

We study the representations and basic multiplets of the O10 algebra in terms of the SU5 tensorial elements, and construct the coupling of the 45 gauge bosons to the 16 Weyl fermions. After exhibiting the coupling terms corresponding to a single generation of quarks and leptons, pertaining to the usual grand unified theory with electroweak SU2xU1 and color SU3 components, we propose a different approach to the underlying grand symmetry as corresponding to a variety of leptonic particles (electron-like and neutrino-like), and where the decomposition of SU5 proceeds via a family SU3 symmetry. We discuss the implications of such an SU3 family symmetry for the structure of the vector boson spectrum in high-energy collider phenomenology. On the other hand, our scheme promotes the idea that the hadronic constituents, rather than being fractionally charged confined quarks, may turn out to be nothing other than leptonic varieties with integral electric charges. The existence of hadrons as extended objects may find explanation in solitonic solutions of the underlying nonlinear gauge theory. We propose the further incorporation of the theory in a 14-dimensional gravidynamic framework.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[20] **viXra:1402.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-06 09:58:34*

**Authors:** Peter H. Michalicka

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

With new cosmological equation's will be shown, that the Universe is a Black Hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1402.0026 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-10 07:56:42*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 347 Pages.

Here we shall formulate and prove the variational optimum principle for electromechanical systems of arbitrary configuration, in which electromagnetic, mechanical, thermal, hydraulic or other processes are going on. The principle is generalized for systems described by partial differential equations, including also Maxwell equations. The presented principle permits to expand the Lagrange formalism and extend the new formalism on dissipative systems. It is shown that for such systems there exists a pair of functionals with a global saddle point. A high-speed universal algorithm for such systems calculation with any perturbations is described. This algorithm realizes a simultaneous global saddle point search on two functionals. The algorithms for solving specific mathematical and technical problems are cited. The book contains numerous examples, including those presented as M-functions of the MATLAB system and as functions of the DERIVE system. The programs in systems MATLAB and DERIVE are published as a separate annex in the form of an electronic book [52]. Programs are not required to understand the theory.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[18] **viXra:1402.0022 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-16 13:00:22*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Besides energy, the electromagnetic waves transport linear momentum. Then, if this momentum is absorbed by a surface, pressure is exerted on the surface. This is the so-called Radiation Pressure. Here we show that this pressure has a negative component (opposite to the direction of propagation of the radiation) due to the existence of the negative linear momentum transported by the electromagnetic waves. This fact leads to an important theoretical discovery: the velocity of the electromagnetic waves in free space is not a constant.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17] **viXra:1402.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-03 12:06:56*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 120 Pages.

Since childhood I got accustomed to study with a pen in my hand.
I extracted theorems and formulas, together with the definitions, from my textbooks.
It was easier, later, for me, to prepare for the tests, especially for the final exams at the end of each semester.
I kept (and still do today) small notebooks where I collected not only mathematical but any idea I read from various domains.
These two volumes reflect my 1973-1974 high school studies in mathematics at the Pedagogical High School of Rm. Vâlcea, Romania.
Besides the textbooks I added information I collected from various mathematical books of solved problems I was studying at that time.
The first volume contains: Arithmetic, Plane Geometry, and Space Geometry.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[16] **viXra:1402.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-03 12:08:34*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 112 Pages.

Since childhood I got accustomed to study with a pen in my hand.
I extracted theorems and formulas, together with the definitions, from my textbooks.
It was easier, later, for me, to prepare for the tests, especially for the final exams at the end of each semester.
I kept (and still do today) small notebooks where I collected not only mathematical but any idea I read from various domains.
These two volumes reflect my 1973-1974 high school studies in mathematics at the Pedagogical High School of Rm. Vâlcea, Romania.
Besides the textbooks I added information I collected from various mathematical books of solved problems I was studying at that time.
The second volume contains: Algebra (9th to 12th grades), and Trigonometry.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[15] **viXra:1402.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-03 07:49:26*

**Authors:** Peter Sujak

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper the basic physical principles of unification of gravity and quantum mechanics in lay terms is explained.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] **viXra:1402.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-03 09:17:51*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 3 Pages. 2 diagrams, 3 references

A binary star system has been discovered that completely falsifies the nebular hypothesis. The replacement theory is offered as stellar metamorphosis. The stars in question are simply in different stages to their evolution, they did not form from a theoretical nebular disk. Establishment physics will ignore the falsification of their accepted models and its effective replacement and they will ridicule and label the discoverers and sharers of this understanding as cranks/crackpots and pseudoscientists. Stellar Metamorphosis completely replaces their ad hoc mathematical models of star evolution. A diagram of where the stars are in their evolution is provided.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[13] **viXra:1402.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-03 04:24:54*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 11 Pages. ...

We determine the velocity of the photon outflow from the blackbody in the de Laval
nozzle. Derivation is based on the Saint-Venant-Wantzel equation for the thermodynamic
of the blackbody photon gas and on the Einstein relation between energy and mass. The
application of the derived results for photon rockets is not excluded.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[12] **viXra:1402.0014 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-04 05:44:12*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Three-page note

It was recently proposed in my previous note, that reduction in amplitude of electromagnetic wave with time should cause 'additional-red-shift', proportional to the rate of reduction of the brightness of a super nova. In this note it is proposed, that: is the non-linearity of red-shift-distance-curves of distant super novae, as observed by Perlmutter and Riess, due to reduction in this 'additional-red-shift' caused due to reduction in 'rate-of-reduction-of-brightness' of those super-novae?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1402.0013 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-26 21:50:04*

**Authors:** Morio Kikuchi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We generalize inversion mathematically(3).

**Category:** Geometry

[10] **viXra:1402.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-02 23:38:06*

**Authors:** DaeHyeon KANG

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Why? electrical resistance is zero in superconductor under critical temperature Tc. I think that can be explained by the raman scattering data,conduction band, electronic band full filled by electrons, bandgab(△ε), fermi's golden rule and statistical mechanics. this works takes the electrical resistance is proportional to exp(-△ε/kT), approximately.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[9] **viXra:1402.0010 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-14 07:07:12*

**Authors:** Mende F. F.

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the article is examined the united law of mechanics, which generalizes three Newton's law. In whatever state the material point was: rest, the uniform or increasing motion, the vector sum of the forces, which act on the point also of the forces, which oppose to such forces, is equal to zero.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[8] **viXra:1402.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-02 07:53:40*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

To a detector on a rotating Sagnac device, the source appears to be farther away when 'looking' in the backward direction than when 'looking' in the forward direction. The effect of rotation is just to create an apparent change in the position of the source relative to the detector, in proportion to the angular velocity of the device. This paper does not present any new mathematical analysis for the difference between path lengths of the forward and backward light beams in the Sagnac interferometer. The well known equation for the difference in path lengths, 4ωA / C , is given a new interpretation. The new interpretation in this paper is that the apparent source is always at the center of the wave fronts. Regarding the Michelson-Morley (MM) experiment, this paper presents a surprising result: no fringe shift will occur even on an accelerated MM device, in contrast to the title of this paper! This is because the apparent shift of the position of the source relative to the detector has the same, common effect on the time delays of both light beams. The path length of both the forward and lateral beams are affected equally. This paper, together with the Relativity of Electromagnetic Waves theory [1] which was proposed earlier by this author, provides a new theoretical framework which can explain all or most of the phenomena and experiments related to the speed of light. The new theoretical framework is a fusion between Ritz's emission theory and Einstein's light postulate, together with a truly empty notion of space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1402.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-02 08:41:35*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Dear readers of Vixra, you know I go on asking myself if in Geneva (and in L’Aquila) they knew that taking into consideration objects (neutrinos) faster than light meant the denial of all well-established physics; also classic physics (classic electromagnetism), not only the special relativity. Such a question, of course, is rhetorical, as they have already provided us with full and public answers. In fact, we all know how all this ended up.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[6] **viXra:1402.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-01 21:03:52*

**Authors:** Mustafa A. Khan

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

ABSTRACT:
Objective:
The purpose of this article is to express mathematically all the available information about any chronic neurological disease, such as relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, in such a way that all the known variables of the disease can be expressed as a function with time as one of the variables and thereby follow the disease in real time both generally and specifically in a given patient.
Methods:
The method consists of mapping all the known variables about any chronic neurological disease, such as relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis on a (n+1) dimensional space with time being one of the variables and deriving from this certain functions that represent the disease generally and also specifically in any given patient.
Results:
The results of using this method is the derivation of functions with (n+1) variables. One of the functions will represent the entire disease generically, while other functions will represent the disease in any given individual patient.
Conclusions:
Using this method one can derive several conclusions. These include, finding any sub-types of a chronic neurological disease, help in the prognostication of the disease course in a given patient, stratification of the treatments for the disease, selection of a treatment that is the most useful for a given patient and finally remove the need for doing long and expensive head to head clinical trials of the different treatments for a disease.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[5] **viXra:1402.0006 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-02 04:23:17*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A Single-page note

The terms: 'space' and 'time' need some clarification. What contracts in special-relativity is 'length' of 'physical-objects', not 'space'. What gets dilated in special-relativity is 'duration' of a 'process', not 'time'. 'Space' is there, and 'objects' are in 'space'; so a ruler can measure 'length' of an 'object'. Our eyes can directly see the 'space'. Whereas 'time' is a 'mental-concept'; the 'duration-between-two-tiks-of-a-clock' is defined as a 'duration-of-one-second'; actually there is nothing like 'time'.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1402.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-01 13:29:15*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

My theory of the universe following the 8-fold SU(3) symmetry of life (see viXra 1310.0261) requires that before the big bang when time was not active the concept of negative intrinsic energy (-mc2) had to be viable.This was an epoch of unbroken E8 symmetry. It was during this early epoch that huge entities of fermibosonic type formed and these were composed of equal amounts by weight of fermions (ordinary matter)of positive intrinsic energy and massive gauge bosons of negative intrinsic energy. The two polarities of intrinsic energy were necessary to obtain cancellation of energy making possible transfer of mass from the previous universe without violation of flatness requirements. When the big bang took place the E8 symmetry was broken and the negative and positive distinction of intrinsic energy was lost and the arrow of time and concept of entropy established.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1402.0004 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-03 10:01:58*

**Authors:** Peter H. Michalicka

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

With the Planck 'constants' length, time, mass and acceleration will be shown, that a Quantum Gravity of the cosmos exists. This paper shows how Einstein's Field Equations in Friedmann Robertson Walker Metric solves the Planck Era context.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1402.0003 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-03 01:35:50*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Studying the two well known recurrent relations with the exceptional property that they generate only values which are equal to 1 or are odd primes, id est the formula which belongs to Eric Rowland and the one that belongs to Benoit Cloitre, I managed to discover a formula based on Smarandache function, from the same family of recurrent relations, which, instead to give a prime value for any input, seems to give the same value, 2, if and only if the value of the input is an odd prime; also, for any value of input different from 1 and different from an odd prime, the value of output is equal to n + 1. I name this relation the Coman-Smarandache criterion for primality and the exceptions from this rule, if they exist, Coman-Smarandache pseudoprimes.

**Category:** Number Theory

[1] **viXra:1402.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-01 03:53:51*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 11 pages, 9 equations, 15 references

For cosmological theory without the bizarre vacuum-driven acceleration, and in the spirit of "realistic non-singular cosmology", we examine the effect of adjusting the value of the Hubble fraction in order to obtain a reasonable fit with the large data set of supernovae magnitudes and redshifts. Adopting a value of the Hubble fraction equal to 0.53, we obtain a pleasing fit for a theory with a negative graviton density, with a matter fraction of 1.12, a decelerating parameter of 0.56, and the remaining time before the return to contraction of about 770 Gyr. For a theory with a negative vacuum density, we obtain a pleasing fit with a matter fraction of 1.02, a decelerating parameter of 0.53, and a remaining time of about 125 Gyr.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology