[68] **viXra:1006.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 30 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** Carey R Carlson

**Comments:** 16 pages.

Quantum theory is reconstructed using standalone causal sets. The frequency ratios
inherent in causal sets are used to define energy-ratios, implicating the causal link as the
quantum of action. Space-time and its particle-like sequences are then constructed from
causal links. A 4-D time-lattice structure is defined and then used to model neutrinos and
electron clouds, which together constitute a 4-D manifold. A 6-D time-lattice is used to
model the nucleons. The integration of the nucleus with its electron cloud affords
calculation of the mass-ratio of the proton (or the neutron) with respect to the electron.
Arrow diagrams, along with several ball-and-stick models, are used to streamline the
presentation.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[67] **viXra:1006.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 30 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** Ion Pătraşcu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 pages.

In this article we prove the Sodat's theorem regarding the orthohomological triangle and
then we use this theorem and Smarandache-Patrascu's theorem in order to obtain another
theorem regarding the orthohomological triangles.

**Category:** Geometry

[66] **viXra:1006.0068 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-05 09:24:27*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Currently, ‘central force’ – an apparent effort between two free macro bodies along the line joining them – is estimated in relative frames of reference. It is also assumed that action by ‘central force’ directly corresponds to its magnitude. Estimation of magnitude and direction of ‘central force’ on planetary bodies or central body, in a planetary system, assumes that the center of planetary system is static in space. While considering a satellite’s orbital path, center of corresponding planet is assumed static in space. Although such calculations help to determine relative positions of these macro bodies, it obscures causes and magnitudes of many other important phenomena, related to planetary motion. Determining magnitude and direction of ‘central force’ and its action with respect to absolute reference can give us logical explanations to many puzzling phenomena on planetary motions/systems.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[65] **viXra:1006.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** Zhiliang Cao, Henry Cao

**Comments:** 8 pages. The paper is from a published book "The Alpha Torque" by
Zhiliang Cao and Henry Cao. The title is published by CreateSpace with the following eStore URL:
https://www.createspace.com/3458701

The space itself is not a true void. In fact, space has energy in it. The energies and forces have a simple
movement. This very movement dominates every aspect of physical existence. Nothing can exist without
it. The movement is called the Torque. Torque movements can explain why there are electronic fields and
magnetic fields. The torque theory can make it easier to understand why there are charged fields.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[64] **viXra:1006.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 5 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Yoshiro Nohara

**Comments:** 4 pages, Mistakes for technical words and typos are fixed (Lorentz invariance->Lorentz condition, ki=-ki->ki=-ik, and is received->receives).

The generalized Maxwell equations in vacuum are basically the same with Dirac's extended
Maxwell equations, although intrinsic charges and currents are defined by the time differential
and gradation of scalar fields, respectively. Consequently, the electromagnetic stress-energy tensors
make important conservation laws. Then, we found scalar fields acting like the gravitational wave
interacting with the electromagnetic wave. Interestingly, those gravitational waves due to the scalar
fields push out the electromagnetic waves. Moreover, there is a possibility of the existence of the
materials, from which we feel no gravitational forces although the electromagnetic waves are kicked
out by those gravitational waves. We also discussed about the relation with weight.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[63] **viXra:1006.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 27 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** Karunakar Marasakatla

**Comments:** 4 pages

Balance scale based measurement of mass is simply a comparison of gravity. The mass of an object,
when measured using the balance scale, will be dependent on the volume of the object along with the
amount of matter inside the object. Mass deficit is simply the variation in the mass of the object
due to the change in volume of the object.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[62] **viXra:1006.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 15 pages, submitted to Foundations of Physics.

It is shown explicitly how to construct a novel (to our knowledge)
realization of the Poincare superalgebra in 2D. These results can be extended
to other dimensions and to (extended) superconformal and (anti)
de Sitter superalgebras. There is a fundamental difference between the
findings of this work with the other approaches to Supersymmetry (over
the past four decades) using Grassmannian calculus and which is based on
anti-commuting numbers. We provide an algebraic realization of the anticommutators
and commutators of the 2D super-Poincare algebra in terms
of the generators of the tensor product Cl1,1(R) x
A of a two-dim Clifford
algebra and an internal algebra A whose generators can be represented
in terms of powers of a 3 x 3 matrix Q, such that Q3 = 0. Our realization
differs from the standard realization of superalgebras in terms
of differential operators in Superspace involving Grassmannian (anticommuting)
coordinates θ^{α} and bosonic coordinates x^{μ}. We conclude in
the final section with an analysis of how to construct Polyvector-valued extensions
of supersymmetry in Clifford Spaces involving spinor-tensorial supercharge
generators Qμ1μ2.....μn
and momentum polyvectors Pμ1μ2....μn.
Clifford-Superspace is an extension of Clifford-space and whose symmetry
transformations are generalized polyvector-valued supersymmetries.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[61] **viXra:1006.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** J Gregory Moxness

**Comments:** 28 pages, 1 figure, Latex. Original ideas from 1997, latest modifications Nov 22, 2007.

M Theory and/or Loop Quantum Gravity hold the promise of resolving the conflict between
general relativity and quantum mechanics but lack experimental connections to predictability in
physics. A connection is made to these and other theories vying for the title of a "Theory of
Everything" by questioning the value of the traditional Planck unit reference point for the scales
at which they operate. It also suggests a cosmological model which has acceleration as being
fundamental. It provides for an intuitive understanding of the Standard Model and its relationship
to particle masses and the structure of the atom. The prediction of particle mass and lifetimes is a
good indicator for its validity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[60] **viXra:1006.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache, K. Ilanthenral

**Comments:** 163 pages

The new classes of super special codes are constructed in
this book using the specially constructed super special vector
spaces. These codes mainly use the super matrices. These codes
can be realized as a special type of concatenated codes.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[59] **viXra:1006.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:**
10 pages.

We consider the equation
(1) ax^{2} - by^{2} + c = 0, with a,b ε N* and c ε Z*.
It is a generalization of Pell's equation: x^{2} -Dy^{2} = 1. Here,
we show that: if the equation has an integer solution and a.b is
not a perfect square, then (1) has an infinitude of integer
solutions; in this case we find a closed expression for (x_{n},y_{n}),
the general positive integer solution, by an original method.
More, we generalize it for any Diophantine equation of second
degree and with two unknowns.

**Category:** Number Theory

[58] **viXra:1006.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Ion Pătraşcu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:**
3 pages.

In this paper we analyze and prove two properties of a hexagon circumscribed to a circle

**Category:** Geometry

[57] **viXra:1006.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Ion Pătraşcu

**Comments:**
3 pages.

A Multiple Theorem with Isogonal and Concyclic Points

**Category:** Geometry

[56] **viXra:1006.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** François Barriquand

**Comments:** 20 pages, The present article is going to be submitted to the
"Revue des Questions Scientifiques"

Three articles published by the same author in the Revue des Questions Scientifiques in 2005
and 2006 are reexamined with special attention paid to a theorem published by Allahverdyan
and Nieuwenhuizen in 2002 concerning Thomson's formulation of the second law, as well as
to the results of the so-called "before-before" experiment performed on entangled pairs by
Stefanov, Zbinden, Gisin and Suarez. As far as thermodynamics are concerned, it is explained
here that a macroscopic observer can generate quasi "cycles", whose cyclical characteristics
are in fact only valid from the macroscopic point of view, that can potentially enable her/him
to retrieve work from a thermalizer without causing any perpetual motion. Concerning
quantum entanglement, it is recognized - in contrast with what the author originally published
in 2005 and 2006 - that superluminal transmission of decipherable information cannot be
achieved if the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory remains universally valid. It is
also pointed out that the foundations of general relativity cannot be easily reconciled with the
implications of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen measurements.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[55] **viXra:1006.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** V.A.Induchoodan Menon

**Comments:** 14 pages

The author after clarifying the physical implications of the imaginary time
approach and the reversible real time approach goes on to explain how they
differ from the progressive time which is experienced by all macroscopic
systems [1]. He proposes that the progressive nature of time is a direct result of
the increase in the entropy at the level of the structure of the elementary
particles. According to him just as the vacuum fluctuations confine the photino
(single luminal wave) to form a staphon (standing wave) which is the basic
structure of a particle, a small part of the energy gets converted into heat which
gets expressed in the jiggling motion of the particle. It is proposed that this
random motion arising from the absorption of the vacuum energy contributes to
infinitesimal increase in the internal heat of the particle which results in the
increase in entropy right at the level of the elementary particle. He calls the
process by which the particles absorb energy from vacuum "the vean process".
He proposes that this increase in entropy at the level of the elementary particles
results in time acquiring the progressive nature. With this interpretation of the
progressive nature of time, the problem of the collapse of wave function gets
resolved without invoking the presence of a conscious observer. Even the
process of entanglement appears to have space-time limitations. He suggests that
the existence of gravitational field and the expansion of the universe also may be
traced to this vean process.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[54] **viXra:1006.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A single tired light mechanism has been proposed for explaining the cosmological
redshift without expansion of the universe and also the intrinsic redshift, that is, the
excess of redshift of the radio sources. In this note of widening, we show that the
mechanism would be similar to the discharge of an electric capacitor, to the radiation
loss by fast electrons and to the radioactive nuclei decay.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[53] **viXra:1006.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-26 00:20:47*

**Authors:** Ashwini Kumar Lal

**Comments:** 16 pages, 2 figures, published in 'Journal of Cosmology', 2010, vol.5, pp.801-810 ; also archived at ARXIV as arXiv: 0912.1040

Earth is the only known inhabited planet in the universe to date. However, advancements in the fields of astrobiology and observational astronomy, as also discovery of large varieties of extremophiles with extraordinary capability to thrive in harshest environments on Earth, have led to speculation that life may possibly be thriving on many of the extraterrestrial bodies in the universe. Coupled with the growing number of exoplanets detected over the past decade, the search for the possibility of life on
other planets and satellites within the solar system and beyond has become a passion as well as a challenge for scientists in a variety of fields. This paper examines such possibility in the light of findings of the numerous space probes and theoretical research undertaken in this field over the past few decades.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[52] **viXra:1006.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** Ron Bourgoin

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We can never know a thing completely. The more
we think about something, the more about it we
find to think about. When one considers the number
of things in creation, to have thought about all aspects
of an infinite number of things would have taken
an eternity. A youthful God would have created with
sufficient but incomplete knowledge. The changes we
see in nature are evidence of tweaking: a mature God
is making adjustments.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[51] **viXra:1006.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** Fredy Zypman

**Comments:**
2 pages

Formulas connecting toroidal functions and elliptical functions are useful in
various areas of physics. In solving a problem in electrostatics we run across
an error in the Handbook of mathematical functions of Abramowitz and
Stegun. In this paper we report the details.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[50] **viXra:1006.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:**
6 pages, 1 figure. Set of notes being turned into an article as to inter
relating a graviton count, versus gravitational waves. Will be part of discussions
raised in conferences this summer.
coming up with specifics as far as the inter relationship

The following questions are raised. First, can there be a stable (massive) graviton? Secondly, what
is the relationship between a Gravity Wave, and Gravitons? The inter relationship between a graviton,
and a gravity wave is raised, with an idea of eventually making sense of a numerical count presented
by Claus Kieffer, in his book on Quantum gravity, in conjunction with how a gravity wave/ graviton
count could have some over lap.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[49] **viXra:1006.0050 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-24 02:17:24*

**Authors:** Ashwini Kumar Lal

**Comments:** 32 pages, 8 figures, invited review article (published in Astrophysics & Space Science, 2008, volume 317, issue 3-4, pp.267-278), minor addition

The evolution of life has been a big enigma despite rapid advancements in the fields of
biochemistry, astrobiology, and astrophysics in recent years. The answer to this puzzle has been
as mind-boggling as the riddle relating to evolution of Universe itself. Despite the fact that panspermia has gained considerable support as a viable explanation for origin of life on the Earth and elsewhere in the Universe, the issue remains far from a tangible solution. This paper
examines the various prevailing hypotheses regarding origin of life like abiogenesis, RNA world,iron-sulphur world, and panspermia; and concludes that delivery of life-bearing organic molecules by the comets in the early epoch of the Earth alone possibly was not responsible for kick-starting the process of evolution of life on our planet.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[48] **viXra:1006.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** Karunakar Marasakatla

**Comments:** 4 pages

Definition and measurement of the fundamental units is essential to the principles of physics.
Distance has an obvious and simple relationship with the measuring scale. Such a relationship is
absent in measuring the mass of an object using the balance scale. This is one of the important
factors for the present chaotic scenario in the field of physics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[47] **viXra:1006.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 38 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that the new prime theorems (101)-(130) contain infinitely many
prime solutions and no prime solutions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[46] **viXra:1006.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 38 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that the new prime theorems (71)-(100) contain infinitely many
prime solutions and no prime solutions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[45] **viXra:1006.0046 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-11 19:16:15*

**Authors:** David D. Tung, S. Rao Jammalamadaka

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

In this paper, we investigate the asymptotic theory for U-statistics based
on sample spacings, i.e. the gaps between successive observations. The
usual asymptotic theory for U-statistics does not apply here because spacings
are dependent variables. However, under the null hypothesis, the uniform
spacings can be expressed as conditionally independent Exponential random
variables. We exploit this idea to derive the relevant asymptotic theory both
under the null hypothesis and under a sequence of close alternatives.
The generalized Gini mean difference of the sample spacings is a prime
example of a U-statistic of this type. We show that such a Gini spacings test
is analogous to Rao's spacings test. We find the asymptotically locally most
powerful test in this class, and it has the same efficacy as the Greenwood
statistic.

**Category:** Statistics

[44] **viXra:1006.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** Antoine Acke

**Comments:**
37 pages.

The theory of gravitoelectromagnetism (G.E.M.) - that assumes a perfect isomorphism
between electromagnetism and gravitation - has been established by Oliver Heaviside (1) and
Oleg Jefimenko (2). Within the framework of general relativity, G.E.M. has been discussed by
a number of authors (3). It is shown that the gravitational analogs to Maxwell's equations (the
G.E.M. equations) can be derived from the Einstein field equation.
In this paper we propose an alternative theoretical foundation of G.E.M.: we explain the
gravitational interactions, we identify the physical quantities that play a role in that context,
and we mathematically derive the laws of gravitoelectromagnetism .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[43] **viXra:1006.0044 [pdf]**
*replaced on 20 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:**
16 pages, 10 Figures, 3 Tables.

It is well known that the act of observation can appear to affect the results of
certain scientific experiments. Even though research has shown that the mind is
much more than the brain, some research techniques into the causes of this
phenomenon have been branded as non-scientific due to the mind producing
personal, un-metered, and seemingly inconsistent results. This research into the
reasons for this variability has produced two important conclusions. First, a
powerful technique for studying the mind has been established, in which
confidence exists because measurements using this technique have led to universal
constants. Subsequent use of this technique in further research has shown that the
mind and the perception of an observer may be significantly affected by the local
and non-local environment, and is dependant on the time of the day, month, or
year on which those measurements are made. This research has led towards a
greater understanding of the structure of the universe and its connection to
consciousness and information. For example, it is demonstrated that the mind's
ability to communicate information from across the solar system is much faster
than the speed of light.

**Category:** Mind Science

[42] **viXra:1006.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:**
2 pages.

Wave, formal-mathematical and corpuscular description of the world

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[41] **viXra:1006.0042 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-30 21:36:44*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This appendix contains basic facts about CP_{2} as a symmetric space and Kähler manifold. The
coding of the standard model symmetries to the geometry of CP_{2}, the physical interpretation of
the induced spinor connection in terms of electro-weak gauge potentials, and basic facts about
induced gauge fields are discussed

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[40] **viXra:1006.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-30 21:40:48*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The original justification for the hierarchy of Planck constants came from the indications that
Planck constant could have large values in both astrophysical systems involving dark matter and
also in biology. The realization of the hierarchy in terms of the singular coverings and possibly also
factor spaces of CD and CP_{2} emerged from consistency conditions. It however seems that TGD
actually predicts this hierarchy of covering spaces. The extreme non-linearity of the field equations
defined by Kähler action means that the correspondence between canonical momentum densities
and time derivatives of the imbedding space coordinates is 1-to-many. This leads naturally to the
introduction of the covering space of CD x CP_{2}, where CD denotes causal diamond defined as
intersection of future and past directed light-cones.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[39] **viXra:1006.0040 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-30 21:49:56*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

The notion of electric magnetic duality emerged already two decades ago in the attempts to
formulate the Kähler geometry of the "world of classical worlds". Quite recently a considerable
step of progress took place in the understanding of this notion. This concept leads to the
identification of the physical particles as string like objects defined by magnetic charged wormhole
throats connected by magnetic
ux tubes. The second end of the string contains particle having
electroweak isospin neutralizing that of elementary fermion and the size scale of the string is
electro-weak scale would be in question. Hence the screening of electro-weak force takes place
via weak confinement. This picture generalizes to magnetic color confinement. Electric-magnetic
duality leads also to a detailed understanding of how TGD reduces to almost topological quantum
field theory. A surprising outcome is the necessity to replace CP_{2} Kähler form in Kähler action
with its sum with S^{2} Kähler form.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[38] **viXra:1006.0039 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-30 21:53:06*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Generalized Feynman diagrams have become the central notion of quantum TGD and one might even say that space-time surfaces can be identified as generalized Feynman diagrams. The challenge is to assign a precise mathematical content for this notion, show their mathematical existence, and develop a machinery for calculating them. Zero energy ontology has led to a dramatic progress in the understanding of generalized Feynman diagrams at the level of fermionic degrees of freedom. In particular, manifest finiteness in these degrees of freedom follows trivially from the basic identifications as does also unitarity and non-trivial coupling constant evolution. There are however several formidable looking challenges left.

- One should perform the functional integral over WCW degrees of freedom for fixed values of on mass shell momenta appearing in the internal lines. After this one must perform integral or summation over loop momenta.
- One must define the functional integral also in the p-adic context. p-Adic Fourier analysis relying on algebraic continuation raises hopes in this respect. p-Adicity suggests strongly that the loop momenta are discretized and ZEO predicts this kind of discretization naturally.

[37] **viXra:1006.0038 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-30 21:55:27*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

The focus of this book is the number theoretical vision about physics. This vision involves three loosely related parts.

- The fusion of real physic and various p-adic physics to a single coherent whole by generalizing the number concept by fusing real numbers and various p-adic number fields along common rationals. Extensions of p-adic number fields can be introduced by gluing them along common algebraic numbers to reals. Algebraic continuation of the physics from rationals and their their extensions to various number fields (generalization of completion process for rationals) is the key idea, and the challenge is to understand whether how one could achieve this dream. A profound implication is that purely local p-adic physics would code for the p-adic fractality of long length length scale real physics and vice versa, and one could understand the origins of p-adic length scale hypothesis.
- Second part of the vision involves
hyper counterparts of the classical number fields
defined as subspaces of their complexifications
with Minkowskian signature of metric. Allowed space-time surfaces
would correspond to what might be called
hyper-quaternionic sub-manifolds of a
hyper-octonionic space and mappable to M
^{4}× CP_{2}in natural manner. One could assign to each point of space-time surface a hyper-quaternionic 4-plane which is the plane defined by the modified gamma matrices but not tangent plane in general. Hence the basic variational principle of TGD would have deep number theoretic content. - The third part of the vision involves infinite
primes identifiable in terms of an
infinite hierarchy of second quantized arithmetic
quantum fields theories on one hand, and as having
representations as space-time surfaces analogous to
zero loci of polynomials on the other hand.
Single space-time point would have
an infinitely complex structure since real unity can
be represented as a ratio of infinite numbers in
infinitely many manners each having its own number
theoretic anatomy. Single space-time point would be
in principle able to represent in its structure
the quantum state of the entire universe. This
number theoretic variant of Brahman=Atman identity
would make Universe an algebraic hologram.
Number theoretical vision suggests that infinite hyper-octonionic or -quaternionic primes could could correspond directly to the quantum numbers of elementary particles and a detailed proposal for this correspondence is made. Furthermore, the generalized eigenvalue spectrum of the Chern-Simons Dirac operator could be expressed in terms of hyper-complex primes in turn defining basic building bricks of infinite hyper-complex primes from which hyper-octonionic primes are obtained by dicrete SU(3) rotations performed for finite hyper-complex primes.

Besides this holy trinity I will discuss loosely related topics. Included are possible applications of category theory in TGD framework; TGD inspired considerations related to Riemann hypothesis; topological quantum computation in TGD Universe; and TGD inspired approach to Langlands program.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[36] **viXra:1006.0037 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-30 21:56:36*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Physics as a generalized number theory program involves three threads: various p-adic physics
and their fusion together with real number based physics to a larger structure, the attempt to
understand basic physics in terms of classical number fields discussed in this article, and infinite
primes whose construction is formally analogous to a repeated second quantization of an arithmetic
quantum field theory.
In this article the connection between standard model symmetries and classical number fields
is discussed. The basis vision is that the geometry of the infinite-dimensional WCW ("world of
classical worlds") is unique from its mere existence. This leads to its identification as union of
symmetric spaces whose Kähler geometries are fixed by generalized conformal symmetries. This
fixes space-time dimension and the decomposition M^{4} x S and the idea is that the symmetries
of the Kähler manifold S make it somehow unique. The motivating observations are that the
dimensions of classical number fields are the dimensions of partonic 2-surfaces, space-time surfaces,
and imbedding space and M^{8} can be identified as hyper-octonions- a sub-space of complexified
octonions obtained by adding a commuting imaginary unit. This stimulates some questions.
Could one understand S = CP_{2} number theoretically in the sense that M^{8} and H = M^{4} x CP_{2}
be in some deep sense equivalent ("number theoretical compactification" or M^{8} - H duality)?
Could associativity define the fundamental dynamical principle so that space-time surfaces could
be regarded as associative or co-associative (defined properly) sub-manifolds of M^{8} or equivalently
of H.
One can indeed define the associativite (co-associative) 4-surfaces using octonionic representation
of gamma matrices of 8-D spaces as surfaces for which the modified gamma matrices span
an associate (co-associative) sub-space at each point of space-time surface. Also M^{8} - H duality
holds true if one assumes that this associative sub-space at each point contains preferred plane of
M^{8} identifiable as a preferred commutative or co-commutative plane (this condition generalizes
to an integral distribution of commutative planes in M^{8}). These planes are parametrized by CP_{2}
and this leads to M^{8} - H duality.
WCW itself can be identified as the space of 4-D local sub-algebras of the local Clifford
algebra of M^{8} or H which are associative or co-associative. An open conjecture is that this
characterization of the space-time surfaces is equivalent with the preferred extremal property of
Kähler action with preferred extremal identified as a critical extremal allowing infinite-dimensional
algebra of vanishing second variations.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[35] **viXra:1006.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-30 21:58:07*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 51 Pages.

Physics as a generalized number theory program involves three threads: various p-adic physics
and their fusion together with real number based physics to a larger structure, the attempt to
understand basic physics in terms of classical number fields (in particular, identifying associativity
condition as the basic dynamical principle), and infinite primes whose construction is formally
analogous to a repeated second quantization of an arithmetic quantum field theory. In this article
p-adic physics and the technical problems relates to the fusion of p-adic physics and real physics
to a larger structure are discussed.
The basic technical problems relate to the notion of definite integral both at space-time level,
imbedding space level and the level of WCW (the "world of classical worlds"). The expressibility
of WCW as a union of symmetric spacesleads to a proposal that harmonic analysis of symmetric
spaces can be used to define various integrals as sums over Fourier components. This leads to the
proposal the p-adic variant of symmetric space is obtained by a algebraic continuation through a
common intersection of these spaces, which basically reduces to an algebraic variant of coset space
involving algebraic extension of rationals by roots of unity. This brings in the notion of angle
measurement resolution coming as Δφ = 2π/p^{n} for given p-adic prime p. Also a proposal how
one can complete the discrete version of symmetric space to a continuous p-adic versions emerges
and means that each point is effectively replaced with the p-adic variant of the symmetric space
identifiable as a p-adic counterpart of the real discretization volume so that a fractal p-adic variant
of symmetric space results.
If the Kähler geometry of WCW is expressible in terms of rational or algebraic functions, it
can in principle be continued the p-adic context. One can however consider the possibility that
that the integrals over partonic 2-surfaces defining
ux Hamiltonians exist p-adically as Riemann
sums. This requires that the geometries of the partonic 2-surfaces effectively reduce to finite
sub-manifold geometries in the discretized version of δM_{+}^{4}. If Kähler action is required
to exist p-adically same kind of condition applies to the space-time surfaces themselves. These
strong conditions might make sense in the intersection of the real and p-adic worlds assumed to
characterized living matter.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[34] **viXra:1006.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-30 22:01:55*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 95 Pages.

There are three separate approaches to the challenge of constructing WCW Kähler geometry
and spinor structure. The first approach relies on a direct guess of Kähler function. Second
approach relies on the construction of Kähler form and metric utilizing the huge symmetries
of the geometry needed to guarantee the mathematical existence of Riemann connection. The
third approach discussed in this article relies on the construction of spinor structure based on the
hypothesis that complexified WCW gamma matrices are representable as linear combinations of
fermionic oscillator operator for the second quantized free spinor fields at space-time surface and
on the geometrization of super-conformal symmetries in terms of spinor structure. This implies a
geometrization of fermionic statistics.
The basic philosophy is that at fundamental level the construction of WCW geometry reduces
to the second quantization of the induced spinor fields using Dirac action. This assumption
is parallel with the bosonic emergence stating that all gauge bosons are pairs of fermion and
antifermion at opposite throats of wormhole contact. Vacuum function is identified as Dirac
determinant and the conjecture is that it reduces to the exponent of Kähler function. In order
to achieve internal consistency induced gamma matrices appearing in Dirac operator must be
replaced by the modified gamma matrices defined uniquely by Kähler action and one must also
assume that extremals of Kähler action are in question so that the classical space-time dynamics
reduces to a consistency condition. This implies also super-symmetries and the fermionic oscillator
algebra at partonic 2-surfaces has intepretation as N = 1 generalization of space-time supersymmetry
algebra different however from standard SUSY algebra in that Majorana spinors are
not needed. This algebra serves as a building brick of various super-conformal algebras involved.
The requirement that there exist deformations giving rise to conserved Noether charges requires
that the preferred extremals are critical in the sense that the second variation of the Kähler action
vanishes for these deformations. Thus Bohr orbit property could correspond to criticality or at
least involve it.
Quantum classical correspondence demands that quantum numbers are coded to the properties
of the preferred extremals given by the Dirac determinant and this requires a linear coupling
to the conserved quantum charges in Cartan algebra. Effective 2-dimensionality allows a measurement
interaction term only in 3-D Chern-Simons Dirac action assignable to the wormhole
throats and the ends of the space-time surfaces at the boundaries of CD. This allows also to
have physical propagators reducing to Dirac propagator not possible without the measurement
interaction term. An essential point is that the measurement interaction corresponds formally
to a gauge transformation for the induced Kähler gauge potential. If one accepts the weak form
of electric-magnetic duality Kähler function reduces to a generalized Chern-Simons term and the
effect of measurement interaction term to Kähler function reduces effectively to the same gauge
transformation.
The basic vision is that WCW gamma matrices are expressible as super-symplectic charges at
the boundaries of CD. The basic building brick of WCW is the product of infinite-D symmetric
spaces assignable to the ends of the propagator line of the generalized Feynman diagram. WCW
Kähler metric has in this case "kinetic" parts associated with the ends and "interaction" part
between the ends. General expressions for the super-counterparts of WCW
ux Hamiltoniansand
for the matrix elements of WCW metric in terms of their anticommutators are proposed on basis
of this picture.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[33] **viXra:1006.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-30 22:03:21*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

There are three separate approaches to the challenge of constructing WCW Kähler geometry
and spinor structure. The first one relies on a direct guess of Kähler function. Second approach
relies on the construction of Kähler form and metric utilizing the huge symmetries of the geometry
needed to guarantee the mathematical existence of Riemann connection. The third approach relies
on the construction of spinor structure assuming that complexified WCW gamma matrices are
representable as linear combinations of fermionic oscillator operator for the second quantized free
spinor fields at space-time surface and on the geometrization of super-conformal symmetries in
terms of spinor structure.
In this article the construction of Kähler form and metric based on symmetries is discussed.
The basic vision is that WCW can be regarded as the space of generalized Feynman diagrams with
lines thickned to light-like 3-surfaces and vertices identified as partonic 2-surfaces. In zero energy
ontology the strong form of General Coordinate Invariance (GCI) implies effective 2-dimensionality
and the basic objects are pairs partonic 2-surfaces X^{2} at opposite light-like boundaries of causal
diamonds (CDs).
The hypothesis is that WCW can be regarded as a union of infinite-dimensional symmetric
spaces G/H labeled by zero modes having an interpretation as classical, non-quantum
uctuating
variables. A crucial role is played by the metric 2-dimensionality of the light-cone boundary
δM_{+}^{4}
+ and of light-like 3-surfaces implying a generalization of conformal invariance. The group
G acting as isometries of WCW is tentatively identified as the symplectic group of
δM_{+}^{4} x CP_{2}
localized with respect to X^{2}. H is identified as Kac-Moody type group associated with isometries
of H = M_{+}^{4} x CP_{2} acting on light-like 3-surfaces and thus on X^{2}.
An explicit construction for the Hamiltonians of WCW isometry algebra as so called
ux
Hamiltonians is proposed and also the elements of Kähler form can be constructed in terms of
these. Explicit expressions for WCW
ux Hamiltonians as functionals of complex coordinates of
the Cartesisian product of the infinite-dimensional symmetric spaces having as points the partonic
2-surfaces defining the ends of the the light 3-surface (line of generalized Feynman diagram) are
proposed.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[32] **viXra:1006.0033 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-30 22:05:03*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

There are two basic approaches to quantum TGD. The first approach, which is discussed in
this article, is a generalization of Einstein's geometrization program of physics to an infinitedimensional
context. Second approach is based on the identification of physics as a generalized
number theory. The first approach relies on the vision of quantum physics as infinite-dimensional
Kähler geometry for the "world of classical worlds" (WCW) identified as the space of 3-surfaces
in in certain 8-dimensional space. There are three separate approaches to the challenge of constructing
WCW Kähler geometry and spinor structure. The first approach relies on direct guess
of Kähler function. Second approach relies on the construction of Kähler form and metric utilizing
the huge symmetries of the geometry needed to guarantee the mathematical existence of
Riemann connection. The third approach relies on the construction of spinor structure based on
the hypothesis that complexified WCW gamma matrices are representable as linear combinations
of fermionic oscillator operator for second quantized free spinor fields at space-time surface and
on the geometrization of super-conformal symmetries in terms of WCW spinor structure.
In this article the proposal for Kähler function based on the requirement of 4-dimensional General
Coordinate Invariance implying that its definition must assign to a given 3-surface a unique
space-time surface. Quantum classical correspondence requires that this surface is a preferred extremal
of some some general coordinate invariant action, and so called Kähler action is a unique
candidate in this respect. The preferred extremal has intepretation as an analog of Bohr orbit
so that classical physics becomes and exact part of WCW geometry and therefore also quantum
physics.
The basic challenge is the explicit identification of WCW Kähler function K. Two assumptions
lead to the identification of K as a sum of Chern-Simons type terms associated with the ends of
causal diamond and with the light-like wormhole throats at which the signature of the induced
metric changes. The first assumption is the weak form of electric magnetic duality. Second
assumption is that the Kähler current for preferred extremals satisfies the condition jK ^ djK = 0
implying that the
ow parameter of the
ow lines of jK defines a global space-time coordinate.
This would mean that the vision about reduction to almost topological QFT would be realized.
Second challenge is the understanding of the space-time correlates of quantum criticality.
Electric-magnetic duality helps considerably here. The realization that the hierarchy of Planck
constant realized in terms of coverings of the imbedding space follows from basic quantum TGD
leads to a further understanding. The extreme non-linearity of canonical momentum densities as
functions of time derivatives of the imbedding space coordinates implies that the correspondence
between these two variables is not 1-1 so that it is natural to introduce coverings of CD x CP_{2}.
This leads also to a precise geometric characterization of the criticality of the preferred extremals.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[31] **viXra:1006.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-30 22:06:21*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

There are two basic approaches to the construction of quantum TGD. The first approach
relies on the vision of quantum physics as infinite-dimensional Kähler geometry for the "world of
classical worlds" identified as the space of 3-surfaces in in certain 8-dimensional space. Essentially
a generalization of the Einstein's geometrization of physics program is in question. The second
vision is the identification of physics as a generalized number theory. This program involves
three threads: various p-adic physics and their fusion together with real number based physics
to a larger structure, the attempt to understand basic physics in terms of classical number fields
(in particular, identifying associativity condition as the basic dynamical principle), and infinite
primes whose construction is formally analogous to a repeated second quantization of an arithmetic
quantum field theory. In this article brief summaries of physics as infinite-dimensional geometry
and generalized number theory are given to be followed by more detailed articles.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[30] **viXra:1006.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** Jeremey Razelle

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

From the dawn of time (nearly 10,000 years ago) The One and Only Lord Jesus Christ has been
authoritating a sequence of events directed at the culmination of the fulfillment of human
prophesy namely, the final battle for the souls of all humans kind. Much has been written1
already on the End of Days as it is pertinent to the humans kind, and recent events points
to the fulfillment of these events in our own time. This paper contains the declaration of
End Times and Final Prophesize of Jesus Christ as dictated to his humble and faithful servents
who He loves and wants to see saved from the Final Temptation of Science. There is great evil
in the current organizations of NSF, DOE, and CERN as they prepare to wage The War of End Times.
They refuse to hear the words of God and speak only to the false sciences of their Godless
forefathers. As such they will bring about the end of days for their Science Pride. These
are the very words of The Lord and Savior Jesus Christ and are to be heeded as the most
important of all the words.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[29] **viXra:1006.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 15 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** Ron Bourgoin

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The authors of Arxiv:1006.2312 study the effect
of mentors on their protégés. The study is quantitative,
resting its conclusions on measurable outcomes, such as
professorships, publications, etc. But what about the
mentor who is a paradigm shifter? The paradigm shifter
maybe has one protégé, if that. The paradigm shifter does
not get published in the mainstream publications, nor does
his or her protégé. But the paradigm shifter and his or her
protégé cause revolutions, which are what determine
directions and the future course of physics. How do
we find those mentors and their protégés? Shouldn't that
relationship be one we foster and encourage rather than
stifle?

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[28] **viXra:1006.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 15 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** A.G. Kyriakos

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In the proposed article the photon theory is examined from the point of view
of the nonlinear theory of elementary particles ( http://vixra.org/abs/1005.0019 ).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[27] **viXra:1006.0028 [pdf]**
*replaced on 24 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 28 Pages. This work develops the Natario Warp Drive from ther arXiv paper gr-qc/0110086.

Natario Warp Drive is one of the most exciting Spacetimes of General Relativity.It was the second
Spacetime Metric able to develop Superluminal Velocities.However in the literature about Warp Drives
the Natario Spacetime is only marginally quoted. Almost all the available literature covers the Alcubierre
Warp Drive. It is our intention to present here the fully developed Natario Warp Drive Spacetime and
its very interesting features.Our presentation is given in a more accessible mathematical formalism
following the style of the current Warp Drive literature destined to graduate students of physics since
the original Natario Warp Drive paper of 2001 was presented in a sophisticated mathematical formalism
not accessible to average students. Like the Alcubierre Warp Drive Spaceime that requires a continuous
function f(rs) in order to be completely analyzed or described we introduce here the Natario Shape
Function n(r) that allows ourselves to study the amazing physical features of the Natario Warp Drive.
The non-existence of a continuous Shape Function for the Natario Warp Drive in the original 2001 work
was the reason why Natario Warp Drive was not covered by the standard literature in the same degree of
coverage dedicated to the Alcubierre Warp Drive. We hope to change the situation because the Natario
Warp Drive looks very promising.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1006.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-11 23:16:33*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The following questions are raised in this document. First, can there be a stable (massive) graviton? If so, does this massive graviton, as modeled by KK DM, with a modification of slight 4 dimensional space mass, contribute to DE, at least in terms of re acceleration ? The answer, if one assumes that the square of a frequency for graviton mass is real valued and greater than zero appears to be affirmative. The author, when considering a joint DM – DE model finds evidence that re acceleration of the universe one billion years ago in a higher dimensional setting can be justified in terms of a slight modification of standard KK DM models, if one considers how an information exchange between present to prior universes occurs, which the author thinks mandates more than four dimensional space time geometry.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[25] **viXra:1006.0026 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-23 20:45:19*

**Authors:** John Linus O'Sullivan

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Space is from two types of energy; (1) energy with time which is finite energy and (2) energy without time which is infinite energy. Finite energy is mass energy linked to light and gravity from open-ended standing waves. Finite energy is expanding as mass in the electric field with light and gravity in the magnetic field. Magnetic field waves are light and gravity forces on the electric field and curved from mass in general relativity. Gravity forces at the antinodes in the magnetic field effect mass energy waves in the electric field at constant light speed. Photons in the magnetic field pack a punch as particles with wave-particle function from Planck's constant, E = hf. Electromagnetic waves are infinite from open-ended standing wave energy moving toward the static equilibrium. Infinity can be defined as energy without time, without a beginning or end while time is the transfer of finite energy where light speed is the common constant for what is finite and infinite. In effect, time does not exist outside of finite energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1006.0025 [pdf]**
*replaced on 15 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:**
39 pages, Re do of document, following changes suggested by a Moscow physicist whom
I know. 39 pages, includes two sections; one on graviton stability, and another on
DM-DE joint model. For Rudn 10 conference, June 30, 2010

Delineating conditions for the existence of a stable (massive) graviton mass, and its possible role in
mimicking DE one billion years ago in the re acceleration of the universe

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1006.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Ion Pătraşcu, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:**
13 pages.

In this paper we prove that if P_{1},P_{2} are isogonal points in the triangle ABC ,
and if A_{1}B_{1}C_{1} and A_{2}B_{2}C_{2} are their ponder triangle such that the triangles ABC and
A_{1}B_{1}C_{1} are homological (the lines AA_{1} , BB_{1} , CC_{1} are concurrent), then the triangles
ABC and A_{2}B_{2}C_{2} are also homological.

**Category:** Geometry

[22] **viXra:1006.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Leonardo F. D. da Motta

**Comments:**
5 pages, Paper in Portugues.

Paper about the Smarandache Hypothesis that there is no speed barrier in the universe and one can construct any speed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1006.0022 [pdf]**
*replaced on 21 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:**
6 pages, no figures. Part of accepted contribution to the Frontiers of
Fundamental physics 11 conference, Paris, as a poster. Will be part of questions
raised in documentation for the DICE 2010 conference in Italy run by Thomas Elze,
September 13-17, 2010

This document is due to a question asked in the Dark Side of the Universe conference, 2010, in
Leon, Mexico, when a researcher from India asked the author about how to obtain a stability analysis
of massive gravitons. The answer to this question involves an extension of the usual Pauli_Fiertz
Langrangian , with non zero graviton mass contributing to a relationship between the trace of a re
done GR stress-energy tensor ( assuming non zero graviton mass) , and the trace of a re done
symmetric tensor , times a tiny mass for a 4 dimensional graviton. The resulting analysis makes use
of Visser's treatment of a stress energy tensor, with experimental applications discussed in the
resulting analysis. If the square of frequency of a massive graviton is real valued and greater than
zero, stability can be possibly confirmed experimentally.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1006.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 60 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that the new prime theorems (141)-(190) contain infinitely many
prime solutions and no prime solutions.

**Category:** Number Theory

[19] **viXra:1006.0019 [pdf]**
*replaced on 17 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** Saurav Dwivedi

**Comments:** 5 pages

Quantum theory is a probabilistic theory, where certain variables are hidden or non-accessible.
It results in lack of representation of systems under study. However, I deduce system's
representation in probabilistic manner, introducing probability of existence w, and quantize it exploiting
Schrödinger's quantization rule. The formalism enriches probabilistic quantum theory, and
enables systems's representation in probabilistic manner.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[18] **viXra:1006.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** V.A.Induchoodan Menon

**Comments:** 11 pages

The author shows that that for each quantum mechanical property
of a micro-system there is a corresponding thermodynamic one in the
primary gas. He further shows that the basic postulates of quantum
mechanics have equivalents in the primary gas approach based on
statistical mechanics provided time is accorded directional symmetry.
He shows that the interference pattern obtained in Young's double slit
experiment could be explained in terms of the primary gas approach
using the directional symmetry of time.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17] **viXra:1006.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 19 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** Roald C. Maximo

**Comments:** 3 pages

Very often, in the history of science, amazingly simple phenomena, when initially
misunderstood, may become laden with prejudice and somewhat mystical connotations and,
since then, are passed on from generation to generation for no better reason then magister
dixit. One example already discussed here [1] has been stellar aberration. But there is
nevertheless a very special case where in trying to explain the null result of the Michelson and
Morley experiment scientists, just to keep up to their prejudices, chose the weirdest
explanations; instrument length contraction or Ether drag !

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1006.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Felice Russo

**Comments:** 3 pages

In this paper some properties of the Smarandache double factorial
function have been analyzed.

**Category:** Number Theory

[15] **viXra:1006.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Roberto Torretti

**Comments:** 3 pages

The Smarandache anti-geometry is a non-euclidean geometry that
denies all Hilbert's twenty axioms, each axiom being denied in many ways in the same
space. In this paper one finds an economics model to this geometry by making the
following correlations:
(i) A point is the balance in a particular checking account, expressed in U.S. currency.
(Points are denoted by capital letters).
(ii) A line is a person, who can be a human being. (Lines are denoted by lower case
italics).
(iii) A plane is a U.S. bank, affiliated to the FDIC. (Planes are denoted by lower case
boldface letters).

**Category:** Geometry

[14] **viXra:1006.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Mihály Bencze, Florin Popovici, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 pages

In this short paper we prove that the square of an odd prime number cannot be a
very perfect number.

**Category:** Number Theory

[13] **viXra:1006.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** W.B.Vasantha, Moon K. Chetry

**Comments:** 9 pages

In this paper we establish the existance of S-idempotents in case of loop rings
Z_{t}L_{n}(m) for a special class of loops L_{n}(m); over the ring of modulo integers
Z_{t} for a specific value of t. These loops satisfy the conditions g_{i}^{2} = 1 for every
g_{i} ε L_{n}(m). We prove Z_{t}L_{n}(m) has an S-idempotent when t is a perfect number
or when t is of the form 2^{i}p or 3^{i}p (where p is an odd prime) or in general when
t = p_{1}^{i}p_{2} (p_{1} and p_{2} are distinct odd primes). It is important to note that we
are able to prove only the existance of a single S-idempotent; however we leave
it as an open problem wheather such loop rings have more than one S-idempotent.
This paper has three sections. In section one, we give the basic notions about
the loops L_{n}(m) and recall the definition of S-idempotents in rings. In section
two, we establish the existance of S-idempotents in the loop ring Z_{t}L_{n}(m). In
the final section, we suggest some interesting problems based on our study.

**Category:** Algebra

[12] **viXra:1006.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** Michael A. Ivanov

**Comments:** 5 pages, 2 figures, Latex. Poster contribution to the VI Int. Workshop on the Dark side
of the Universe (DSU2010), Guanajuato U., Leon, Mexico, 1-6 June, 2010.

Earlier it was shown that in the model of low-energy quantum gravity
by the author, observations of Supernovae 1a and GRBs, which are
corrected by observers for characteristic for the standard cosmological
model time dilation, may be fitted with the theoretical luminosity
distance curve only up to z ~ 0:5; for higher redshifts the predicted
luminosity distance is essentially bigger. The model itself has not
time dilation due to another redshift mechanism. It is shown here
that a correction of observations for no time dilation leads to a good
accordance of observations and theoretical predictions for all achieved
redshifts.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1006.0011 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-27 16:10:42*

**Authors:** Nainan K. Varghese

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Originally published in General Science Journal

Alternative hypothesis, presented in book, ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’ is a revolutionary new concept, which explains all physical phenomena on the basis of a single assumption – ‘Substance is fundamental and matter alone provides substance to all real entities’. Unstructured matter-particles, derived from this assumption - Quanta of matter – in various combinations form an all-encompassing universal medium and all 3D matter-bodies. Itinerary, that lead to development of this concept, is briefly enumerated below. All steps along development of this concept and their conclusions are based on logical elaborations from characteristic properties of postulated quanta of matter. Except quanta of matter, no virtual particles, vague entities or their assumed properties are used. Kindly refer the book for detailed explanations on any point.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[10] **viXra:1006.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** Davide Fiscaletti

**Comments:** 12 pages

Clocks are measuring systems for the numerical order, speed and frequency of material
changes that run into space. Time does not run into space on its own, time exists only as
numerical order, speed and frequency of material change. Stellar objects and particles move into
space only and not into time. Gravitational interaction between material objects is the result of
curvature of space that is determined by the granular structure of space. Density of the elementary
grains of space depends on density of universal cosmic mass, higher is the density of universal
cosmic mass lower is the density of grains of empty space. Density of empty space is the physical
basis of its curvature. Material objects have a tendency to move into direction of lower density and
higher curvature of space. Gravitational interaction mass-space-mass is immediate: the presence
of a mass causes change of density of space, change of density of space causes gravitational
motion. A mass acts on another mass indirectly via the change of density of empty space.
Gravitational interaction between two masses is immediate: no time, namely no duration of motion
of a particle or wave in space is needed to transmit gravitational interaction from one to another
material object.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1006.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** Davide Fiscaletti, Amrit S. Sorli

**Comments:** 8 pages

With clocks we measure numerical order t0,t1,t2,...,tn of a physical event. A sequence t_{n-1} is
"before" a sequence t_{n} equivalently to natural number n-1 is before natural number n.
Numerical order t0,t1,t2,...,tn of a physical event has no duration. It runs in a timeless space
where physical time is run of clocks. Duration of an event is a result of experiencing its
measurement with a clock through the frame of psychological time "past-present-future" but
events happen exclusively in space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1006.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** Davide Fiscaletti

**Comments:** 11 pages

For several physical phenomena elapsed clock run t for them to happen is zero. These
events can be appropriately defined as "immediate physical phenomena" and support the
view that, at a fundamental level, time exists only as a run of clocks in a timeless space.
Immediate physical phenomena are carried directly by space which functions as a direct
information medium. The perspective is opened that the quanta of space that build quantum
space assume a crucial role as regards these phenomena.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1006.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** Diego L. Rapoport

**Comments:** 79 pages

We present a conception that surmounts the Cartesian Cut -prevailing in science-based
on a representation of the fusion of the physical 'objective' and the 'subjective' realms.
We introduce a mathematical-physics and philosophical theory for the physical realm and
its mapping to the cognitive and perceptual realms and a philosophical reflection on the
bearings of this fusion in cosmology, cognitive sciences, human and natural systems and
its relations with a time operator and the existence of time cycles in Nature's and human
systems. This conception surges from the self-referential construction of spacetime through
torsion fields and its singularities; in particular the photon's self-referential character, basic
to the embodiment of cognition ; we shall elaborate this in detail in perception and neurology.

**Category:** Mind Science

[6] **viXra:1006.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** Ron Bourgoin

**Comments:** 2 pages

There comes a time in life when it's our turn to run the lap.
We are handed the baton in life's 4 x 100 meter relay. Perhaps
there are others who would do a better job, but they didn't
show up for the race.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[5] **viXra:1006.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 13 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** Jacek Safuta

**Comments:** 11 pages

The spacetime deformations concept proposes a road to unification of general relativity
and quantum mechanics i.e. unifies all interactions, answers the questions: why particles
have mass and what they are, answers the question: what is energy and dark energy,
unifies force fields and matter, implies new theories like the spacetime deformations
evolution.
I propose a new definition of matter and energy however not contradictory to current
theories but totally contradictory to everyday experience. The new quality here is that
the definition is supposed to be free of human being's perception and as far as possible
also free of our language and culture limitations. I present also some points of view on
computability of the actual Universe.
This is a concept of principle (an universal concept delivering a description of nature)
and not constructive one (describing a particular phenomenon using specific equations).
The concept is background independent (the space has no fixed geometry).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1006.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** Claudiu Coandă, Florentin Smarandache, Ion Pătraşcu

**Comments:** 5 pages

In this article we propose to determine the triangles' class... (see paper for full abstract)

**Category:** Geometry

[3] **viXra:1006.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, Catalin Barbu

**Comments:** 4 pages

In this note, we present the hyperbolic Menelaus theorem in the
Poincaré disc of hyperbolic geometry.

**Category:** Geometry

[2] **viXra:1006.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** V.V. Demjanov

**Comments:** 7 pages

Rotating the source of light around the point lying on the light's beam we can observe the
transverse Doppler effect by a spectrometer located in the center of rotation. The anomalous shift of the
electromagnetic wave's frequency was found from this experiment (performed in 1969-1974 years)
that appeared to be much higher than anticipated from the standard relativistic expression taking
into account solely the linear velocity of rotation of the source in the laboratory. The interpretation
of the experimental observations admitting absolute motion of the Earth and respective accounting
for reality of the Lorentz contraction and time dilation enabled us to determine the speed of the
Earth relative to luminiferous aether. It appeared to be somewhat above 400 km/s that agrees well
with the value formerly found by me using three methods of determining the speed of "aether wind"
by Michelson-type interferometers thoroughly accounted for refractive indices of optical media.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1006.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2 Jun 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 14 pages

Using Jiang function we prove that the new prime theorems (131)-(140) contain infinitely many
prime solutions and no prime solutions.

**Category:** Number Theory